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Sample records for included age sex

  1. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other

  2. Sex Education and Student Rights: Including the Missing Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    In the West, sex education has always been a taboo subject that continues to challenge the public schools. Drawing on recent developments in some Canadian provinces, I argue that we cannot begin to address the issue of responsible sex education until we first acknowledge that students themselves have a moral and constitutional right to this kind…

  3. Age and sex distribution of blindness in Ahoada East Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Differences exist in the impact of blindness by age and sex; the overall risk of death being higher for blind males than females. Aim: To describe the age and sex differences among the blind in Ahoada-East Local Government Area (LGA) of Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: Age and sex data were analyzed for 24 ...

  4. Aging and sex hormones in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaroli, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging. At present, the biochemical finding of T deficiency alone is not sufficient for diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Coupling hypogonadal symptoms with documented low serum T represents the best strategy to refine the diagnosis of hypogonadism in older men and to avoid unnecessary treatments. PMID:27831823

  5. Sex and Age Differences in Attitude toward the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    1997-01-01

    Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…

  6. Sensorial differences according to sex and ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L A; Lin, S M; Teixeira, M J; de Siqueira, J T T; Jacob Filho, W; de Siqueira, S R D T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate age and sex differences in orofacial sensory detection. One hundred and twenty-six (126) healthy subjects were divided into five groups according to their ages. They were assessed with a quantitative sensory testing protocol for gustative, olfactory, thermal (cold/warm), mechanical (tactile/vibration/electric), and pain (deep/superficial) detection thresholds. The corneal reflex was also evaluated. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA, chi-squared, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The groups of subjects over 61 years old had higher olfactory (P sweet P = 0.004, salty P = 0.007, sour P = 0.006), thermal (warm P sweet P = 0.020, salty P = 0.002, sour P < 0.001, and bitter P = 0.002), olfactory (P = 0.010), warm (P < 0.001) and deep (P < 0.001), and superficial pain (P = 0.008) detection thresholds than men, and men from all age groups had lower vibratory detection thresholds (P = 0.006) than women. High sensory detection thresholds were observed in subjects over the 6th decade of life, and women had a more accurate sensory perception than men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, P.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.)

  8. Sex- and age-related differences in clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars; Niemann, Troels; Thorsgaard, Niels

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) according to sex and age, including comparison of sex- and age-specific mortality of PPCI patients with that of the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This population-based follow-up study included 7,385 ST...

  9. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of age and sex on warfarin dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury G

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ghada Khoury,1 Marwan Sheikh-Taha2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Objective: We examined the potential effect of sex and age on warfarin dosing in ambulatory adult patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients attending an anticoagulation clinic. We included patients anticoagulated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism who had a therapeutic international normalized ratio of 2–3 for 2 consecutive months. We excluded patients who had been on any drug that is known to have a major interaction with warfarin, smokers, and heavy alcohol consumers. Out of 340 screened medical records, 96 met the predetermined inclusion criteria. The primary outcome assessed was warfarin total weekly dose (TWD. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the TWD among the ages (P<0.01; older patients required lower doses. However there was no statistically significant difference in the TWD between sexes (P=0.281. Conclusion: Age was found to have a significant effect on warfarin dosing. Even though women did require a lower TWD than men, this observation was not statistically significant. Keywords: warfarin, INR, anticoagulation, vitamin K antagonists, age

  11. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.

  12. Appendicitis: Trends in incidence, age, sex, and seasonal variations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Appendicitis is a common clinical condition worldwide. Differences in ... Aim:To assess the trends in incidence and pattern of variation with age, sex, and seasons of the year. .... population of 465000 (an annual population growth.

  13. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  14. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  15. Age and sex influences on running mechanics and coordination variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Katherine A; Freedman Silvernail, Julia; Hamill, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age on running mechanics separately for male and female runners and to quantify sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability for older runners. Kinematics and kinetics were captured for 20 younger (10 male) and 20 older (10 male) adults running overground at 3.5 m · s -1 . A modified vector coding technique was used to calculate segment coordination variability. Lower extremity joint angles, moments and segment coordination variability were compared between age and sex groups. Significant sex-age interaction effects were found for heel-strike hip flexion and ankle in/eversion angles and peak ankle dorsiflexion angle. In older adults, mid-stance knee flexion angle, ankle inversion and abduction moments and hip abduction and external rotation moments differed by sex. Older compared with younger females had reduced coordination variability in the thigh-shank transverse plane couple but greater coordination variability for the shank rotation-foot eversion couple in early stance. These results suggest there may be a non-equivalent aging process in the movement mechanics for males and females. The age and sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability highlight the need for sex-based analyses for future studies examining injury risk with age.

  16. Measuring trends in age at first sex and age at marriage in Manicaland, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, I; Mushati, P; Hallett, T; Mupambireyi, Z; Nyamukapa, C; Garnett, G P; Gregson, S

    2009-04-01

    To identify reporting biases and to determine the influence of inconsistent reporting on observed trends in the timing of age at first sex and age at marriage. Longitudinal data from three rounds of a population-based cohort in eastern Zimbabwe were analysed. Reports of age at first sex and age at marriage from 6837 individuals attending multiple rounds were classified according to consistency. Survival analysis was used to identify trends in the timing of first sex and marriage. In this population, women initiate sex and enter marriage at younger ages than men but spend much less time between first sex and marriage. Among those surveyed between 1998 and 2005, median ages at first sex and first marriage were 18.5 years and 21.4 years for men and 18.2 years and 18.5 years, respectively, for women aged 15-54 years. High levels of reports of both age at first sex and age at marriage among those attending multiple surveys were found to be unreliable. Excluding reports identified as unreliable from these analyses did not alter the observed trends in either age at first sex or age at marriage. Tracing birth cohorts as they aged revealed reporting biases, particularly among the youngest cohorts. Comparisons by birth cohorts, which span a period of >40 years, indicate that median age at first sex has remained constant over time for women but has declined gradually for men. Although many reports of age at first sex and age at marriage were found to be unreliable, inclusion of such reports did not result in artificial generation or suppression of trends.

  17. A cross-sectional analysis of age and sex patterns in grip strength, tooth loss, near vision and hearing levels in Chinese aged 50-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    -sectional sample of 2006 individuals. The data exhibited high quality with a low missing rate of under 5% in any age groups for each variable. Effects of age and sex on the changes in the four health variables were assessed using multiple regression models with age and sex interactions included. Upon the highly......-related decline in women than in men but neither the overall sex difference nor age-sex interaction reached statistical significance. For hearing function, while no sex difference was found at middle frequency, women had better sensitivity at high frequency and men were more sensitive at low frequency...

  18. China's marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W

    2016-06-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China's male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call "spousal sex ratio" (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China's marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market.

  19. Deception Detection, Transmission, & Modality in Age & Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dorothy Sweeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e. unrehearsed pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved fifty-one older adult and forty-four college student senders who lied authentically in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, seventy-seven older adult and eighty-four college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception.

  20. Topographic anatomy of the eyelids, and the effects of sex and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van den Bosch (Willem); I.M. Leenders (Ineke); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To describe the effects of sex and age on eyeball, eyelid, and eyebrow position. METHODS: A cross sectional cohort study was performed in which both eyes of 320 normal subjects aged between 10 and 89 years were included. Of each 10 year age cohort,

  1. Genotype by sex and genotype by age interactions with sedentary behavior: the Portuguese Healthy Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge and Genotype x Sex (GxSex interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05 and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day, EEsed (kcal/day, personal computer (PC usage and physical activty (PA tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day. For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex.

  2. Sex, lies and disclosures: Researchers and the reporting of under-age sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Strode

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Children are a vulnerable group and require legal protection due to their youth and inexperience. Resultantly, various provisions in the law ensure the care and protection of children through mechanisms such as the mandatory reporting of abuse. A recent change in the law has broadened the mandatory reporting obligations by requiring any person who is aware of a sexual offence having been committed against a child to report this to the police. Given that it is a sexual offence to have sex below the age of 16 researchers involved in research with teenagers in which they may become aware that that they are engaging in sex or sexual activity but are under the age4 of 16 will be obliged to inform the police of this fact. The issue of reporting under-age sex is very complex as in our view there are various categories of under-age sex. We argue that researchers should not comply with the mandatory reporting obligations for underage consensual, non-exploitative sexual activity but in all other cases there should be reporting. We argue that because the mandatory reporting of underage sex/ activity (even consensual and non-exploitative activity may alienate children from services and “punish” them by reporting their conduct to the police, advocacy is needed for a change to the Sexual Offences Act to ensure consistency with the approach taken in the Children’s Act which enables such children to access sexual and reproductive services..

  3. Sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn JH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: Aging is a major risk factor in dry eye disease (DED, and understanding sexual differences is very important in biomedical research. However, there is little information about sex differences in the effect of aging on DED. We investigated sex differences in the effect of aging and other risk factors for DED.Methods: This study included data of 16,824 adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012, which is a population-based cross-sectional survey. DED was defined as the presence of frequent ocular dryness or a previous diagnosis by an ophthalmologist. Basic sociodemographic factors and previously known risk factors for DED were included in the analyses. Linear regression modeling and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to compare the sex differences in the effect of risk factors for DED; we additionally performed tests for interactions between sex and other risk factors for DED in logistic regression models.Results: In our linear regression models, the prevalence of DED symptoms in men increased with age (R=0.311, P=0.012; however, there was no association between aging and DED in women (P>0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that aging in men was not associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: odds ratio [OR] =1.01/1.04, each P>0.05, while aging in women was protectively associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: OR =0.94/0.91, P=0.011/0.003. Previous ocular surgery was significantly associated with DED in both men and women (men/women: OR =2.45/1.77 [DED symptoms] and 3.17/2.05 [DED diagnosis], each P<0.001. Tests for

  4. METACOGNITION IN ENTREPRENEURS: PSYCHOMETRIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSOCIATED TO AGE AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Lima Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify elements that show the influence of the age and sex variables in the metacognitive level of professionals. Survey participants were 851 professionals registered in Bahia's Regional Administration Council who own their own businesses. Two validated psychometric instruments were used: Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI and the Metacognitive Activities Inventory (MCA-I. The hypothesis held that the respondent's age and sex influence their Metacognitive Profile. From the Structural Equation Modeling, the results indicate that the sex variable showed no significant relationship to the Metacognitive Profile. The implications of this study provide empirical conclusions that can aid entrepreneurs, companies, higher education institutions to understand the metacognitive aspects that influence the entrepreneur’s behavior more systematically. Empirically, these results contribute so that the participating drivers of this study, as they develop metacognitive aspects, acquire a competitive advantage in their entrepreneurial performance.

  5. Aging obviates sex-specific physiological responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Michael R; Taylor, Jessica L; Mangis, Katherine A

    2013-01-01

    Both sex and aging have been shown to affect physiological responses to exercise. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether aging impacted the sex-specific nature of physiological responses to exercise commonly noted among young adults. Ten aged men (69.0 ± 1.7 years; mean ± SE) and 10 aged women (71.6 ± 1.3 years) reporting similar levels of habitual physical activity performed a 30-min exercise session at 60-65% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake. Cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic variables were assessed before exercise, at the 15th and 30th min of exercise, and at 5 and 15 min into a passive postexercise recovery period. Variables of interest were statistically analyzed via two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures; significance was set at P physiological variable of interest were identified, but not once was a significant effect of group (i.e., sex) detected. Exercise-induced physiological responses to prolonged, moderate intensity exercise were similar among aged men and aged women. This evidence that the sexually dimorphic nature of physiological responses to exercise is obviated with age should be taken into account when prescribing health-related exercise training programs for older individuals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Adaptive immunity to rhinoviruses: sex and age matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritchard Antonia L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhinoviruses (RV are key triggers in acute asthma exacerbations. Previous studies suggest that men suffer from infectious diseases more frequently and with greater severity than women. Additionally, the immune response to most infections and vaccinations decreases with age. Most immune function studies do not account for such differences, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if the immune response to rhinovirus varies with sex or age. Methods Blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 63 healthy individuals and grouped by sex and age (≤50 years old and ≥52 years old. Cells were cultured with rhinovirus 16 at a multiplicity of infection of 1. The chemokine IP-10 was measured at 24 h as an index of innate immunity while IFNγ and IL-13 were measured at 5 days as an index of adaptive immunity. Results Rhinovirus induced IFNγ and IL-13 was significantly higher in ≤50 year old women than in age matched men (p 0.005. There was no sex or age based difference in rhinovirus induced IP-10 expression. Both IFNγ and IL-13 were negatively correlated with age in women but not in men. Conclusions This study suggests that pre-menopausal women have a stronger adaptive immune response to rhinovirus infection than men and older people, though the mechanisms responsible for these differences remain to be determined. Our findings highlight the importance of gender and age balance in clinical studies and in the development of new treatments and vaccines.

  7. Chronic stress and neural function: accounting for sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, V N; Beck, K D; Bowman, R E; Frankfurt, M; Maclusky, N J

    2007-10-01

    Cognitive responses to stress follow the temporally dependent pattern originally established by Selye (1) wherein short-term stressors elicit adaptive responses whereas continued stress (chronic) results in maladaptive changes--deleterious effects on physiological systems and impaired cognition. However, this pattern for cognitive effects appears to apply to only half the population (males) and, more specifically, to young, adult males. Females show different cognitive responses to stress. In contrast to impaired cognition in males after chronic stress, female rodents show enhanced performance on the same memory tasks after the same stress. Not only cognition, but anxiety, shows sex-dependent changes following chronic stress--stress is anxiolytic in males and anxiogenic in females. Moreover, behavioral responses to chronic stress are different in developing as well as aging subjects (both sexes) as compared to adults. In aged rats, chronic stress enhances recognition memory in both sexes, does not alter spatial memory, and anxiety effects are opposite to young adults. When pregnant dams are exposed to chronic stress, at adulthood the offspring display yet different consequences of stress on anxiety and cognition, and, in contrast to adulthood when the behavioral effects of stress are reversible, prenatal stress effects appear enduring. Changing levels of estradiol in the sexes over the lifespan appear to contribute to the differences in response to stress. Thus, theories of stress dependent modulations in CNS function--developed solely in male models, focused on peripheral physiological processes and tested in adults--may require revision when applied to a more diverse population (age- and sex-wise) at least in relation to the neural functions of cognition and anxiety. Moreover, these results suggest that other stressors and neural functions should be investigated to determine whether age, sex and gonadal hormones also have an impact.

  8. Empathy mediates the effects of age and sex on altruistic moral decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B. Rosen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM, which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet.One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female, aged 19 to 86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice everyday life situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships.A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision-making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM.Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called positivity effect and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological

  9. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jan B.; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19–86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice “everyday life” situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called “positivity effect” and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects

  10. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and

  11. Trace element correlations with age and sex in human fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, K.

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of 17 elements in fingernails of 92 control individuals with ages ranging from 4 months to 93 years living in a relatively non-industrial environment were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Statistical analysis demonstrated several different patterns of trace element correlation with age and sex. Bromine, Co, Cr, Fe, Na and Sb were found to be negatively correlated (p.<0.05) with age, while Zn was positively correlated (p.<0.05). Silver, Au, Se, and Zn concentrations were found to be higher in females than in males. Males had higher concentrations of Na and K than females. Significant interelement correlations were also observed. The age and sex variations observed should prove to be useful in proper interpretation of elemental imbalances associated with degenerative neurological diseases, especially in view of recent reports that markers for AD have been detected in external tissue. (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Influence of age, sex and pregnancy status on some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were obtained from 80 rabbits of mixed breeds comprising adults, growers and weaners between June and August 2005 to determine the mean variations in packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Total Protein (TP) as affected by sex, age and pregnancy status. The mean variation in PCV, Hb and ...

  13. Preschoolers' Beliefs about Sex and Age Differences in Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, Mariss; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assesses beliefs of 32 male and 35 female middle-class preschool children about the frequency and intensity with which girls, boys, women, and men experience anger, sadness, and happiness. Children's beliefs are complex; they vary as a function of the target person's age and sex and of the specific emotion. (SLD)

  14. Age and sex variation in serum albumin concentration: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Gary; Batstone, Gifford F; Jones, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, a common reference interval for serum albumin is widely used irrespective of age or sex. Implicit in this is that laboratories produce analytically similar results. This paper challenges the validity of this approach. A three-week collection of results sent to all primary care centres in England has been analysed by age, sex and laboratory. In all, 1,079,193 serum albumin reports were included in this analysis. The mean population serum albumin concentration increases to peak at around age 20 years and then decreases with increasing age. Values in females decrease more rapidly but become close to male values at 60 years. The variation between laboratories was large and potentially clinically significant. Reference intervals for serum albumin should be stratified by age and sex. Until there is greater methodological standardization, laboratories should determine their own reference intervals and not accept a single consensus reference interval. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  16. "Love without sex is friendship. Sex without love is desire": sex life in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Berger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with sexuality in old age. This is a comparative study between classes "A" and "D". The main objective of this paper is to state the following paradox: on the one hand, sexuality in old age has been affirmed and valued in the construction of feminine self-esteem, on the other, can not only blame the woman who can not adhere to them, as well as produce a new homogenization of "being old" now associated with the proper management of sexuality.

  17. Autonomic receptors in urinary tract: Sex and age differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latifpour, J.; Kondo, S.; O'Hollaren, B.; Morita, T.; Weiss, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    As age and sex affect the function of the lower urinary tract, we studied the characteristics of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in various parts of lower urinary tract smooth muscle of young (6 months) and old (4 1/2-5 years) male and female rabbits. Saturation experiments performed with [3H]prazosin, [3H]yohimbine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate in rabbit bladder base, bladder dome and urethra indicate the presence of regional, sex- and age-related differences in the density of alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor density is considerably higher in the female than in the male urethra of both age groups, whereas the higher density of beta adrenergic receptors in the female than in the male bladder base is observed only in the younger animals. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in bladder dome than in bladder base or urethra in young rabbits of both sexes. In the old animals, the density of muscarinic receptors in bladder base increases to the level observed in bladder dome. Inhibition experiments with selective adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicate that the pharmacological profiles of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the urethra and beta adrenergic receptors in the bladder dome and bladder base are similar in both sexes and at both ages. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are shown to be predominant in bladder base and bladder dome of rabbits. Parallel studies in rabbit urethra, adult rat cortex and neonatal rat lung show that the urethral alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are of the alpha-2A subtype

  18. Gluten Intolerance: Sex- and Age-Related Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Llorente-Alonso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gluten intolerance is an immune-mediated enteropathy associated with gluten-containing foods in genetically susceptible patients. The typical form mainly affecting children shows failure to thrive and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. The adult form is less typical, presenting vague gastrointestinal symptoms, iron deficiency (with or without anemia or nonspecific serum chemistry abnormalities. The present study aims to analyze clinical and biochemical differences of celiac disease (CD according to sex and age.

  19. How age matters : Exploring contemporary Dutch debates on age and sex work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.V. Coumans (Sara Vida)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSocial protection policies regarding sex work in The Netherlands use ‘age’ as an instrument to create binaries between adults and young people. The concept ‘chronological age’ assumes that age is a static feature and supports the process of categorization; however, age is a socially

  20. Polypharmacy: correlations with sex, age and drug regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, L; Søgaard, J; Hallas, J

    1998-01-01

    by inhabitants in the county of Funen (n = 466567). The number of individuals concurrently using two to four drugs (minor PP) and five or more drugs (major PP) was calculated on a random day in 1994. Drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical (ATC) classification index. The main...... therapeutic class (second level of the ATC code) was used as an indicator for the type of health problem. A stepwise backwards logistic regression was used to identify predictors of major PP. Odds ratios were calculated for different drug classes, and the age and sex of all drug users. RESULTS: On a random...... day, 8.3% of the population were exposed to minor PP and 1.2% to major PP. The prevalence of PP increased with age, and from the age of 70 years, two thirds of all drug users were PP users. Drug use was 50% more prevalent among women than men, but over the age of 70, the sexes did not differ...

  1. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  2. Development of a Healthy Aging Score in the Population-Based Rotterdam Study: Evaluating Age and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Schoufour, Josje D; Erler, Nicole S; Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Portegies, Marileen L P; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Lahousse, Lies; Brusselle, Guy G; Stricker, Bruno H; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    To develop a healthy aging score (HAS), to assess age and sex differences in HAS, and to evaluate the association of the HAS with survival. Prospective population-based cohort. Inhabitants of Ommoord, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 1405 men and 2122 women, mean (standard deviation) age 75.9 (6.4) years. We included 7 domains in the total score of HAS: chronic diseases, mental health, cognitive function, physical function, pain, social support, and quality of life; each scored 0, 1, or 2 in each domain. A total score (range 0-14) was constructed and was assessed continuously and in tertiles (13-14: healthy aging, 11-12: intermediate aging, 0-10: poor aging). Sex-specific change in the mean HAS was computed for the age categories of 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years. The association between HAS and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Mean follow-up was 8.6 (3.4) years. Men had poorer scores in the chronic disease domain than women. However, women had poorer mental health, worse physical function, more pain, and lower quality of life compared with men. The prevalence of healthy aging was higher in men (n = 396, 28.2%), than in women (n = 526, 24.8%). The mean (standard deviation) HAS was 11.1 (2.2) in men and 10.7 (2.3) in women. Mean HAS was higher in men than in women for all age categories. The β for change in mean HAS across the 5 increasing age categories was -0.55 (-0.65 to -0.45) in men and -0.65 (-0.73 to -0.57) in women. The age-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in HAS with mortality was 0.86 (0.83-0.89) in men, and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) in women. Levels of HAS were lower in women compared with men, in all age categories. The HAS declined with increasing age for both sexes, albeit slightly steeper in women. The HAS was strongly associated with mortality in both sexes. A better understanding of population healthy aging and sex differences in this regard could aid to implement strategies for sustainable

  3. Influence of age and sex on quantitative parameters in CT of the brain in neurogeriatric diseases. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternovoj, S.K.; Damulin, I.V.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a study of age and sex differences of linear, volumetric, volumetric longitudinal and densitometric parameters of CT of the brain in patients with neurogeriatric diseases with chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency. The ventricular system of the brain and subarachnoid space was shown to increase with age; a decrease in the relative density of the white substance at the anterior horns was noted. Sex differences were most noticeable in younger patients. Average sizes of the ventricular system and subarachnoid space were indicated for men and women belonging to different age groups. A conclusion was made that assessment of CT results in neurogeriatric patients must include their age and sex

  4. Regarding the influence of sex and aging on dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han SB

    2017-09-01

    profound interest in our study. We agree with the author’s opinion that there were a few controversial points in this study, and several factors such as psychologic condition, sleep disorder, and visual display terminal use should be considered. However, to the best of our knowledge, there was no report showing a difference in aging effects on DED according to sex, and many epidemiologic studies1–3 including the author’s study, did not consider previous ocular surgery history which could be a major risk factor of DED.View original paper by Ahn et al.

  5. Extending PSA models including ageing and asset management - 15291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. This methodology is applied to a motor-operated valve of the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS) of a PWR. This simple example of application focuses on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of several alternatives in maintenance strategy is discussed

  6. Age, Sex and Stature Estimation from Footprint Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurbhi Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in age, sex and stature determination in the North Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a sample of 400 people (146 female and 254 male aged 10-65 years in Uttar Pradesh, North Western state of India. Footprints of both feet were taken bilaterally, and thus a total of 800 prints were obtained. A cluster of 7 measurements were taken carefully with the help of a scientific scale ruler. Five measurements were length dimensions from the most anterior part of the toe (T1–T5 to the mid rear heel point and two were breadth dimensions from both left and right footprints: breadth at ball (BBAL, breadth at heel (BHEL and 2 indexes: heel-ball Index (HBI and footprint index (FPI. All data were analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test, regression coefficient and Pearson’s correlation for the estimation of sex on the basis of footprint dimensions. Results: The T1 in left footprints was greater than right footprints in males, while T1 and BBAL were both found to be greater in left footprints than right footprints in females. All the seven foot dimensions were higher in males than females. Conclusion: There were statistically significant differences observed in all footprint dimensions between the male and female footprints except LFPI, LHBI, and RHBI.

  7. Age, sex and other factors in radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Carnes, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been held for a long time that the young are more susceptible than adults to the induction of cancer by radiation. The data in support of that contention are accumulating especially from human studies. In an exposed population a significant fraction of the total population risk may be attributed to the risk associated with those who were young at the time of exposure. Since cancer may not appear for decades after exposure estimates of risk may require models for projecting the lifetime risk. Two such models, additive or absolute risk and multiplicative or relative risk have been used. The appropriateness of the latter model is supported by the finding in mice of a positive relationship between natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction by radiation of solid cancer. The choice of model for leukemias is not clear cut. The incidence of cancer increases with age, but the susceptibility for induction decreases. The incidence of cancers increases to a peak and then begins to decline at different ages, dependent on the type of cancer. Sex-dependent differences in both the natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction of cancer are not restricted to sex organs. For example, the susceptibility for the induction by radiation for myeloid leukemia is greater in males than females, whereas in the case of thymic lymphoma it is vice versa. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  8. What is best practice in sex and relationship education? A synthesis of evidence, including stakeholders' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Pandora; Denford, Sarah; Shucksmith, Janet; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Owen, Jenny; Hutten, Rebecca; Mohan, Leanne; Bonell, Chris; Abraham, Charles; Campbell, Rona

    2017-07-02

    Sex and relationship education (SRE) is regarded as vital to improving young people's sexual health, but a third of schools in England lacks good SRE and government guidance is outdated. We aimed to identify what makes SRE programmes effective, acceptable, sustainable and capable of faithful implementation. This is a synthesis of findings from five research packages that we conducted (practitioner interviews, case study investigation, National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, review of reviews and qualitative synthesis). We also gained feedback on our research from stakeholder consultations. Primary research and stakeholder consultations were conducted in the UK. Secondary research draws on studies worldwide. Our findings indicate that school-based SRE and school-linked sexual health services can be effective at improving sexual health. We found professional consensus that good programmes start in primary school. Professionals and young people agreed that good programmes are age-appropriate, interactive and take place in a safe environment. Some young women reported preferring single-sex classes, but young men appeared to want mixed classes. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should take a 'life skills' approach and not focus on abstinence. Young people advocated a 'sex-positive' approach but reported this was lacking. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should discuss risks, but young people indicated that approaches to risk need revising. Professionals felt teachers should be involved in SRE delivery, but many young people reported disliking having their teachers deliver SRE and we found that key messages could become lost when interpreted by teachers. The divergence between young people and professionals was echoed by stakeholders. We developed criteria for best practice based on the evidence. We identified key features of effective and acceptable SRE. Our best practice criteria can be used to evaluate existing programmes

  9. Age and Sex Effects on Plasma Metabolite Association Networks in Healthy Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignoli, Alessia; Tenori, Leonardo; Luchinat, Claudio; Saccenti, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, the analysis of simple information like sex and age can increase the potential to better diagnose and treat conditions that occur more frequently in one of the two sexes, present sex-specific symptoms and outcomes, or are characteristic of a specific age group. We

  10. Effects of genes, sex, age, and activity on BMC, bone size, and areal and volumetric BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Lorena M; Mahaney, Michael C; L Binkley, Teresa; Specker, Bonny L

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative genetic analyses of bone data for 710 inter-related individuals 8-85 yr of age found high heritability estimates for BMC, bone area, and areal and volumetric BMD that varied across bone sites. Activity levels, especially time in moderate plus vigorous activity, had notable effects on bone. In some cases, these effects were age and sex specific. Genetic and environmental factors play a complex role in determining BMC, bone size, and BMD. This study assessed the heritability of bone measures; characterized the effects of age, sex, and physical activity on bone; and tested for age- and sex-specific bone effects of activity. Measures of bone size and areal and volumetric density (aBMD and vBMD, respectively) were obtained by DXA and pQCT on 710 related individuals (466 women) 8-85 yr of age. Measures of activity included percent time in moderate + vigorous activity (%ModVig), stair flights climbed per day, and miles walked per day. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted to model the effects of activity and covariates on bone outcomes. Accounting for effects of age, sex, and activity levels, genes explained 40-62% of the residual variation in BMC and BMD and 27-75% in bone size (all pBMC and cross-sectional area (CSA) at the 4% radius, but this was not observed among women (sex-by-activity interaction, both p age-by-sex-by-activity interaction, p=0.04). High heritability estimates for DXA and pQCT measures varied across bone sites. Percent time spent in moderate to vigorous activity had the most notable effect on bone, and in some cases, this effect was age or sex specific.

  11. How age, sex and genotype shape the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Ashley; Monteiro, Susana; Roque, Susana; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to chronic stress is a leading pre-disposing factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders as it often leads to maladaptive responses. The response to stressful events is heterogeneous, underpinning a wide spectrum of distinct changes amongst stress-exposed individuals'. Several factors can underlie a different perception to stressors and the setting of distinct coping strategies that will lead to individual differences on the susceptibility/resistance to stress. Beyond the factors related to the stressor itself, such as intensity, duration or predictability, there are factors intrinsic to the individuals that are relevant to shape the stress response, such as age, sex and genetics. In this review, we examine the contribution of such intrinsic factors to the modulation of the stress response based on experimental rodent models of response to stress and discuss to what extent that knowledge can be potentially translated to humans.

  12. Sex, age, and sex hormones affect recall of words in a directed forgetting paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschbaum, Hubert H; Hofbauer, Ildiko; Gföllner, Anna; Ebner, Birgit; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-01-02

    During the course of serious discussion, an unexpected interruption may induce forgetting of the original topic of a conversation. Sex, age, and sex hormone levels may affect frequency and extension of forgetting. In a list-method directed forgetting paradigm, subjects have to learn two word lists. After learning list 1, subjects receive either a forget or a remember list 1 cue. When the participants had learned list 2 and completed a distraction task, they were asked to write down as many recalled items as possible, starting either with list 1 or list 2 items. In the present study, 96 naturally cycling women, 60 oral contraceptive users, 56 postmenopausal women, and 41 young men were assigned to one of these different experimental conditions. Forget-cued young subjects recall fewer list 1 items (list 1 forgetting) but more list 2 items (list 2 enhancement) compared with remember-cued subjects. However, forget-cued postmenopausal women showed reduced list 1 forgetting but enhanced list 2 retention. Remember-cued naturally cycling women recalled more list 1 items than oral contraceptive users, young men, and postmenopausal women. In forget-cued follicular women, salivary progesterone correlated positively with recalled list 2 items. Salivary 17β-estradiol did not correlate with recalled list 1 or list 2 items in either remember- or forget-cued young women. However, salivary 17β-estradiol correlated with item recall in remember-cued postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that sex hormones do not globally modulate verbal memory or forgetting, but selectively affect cue-specific processing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Gene-environment interplay in depressive symptoms: moderation by age, sex, and physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, A J; Beam, C R; Johnson, W; Kaprio, J; Korhonen, T; McGue, M; Neiderhiser, J M; Pedersen, N L; Reynolds, C A; Gatz, M

    2017-07-01

    Numerous factors influence late-life depressive symptoms in adults, many not thoroughly characterized. We addressed whether genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms differed by age, sex, and physical illness. The analysis sample included 24 436 twins aged 40-90 years drawn from the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) Consortium. Biometric analyses tested age, sex, and physical illness moderation of genetic and environmental variance in depressive symptoms. Women reported greater depressive symptoms than men. After age 60, there was an accelerating increase in depressive symptom scores with age, but this did not appreciably affect genetic and environmental variances. Overlap in genetic influences between physical illness and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women. Additionally, in men extent of overlap was greater with worse physical illness (the genetic correlation ranged from near 0.00 for the least physical illness to nearly 0.60 with physical illness 2 s.d. above the mean). For men and women, the same environmental factors that influenced depressive symptoms also influenced physical illness. Findings suggested that genetic factors play a larger part in the association between depressive symptoms and physical illness for men than for women. For both sexes, across all ages, physical illness may similarly trigger social and health limitations that contribute to depressive symptoms.

  14. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions. A prospective study of 1765 myelographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, P

    1989-09-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.).

  15. Vocational interests in the United States: Sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Vocational interests predict educational and career choices, job performance, and career success (Rounds & Su, 2014). Although sex differences in vocational interests have long been observed (Thorndike, 1911), an appropriate overall measure has been lacking from the literature. Using a cross-sectional sample of United States residents aged 14 to 63 who completed the Strong Interest Inventory assessment between 2005 and 2014 (N = 1,283,110), I examined sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects on work related interest levels using both multivariate and univariate effect size estimates of individual dimensions (Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional). Men scored higher on Realistic (d = -1.14), Investigative (d = -.32), Enterprising (d = -.22), and Conventional (d = -.23), while women scored higher on Artistic (d = .19) and Social (d = .38), mostly replicating previous univariate findings. Multivariate, overall sex differences were very large (disattenuated Mahalanobis' D = 1.61; 27% overlap). Interest levels were slightly lower and overall sex differences larger in younger samples. Overall sex differences have narrowed slightly for 18-22 year-olds in more recent samples. Generally very small ethnicity effects included relatively higher Investigative and Enterprising scores for Asians, Indians, and Middle Easterners, lower Realistic scores for Blacks and Native Americans, higher Realistic, Artistic, and Social scores for Pacific Islanders, and lower Conventional scores for Whites. Using Prediger's (1982) model, women were more interested in people (d = 1.01) and ideas (d = .18), while men were more interested in things and data. These results, consistent with previous reviews showing large sex differences and small year effects, suggest that large sex differences in work related interests will continue to be observed for decades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Impact of age and sex on normal left heart structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Linn; Henein, Michael Y; Karp, Kjell; Waldenström, Anders; Lindqvist, Per

    2017-11-01

    Accurate age- and sex-related normal reference values of ventricular structure and function are important to determine the level of dysfunction in patients. The aim of this study therefore was to document normal age range sex-related measurements of LV structural and functional measurements to serve such purpose. We evaluated left ventricular structure and function in 293 healthy subjects between 20 and 90 years with equally distributed gender. Doppler echocardiography was used including measure of both systolic and diastolic functions. Due to systolic LV function, only long axis function correlated with age (r = 0·55, P<0·01) and the correlation was stronger in females. Concerning diastolic function, there was a strong age correlation in all parameters used (r = 0·40-0·74, P<0·001). Due to LV structural changes over age, females showed a larger reduction in end-diastolic volumes, but no or trivial difference in wall thickness after the age of 60 years. Age is associated with significant normal changes in left ventricular structure and function, which should be considered when deciding on normality. These changes are related to systemic arterial changes as well as body stature, thus reflecting overall body ageing process. Furthermore, normal cardiac ageing in females might partly explain the higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection in females. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Elevated mortality among birds in Chernobyl as judged from skewed age and sex ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios.We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination.These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area exceeding 30,000 km(2 in Chernobyl's surroundings constitutes an

  18. Quantitative computed tomography: emphysema and airway wall thickness by sex, age and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, T B; Dirksen, A; Coxson, H O

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how quantitative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) vary with sex, age and smoking history. We included 463 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases and 431 controls. All included subjects were current or ex...... cases, respectively, and 0.488+/-0.028 and 0.463+/-0.025 in male and female controls, respectively. AWT decreased with increasing age in cases, and increased with the degree of current smoking in all subjects. We found significant differences in quantitative HRCT measures of emphysema and AWT between...

  19. Cognitive function and associated factors among older people in Taiwan: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Lun; Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cognitive function and the risk and the protective factors by age and sex among Taiwanese older people. The data were from a nation-representative panel of older people in Taiwan. The participants completing both the 2003 and 2007 waves were included for analysis in this study (n=3228). Descriptive analysis and generalized linear model were applied, and the samples were stratified by age groups and by sex. The factors related to higher cognitive function at the intercept included being younger, male, higher education, and doing unpaid work. At the time slope, the age effect and physical function difficulties would reduce the cognitive function across time, while education and providing informational support would increase the cognitive function across time. There were age- and sex-differences in the factors related to cognitive function, particularly on the working status and social participation. Different health promotion strategies to target these populations should be accordingly developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  1. Influence of female sex and fertile age on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisow, Nadja; Kleiter, Ingo; Gahlen, Anna; Fischer, Katrin; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Pache, Florence; Ruprecht, Klemens; Havla, Joachim; Krumbholz, Markus; Kümpfel, Tania; Aktas, Orhan; Ringelstein, Marius; Geis, Christian; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Berthele, Achim; Hemmer, Bernhard; Angstwurm, Klemens; Weissert, Robert; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Schuster, Simon; Stangel, Martin; Lauda, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Mayer, Christoph; Zeltner, Lena; Ziemann, Ulf; Linker, Ralf A; Schwab, Matthias; Marziniak, Martin; Then Bergh, Florian; Hofstadt-van Oy, Ulrich; Neuhaus, Oliver; Winkelmann, Alexander; Marouf, Wael; Rückriem, Lioba; Faiss, Jürgen; Wildemann, Brigitte; Paul, Friedemann; Jarius, Sven; Trebst, Corinna; Hellwig, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Gender and age at onset are important epidemiological factors influencing prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in autoimmune diseases. To evaluate the impact of female sex and fertile age on aquaporin-4-antibody (AQP4-ab) status, attack localization, and response to attack treatment in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its spectrum disorders (neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)). Female-to-male ratios, diagnosis at last visit (NMO vs NMOSD), attack localization, attack treatment, and outcome were compared according to sex and age at disease or attack onset. A total of 186 NMO/SD patients (82% female) were included. In AQP4-ab-positive patients, female predominance was most pronounced during fertile age (female-to-male ratio 23:1). Female patients were more likely to be positive for AQP4-abs (92% vs 55%; p 40 years. Our data suggest an influence of sex and age on susceptibility to AQP4-ab-positive NMO/SD. Genetic and hormonal factors might contribute to pathophysiology of NMO/SD.

  2. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Serhat Avcu; Ersan Altun; Ihsan Akpinar; Mehmet Deniz Bulut; Kemal Eresov; Tugrul Biren

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to exam...

  3. Differences by age and sex in the sedentary time of adults in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Tessa; Kelly, Paul; Mutrie, Nanette; Fitzsimons, Claire

    2018-04-01

    Previous nationally-representative research in Scotland found a j-shaped relationship between age and leisure sedentary time (ST): a decrease from young to middle-age, before rising steeply in older-age. This study investigated the effects of age and sex on weekday (including work) ST for all adults and stratified by work-status, and on weekend day ST. Differences in the relative contributions of component behaviours were also investigated. Responses from 14,367 adult (≥16 years) 2012-14 Scottish Health Survey participants were analysed using linear regressions. We found no j-shaped relationship between age and weekday ST. Instead, only 16-24 year olds reported lower levels than those over 75 years (6.6 (95% CI: 6.3-6.9) compared to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.2-7.6) hours/day; p work, and for weekend day ST for all groups. For those in work, work ST accounted for 45% of weekday ST. Television/screen ST made up over half of leisure ST on weekdays and weekend days, regardless of sex, age, or work-status. These results challenge our understanding of how ST varies by age. Interventions to reduce ST should consider differences in the relative contributions of ST behaviours by age and work-status.

  4. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusal.  Refusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.

  5. Estimation of sex and age of 'virtual skeletons'-a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabherr, Silke [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi [University of Bern, Institute for the History of Medicine, Historical Anthropology, Bern (Switzerland); Uldin, Tanya [Service of Osteo-Archaeology, Aesch (Switzerland); Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J. [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Christe, Andreas [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Schnyder, Pierre [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mangin, Patrice [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  6. Estimation of sex and age of ''virtual skeletons''-a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabherr, Silke; Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi; Uldin, Tanya; Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J.; Christe, Andreas; Schnyder, Pierre; Mangin, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  7. Performance in eyeblink conditioning is age and sex dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Löwgren

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in both cognition and language. Abnormal cerebellar development may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism, fetal alcohol syndrome, dyslexia, and specific language impairment. Performance in eyeblink conditioning, which depends on the cerebellum, can potentially be used to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying the cerebellar dysfunction in disorders like these. However, we must first understand how the performance develops in children who do not have a disorder. In this study we assessed the performance in eyeblink conditioning in 42 typically developing children between 6 and 11 years old as well as in 26 adults. Older children produced more conditioned eyeblink responses than younger children and adults produced more than children. In addition, females produced more conditioned eyeblink responses than males among both children and adults. These results highlight the importance of considering the influence of age and sex on the performance when studying eyeblink conditioning as a measure of cerebellar development.

  8. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion

  9. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion.

  10. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  11. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  12. Economic productivity by age and sex: 2007 estimates for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Krueger, Kurt V; Mvundura, Mercy

    2009-07-01

    Human capital estimates of labor productivity are often used to estimate the economic impact of diseases and injuries that cause incapacitation or death. Estimates of average hourly, annual, and lifetime economic productivity, both market and household, were calculated in 2007 US dollars for 5-year age groups for men, women, and both sexes in the United States. Data from the American Time Use Survey were used to estimate hours of paid work and household services and hourly and annual earnings and household productivity. Present values of discounted lifetime earnings were calculated for each age group using the 2004 US life tables and a discount rate of 3% per year and assuming future productivity growth of 1% per year. The estimates of hours and productivity were calculated using the time diaries of 72,922 persons included in the American Time Use Survey for the years 2003 to 2007. The present value of lifetime productivity is approximately $1.2 million in 2007 dollars for children under 5 years of age. For adults in their 20s and 30s, it is approximately $1.6 million and then it declines with increasing age. Productivity estimates are higher for males than for females, more for market productivity than for total productivity. Changes in hours of paid employment and household services can affect economic productivity by age and sex. This is the first publication to include estimates of household services based on contemporary time use data for the US population.

  13. Age differences in vocal emotion perception: on the role of speaker age and listener sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Antarika; Isaacowitz, Derek; Schirmer, Annett

    2017-10-24

    Older adults have greater difficulty than younger adults perceiving vocal emotions. To better characterise this effect, we explored its relation to age differences in sensory, cognitive and emotional functioning. Additionally, we examined the role of speaker age and listener sex. Participants (N = 163) aged 19-34 years and 60-85 years categorised neutral sentences spoken by ten younger and ten older speakers with a happy, neutral, sad, or angry voice. Acoustic analyses indicated that expressions from younger and older speakers denoted the intended emotion with similar accuracy. As expected, younger participants outperformed older participants and this effect was statistically mediated by an age-related decline in both optimism and working-memory. Additionally, age differences in emotion perception were larger for younger as compared to older speakers and a better perception of younger as compared to older speakers was greater in younger as compared to older participants. Last, a female perception benefit was less pervasive in the older than the younger group. Together, these findings suggest that the role of age for emotion perception is multi-faceted. It is linked to emotional and cognitive change, to processing biases that benefit young and own-age expressions, and to the different aptitudes of women and men.

  14. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  15. The Effects of Sex and Age on the Perceptions of TV Characters: An Inter-Age Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Elliot S.

    1979-01-01

    This investigation of how viewers of daytime serials rate actors playing TV characters of varying age found that the age of a TV character and ratings of that character are not causally related, although a relationship was observed between age and sex--young males, middle-aged females--and ratings. (JVP)

  16. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4......OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...

  17. Association between childhood sexual abuse and transactional sex in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P; Courtney, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants were, on average, 17 years of age. Our outcome variables were self-report of having transactional sex ever and in the past year, when participants were an average age of 19 years. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA variables and transactional sex variables. Initial analyses were performed on both genders; exploratory analyses were then performed evaluating each gender separately. Total N=732; 574 were included in the main analyses. History of sexual molestation was significantly associated with increased odds of having transactional sex, both ever and in the past year (OR [95% CI]: 3.21 [1.26-8.18] and 4.07 [1.33, 12.52], respectively). History of rape was also significantly associated with increased odds of having had transactional sex ever and in the past year (ORs [95% CI]: 3.62 [1.38-9.52] and 3.78 [1.19, 12.01], respectively). Odds ratios in female-only analyses remained significant and were larger in magnitude compared with the main, non-stratified analyses; odds ratios in male-only analyses were non-significant and smaller in magnitude when compared with the main analyses. Both CSA variables were associated with increased likelihood of transactional sex. This association appears to vary by gender. Our results suggest that policymakers for youth in foster care should consider the unique needs of young women with histories of CSA when developing programs to support healthy relationships. Health care providers should also consider adapting screening and counseling practices to reflect the increased risk of transactional sex for female youth in foster care with a history

  18. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  19. The Burden of Blindness According To Age and Sex In Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are differences in the impact of blindness by age and sex; blind males having a higher risk for death than females. The aim of this study was to describe the age and sex difference among the blind in some Niger Delta communities of Nigeria. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was done ...

  20. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  1. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  2. Age and sex effects on human mutation rates. An old problem with new complexities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, James F.

    2006-01-01

    Base substitution mutations are far more common in human males than in females, and the frequency increases with paternal age. Both can be accounted for by the greater number of pre-meiotic cell divisions in males, especially old ones. In contrast, small deletions do not show any important age effect and occur with approximately equal frequency in the two sexes. Mutations in most genes include both types, and the sex and paternal age effect depends on the proportion of the two types. A few traits, of which Apert Syndrome is best understood, are mutation hot spots with all the mutations occurring in one or two codons, usually at one nucleotide. They occur with very high frequency almost exclusively in males and the frequency increases rapidly with paternal age. It has been suggested that the mutant cells have a selective advantage in the male germ-line prior to meiosis. Evidence for this surprising, but important, hypothesis is discussed. A possible mechanism is the conversion of asymmetrical stem-cell divisions into symmetric ones. Some traits with complex etiology show a slight paternal age effect. There is also a short discussion of the high deleterious mutation rate and the role of sexual reproduction in reducing the consequent mutation load. (author)

  3. The association between major depression prevalence and sex becomes weaker with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Wang, Jian Li; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2016-02-01

    Women have a higher prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDE) than men, and the annual prevalence of MDE declines with age. Age by sex interactions may occur (a weakening of the sex effect with age), but are easily overlooked since individual studies lack statistical power to detect interactions. The objective of this study was to evaluate age by sex interactions in MDE prevalence. In Canada, a series of 10 national surveys conducted between 1996 and 2013 assessed MDE prevalence in respondents over the age of 14. Treating age as a continuous variable, binomial and linear regression was used to model age by sex interactions in each survey. To increase power, the survey-specific interaction coefficients were then pooled using meta-analytic methods. The estimated interaction terms were homogeneous. In the binomial regression model I (2) was 31.2 % and was not statistically significant (Q statistic = 13.1, df = 9, p = 0.159). The pooled estimate (-0.004) was significant (z = 3.13, p = 0.002), indicating that the effect of sex became weaker with increasing age. This resulted in near disappearance of the sex difference in the 75+ age group. This finding was also supported by an examination of age- and sex-specific estimates pooled across the surveys. The association of MDE prevalence with sex becomes weaker with age. The interaction may reflect biological effect modification. Investigators should test for, and consider inclusion of age by sex interactions in epidemiological analyses of MDE prevalence.

  4. MRI EVALUATION OF PAINFUL KNEE JOINT- THE CORRELATION OF MULTIPLE COEXISTING PATHOLOGIES, AGE AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukheswar Pame

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 1. To evaluate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies causing painful knee and their correlation to age and sex. 2. To evaluate the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI features in various knee pathologies and to identify the common lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was performed using the clinical data of patients presenting with painful knee joint which were evaluated with MRI. Data from 200 patients examined between September 2015 and August 2016 were included into this study. The data was analysed statistically to evaluate the correlation between the MR pathological findings to age and sex of the patients. RESULTS The patient’s age ranged between 8 and 75 years (mean: 36 years. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear was the commonest finding (60% followed by bursitis (55%, meniscal degeneration (54.6% and meniscal tear (52%. Primary signs of ACL tear were hyperintensity, discontinuity and nonvisualisation. Secondary signs like Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL buckling, PCL index of greater than 0.5, uncovered Lateral meniscus (LM and bone contusion assisted in diagnosis in indeterminate cases. Mid substance was the commonest site of ACL tear (64%. PCL tear accounted for only a small percentage (7%. Medial Meniscus (MM tear (35% was commoner than LM tear (17%. The posterior horn of meniscus was the commonest site of injury (86.5%. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tear, Medial collateral ligament (MCL degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. A significant correlation between male gender and ACL injury was noted. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well with MCL injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with ACL injury, MCL injury and Lateral collateral ligament (LCL injury. CONCLUSIONS MRI findings of certain pathologies in a painful knee can coexist and significantly correlate with each other, age and sex of

  5. Electrocardiographic parameters of the American Miniature Horse: influence of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca P. Santarosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The veterinary cardiology has growing importance in equine medicine. There are studies of standardization of electrocardiographic parameters of many races, according to their stature and ability. However, no studies are in the literature with the American Miniature Horse. To evaluate the electrocardiogram (ECG tracing configuration of this breed at rest and to verify the influence of age and sex on ECG parameters, 203 horses including 143 females and 60 males were divided into four age groups (foals, yearlings, adults and elderly. Electrocardiographic parameters were performed by computerized electrocardiogram (TEB, and the parameters were evaluated in six leads of frontal plane (Lead I, II, III, aVR, aVL and aVF and base-apex (BA. Heart rates (HR decreased with increasing age were higher in males than in females. Sinus tachycardia followed by sinus arrhythmia was dominant in both sexes. The cardiac axis was higher in males and ranged between 120° and 150° for foals, 30° and 60° for yearlings and adults, and 60° and 90° for the elderly. The P wave was bifid in several animals. The P-wave amplitude and T-wave duration from lead II and BA were larger in males than in females. The majority of the animals exhibited ST segment depression and a negative T-wave. The most common QRS complex morphology was Qr. Differences were observed between the electrocardiographic tracings of males and females, and age influenced the ECG parameters. Therefore, this study established the ECG patterns for the American Miniature Horse breed and could be used to determine the influence of age and sex on several of the studied variables.

  6. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  7. Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2014-04-01

    Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a very conserved ZW system of sex determination in which males have two copies of a large, gene-rich Z chromosome, and females have a single Z and a female-specific W chromosome. The avian ZW system is quite the reverse of the well-studied mammalian XY chromosome system, and evolved independently from different autosomal blocs. Despite the different gene content of mammal and bird sex chromosomes, there are many parallels. Genes on the bird Z and the mammal X have both undergone selection for male-advantage functions, and there has been amplification of male-advantage genes and accumulation of LINEs. The bird W and mammal Y have both undergone extensive degradation, but some birds retain early stages and some mammals terminal stages of the process, suggesting that the process is more advanced in mammals. Different sex-determining genes, DMRT1 and SRY, define the ZW and XY systems, but DMRT1 is involved in downstream events in mammals. Birds show strong cell autonomous specification of somatic sex differences in ZZ and ZW tissue, but there is growing evidence for direct X chromosome effects on sexual phenotype in mammals. Dosage compensation in birds appears to be phenotypically and molecularly quite different from X inactivation, being partial and gene-specific, but both systems use tools from the same molecular toolbox and there are some signs that galliform birds represent an early stage in the evolution of a coordinated system.

  8. Working, sex partner age differences, and sexual behavior among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Zimmerman, Marc; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2009-10-01

    Participation in the workplace has been proposed as a potential structural-level HIV/STI prevention strategy for youth. Only a few cross-sectional studies have explored the effect of work during adolescence and young adulthood on sexual behavior and their results have been mixed. This study builds on this literature by exploring whether work influences youths' sexual behavior in a cohort of African American youth (N = 562; 45% males; M = 14.5 years, SD = 0.6) followed from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 13-25 years). Using growth curve modeling, we tested whether working was associated with older sex partners. Then, we explored the association between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors (i.e., number of sex partners, condom use, and frequency of sexual intercourse). Finally, we tested whether the relationship between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors was confounded by working. Working greater number of hours was not significantly associated with having older sex partners. Sex partner age differences was associated with number of partners, condom use, and higher sex frequency. These associations were larger for females. Working was associated with higher sex frequency, after accounting for age differences. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and program planning, particularly in the context of youth development programs.

  9. Prevalence, and Intellectual Outcome of Unilateral Focal Cortical Brain Damage as a Function of Age, Sex and Aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. J. Braun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologists and neuropsychologists are aware that aging men are more at risk than women for brain damage, principally because of the well known male-predominant risk for cardiovascular disease and related cerebrovascular accidents. However, a disproportion in prevalence of brain damage between the sexes in childhood may be less suspected. Furthermore, sex-specific risk for other aetiologies of brain damage may be little known, whether in the pediatric or adult populations. Proposals of a sex difference in cognitive recovery from brain damage have also been controversial. Six hundred and thirty five “consecutive” cases with cortical focal lesions including cases of all ages and both sexes were reviewed. Aetiology of the lesion was determined for each case as was postlesion IQ. Risk was highly male prevalent in all age groups, with a predominance of cardiovascular aetiology explaining much of the adult male prevalence. However, several other aetiological categories were significantly male prevalent in juveniles (mitotic, traumatic, dysplasic and adults (mitotic, traumatic. There was no sex difference in outcome (i.e., postlesion IQ of these cortical brain lesions for the cohort as a whole, after statistical removal of the influence of lesion extent, aetiology and presence of epilepsy. Mechanisms potentially responsible for sex differences in prevalence, aetiology of brain damage, and recovery, are reviewed and discussed.

  10. 22q11.2q13 duplication including SOX10 causes sex-reversal and peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Nadia; Posey, Jennifer E; Thorson, Willa; Benke, Paul; Tekin, Mustafa; Tarshish, Brocha; Lupski, James R; Harel, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of genetic syndromes may be difficult when specific components of a disorder manifest at a later age. We present a follow up of a previous report [Seeherunvong et al., (2004); AJMGA 127: 149-151], of an individual with 22q duplication and sex-reversal syndrome. The subject's phenotype evolved to include peripheral and central demyelination, Waardenburg syndrome type IV, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH; MIM 609136). DNA microarray analysis defined the duplication at 22q11.2q13, including SOX10. Sequencing of the coding region of SOX10 did not reveal any mutations. Our data suggest that SOX10 duplication can cause disorders of sex development and PCWH, supporting the hypothesis that SOX10 toxic gain of function rather than dominant negative activity underlies PCWH. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prevalence of diabetes and its relation with age and sex in Turaif city, northern Saudi Arabia in 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Nour Homoud; Alsharif, Mahmoud Mohammed; Rasool, Ghazala; Alruwaili, Ahmed Bin Hashash; Alrowaili, Asem Matrouk Zayed; Aldaghmi, Ahmed Saud; Al Shkra, Mohammad Khalil Dughaieum; Alrasheedi, Fatimah Awadh; Alenezi, Ghadah Saleem; Alanazi, Mona Theyab

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia has increased dramatically during the last decades. This increase has been attributed to significant changes in cultural and socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of diabetes and its relation with age and sex in Turaif city, northern Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study carried out during the academic year 2016-2017 over a period of 6 months (October 01, 2016 to March 30, 2017). A total of 1,287 Saudi national individuals of both sexes, aged from 1 year to more than 65 years were included in the study. Data were collected by a predesigned questionnaire covering medical history of diabetes, age and sex. Mean age (± SD) was 24.29 (±13.96) years with the minimum age at 1 year and the maximum age at 93 years, male to female ratio was 42.5% to 57.5%. The total prevalence of DM among the studied population was 5.8% and pre-diabetic cases were 6.8%. There were significant relationships between age/sex, and the occurrence of diabetes among the studied population (pSaudi Arabia was 5.8% and pre-diabetic cases were 6.8%. Awareness campaigns and prevention programs about diabetes should be instituted and the existing ones must be strengthened. Adequate commitment from the Ministry of Health is also advocated.

  12. Investigating the early stages of person perception: the asymmetry of social categorization by sex vs. age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Jasmin; Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimensions), the relative influence that sex and age have on each other during categorization of infant, younger adult, and older adult faces was investigated. Results of these experiments demonstrate that when sex and age dimensions are simultaneously categorized, only for infant faces does age influence sex categorization. In contrast, the sex of both young and older adults was shown to influence age categorization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed in light of previous person perception research.

  13. Posterior Cranial Fossa Crowdedness Is Related to Age and Sex: an Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirng, J.F.; Fuh, J.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Wang, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To measure 3-dimensional (3D) posterior cranial fossa (PCF) crowdedness and to evaluate the effect of age, sex, and body height on PCF. Material and Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (24 M and 28 F; mean age 55.4±17.2 years; range 24-82 years) were recruited. Using a semi-automated magnetic resonance technique, we calculated a PCF crowdedness index (CI) as the ratio of hindbrain (HB) volume to PCF volume x100% and correlated this index with age, sex, body height, and other crowdedness parameters. Results: The mean PCF CI was 93.7±2.7%. Women had a more crowded PCF than men (95.0±1.7% versus 92.1±2.7%; P <0.001). PCF CI declined with age for both men ( r = -0.61; P = 0.002) and women ( r = -0.68; P <0.001). The association with age - but not HB volume - was maintained after we controlled for sex and body height. On multiple regression, both age and sex accounted for 57.5% of the PCF CI variance. Conclusion: Our study shows that PCF CI is associated with age and sex, and can therefore be used as a surrogate to assess hindbrain atrophy in a cross-sectional sample. Moreover, sex- and age-specific normal ranges may be needed to evaluate the PCF CI in clinical practice

  14. Posterior Cranial Fossa Crowdedness Is Related to Age and Sex: an Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lirng, J.F.; Fuh, J.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Wang, S.J. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiology and Neurological Inst.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To measure 3-dimensional (3D) posterior cranial fossa (PCF) crowdedness and to evaluate the effect of age, sex, and body height on PCF. Material and Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (24 M and 28 F; mean age 55.4{+-}17.2 years; range 24-82 years) were recruited. Using a semi-automated magnetic resonance technique, we calculated a PCF crowdedness index (CI) as the ratio of hindbrain (HB) volume to PCF volume x100% and correlated this index with age, sex, body height, and other crowdedness parameters. Results: The mean PCF CI was 93.7{+-}2.7%. Women had a more crowded PCF than men (95.0{+-}1.7% versus 92.1{+-}2.7%; P <0.001). PCF CI declined with age for both men ( r = -0.61; P = 0.002) and women ( r = -0.68; P <0.001). The association with age - but not HB volume - was maintained after we controlled for sex and body height. On multiple regression, both age and sex accounted for 57.5% of the PCF CI variance. Conclusion: Our study shows that PCF CI is associated with age and sex, and can therefore be used as a surrogate to assess hindbrain atrophy in a cross-sectional sample. Moreover, sex- and age-specific normal ranges may be needed to evaluate the PCF CI in clinical practice.

  15. Sex difference in disability and handicap at five years of age in children born at very short gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Veen, S.; Ens-Dokkum, M.H.; Schreuder, A.M.; Brand, R.; Ruys, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between sex and disabilities or handicaps at 5 years of age in infants born at less than 32 weeks gestation. Design. From the nationwide collaborative survey starting in 1983, including perinatal data obtained during routine

  16. Sex and age data from cropping of Buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R Mason

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.

  17. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  18. The ARIC-PET amyloid imaging study: Brain amyloid differences by age, race, sex, and APOE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Rebecca F; Schneider, Andrea L C; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Xueqi; Green, Edward; Gupta, Naresh; Knopman, David S; Mintz, Akiva; Rahmim, Arman; Sharrett, A Richey; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Wong, Dean F; Mosley, Thomas H

    2016-08-02

    To evaluate differences in amyloid deposition in a community-based cohort without dementia by age, sex, race, education, and APOE ε4 allele status. Recruited from the longitudinal Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, 329 participants without dementia, ages 67-88 years, were imaged using florbetapir PET at 3 US community sites (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; and Jackson, Mississippi). Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated; global cortical SUVR >1.2 was evaluated as the primary outcome. Age, race, sex, education level, and number of APOE ε4 alleles were evaluated in multivariable models including vascular risk factors, brain white matter hyperintensity and total intracranial volume, and cognitive status. A total of 141 of the participants (43%) were black. In multivariable models, odds of elevated SUVR was increased in participants with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.65 per 10 years of age) and black race (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.23-3.51) but did not differ by educational level. Each ε4 allele was associated with increased odds of elevated SUVR (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.61-4.39). In this community-based cohort without dementia, florbetapir uptake is associated with older age and APOE genotype. Black race was associated with higher SUVR, after adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, cognitive status, white matter hyperintensity volume, and APOE genotype, with effect sizes nearing those seen for APOE ε4. Replication of these findings is needed in other cohorts, and reasons for and consequences of these observed differences by race warrant further study. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Effects of age and sex on developmental neural networks of visual-spatial attention allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Hyde, Zoe; Halari, Rozmin; Giampietro, Vincent; Smith, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Compared to our understanding of the functional maturation of brain networks underlying complex cognitive abilities, hardly anything is known of the neurofunctional development of simpler cognitive abilities such as visuo-spatial attention allocation. Furthermore, nothing is known on the effect of gender on the functional development of attention allocation. This study employed event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate effects of age, sex, and sex by age interactions on the brain activation of 63 males and females, between 13 to 38years, during a visual-spatial oddball task. Behaviourally, with increasing age, speed was traded for accuracy, indicative of a less impulsive performance style in older subjects. Increasing age was associated with progressively increased activation in typical areas of selective attention of lateral fronto-striatal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Sex difference analysis showed enhanced activation in right-hemispheric inferior frontal and superior temporal regions in females, and in left-hemispheric inferior temporo-parietal regions in males. Importantly, the age by sex interaction findings showed that these sex-dimorphic patterns of brain activation may be the result of underlying sex differences in the functional maturation of these brain regions, as females had sex-specific progressive age-correlations in the same right inferior fronto-striato-temporal areas, while male-specific age-correlations were in left medial temporal and parietal areas. The findings demonstrate progressive functional maturation of fronto-striato-parieto-temporal networks of the relatively simple function of attention allocation between early adolescence and mid-adulthood. They furthermore show that sex-dimorphic patterns of enhanced reliance on right inferior frontal, striatal and superior temporal regions in females and of left temporo-parietal regions in males during attention allocation may be the result of underlying sex

  20. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  1. Sex Hormones and Healthy Psychological Aging in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Navarro-Pardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides their key role in reproduction, estrogens have effects in several organs in the body, as confirmed by the identification of estrogen receptors (ER in multiple tissues. Experimental evidence has shown that estrogens have significant impacts on the central nervous system (CNS, and a key question is to what extent the fall in estrogen levels in the blood that occurs with increasing age, particularly around and following the menopause, has an impact on the cognitive function and psychological health of women, specifically regarding mood. This review will consider direct effects of menopausal changes in estrogens on the brain, including cognitive function and mood. Secondary pathways whereby health factors affected by changes in estrogens may interact with CNS functions, such as cardiovascular factors, will be reviewed as well insofar as they also have an impact on cognitive function. Finally, because decline in estrogens may induce changes in the CNS, there is interest in clarifying whether hormone therapy may offer a beneficial balance and the impact of hormone therapy on cognition will also be considered.

  2. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients in each State by Sex and Age, December 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients in each State by Sex and Age (December 2010) is produced using the data found in Table 10 from the SSI Report of...

  3. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  4. Age- and sex-specific thorax finite element model development and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Vavalle, Nicholas A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    The shape, size, bone density, and cortical thickness of the thoracic skeleton vary significantly with age and sex, which can affect the injury tolerance, especially in at-risk populations such as the elderly. Computational modeling has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool to assess injury risk. However, current computational models only represent certain ages and sexes in the population. The purpose of this study was to morph an existing finite element (FE) model of the thorax to depict thorax morphology for males and females of ages 30 and 70 years old (YO) and to investigate the effect on injury risk. Age- and sex-specific FE models were developed using thin-plate spline interpolation. In order to execute the thin-plate spline interpolation, homologous landmarks on the reference, target, and FE model are required. An image segmentation and registration algorithm was used to collect homologous rib and sternum landmark data from males and females aged 0-100 years. The Generalized Procrustes Analysis was applied to the homologous landmark data to quantify age- and sex-specific isolated shape changes in the thorax. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model was morphed to create age- and sex-specific thoracic shape change models (scaled to a 50th percentile male size). To evaluate the thoracic response, 2 loading cases (frontal hub impact and lateral impact) were simulated to assess the importance of geometric and material property changes with age and sex. Due to the geometric and material property changes with age and sex, there were observed differences in the response of the thorax in both the frontal and lateral impacts. Material property changes alone had little to no effect on the maximum thoracic force or the maximum percent compression. With age, the thorax becomes stiffer due to superior rotation of the ribs, which can result in increased bone strain that can increase the risk of fracture. For the 70-YO models

  5. Age and sex differences in paranormal beliefs: a response to Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, H J

    2000-04-01

    Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999) report evidence of age and sex differences in the strength of paranormal beliefs. An alternative interpretation of their data is offered in terms of differential item functioning. It is suggested that respondents' interpretation of paranormal belief test items may vary with age and sex, and that such differences in the strength with which such beliefs are endorsed has not been conclusively established by Vitulli, et al.

  6. Comparison of normotensive and glaucoma simplex patients according to age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojčić Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, open angle glaucoma is divided into high tension glaucoma (HTG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Objective. To determine if there are differences in the distribution of patients by age and sex between NTG and HTG. Methods. Our prospective study included 30 patients with NTG and 30 with HTG. A complete eye examination was performed. The examination included measuring of intraocular pressure by Goldmann applanation tonometry, examination of optic disc head by indirect ophthalmoscopy with Volk 90 D lens and visual field examination using the Octopus program. Results. The average damage of visual field in the group of patients with NTG was 8.14±4.43 dB, while in the group with HTG it was 7.40±2.84 dB (p>0.05. The average age of the group of patients with NTG was 66±11.58 years, while among those with HTG the average age was 59.7±11.63 years (p<0.01. Among the patients with NTG there were three times more women than men (χ2=9.124; p<0.01, while in the group of patients with HTG there were more men than women, but without statistically significant difference between the tested groups (χ2=1.851; p>0.05. Conclusion. Open angle glaucoma is a disease of elderly population. According to our results, risk factors for this disease can be age and sex. NTG is more frequently present than HTG among elderly population and females.

  7. The Mitochondrial Lon Protease Is Required for Age-Specific and Sex-Specific Adaptation to Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomatto, Laura C D; Carney, Caroline; Shen, Brenda; Wong, Sarah; Halaszynski, Kelly; Salomon, Matthew P; Davies, Kelvin J A; Tower, John

    2017-01-09

    Multiple human diseases involving chronic oxidative stress show a significant sex bias, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a possible molecular mechanism for the sex bias in physiological adaptation to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster females but not males adapt to hydrogen peroxide stress, whereas males but not females adapt to paraquat (superoxide) stress. Stress adaptation in each sex requires the conserved mitochondrial Lon protease and is associated with sex-specific expression of Lon protein isoforms and proteolytic activity. Adaptation to oxidative stress is lost with age in both sexes. Transgenic expression of transformer gene during development transforms chromosomal males into pseudo-females and confers the female-specific pattern of Lon isoform expression, Lon proteolytic activity induction, and H 2 O 2 stress adaptation; these effects were also observed using adult-specific transformation. Conversely, knockdown of transformer in chromosomal females eliminates the female-specific Lon isoform expression, Lon proteolytic activity induction, and H 2 O 2 stress adaptation and produces the male-specific paraquat (superoxide) stress adaptation. Sex-specific expression of alternative Lon isoforms was also observed in mouse tissues. The results develop Drosophila melanogaster as a model for sex-specific stress adaptation regulated by the Lon protease, with potential implications for understanding sexual dimorphism in human disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  9. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  10. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  11. Sex differences in metabolic aging of the brain: insights into female susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Mao, Zisu; Woody, Sarah K; Brinton, Roberta D

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of clinical aspects of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms, for instance, how sex modifies AD risk and why the female brain is more susceptible to AD, are not clear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate sex disparities in brain aging profiles focusing on 2 major areas-energy and amyloid metabolism-that are most significantly affected in preclinical development of AD. Total RNA isolated from hippocampal tissues of both female and male 129/C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6, 9, 12, or 15 months were comparatively analyzed by custom-designed Taqman low-density arrays for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of a total of 182 genes involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes modulating energy production and amyloid homeostasis. Gene expression profiles revealed substantial differences in the trajectory of aging changes between female and male brains. In female brains, 44.2% of genes were significantly changed from 6 months to 9 months and two-thirds showed downregulation. In contrast, in male brains, only 5.4% of genes were significantly altered at this age transition. Subsequent changes in female brains were at a much smaller magnitude, including 10.9% from 9 months to 12 months and 6.1% from 12 months to 15 months. In male brains, most changes occurred from 12 months to 15 months and the majority were upregulated. Furthermore, gene network analysis revealed that clusterin appeared to serve as a link between the overall decreased bioenergetic metabolism and increased amyloid dyshomeostasis associated with the earliest transition in female brains. Together, results from this study indicate that: (1) female and male brains follow profoundly dissimilar trajectories as they age; (2) female brains undergo age-related changes much earlier than male brains; (3) early changes in female brains signal the onset of a hypometabolic phenotype at risk for AD. These

  12. The aging population: imperative to uncouple sex and gender to establish "gender equal" health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Gloria A; Mussman, Brianna

    2015-04-01

    The transgender community has long been marginalized in society. As the world's population ages, gender-unbiased health services for this growing population, with age-related chronic illnesses, will be essential. To optimally eliminate hurdles that trans individuals often confront when requesting services, it appears judicious to eliminate the strict and antiquated definition of what constitutes "normal" female and "normal" male. A review of literature on transgender medicine on PubMed over the last five years was conducted. Existing statistics indicate that unacceptable bias and discrimination are occurring, making trans patients less likely to seek care. There are emerging initiatives that address the transgender and gender non-conforming population. Ongoing needs include defining what constitutes "gender equal," understanding the continuum of gender identity, and establishing and implementing guidelines for gender equal counseling and care. With the routine practice of defining sex at birth and equating sex with gender in the health care setting, the transgender patient encounters multiple barriers to accessing and acquiring health care services. These strict gender labels appear to preclude the institution of gender equal care. Care templates on gender equal patient encounters should be implemented to better address transgender health needs in a non-biased manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2017-10-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  14. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage–specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C. PMID:28264022

  15. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  16. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  17. Birth size and gestational age in opposite-sex twins as compared to same-sex twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Develo......It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project....... In girls, birth size was not associated (5 g birth weight; 95% CI -8 to -18 and -0.089 cm birth length; 95% CI -0.202 to 0.025) with the sex of the co-twin. Gestational age was slightly shorter in boy-boy pairs than in boy-girl and girl-girl pairs. When birth size was standardized by gestational age......, the magnitude of the associations was attenuated in boys, particularly for birth weight. In conclusion, boys with a co-twin sister are heavier and longer at birth than those with a co-twin brother. However, these differences are modest and partly explained by a longer gestation in the presence of a co...

  18. China’s marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xiaomin; LI, Shuzhuo; FELDMAN, Marcus W.

    2016-01-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China’s male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call “spousal sex ratio” (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China’s marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market. PMID:27242390

  19. Age- and sex-tailored serum phosphate thresholds do not improve cardiovascular risk estimation in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Bonello, Monica; Gambaro, Alessia; Sturniolo, Antonio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Disordered metabolism of phosphorus is one of the hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Age and sex may affect the metabolism of phosphorus and subsequently its serum level. We evaluated if age- and sex-specific cutoffs for hyperphosphatemia may define cardiovascular risk better than the current guideline cutoffs. We used data from 16,834 subjects participating in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); the prevalence of self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality rates were analyzed in CKD patients for both the classic definitions (CH; i.e., NKF-KDOQI and K-DIGO) and a tailored definition (TH) of hyperphosphatemia by means of regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status and body mass index. The cutoffs for TH were represented by the 95th percentile of an age- and sex-matched non-CKD population. Serum phosphorus levels showed an inverse correlation with age (r = -0.12; pdefinition and CVD was marginally better compared with the CH definition (odds ratio [OR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04-2.13; p=0.030 vs. OR=1.55, 95% CI, 0.98-2.44; p = 0.059), the TH model was not superior in predicting CVD or mortality. Our data suggest that a tailored, age- and sex-specific definition of hyperphosphatemia is not superior to conventional definitions in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with CKD.

  20. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P swimming (P swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age.

  2. Age-related changes in the craniofacial region in a modern Greek population sample of known age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovalopoulou, Maria-Eleni; Bertsatos, Andreas; Papageorgopoulou, Christina

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate ageing changes in craniofacial region in both sexes and evaluate whether these shape changes are substantial to achieve age discrimination of samples used in anthropological analyses. The study sample consisted of 157 crania of known sex and age (81 males and 76 females) belonging to individuals who lived in Greece during the twentieth century. The sample was divided in three age groups: young adults (YA, 18-39 years old), middle adults (MA, 40-59 years old) and old adults (OA, >60 years old). The three-dimensional coordinates of 31 ecto-cranial landmarks were digitized using a Microscribe 3DX contact digitizer, and landmark configurations were analyzed using the generalized least-squares Procrustes method. The results indicate that both males and females show significant difference among the age groups; however, shape differences can not be used for age group discrimination due to a large range on the accuracy of age group classification. The morphometric changes related to age were different between sexes.

  3. Age, sex, education, religion, and perception of tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang

    2002-04-01

    Tattooing has become more acceptable in the mainstream American culture in recent years. Based on a survey with face-to-face interviews of 335 nontattooed adults randomly selected from a city with a population of 444,000, this study explored the relationship of individuals' demographic variables, attitudes toward religion, and their perceptions of tattoos. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age and attitude toward religion were associated with individuals' perception of tattoos.

  4. High sex ratios in rural China: declining well-being with age in never-married men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xudong; Hesketh, Therese

    2017-09-19

    In parts of rural China male-biased sex ratios at birth, combined with out-migration of women, have led to highly male-biased adult sex ratios, resulting in large numbers of men being unable to marry, in a culture where marriage and reproduction are an expectation. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that older unmarried men are more predisposed to depression, low self-esteem and aggression than both those who are married, and those who are younger and unmarried. Self-completion questionnaires were administered among men aged 20-40 in 48 villages in rural Guizhou province, southwestern China. Tools used included the Beck Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale and the Bryant-Smith Aggression Questionnaire. Regression models assessed psychological wellbeing while adjusting for socio-demographic variables. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 957 never-married men, 535 married men aged 30-40, 394 partnered men and 382 unpartnered men aged 20-29. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables, never-married men were more predisposed to depression ( p self-esteem ( p < 0.05) and suicidal tendencies ( p < 0.001). All the psychological measures deteriorated with age in never-married men. In contrast, married men remained stable on these dimensions with age. Never-married men are a psychologically highly vulnerable group in a society where marriage is an expectation. Since the highest birth sex-ratio cohorts have not yet reached reproductive age, the social tragedy of these men will last for at least another generation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Adult sex ratios and reproductive decisions: a critical re-examination of sex differences in human and animal societies'. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially...... (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR... effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape....

  6. Compulsive buying disorder clustering based on sex, age, onset and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Baño, Marta; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Goméz-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-07-01

    In spite of the revived interest in compulsive buying disorder (CBD), its classification into the contemporary nosologic systems continues to be debated, and scarce studies have addressed heterogeneity in the clinical phenotype through methodologies based on a person-centered approach. To identify empirical clusters of CBD employing personality traits, as well as patients' sex, age and the age of CBD onset as indicators. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering method defining a combination of the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion and log-likelihood was used. Three clusters were identified in a sample of n=110 patients attending a specialized CBD unit a) "male compulsive buyers" reported the highest prevalence of comorbid gambling disorder and the lowest levels of reward dependence; b) "female low-dysfunctional" mainly included employed women, with the highest level of education, the oldest age of onset, the lowest scores in harm avoidance and the highest levels of persistence, self-directedness and cooperativeness; and c) "female highly-dysfunctional" with the youngest age of onset, the highest levels of comorbid psychopathology and harm avoidance, and the lowest score in self-directedness. Sociodemographic characteristics and personality traits can be used to determine CBD clusters which represent different clinical subtypes. These subtypes should be considered when developing assessment instruments, preventive programs and treatment interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Estrogen and Other Sex Hormones in Brain Aging. Neuroprotection and DNA Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Sandra; Stevnsner, Tinna; Gredilla, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological process characterized by a progressive decline in physiological function and increased susceptibility to disease. The detrimental effects of aging are observed in all tissues, the brain being the most important one due to its main role in the homeostasis of the organism. As our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of brain aging increases, potential approaches to preserve brain function rise significantly. Accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may contribute to aging, especially in the central nervous system (CNS) owing to its low DNA repair capacity. Sex hormones, particularly estrogens, possess potent antioxidant properties and play important roles in maintaining normal reproductive and non-reproductive functions. They exert neuroprotective actions and their loss during aging and natural or surgical menopause is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, synaptic decline, cognitive impairment and increased risk of age-related disorders. Moreover, loss of sex hormones has been suggested to promote an accelerated aging phenotype eventually leading to the development of brain hypometabolism, a feature often observed in menopausal women and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although data on the relation between sex hormones and DNA repair mechanisms in the brain is still limited, various investigations have linked sex hormone levels with different DNA repair enzymes. Here, we review estrogen anti-aging and neuroprotective mechanisms, which are currently an area of intense study, together with the effect they may have on the DNA repair capacity in the brain. PMID:29311911

  8. Role of Estrogen and Other Sex Hormones in Brain Aging. Neuroprotection and DNA Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zárate

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an inevitable biological process characterized by a progressive decline in physiological function and increased susceptibility to disease. The detrimental effects of aging are observed in all tissues, the brain being the most important one due to its main role in the homeostasis of the organism. As our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of brain aging increases, potential approaches to preserve brain function rise significantly. Accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may contribute to aging, especially in the central nervous system (CNS owing to its low DNA repair capacity. Sex hormones, particularly estrogens, possess potent antioxidant properties and play important roles in maintaining normal reproductive and non-reproductive functions. They exert neuroprotective actions and their loss during aging and natural or surgical menopause is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, synaptic decline, cognitive impairment and increased risk of age-related disorders. Moreover, loss of sex hormones has been suggested to promote an accelerated aging phenotype eventually leading to the development of brain hypometabolism, a feature often observed in menopausal women and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Although data on the relation between sex hormones and DNA repair mechanisms in the brain is still limited, various investigations have linked sex hormone levels with different DNA repair enzymes. Here, we review estrogen anti-aging and neuroprotective mechanisms, which are currently an area of intense study, together with the effect they may have on the DNA repair capacity in the brain.

  9. Age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemenkov Yu.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis. Material and Methods. Features of acidity in esophagus and cardial part of stomach was studied in 175 children aged 4 to 17 years with chronic gastroduodenitis by pH-monitoring. pH-monitoring was carried by «Gastroscan-24». Age and sex characteristics have been identified on examination results. Results. Children of preschool age experience the most unfavorable reflux from the stomach to the esophagus. Boys experience the pathological reflux more severely. Conclusions: Effectiveness of esophageal clearance is lower in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux progresses are more favorably in a standing position, especially in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux occurs more often in the supine position and has a longer and more aggressive course in preschool age boys.

  10. Effects of Age and Sex on Hospital Readmission in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Karmarkar, Amol; Adhikari, Deepak; Ottenbacher, Kenneth; Kuo, Yong-Fang

    2018-01-04

    To investigate the effects of age and sex on 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission after acute hospital discharge for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective cohort study. Acute hospitals and postacute discharge settings. Individuals (N=52,877) with Diagnosis Related Group codes of TBI, who were divided into 4 age groups: 18 to 40, 41 to 65, 66 to 75, and ≥76 years. Not applicable. All-cause hospital readmission. Sex differences in 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission were found among all age groups (Preadmission were in the 2 oldest groups (66-75 and ≥76y). For both sexes, the oldest group (≥76y) had the highest adjusted 90-day readmission risk (eg, 90-d readmission: odds ratio, 2.32 [95% confidence interval, 2.01-2.69] for men; odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.43] for women). Among those readmitted within 90 days, the youngest group (18-40y) had the highest cumulative readmission percentage (35% for both sexes) within the first week of hospital discharge. Age and sex were significantly associated with hospital readmission during the first 90 days postdischarge in our TBI sample. Specifically, those aged 66 to 75 or ≥76 years had the highest readmission risk over 90 days for both sexes. The findings suggest that clinicians should consider age and sex in discharge planning and for the entire episode of care for the population with TBI. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Age and Sex Effects in Anchoring Vignette Studies: Methodological and Empirical Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings, which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765 to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. Findings also show significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups.

  12. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...

  13. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-07-13

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to

  14. Conjectures concerning cross-sex hormone treatment of aging transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis; Lips, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people are now in place. However, little attention has been paid to the issue of treatment suitability for older people. Does existing treatment need to be adapted as subjects age, and does it make a difference if treatment is only started when the subject is already older? To assess the necessity of adapting cross-sex hormone administration for elderly transsexual people. Risks/benefits of continued use of cross-sex hormones with regard to bone health, cardiovascular risks, and malignancies. Due to lack of data on the subject population, sex hormone treatment of other conditions in older non-transsexual people has been taken as the best available analogy to determine the extent to which these might be applicable to comparable transsexual persons. Findings in transsexual people receiving cross-sex hormone treatment sometimes modified the above approach of applying guidelines for the elderly to the aging transsexual population. Testosterone administration to female-to-male transsexual persons (FtoM) carries little risk with regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer. For those with high hematocrit or cardiac insufficiency the dose can be reduced. Administration of estrogens to male-to-female transsexual persons (MtoF), particularly when combined with progestins, does significantly increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (almost a twofold incidence compared with the general population). This may require dose adjustment or changing from oral to safer transdermal estrogens. Tumors of the breasts, prostate and pituitary may occur. In FtoM, breast cancer can occur even after breast ablation. Older subjects can commence cross-sex hormone treatment without disproportionate risks. Cross-sex hormones may be continued into old age but monitoring for cardiovascular disease and malignancies, both of the old and new sex, is recommended. MtoF will have more health complications in old age than Fto

  15. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Aminuddin, Amilia; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) bound fractions), and significant ethnic differences were observed (pChinese men starting at age 40. Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  16. Intrinsic connectivity networks from childhood to late adolescence: Effects of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on the effects of age and sex on intrinsic connectivity of networks underlying cognition during childhood and adolescence. Independent component analysis was conducted in 113 subjects aged 7–18; the default mode, executive control, anterior salience, basal ganglia, language and visuospatial networks were identified. The effect of age was examined with multiple regression, while sex and ‘age × sex’ interactions were assessed by dividing the sample according to age (7–12 and 13–18 years. As age increased, connectivity in the dorsal and ventral default mode network became more anterior and posterior, respectively, while in the executive control network, connectivity increased within frontoparietal regions. The basal ganglia network showed increased engagement of striatum, thalami and precuneus. The anterior salience network showed greater connectivity in frontal areas and anterior cingulate, and less connectivity of orbitofrontal, middle cingulate and temporoparietal regions. The language network presented increased connectivity of inferior frontal and decreased connectivity within the right middle frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. The visuospatial network showed greater engagement of inferior parietal and frontal cortices. No effect of sex, nor age by sex interactions was observed. These findings provide evidence of strengthening of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks across childhood and adolescence.

  17. Caffeine and blood pressure response: sex, age, and hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Whitsett, Thomas L; McKey, Barbara S; Wilson, Michael F; Vincent, Andrea S; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lovallo, William R

    2010-06-01

    The pressor effect of caffeine has been established in young men and premenopausal women. The effect of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) remains unknown in postmenopausal women and in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a randomized, 2-week cross-over design, we studied 165 healthy men and women in 6 groups: men and premenopausal women (35-49 yrs) vs. men and postmenopausal women (50-64 yrs), with postmenopausal women divided into those taking no hormone replacements (HR), estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. Testing during one week of the study involved 6 days of caffeine maintenance at home (80 mg, 3x/day) followed by testing of responses to a challenge dose of caffeine (250 mg) in the laboratory. The other week involved ingesting placebos on maintenance and lab days. Resting BP responses to caffeine were measured at baseline and at 45 to 60 min following caffeine vs placebo ingestion, using automated monitors. Ingestion of caffeine resulted in a significant increase in systolic BP in all 6 groups (4 +/- .6, p < 0.01). Diastolic BP significantly increased in response to caffeine in all (3 +/- .4, p < 0.04) but the group of older men (2 +/- 1.0, p = 0.1). The observed pressor responses to caffeine did not vary by age. Caffeine resulted in an increase in BP in healthy, normotensive, young and older men and women. This finding warrants the consideration of caffeine in the lifestyle interventions recommended for BP control across the age span.

  18. Sex steroid levels in urine of cattle of different ages: evaluation of abuse control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Tomaz; Dolenc, Jozica; Kobal, Silvestra

    2014-04-01

    Levels of several natural urinary steroids have been determined in the urine of a large number of animals of different cattle categories in the context of steroid abuse in beef production. Bovine animals of different breeds, sex and age included in the Slovene national residue detection plan for steroid abuse were studied. Urine from 120 males and 174 females was analysed. Urinary boldenone, boldione, androstenedione, equiline, medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, melengestrol acetate, progesterone, stanozolol, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, epitestosterone, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, and nandrolone were determined by LC-MS/MS. Epitestosterone was found in all bulls; while the proportion of animals containing testosterone and androstenedione increased with age. Testosterone was not detected in bulls less than 5 months of age. Epitestosterone levels, however, were not age dependent. The ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone thus increased with age, from 0.13 ± 0.09 at 1-7 months to 0.42 ± 0.10 at 25-38 months. It was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in bulls above 13 months than in younger animals. In contrast to males, no urinary testosterone was found in females, whereas epitestosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and estradiol were present. The proportion of animals of various age groups in which epitestosterone was detected ranged from 68% to 100%, but the differences were not significant. The presence of both estradiol and progesterone in the same sample was not observed in any animal. The results of this study could be helpful in determining physiological urinary steroid levels in order to provide a baseline for the control of steroid abuse in beef production.

  19. Relationship between serum insulin level and age and sex in 980 patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianlin; Ji Naijun; Mei Yubin; Wang Chengyao; Fan Bifu; Chen Donghai; Guan Li; Tong Lijun; Li Fuyuan; Gao Meiying

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of serum insulin level in essential hypertension patients and its relationship with age and sex. Methods: The levels of serum insulin were determined with radioimmunoassay in 980 essential hypertension patients and 120 controls. Results: The levels of serum insulin in the essential hypertension patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (t=4.280, P<0.01). However, there were no significant differences among the levels in different sex and age groups. The same held true for women before and after menopause as well as different stages of hypertension. Conclusion: The average serum insulin level in EH patients was significantly higher than the level in controls, and had positive correlation to mean arterial pressure. But no significant differences were found among different sex and age groups, so serum insulin could be a new independent risk factor of essential hypertension

  20. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed...... as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel...... with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically...

  1. Maths performance as a function of sex, laterality, and age of pubertal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, John; Topolski, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Sex differences in math/spatial performance demand explanations. Within the biological view, the complexity and number of variables make the explanation difficult at best. Laterality and age of pubertal onset have been investigated prominently in this context but rarely considered as interactions in the same study. Some 468 college subjects with SAT MATH (SAT M) scores were divided into 12 groups defined by sex, laterality, and age (early, middle, and late) of pubertal onset. Significant main effects for sex and age of onset emerged, as did an interaction between lateral preference and pubertal onset. Generally males outperformed females. The combination of maleness, sinistrality, and early maturation was associated with high SAT M scores. Sinistrality and late maturation among females predicted very poor math performance.

  2. Influence of sex and age on fasting and post-prandial gallbladder volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzi, P.; Putinati, S.; Barbieri, D.; Trevisani, L.; Limoni, G.; Lupi, L.; Bighi, S.

    1989-01-01

    Aging and female sex are major risk factors for cholesterol gallstones: in addition to hepatic secretion of lithogenic bile, decreased gallbladder contractility may play a role in such physiological conditions. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of age and sex on gallbladder kinetics in healthy subjects. Gallbladder volume was measured on the US images of 157 fasting subjects using the sum-of-cylinders method. No significant difference was observed between males and females. On the contrary, age was shown to have a significant positive correlation with fasting gallbladder volume, particulary in males. In a second group of 63 healthy volunteers gallbladder volumes were evaluated both before and after a standard meal. The subjects were grouped according to age, and fasting gallbladder volume appeared to be significantly greater in the groups formed by older people. Gallbladder volumes were compared in younger groups (under 35), and gallbladder emptying resulted to be much more complete in males than in females. On the contrary, no significant differences was observed between males and famales over50 - which suggests a possible role of sex - and age-related hormonal factors. The above changes in gallbladder function may facilitate bile stasis which might in turn contribute to the increased risk for cholesterol gallstones notoriously associated with advanced age and female sex

  3. The sex ratio of offspring is associated with the mothers' age at menarche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early menarcheal age is a risk factor for breast and ovarian cancers and is also associated with an increased spontaneous abortion rate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between early menarcheal age and the offspring sex ratio. METHODS We recorded the sex...... of 21208 live born infants, all singletons, born to 10 847 premenopausal women (mean attending age: 37.5 ± 7.2 years, range 22-54) who attended our clinics for obstetrical and gynaecological assessment. We calculated the sex ratio of newborn infants in relation to the mothers' age of menarche (from 9 to 18...... years) and to the number of infants per woman (i.e. fertility index). RESULTS A low offspring sex ratio (males/females) of 0.800 was observed in mothers who entered menarche at the age of 9 years; the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals) compared with those of control group with menarche at age 14...

  4. Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F

    2015-05-01

    Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary

  5. Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Importance of Sex Education Since Early Age for Preventing Sexual Harassment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofora Megawati Tirtawinata

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of sex education in children could cause the violence or sexual abuse done by adults. Parents should give the lesson about early sex education to the children so that they had the right knowledge about it and knew how to treat and look after it. The method in this research was a discourse analysis of the literature in which the readings were taken in context with the research topic. Besides that, it included the observations and everyday practical experience in social life. This article described the notion of sex education, the impact of sexual harassment, the importance of sex education for children, and who would be responsible for sex education for the children. The research finds that through the moral education and faith to God, the children are expected to get protection from sexual abuse, so the nation's children as successor generation get mentally active. 

  7. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on cortisol secretion in 143 healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on 24-h cortisol secretion are rare. The impact of sex, age and adiposity on cortisol levels, often restricted to one or a few samples, are well recognized, but conflicting. Objective: To investigate cortisol dynamics in 143 healthy men and women, spanning 7 decades and with a 2-fold body mass index (BMI range with different analytic tools. Setting: Clinical Research Unit. Design: Cortisol concentrations in 10-min samples collected for 24 h. Outcomes were mean levels, deconvolution parameters, approximate entropy (ApEn, regularity statistic and 24-h rhythms. Results: Total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. Mean 24-h cortisol concentrations were lower in premenopausal women than those in men of comparable age (176 ± 8.2 vs 217 ± 9.4 nmol/L, P = 0.02, but not in subjects older than 50 years. This was due to lower daytime levels in women, albeit similar in the quiescent overnight period. Aging increased mean cortisol by 10 nmol/L per decade during the quiescent secretory phase and advanced the acrophase of the diurnal rhythm by 24 min/decade. However, total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. ApEn of 24-h profiles was higher (more random in premenopausal women than those in men (1.048 ± 0.025 vs 0.933 ± 0.023, P = 0.001, but not in subjects older than 50 years. ApEn peaked during the daytime. Conclusion: Sex and age jointly determine the 24-h cortisol secretory profile. Sex effects are largely restricted to age <50 years, whereas age effects elevate concentrations in the late evening and early night and advance the timing of the peak diurnal rhythm.

  8. The effect of utilising age and sex dependent factors for calculating detriment from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)

  9. LIFE EVENTS WITH STRESSFUL EFFECT ON PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Nikolova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature life events with stressful effect are significant both for initiation and progress of the schizophrenia. Having this in mind we set our aim to be investigating the relationship between life events (considered as stressful, sex and age trough questioning 50 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The results of our study showed presence of correlation between some of the studied life events, assessed as stressful. The analysis of the data revealed that both sex and age are influencing the assessment of the significance of the life events and “increases” their importance both for women and men.

  10. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibin Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9–593.6 deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65–74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions.

  11. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  12. Effects of sex and normal aging on regional brain activation during verbal memory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A.; Byne, William; Brickman, Adam M.; Mitsis, Effie M.; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Knatz, Danielle T.; Chen, Amy D.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using 18FDG-PET during a verbal memory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20–87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate—a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change. PMID:19027195

  13. Age and Sex Differences in Rates of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Cao, Pei-Hua; Lau, Eric Ho-Yin; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Few studies have explored age and sex differences in the disease burden of influenza, although men and women probably differ in their susceptibility to influenza infections. In this study, quasi-Poisson regression models were applied to weekly age- and sex-specific hospitalization numbers of pneumonia and influenza cases in the Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, from 2004 to 2010. Age and sex differences were assessed by age- and sex-specific rates of excess hospitalization for influenza A subtypes A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, respectively. We found that, in children younger than 18 years, boys had a higher excess hospitalization rate than girls, with the male-to-female ratio of excess rate (MFR) ranging from 1.1 to 2.4. MFRs of hospitalization associated with different types/subtypes were less than 1.0 for adults younger than 40 years except for A(H3N2) (MFR = 1.6), while all the MFRs were equal to or higher than 1.0 in adults aged 40 years or more except for A(H1N1)pdm09 in elderly persons aged 65 years or more (MFR = 0.9). No MFR was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for hospitalizations associated with influenza type/subtype. There is some limited evidence on age and sex differences in hospitalization associated with influenza in the subtropical city of Hong Kong. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Student Judgments of the risks of HIV-Infection as a function of sexual practice, sex of target and partner, and age and sex of student

    OpenAIRE

    Spears, Russell; Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Abrams, Dominic

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a male or a female acquiring either a new male sexual partner or a new female one. The greater risks of unprotected sex compared to other practices and the enhanced risks of these practices within g...

  15. Leading causes of injury hospitalisation in children aged 0-4 years in New South Wales by injury submechanism: a brief profile by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    To identify the leading causes of injury in children aged 0-4 years by single year of age using injury submechanisms and present a brief epidemiologic profile of each cause. Hospitalisation data for New South Wales from 1999 to 2009 were used to identify the leading causes of injury for children aged 0-4 years by single year of age. For each leading cause, rates over time and by sex were calculated by single year of age. Associated age and sex risk ratios were estimated. The leading causes of injury for children aged leading injury cause exhibited an age pattern that remained stable over time and by sex. Age predicted falls while being carried and both age and sex predicted the remaining leading injury causes, with age and sex interacting to predict burns by hot non-aqueous substances. Epidemiologic analysis using single-year age intervals and injury submechanisms results in a clearer picture of injury risk for young children. The findings of this study provide detailed information regarding the leading causes of hospitalised injury in young children by age and sex. Child health-care providers can use this information to focus discussions of child development and injury risk with families of young children and suggest appropriate prevention measures in terms of a child's age and sex. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Effect of AGE and Sex on thyroid hormone levels in normal egyptian individuals using RIA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; El-Seify, S.; Megahed, Y.M.; El-Arab, A.

    1993-01-01

    This work aims to estimate total serum levels of thyroid hormones, namely triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) as well as the pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) in different categories of normal egyptian individuals classified according to age and sex. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometritassay (IRMA) techniques were used. Results of this study indicate that T 3 and T 4 concentrations decreased significantly with advancing age. This decrement was statistically significant in both sexes and could be attributed to the decline in TBG concentration in the elderly. TSH level was not influenced by sex, however, a slight decrease was observed in the elderly perhaps due to decreased TSH receptors and or cyclic AMP activity. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Effect of Housing System, Slaughter Age and Sex on Slaughter and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing system slaughterage and sex on performance and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Theexperiment was carried out in half-operation conditions experimental base ofDepartment of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak Universityof Agriculture in Nitra. A total of 60 one day old ducklings (type Peking DuckWhite were randomly divided to 2 housing groups: three-floor cage system anddeep litter system, both under uniform microclimate conditions. The housingsystem, slaughter age and sex significantly affected the slaughter weights ofbroiler ducks in 49 and 56 day of fattening. The results of this study showed the influenceof housing system, sex and slaughter age on slaughter and carcass parameters.The slaughter and carcass parameters were statistically higher (P0.05. The some slaughterand carcass parameters of male ducks were statistically higher (P<0.05 comparedwith female ducks.

  18. Linking Temperamental Shyness and Social Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescence: Moderating Influences of Sex and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Tiffany Y L; Lahat, Ayelet; Schmidt, Louis A

    2017-10-01

    Although childhood shyness has been linked to social anxiety problems, the factors playing a role in this association have gone largely unexplored. Here we examined the potential moderating roles of sex and age on this relation in a sample of 119 (75 girls) children (10-12 years) and adolescents (14-16 years). As predicted, shyness was positively associated with social anxiety symptoms. Sex, but not age, served as a moderating factor in linking shyness and social anxiety. Specifically, shyness was more strongly associated with social anxiety symptoms among girls than boys. These results suggest the importance of considering sex differences when examining the relation between shyness and social anxiety in childhood and adolescence.

  19. Influence of age and sex on mineral absorption from the alimentary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, W.H.; Pories, W.J.; Michael, E.; Peer, R.M.; Zaresky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of age and sex on mineral absorption, especially iron and zinc, from the alimentary tract has been studied in a rat model using radioisotope retention measurements by means of a whole body counter for small animals. The body burden measurements made after oral administration of each radioisotope showed that the radionuclides were absorbed and retained more by young than by old rats, and more by female than by male animals. The sex effect was slight in young rats and became very pronounced in year-old animals. Old female breeder rats absorbed more of the radioisotopes than virgin adult females. The animal results agree well with human stable and radioisotope Fe and with the limited data on radiozinc absorption. The experimental model seems to have general applicability for investigating the influences of age and sex on trace mineral absorption

  20. Effects of age, sex, and university status on life-satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S M; Giannakopoulos, E

    1994-02-01

    Diener, et al.'s 1985 Satisfaction With Life Scale was administered to 1749 adult Australians to examine differences between men and women, university students and nonuniversity students, and among 17- to 22-, 23- to 29-, and 30- to 40-yr.-olds. No significant differences in life-satisfaction emerged in relation to sex or university status, but age showed a significant effect as higher life-satisfaction characterized older subjects. No interactions were found for any combination of the three variables. The results are interpreted in terms of egalitarian sex-role ideologies regarding sex, status-specific criteria in the assessment and conceptualisation of life-satisfaction for university status, and maturity trends in viewing life events concerning age.

  1. Anti-aging drugs reduce hypothalamic inflammation in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Cady, Gillian; Miller, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case. In this study, we examined the effect of these anti-aging drugs on neuro-inflammation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. We found that age-associated hypothalamic inflammation is reduced in males but not in females at 12 months of age by ACA and 17αE2 and at 22 months of age in NDGA-treated mice. The three drugs blocked indices of hypothalamic reactive gliosis associated with aging, such as Iba-1-positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes, as well as age-associated overproduction of TNF-α. This effect was not observed in drug-treated female mice or in the hippocampus of the drug-treated animals. On the other hand, caloric restriction (CR; an intervention that extends the lifespan in both sexes) significantly reduced hypothalamic microglia and TNF-α in both sexes at 12 months of age. Together, these results suggest that the extent of drug-induced changes in hypothalamic inflammatory processes is sexually dimorphic in a pattern that parallels the effects of these agents on mouse longevity and that mimics the changes seen, in both sexes, of long-lived nutrient restricted or mutant mice. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress and declarative memory decline during aging: Impact of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Aline Talita; Leyendecker, Dayse Maria D; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira; de Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between memory performance and the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy older people, and the sex and age impact in this relationship. We randomly selected 100 literate older adults, without cognitive or functional impairment. The neuroendocrine stress response was evaluated by measuring the concentration of salivary cortisol, whereas cardiovascular reactions were determined based on blood pressure and heart rate measures taken before, during and after participant exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier social stress test [TSST]). Memory performance was evaluated by applying the word pairs test before and after the TSST. A significant reduction in the word pair test scores was observed after the TSST, and a negative correlation between cortisol concentration and immediate and delayed recall of the word pair. Cortisol concentration associated with age, sex and education explained memory performance variability before and after the TSST. The results showed that the influence of acute stress on memory performance during aging might vary according to age and sex, highlighting potential differences in the vulnerability of older individuals to the neurotoxic effects of stress exposure on memory and consequently on the development of cognitive disorders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 169-176. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. STUDENTS JUDGMENTS OF THE RISKS OF HIV-INFECTION AS A FUNCTION OF SEXUAL PRACTICE, SEX OF TARGET AND PARTNER, AND AGE AND SEX OF STUDENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEARS, R; ABRAHAM, C; SHEERAN, P; ABRAMS, D

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a

  5. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...

  6. Sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutation and its association with age and obesity in lung adenocarcinomas: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryoun; Kim, Seo Yun; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Yang, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, Chang-Min; Na, Im Il

    2017-11-01

    Age and obesity are well-known risk factors for various cancers, but the potential roles of age and obesity in lung cancer, especially in those with activating EGFR mutations, have not been thoroughly evaluated. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the associations between the sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutations and age and obesity. We conducted a retrospective study based on the data from 1378 lung adenocarcinoma cases. The degree of obesity was categorized by body mass index (BMI). The associations between EGFR mutational status and clinical factors, including stage, smoking history, age group (≤45 years, 46-55, 56-65 and >65), and BMI group (obesity (adjusted OR for BMI group = 1.23, p-trend = 0.04). In contrast, in women, the incidence of EGFR mutation was positively associated with age (adjusted OR for age group = 1.19, p-trend = 0.02). However, the incidence of EGFR mutation was not statistically associated with obesity (adjusted OR for BMI group = 1.03, p-trend = 0.76). Our data suggests that age and obesity may contribute to the sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma in different manners.

  7. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  8. Sex and Age Differences in Achievement Goal Orientations in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel; Kürkçü, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Culture plays an important role in the achievement goal orientations of students, which may vary as they progress through their lifespan. However, research examining achievement goal orientations in the Turkish cultural context is scarce. Based on contextual and developmental theories, the aim of this study was to examine sex and age differences…

  9. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  10. The Effects of Children's Age and Sex on Acquiring Pro-Environmental Attitudes through Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefländer, Anne Kristin; Bogner, Franz Xaver

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education programs aiming to enhance children's environmental attitudes in a pro-environmental direction require background information, such as age and sex differences, to ensure appropriate design. We used the 2-MEV model with its domains "preservation" and "utilization" of nature to assess a four-day program at…

  11. Description of age, sex and site distribution of large bowel cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims/Objective: To determine the distribution of bowel cancer with special emphasis on age, sex and site. Methods: One hundred and sixty cases of histologically confirmed large bowel cancers at Jos University Teaching Hospital between January 1991 – December 2000 were reviewed. The records were collected from the ...

  12. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  13. Age Stereotypes as a Function of Sex, Race, and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, James C.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the influence of race, age, sex, and vocational preference on attitudes toward older workers in a study of 125 business students. Results showed Blacks rated a younger worker more favorably and an older worker less favorably than Whites on three of four work-related dimensions. (JAC)

  14. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  15. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  16. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus: Variability with Sex and Age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Svatoš, Aleš; Kroiss, J.; Kaltenpoth, M.; do Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Břízová, Radka; Kalinová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2012), s. 1133-1142 ISSN 0098-0331 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fratercules species complex * cuticular hydrocarbons * sex-specific differences * age-dependent production Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  17. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; vanErp, Theo G.M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; de Zwarte, Sonja M.C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchón, José M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je Yeon; Zhao, Jing Jing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain

  18. Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum Biochemical Parameters in Rabbits. C A Chineke, F A Adeniran, A G Olugun, C ON Ikeobi, O A Oseni. Abstract. (Tropical Journal of Animal Science: 2003, 6(2): 85-90). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  19. Age, Sex and Atherogenic Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of atherogenic risk in type 2 DM and non-DM patients and to relate age and sex with atherogenic risk of the patients. A total of 192 participants, consisting of one hundred (100) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and ninety-two (92) healthy controls were randomly selected ...

  20. Effects of age and sex on haematological and serum biochemistry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haematology and serum biochemistry) at different ages (in weeks) in male and female Japanese quails. A total of hundred (100) unsexed day-old quail chicks were purchased and sorted based on sex at the third week. Blood samples were collected ...

  1. Size and type of places, geographical region, satisfaction with life, age, sex and place attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Alan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article concerns the issue of place attachment and its determinants. An analysis of place attachment was performed in terms of place identity and place dependence (Williams, Vaske, 2003. Moreover, links between place attachment and selected geographical (size and type of place, geographical region, demographic (age, sex and psychological (satisfaction with life variables were investigated.

  2. Trends in adolescent alcohol use: Effects of age, sex and cohort on prevalence and heritability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Willemsen, G.; van der Aa, N.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of age, sex and cohort on the prevalence and genetic architecture of adolescent alcohol use (AAU). Design Survey study in participants registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Setting Twins from the general population. Participants Two cohorts (data collected in

  3. Aging and physiological changes of the kidneys including changes in glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carlos G; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the structural changes in the kidney associated with aging, physiological changes in renal function are also found in older adults, such as decreased glomerular filtration rate, vascular dysautonomia, altered tubular handling of creatinine, reduction in sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion, and diminished renal reserve. These alterations make aged individuals susceptible to the development of clinical conditions in response to usual stimuli that would otherwise be compensated for in younger individuals, including acute kidney injury, volume depletion and overload, disorders of serum sodium and potassium concentration, and toxic reactions to water-soluble drugs excreted by the kidneys. Additionally, the preservation with aging of a normal urinalysis, normal serum urea and creatinine values, erythropoietin synthesis, and normal phosphorus, calcium and magnesium tubular handling distinguishes decreased GFR due to normal aging from that due to chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Adipogenic differentiation by adipose-derived stem cells harvested from GFP transgenic mice - including relationship of sex differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Rei; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Migita, Makoto; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Shimada, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) as well as bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BSCs) differentiate into a variety of cell lineages both in vitro and in vivo. Both types are considered to include mesenchymal stem cells. Taking advantage of homogeneously marked cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we have also previously reported the plasticity of BSCs and ASCs. In this study, we focused on adipogenic differentiation in vitro by ASCs harvested from GFP transgenic mice. Moreover, preadipocytes and mature adipocytes were harvested at the same time, and the cells were cultured to compare them with ASCs. Inguinal fat pads from GFP transgenic mice were used for the isolation of ASCs, preadipocytes, and mature adipocytes. After expansion to three passages of ASCs, the cells were incubated in an adipogenic medium for two weeks. Adipogenic differentiation of ASCs was assessed by Oil Red O staining and the expression of the adipocyte specific peroxisome proliferative activated receptor γ2 (PPAR-γ2) gene. These ASCs stained positively, and expression of PPAR-γ2 was detected. Moreover, we also tried to characterize the influence of sex differences on the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs harvested from both male and female mice. This was assessed by the expression levels of the PPAR-γ2 gene using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression levels of ASCs harvested from female mice were a maximum of 2.89 times greater than those harvested from male mice. This suggests that the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs is closely related to sex differences

  5. The cost of providing combined prevention and treatment services, including ART, to female sex workers in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Cianci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female Sex workers (FSW are important in driving HIV transmission in West Africa. The Yerelon clinic in Burkina Faso has provided combined preventative and therapeutic services, including anti-retroviral therapy (ART, for FSWs since 1998, with evidence suggesting it has decreased HIV prevalence and incidence in this group. No data exists on the costs of such a combined prevention and treatment intervention for FSW. This study aims to determine the mean cost of service provision per patient year for FSWs attending the Yerelon clinic, and identifies differences in costs between patient groups. METHODS: Field-based retrospective cost analyses were undertaken using top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for 2010. Expenditure and service utilisation data was collated from primary sources. Patients were divided into groups according to full-time or occasional sex-work, HIV status and ART duration. Patient specific service use data was extracted. Costs were converted to 2012 US$. Sensitivity analyses considered removal of all research costs, different discount rates and use of different ART treatment regimens and follow-up schedules. RESULTS: Using the top-down costing approach, the mean annual cost of service provision for FSWs on or off ART was US$1098 and US$882, respectively. The cost for FSWs on ART reduced by 29%, to US$781, if all research-related costs were removed and national ART monitoring guidelines were followed. The bottom-up patient-level costing showed the cost of the service varied greatly across patient groups (US$505-US$1117, primarily due to large differences in the costs of different ART regimens. HIV-negative women had the lowest annual cost at US$505. CONCLUSION: Whilst FSWs may require specialised services to optimise their care and hence, the public health benefits, our study shows that the cost of ART provision within a combined prevention and treatment intervention setting is comparable to providing ART to

  6. Endogenous sex hormones and memory performance in middle-aged Greek women with subjective memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeni, Eleni; Apostolakis, Michail; Christidi, Foteini; Rizos, Demetrios; Kaparos, George; Panoulis, Konstantinos; Augoulea, Areti; Alexandrou, Andreas; Karopoulou, Evangelia; Zalonis, Ioannis; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2018-02-01

    The changing hormonal milieu during the menopausal transition may contribute to the development of memory disorders. We aimed to assess the association of sex hormones with memory function in a sample of Greek middle-aged women. This pilot study included 44 women with subjective memory complaints. Memory performance was evaluated using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the Brief Visuospatial Memory test (BVMT), and the verbal digits backwards test (VSPAN), to assess verbal, visuospatial, and working memory performance, respectively. Menopausal symptoms were assessed using the Green Climacteric Scale. VSPAN backwards scores were positively associated with log-transformed free androgen index (logFAI), in models adjusted for age, education, log-transformed free estrogen index (logFEI), hypertension, and the intensity of menopausal symptoms. BVMT total scores were predicted by logFAI (b-coefficient = 0.424, p value = 0.002), education, and combined climacteric symptomatology, in a model adjusted for age, logFEI, and hypertension. Women with circulating estradiol above the median value of 10 pg/mL had better total HTLV total scores compared to women with estradiol values below the median (HTLV total scores, estradiol ≤ 10 pg/mL vs. > 10 pg/mL: 24.2 ± 3.6 vs. 30.0 ± 7.9, p value = 0.007 unadjusted). This association was affected by education and remained independent of menopausal symptoms and testosterone levels, education, and hypertension (model R 2 = 22.3%; b-coefficient = 0.318, p value = 0.024). Endogenous total estradiol is associated with verbal episodic memory, while logFAI is associated with working memory performance and visuospatial episodic memory in this sample of postmenopausal women. These associations were not influenced by age, education, or menopausal symptoms. Larger studies are necessary to evaluate the significance of our findings.

  7. Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis in Korea: Subgroup Analysis According to Sex and Onset Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha Neul; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Heung Dong; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Min; Sunwoo, Il Nam; Lee, Young-Mock

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis presents before 18 years of age with different characteristics according to racial background and pubertal development. The authors aimed to determine the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents of Korean ethnicity with myasthenia gravis, and evaluate the presentation and clinical outcomes according to the sex and onset age of the patients. The authors recruited 88 Korean juvenile myasthenia gravis patients between September 2005 and August 2015. Worse clinical severity from presentation, more aggressive treatment strategies, and worse final treatment outcomes were noted in girls with postpubertal onset than in the other patients. The symptoms were milder (pure ocular presentation in 96.6% [85/88]) and the disease course was more benign (94.3% [83/88]) in this study than in the literature. The homogenous racial background might have contributed to these results. These findings highlight the influence of pubertal development and the need for timely and appropriate active treatment, including thymectomy, to improve prognosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  9. [The analysis of general mortality by age and sex: evidence of two types of mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, P; Masse, H; Aubenque, M

    1984-01-01

    The departmental distributions of the probabilities of dying by age group and sex are analyzed for France in 1975. It is found that these distributions are the sum of two lognormal distributions. The authors deduce the existence of two populations that are distinguished by whether mortality was endogenous or exogenous. The relative importance of these two types of mortality is considered according to age. (summary in ENG)

  10. Effect of Age and Sex on Histomorphometrical Characteristics of Two Muscles of Laticauda Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Velotto; Ettore Varricchio; Maria Rosa Di Prisco; Tommaso Stasi; Antonio Crasto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine the effect of sex and age on histochemical and morphometric characteristics of muscle fibres (myocytes) in lambs born by single, twin, triplet and quadruplet birth. Thirty lambs were slaughtered at 60 days of age; thirty were weaned at 60 days and fed until 120 days with flakes (60%) and food supplements, and then slaughtered. Muscle tissues were obtained from two muscles, namely m. semitendinosus and m. longissimus dorsi of all lambs. For ea...

  11. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, A; Kittel, J; Karoff, M; Schwarz, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the ra...

  12. Variations in dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity by age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore eNielsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10 to 79 years in a cross-sectional design. Dream recall frequency increased from adolescence (ages 10-19 to early adulthood (20-29 and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30-39, proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40-49 than it did for females. For females, it began later (40-49, dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50-59. Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10-19 through 40-49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14-44 yrs. Dream theme diversity decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50-59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60-79. There was a sex difference favouring males on this measure but only for ages 10-19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in dream recall frequency from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease in dream recall frequency—primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep, parallel the observed dream recall changes but are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. However, that decreases in dream theme diversity parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that the diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that is specific to dream recall.

  13. Current Age, Age at First Sex, Age at First Homelessness, and HIV Risk Perceptions Predict Sexual Risk Behaviors among Sexually Active Homeless Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Santa Maria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While HIV disproportionately impacts homeless individuals, little is known about the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors in the southwest and how age factors and HIV risk perceptions influence sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a secondary data analysis (n = 460 on sexually active homeless adults from a cross-sectional study of participants (n = 610 recruited from homeless service locations, such as shelters and drop-in centers, in an understudied region of the southwest. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of age at homelessness onset, current age, age at first sex, and HIV risk perceptions on having condomless sex, new sexual partner(s, and multiple sexual partners (≥4 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Individuals who first experienced homelessness by age 24 were significantly more likely to report condomless sex and multiple sexual partners in the past year than those who had a later onset of their first episode of homelessness. Individuals who were currently 24 years or younger were more likely to have had condomless sex, new sexual partners, and multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months than those who were 25 years or older. Those who had low perceived HIV risk had lower odds of all three sexual risk behaviors. Social service and healthcare providers should consider a younger age at homelessness onset when targeting HIV prevention services to youth experiencing homelessness.

  14. Laughing off the Stereotypes: Age and Aging in Seniors' Online Sex-Related Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit; Berdychevsky, Liza

    2017-05-17

    Focusing on sex, the most salient topic featured in ageist jokes, this study aims at exploring the extent to which seniors' own humor reflects common ageist stereotypes or rather echoes contemporary consumer society representations of seniors' sexuality. The study was based on a quantitative content analysis of 300 humorous sex-related messages posted during one full year by members of 14 leading online communities for seniors. Findings indicated that whereas the portrayal of older adults in humor typically relied on negative ageist stereotypes, their representation in seniors' online sex-related humor depended on the social identity of the butt of this humor. If it was an in-group member (oneself, another community member, or the community as a whole), the portrayal was rather positive, but when the butt belonged to the out-group (older adults in general), the depiction was far more ageist. Nonetheless, the representation of older butts of humor was generally more positive than that of the younger ones. These findings suggest that seniors tend to identify with current cultural representations of sexuality in later life and use sex-related humor as a personal means of resisting ageism. They apply two principal strategies: Distancing-reproducing certain ageist stereotypes by ascribing them to other older adults, but less so to their own group and even less than that to themselves-and equalizing older and younger individuals, even according the former an advantage regarding sexuality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S. (Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey (United States))

    1992-09-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years.

  16. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years

  17. Offline and Online Sexual Risk Behavior among Youth in the Netherlands: Findings from "Sex under the Age of 25".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, Hanneke; Verbeek, Mirthe; Van den Borne, Marieke; Meijer, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Sexually developing adolescents and emerging adults face sexual health risks as well as potentially negative outcomes of online sexual behaviors. The goal of this study was to describe three categories of sexual risk behavior: (1) behavior related to STI/HIV, (2) behavior related to unplanned pregnancy, and (3) online sexual risk behavior. In addition, we investigated whether these behaviors are actually related to negative (health) outcomes. For this purpose, we used data from a Dutch probability survey: "Sex under the age of 25." Adolescents and emerging adults aged 12 through 24 (8,053 boys and 12,447 girls) completed a digital questionnaire, including measures of the risk of STI/HIV and pregnancy, online sexual behavior and non-consensual sex. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to test for gender and age differences and compute associations between risk behavior and negative outcomes. The results showed that the risk of unplanned pregnancy is low in the Netherlands. It seems that adolescents and emerging adults are less aware of the risk of STI/HIV than of the risk of pregnancy. About 11% of the participants had had more than one partner in the last 6 months and had not used condoms consistently with their last partner, and these participants had a 3.56 times higher likelihood of ever being diagnosed with an STI. Although many young people stop using condoms with their partner after a while, most of them did not get tested for STIs. More emerging adults (aged 18-24) engage in sexting (sending personal nude pictures and sex videos to others), but the chance that these images are shared with other people than the intended recipient is higher among adolescents (aged 12-17). The results of this study can guide professionals working in sex education and sexual health services to focus their efforts on the risk behaviors in the Netherlands that deserve most attention.

  18. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship.

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertak...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ......The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertaken...

  20. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tabuchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years. Methods: Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Results: Among men aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%–70.6%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%–21.9%. High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%–56.8% in men aged 25–34 years. Among men aged 75–94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%–52.3%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%–7.4%. Compared with older age groups, such as 65–94 years, younger age groups, such as 25–54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Conclusions: Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults.

  1. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropsychological sex differences associated with age of initiated use among young adult cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Natania A; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision making and age of initiated use, specifically that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother's education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females.

  3. The influence of body mass index, age and sex on inflammatory disease risk in semi-captive Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Obanda

    Full Text Available Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC, platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of

  4. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  5. Unique sex- and age-dependent effects in protective pathways in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Ravindra; Fan, Chunlan; Rangarajan, Sunil; Sunil, Bhuvana; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Curtis, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Sex and age influence susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI), with young females exhibiting lowest incidence. In these studies, we investigated mechanisms which may underlie the sex/age-based dissimilarities. Cisplatin (Cp)-induced AKI resulted in morphological evidence of injury in all groups. A minimal rise in plasma creatinine (PCr) was seen in Young Females, whereas in Aged Females, PCr rose precipitously. Relative to Young Males, Aged Males showed significantly, but temporally, comparably elevated PCr. Notably, Aged Females showed significantly greater mortality, whereas Young Females exhibited none. Tissue KIM-1 and plasma NGAL were significantly lower in Young Females than all others. IGFBP7 levels were modestly increased in both Young groups. IGFBP7 levels in Aged Females were significantly elevated at baseline relative to Aged Males, and increased linearly through day 3 , when these levels were comparable in both Aged groups. Plasma cytokine levels similarly showed a pattern of protective effects preferentially in Young Females. Expression of the drug transporter MATE2 did not explain the sex/age distinctions. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels (~28-kDa species) showed elevation at day 1 in all groups with highest levels seen in Young Males. Exclusively in Young Females, these levels returned to baseline on day 3 , suggestive of a more efficient recovery. In aggregate, we demonstrate, for the first time, a distinctive pattern of response to AKI in Young Females relative to males which appears to be significantly altered in aging. These distinctions may offer novel targets to exploit therapeutically in both females and males in the treatment of AKI.

  6. Masculine sex ratios, population age structure and the potential spread of HIV in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovanna Merli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much speculation regarding the contribution of China's changing demography to the spread of HIV/AIDS. We employ a bio-behavioral macrosimulation model of the heterosexual spread of HIV/AIDS to evaluate the roles that China's unique demographic conditions -- (1 masculine sex ratios at birth and (2 a population age structure that reflects rapid fertility decline since the 1970's -- play in altering the market for sexual partners, thereby potentially fueling an increase in behaviors associated with greater risk of HIV infection. We first simulate the relative contributions of the sex ratio at birth and the population age structure to the oversupply of males in the market for sexual partners and show that the sex ratio at birth only aggravates the severe oversupply of males which is primarily a consequence of the population age structure. We then examine the potential consequences of this demographic distortion for the spread of HIV infection and show that, to the extent that males adapt to the dearth of suitable female partners by seeking unprotected sexual contacts with female sex workers, the impact of the oversupply of males in the sexual partnership market on the spread of HIV will be severe.

  7. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L.; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10–15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence. PMID:26175008

  8. Analysis of the number of enlarged pores according to site, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H J; Ahn, J Y; Lee, J I; Bae, J Y; Kim, H L; Suh, H Y; Youn, J I; Park, M Y

    2018-02-02

    Increasing the number of enlarged pores causes cosmetic problems. The difference in the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex is unclear. To analyze the distribution of the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex. We analyzed the number of the enlarged pores and the percentage of wrinkles in the nose, forehead, and cheek from 434 polarized images. The measurement results were analyzed according to site, age, and sex. Relationship between enlarged pore counts and wrinkle severity was also analyzed. The study was conducted by using DermaVision,™ which can take cross-polarization, parallel polarization, and ultraviolet light images. The enlarged pores of the nose and forehead were more prominent than in the cheeks. Pore counts were increased with age, and the increment was significant between the 30's and 40's. There was no significant difference by gender. Enlarged pore counts were related to wrinkle severity. The number of enlarged pores differs depending on body site and increased with age. The enlarged pore counts correlate with wrinkle severity and the correlation varies depending on the body site. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Flatters

    Full Text Available To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers. We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i make a series of aiming movements, (ii trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible. A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years. The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual

  10. Relationships Between Meibomian Gland Loss and Age, Sex, and Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pult, Heiko

    2018-02-12

    This study evaluated relationships between meibomian gland loss (MGL) and age, sex, and dry eye. Dry eye and MGL of the lower eyelid was evaluated from 112 randomly selected subjects (66 women; mean age 62.8; SD ±15.7; and age range: 19-89 years) from Horst Riede GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. In addition, subjects were grouped into dry eye and non-dry eye by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, lid-parallel conjunctival folds and non-invasive break-up time. Symptoms were evaluated by the OSDI. Meibography of the lower eyelid was performed using a Cobra camera (bon Optic, Lübeck, Germany), and images were analyzed by its digital grading tool. Data were analyzed by backward, multiple regression analyses and Pearson correlation. Analyzing all subjects, multiple regression analyses detected that age and dry eye status (dry eye diagnosis or OSDI) but not sex were significantly related to MGL. In both, non-dry eye (n=66) and dry eye subjects (n=46), dry eye status (OSDI) but not age or sex was significantly related to MGL. Ocular Surface Disease Index scores were significantly correlated with MGL, but this correlation was stronger among all subjects (Pearson correlation; r=0.536, Pdry eye group subjects (r=0.520, Pdry eye group subjects (r=0.275, P=0.014). Dry eye group subjects showed significantly increased MGL of the lower eyelid. Age and dry eye status were related to MGL of the lower eyelid, but sex was not; dry eye status was the dominant factor.

  11. A clinical evaluation of skin tags in relation to obesity, type 2 diabetis mellitus, age, and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Soliman El Safoury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags (STs have been investigated as a marker of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, yet the relation of STs to obesity is still a matter of controversy. Aim : The aim of the study is to explore the relation of number, size and color of STs to obesity, diabetes, sex and age in one study. Methods: The study included 245 nondiabetic (123 males and 122 females and 276 diabetic (122 males and 154 females subjects. We recorded age, sex, body mass index (BMI, relevant habits, STs color, size, and number in different anatomical sites. Results: The presence and the mean number of STs was more in obese than nonobese participants (P = 0.006 and P < 0.001, respectively and was not affected by sex. However, the number increased significantly with age. The presence of mixed-color STs was related to obese (P < 0.001 participants. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that only BMI was significantly associated with the mixed-color STs (OR = 3.5, P < 0.001. The association of DM (OR = 1.7 with mixed-color STs was nonsignificant (P = 0.073. Neither age nor sex had any association with mixed-color STs. Within cases that developed mixed-color STs, the multivariate analysis showed that only BMI had a significant correlation to the number of STs (beta = 0.256, P = 0.034. Conclusion: The study showed that not only the number but also the presence of mixed-color ST was related to obesity, but not to diabetes. The presence of mixed-color STs in nondiabetic subjects needs close inspection of BMI.

  12. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  14. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguro, H.; Okada, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    1998-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. Only men had significant age-associated reduction in area of the crebellar vermis area after the age of 70 years. Both men and women showed supratentorial brain atrophy that progressed by decades. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women. (orig.)

  15. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguro, H.; Okada, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Internal Medicine III, Shimane Medical University, Izumo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. Only men had significant age-associated reduction in area of the crebellar vermis area after the age of 70 years. Both men and women showed supratentorial brain atrophy that progressed by decades. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women. (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs.

  16. Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Nigel; van Roode, Thea; Cameron, Claire; Paul, Charlotte

    2013-07-01

    Gaps remain in knowledge of changes in sexual orientation past adolescence and early adulthood. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort was used to examine differences by age and sex in change in sexual attraction between 21 (1993/1994) and 38 years (2010/2011), sexual experiences between 26 and 38 years, and sexual identity between 32 and 38 years. Any same-sex attraction was significantly more common among women than men at all ages. Among women, any same-sex attraction increased up to age 26 (from 8.8 to 16.6 %), then decreased slightly by age 38 (12.0 %); among men, prevalence was significantly higher at age 38 (6.5 %) than 21 (4.2 %), but not in the intermediate assessments. It is likely that the social environment becoming more tolerant was responsible for some of the changes. Same-sex attraction was much more common than same-sex experiences or a same-sex identity, especially among women, with no major sex differences in these latter dimensions. Women exhibited much greater change in sexual attraction between assessments than men; for change in experiences and identity, sex differences were less marked and not statistically confirmed. Changes in the respective dimensions appeared more likely among those initially with mixed attraction and experiences, and among those initially identifying as bisexual, but this did not account for the sex difference in likelihood of change. These results provide contemporary information about the extent and variation of reported sexual attraction, experiences, and identity that we show continues across early and mid-adulthood.

  17. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Comparing the Central Eight Risk Factors: Do They Differ Across Age Groups of Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpert, Julia; van Horn, Joan E; Boonmann, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    Following the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered most effective in reducing recidivism when based on dynamic risk factors. As studies have found differences of these factors across age, exploring this seems beneficial. The current study investigates the Central Eight (C8) risk factors across six age groups of outpatient sex offenders ( N = 650). Results showed that recidivism rates and age were inversely related from 19 years and up. Half of the C8 did not predict general recidivism at all, substance abuse, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, and history of antisocial behavior in only one or several age groups. However, factors differed between age groups, with the youngest group demonstrating the most dysfunction in several areas and the oldest group the least. It is concluded that the C8 risk factors seem to lose significance in the older age groups. Results may benefit targeting treatment goals.

  19. Sex- and age-specific trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli urinary isolates from outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Jessina C; Elman, Miriam R; Bearden, David T; Smith, David H

    2013-02-22

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections treated in ambulatory care settings, however the epidemiology differs by age and sex. The incidence of UTI is far greater in females than males, and infection in pediatric patients is more often due to anatomical abnormalities. The purpose of this research was to describe age- and sex-specific trends in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from ambulatory primary care patients in a regional health maintenance organization. Clinical microbiology data were collected for all urine cultures from patients with visits to primary care clinics in a regional health maintenance organization between 2005 and 2010. The first positive culture for E. coli tested for antibiotic susceptibilities per patient per year was included in the analysis dataset. The frequency of susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was calculated for male and female patients. The Cochrane-Mantel-Haenzel test was used to test for differences in age-stratified susceptibility to each antibiotic between males and females. A total of 43,493 E. coli isolates from 34,539 unique patients were identified for study inclusion. After stratifying by age, E. coli susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin differed significantly between males and females. However, the magnitude of the differences was less than 10% for all strata except amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility in E. coli isolated from males age 18-64 compared to females of the same age. We did not observe clinically meaningful differences in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among E. coli isolated from males versus females. These data suggest that male sex alone should not be used as an indication for empiric use of second-line broad-spectrum antibiotic agents

  20. VSNL1 Co-expression networks in aging include calcium signaling, synaptic plasticity, and Alzheimer’s disease pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C W Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visinin-like 1 (VSNL1 gene encodes Visinin-like protein 1, a peripheral biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD. Little is known, however, about normal VSNL1 expression in brain and the biologic networks in which it participates. Frontal cortex gray matter from 209 subjects without neurodegenerative or psychiatric illness, ranging in age from 16–91, were processed on Affymetrix GeneChip 1.1 ST and Human SNP Array 6.0. VSNL1 expression was unaffected by age and sex, and not significantly associated with SNPs in cis or trans. VSNL1 was significantly co-expressed with genes in pathways for Calcium Signaling, AD, Long Term Potentiation, Long Term Depression, and Trafficking of AMPA Receptors. The association with AD was driven, in part, by correlation with amyloid precursor protein (APP expression. These findings provide an unbiased link between VSNL1 and molecular mechanisms of AD, including pathways implicated in synaptic pathology in AD. Whether APP may drive increased VSNL1 expression, VSNL1 drives increased APP expression, or both are downstream of common pathogenic regulators will need to be evaluated in model systems.

  1. Beliefs in the paranormal: age and sex differences among elderly persons and undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Tipton, S M; Rowe, J L

    1999-12-01

    Beliefs in the paranormal were rated stronger in younger as compared to elderly adults by Emmons and Sobal in 1981, and sex correlates of paranormal beliefs appeared to be stronger in women than in men by Irwin in 1994. This research studied possible linkages between age and sex with a comparative analysis between results of Vitulli and Luper's 1998 survey among undergraduate students and data from elderly men (M = 72 yr., SD = 9.2, n = 21) and women (M = 69.3 yr., SD = 7.7, n = 55). Crawford and Christensen's 1995 12-item Extrasensory Perception Survey was administered to elderly persons living in apartment complexes and private homes, participating in activities in a recreation center, or attending a continuing-education seminar. A 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance from responses on the 12-item survey showed that undergraduate men and elderly women had the highest ratings on paranormal beliefs. The self-selecting characteristics of a segment of the elderly sample led to a post hoc univariate analysis of variance by partitioning that sample into those who were attending a continuing-education seminar versus all other elderly persons. Summated ratings (total scores) for this survey showed main effects for these subsamples and for sex. Sex and age differences were discussed in the context of the hypothesis of social marginality.

  2. Smoke-free environments: age, sex, and educational disparity in 25 Argentinean cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoj, Veronica; Allemandi, Lorena; Ianovsky, Oscar; Lago, Manuel; Alderete, Mariela

    2012-10-01

    There is scarce evidence of secondhand smoke (SHS) and disparity in developing countries. We evaluated the relationship between socio-demographic variables and secondhand smoke-related factors in Argentina. We conducted a randomized telephone survey (2008/2009) in 25 Argentinean cities. We included a sample of 160 respondents per city stratified by sex and age. We used different generalized multivariate regression models with a confidence interval of 95 % for the five outcome variables. We sampled 4,000 respondents, 52.2 % women, 36 % adolescents and young adults (15-29 years), 58 % ≥12 years of education, and 72.6 % nonsmokers. Support to 100 % smoke-free environment legislation was higher in older than in younger respondents, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-2.0), and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Exposure to SHS was significantly lower in men than in women at home and in public places, IRR = 0.7 (IC: 0.5-0.9) and IRR  = 0.8 (IC: 0.6-0.9), respectively. Older respondents reported lower exposure at home and in public places than adolescents and young adults, IRR = 0.6 (IC: 0.4-0.8) and IRR = 0.4 (IC: 0.3-0.5), respectively. People with higher education levels had a higher level of exposure in indoor public places than less educated people, IRR = 1.1 (IC: 1.1-1.2). Knowledge of respiratory disease in children caused by SHS exposure was lower in men than in women, RRR = 0.3 (IC: 0.1-0.6). Perceived compliance was higher in men than in women, OR = 1.4 (IC: 1.1-1.8) and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Older and more educated respondents were more empowered than. younger and less educated people, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-1.9) and OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.3), respectively. Reference groups for each variable were age: 15-29; education: ≤7 years; and sex: men. This is the first study to explore socio-demographic variables regarding secondhand smoke in our country. Women and younger people are more

  3. Local-global interference is modulated by age, sex and anterior corpus callosum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman; Raassi, Carla; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2007-04-20

    To identify attentional and neural mechanisms affecting global and local feature extraction, we devised a global-local hierarchical letter paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging reduces functional cerebral lateralization through corpus callosum (CC) degradation. Participants (37 men and women, 26-79 years) performed a task requiring global, local, or global+local attention and underwent structural MRI for CC measurement. Although reaction time (RT) slowed with age, all participants had faster RTs to local than global targets. This local precedence effect together with greater interference from incongruent local information and greater response conflict from local targets each correlated with older age and smaller callosal genu (anterior) areas. These findings support the hypothesis that the CC mediates lateralized local-global processes by inhibition of task-irrelevant information under selective attention conditions. Further, with advancing age smaller genu size leads to less robust inhibition, thereby reducing cerebral lateralization and permitting interference to influence processing. Sex was an additional modifier of interference, in that callosum-interference relationships were evident in women but not in men. Regardless of age, smaller splenium (posterior) areas correlated with less response facilitation from repetition priming of global targets in men, but with greater response facilitation from repetition priming of local targets in women. Our data indicate the following dissociation: anterior callosal structure was associated with inhibitory processes (i.e., interference from incongruency and response conflict), which are vulnerable to the effects of age and sex, whereas posterior callosal structure was associated with facilitation processes from repetition priming dependent on sex and independent of age.

  4. A technique of including the effect of aging of passive components in probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. The possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. We are developing methods for selecting risk-significant passive components and including them in PRAS. These methods provide effective ways to prioritize passive components for inspection, and where inspection reveals aging damage, mitigation or repair can be employed to reduce the likelihood of component failure. We demonstrated a method by selecting a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system, basing our selection on expert judgement of the likelihood of failure and on an estimate of the consequence of component failure to plant safety. We then modified and used the Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events (PRAISE) computer code to perform a probabilistic structural analysis to calculate the probability that crack growth due to aging would cause the weld to fail. The PRAISE code was modified to include the effects of changing design material properties with age and changing stress cycles. The calculation included the effects of mechanical loads and thermal transients typical of the service loads for this piping design and the effects of thermal cycling caused by a leaking check valve. However, this particular calculation showed little change in low component failure probability and plant risk for 48 years of service. However, sensitivity studies showed that if the probability of component failure is high, the effect on plant risk is significant. The success of this demonstration shows that this method could be applied to nuclear power plants. The demonstration showed the method is too involved (PRAISE takes a long time to perform the calculation and the input information is extensive) for handling a large number of passive components and therefore simpler methods are needed

  5. Influence of sex and age on the biological half-life of cadmium in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of age on the whole-body biological half-life of 109 Cd was studied in male mice following ip injection. The influence of sex on whole-body and organ retention was ascertained after sc injection. The whole-body biological half-life of 109 Cd of the older mice was more than twice that of the younger mice, and that of the female mice was longer than that of the males. These differences demonstrate a biological difference between males and females with respect to whole-body half-life of 109 Cd. The effects of age and sex on the biological half-life of Cd in mice are assessed quantitatively

  6. Assessment of age and sex by means of DXA bone densitometry: application in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rafael Fernández; Ruiz, Maria del Carmen López

    2011-06-15

    Today we are witnessing a genuine revolution in diagnostic imaging techniques. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) quantifies bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). This technique has rarely been used in Forensic Anthropology, although its practical application has been demonstrated by various authors. In this article, we look into the conduct of bone mineral density in the femoral neck, the trochanter, the intertrochanter, the proximal femur and Ward's triangle, in relation to anthropometric age and sex parameters. The research was carried out on 70 persons - 38 men and 32 women - and the results obtained show significant correlations between bone mineral density measurements and anthropometric values. The research demonstrates bone mineral density to be a useful technique for sex and age data in forensic anthropology, particularly in the measurements observed in the Ward's triangle area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex and age differences in risk factors of marijuana involvement during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian-Yu; Martins, Silvia S; Strain, Eric C; Mojtabai, Ramin; Storr, Carla L

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to examine whether there are sex and age differences in psychosocial risk factors of marijuana use during adolescence. Data were drawn from 57,767 adolescents (8 th and 10 th graders) from the 2012-2013 Monitoring the Future study. We examined the association between socio-demographic and behavioral correlates with different frequencies of past-year marijuana use (non-use, occasional use: low self-esteem, low perceived harm, peer influence and perceived easy access. Besides, younger boys were more likely than younger girls to report an association between regular marijuana use with low self-esteem, peer influence, and perceived easy access but not with perceived low harm. Findings suggest the relationship between these psychosocial correlates and frequency of marijuana involvement varies across sex and age groups. These variations ask for a nuanced approach to prevention of marijuana involvement in different groups of youth.

  8. Street connectivity and obesity in Glasgow, Scotland: impact of age, sex and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen; Travaglini, Noemi; Ellaway, Anne

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated associations of street connectivity with body mass index (BMI), and whether these associations varied by sex, age and socioeconomic position, amongst adults in Glasgow, Scotland. Data on socio-demographic variables, height and weight were collected from 1062 participants in the Greater Glasgow Health and Well-being Study, and linked with neighbourhood-level census and geo-referenced data on area level deprivation and street connectivity. Results of multilevel models showed that, after adjustment for individual level covariates, street connectivity was not significantly associated with either BMI or BMI category; nor were there any significant interactions between age, sex or socioeconomic position and street connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of pain sensitivity in patients with deep bite and sex- and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pai...... of gender-related differences in somatosensory sensitivity and for the first time indicate that subjects with deep bite may be more sensitive to glutamate-evoked pain and thermal stimuli.......AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pain...

  10. Who perpetrates violence against children? A systematic analysis of age-specific and sex-specific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Knight, Louise; Petzold, Max; Merrill, Katherine G; Maxwell, Lauren; Williams, Abigail; Cappa, Claudia; Chan, Ko Ling; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Hollis, NaTasha; Kress, Howard; Peterman, Amber; Walsh, Sophie D; Kishor, Sunita; Guedes, Alessandra; Bott, Sarah; Butron Riveros, Betzabe C; Watts, Charlotte; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2018-01-01

    The epidemiology of violence against children is likely to differ substantially by sex and age of the victim and the perpetrator. Thus far, investment in effective prevention strategies has been hindered by lack of clarity in the burden of childhood violence across these dimensions. We produced the first age-specific and sex-specific prevalence estimates by perpetrator type for physical, sexual and emotional violence against children globally. We used random effects meta-regression to estimate prevalence. Estimates were adjusted for relevant quality covariates, variation in definitions of violence and weighted by region-specific, age-specific and sex-specific population data to ensure estimates reflect country population structures. Secondary data from 600 population or school-based representative datasets and 43 publications obtained via systematic literature review, representing 13 830 estimates from 171 countries. Estimates for recent violence against children aged 0-19 were included. The most common perpetrators of physical and emotional violence for both boys and girls across a range of ages are household members, with prevalence often surpassing 50%, followed by student peers. Children reported experiencing more emotional than physical violence from both household members and students. The most common perpetrators of sexual violence against girls aged 15-19 years are intimate partners; however, few data on other perpetrators of sexual violence against children are systematically collected internationally. Few age-specific and sex-specific data are available on violence perpetration by schoolteachers; however, existing data indicate high prevalence of physical violence from teachers towards students. Data from other authority figures, strangers, siblings and other adults are limited, as are data on neglect of children. Without further investment in data generation on violence exposure from multiple perpetrators for boys and girls of all ages, progress

  11. Who perpetrates violence against children? A systematic analysis of age-specific and sex-specific data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Knight, Louise; Petzold, Max; Merrill, Katherine G; Maxwell, Lauren; Williams, Abigail; Cappa, Claudia; Chan, Ko Ling; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Hollis, NaTasha; Kress, Howard; Peterman, Amber; Walsh, Sophie D; Kishor, Sunita; Guedes, Alessandra; Bott, Sarah; Butron Riveros, Betzabe C; Watts, Charlotte; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2018-01-01

    Objective The epidemiology of violence against children is likely to differ substantially by sex and age of the victim and the perpetrator. Thus far, investment in effective prevention strategies has been hindered by lack of clarity in the burden of childhood violence across these dimensions. We produced the first age-specific and sex-specific prevalence estimates by perpetrator type for physical, sexual and emotional violence against children globally. Design We used random effects meta-regression to estimate prevalence. Estimates were adjusted for relevant quality covariates, variation in definitions of violence and weighted by region-specific, age-specific and sex-specific population data to ensure estimates reflect country population structures. Data sources Secondary data from 600 population or school-based representative datasets and 43 publications obtained via systematic literature review, representing 13 830 estimates from 171 countries. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Estimates for recent violence against children aged 0–19 were included. Results The most common perpetrators of physical and emotional violence for both boys and girls across a range of ages are household members, with prevalence often surpassing 50%, followed by student peers. Children reported experiencing more emotional than physical violence from both household members and students. The most common perpetrators of sexual violence against girls aged 15–19 years are intimate partners; however, few data on other perpetrators of sexual violence against children are systematically collected internationally. Few age-specific and sex-specific data are available on violence perpetration by schoolteachers; however, existing data indicate high prevalence of physical violence from teachers towards students. Data from other authority figures, strangers, siblings and other adults are limited, as are data on neglect of children. Conclusions Without further investment in data

  12. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahereh Joezy-Shekalgorabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC. Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC, continuous use of sexed semen only (SS, utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2, and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1. Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd.

  13. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joezy-Shekalgorabi, S.; Shadparvar, A. A.; Vries, A. de; Gay, K. D.

    2014-06-01

    A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC). Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC), continuous use of sexed semen only (SS), utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2), and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1). Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd. (Author)

  14. Lumbar paraspinal muscle fat infiltration is independently associated with sex, age, and inter-vertebral disc degeneration in symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Besa, Pablo; Lobos, Daniel; Campos, Mauricio; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo; Uribe, Sergio

    2018-01-29

    To determine the association of paraspinal muscles and psoas relative cross-sectional area (RCSA) and fat signal fraction (FSF) with sex, age, and intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in symptomatic patients. We retrospectively evaluated 80 adult patients with spinal symptoms using T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. We determined RCSA and FSF of the paraspinal muscles (erector spinae and multifidus) and psoas from L1-L2 to L5-S1; we determined IDD using the Pfirrmann classification. We compared differences in muscle RCSA and FSF based on sex and IDD, and we correlated age and IDD with RCSA and FSF. Using multivariate linear regression analyses, we determined the impact of sex, age, and IDD on RCSA and FSF. Men exhibited larger psoas RCSA but not larger paraspinal muscles RCSA than women. Women had larger FSF in the paraspinal muscles and psoas. Increasing IDD was associated with larger FSF if ≥2 Pfirrmann grades were observed. IDD correlated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles, and age correlated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles and psoas. IDD was less consistently correlated with RCSA, but age correlated negatively with RCSA of all three muscles. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that sex, age, and IDD were each independently associated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles; additionally, sex and age, but not IDD, were associated with psoas FSF. RCSA was less consistently influenced by these three variables. Sex, age, and IDD are independently associated with paraspinal muscles FSF; only sex and age influence psoas FSF.

  15. Age and sex dependence of body potassium based on studies of 40K under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Someswara Rao, M.; Nagaratnam, A.; Mishra, U.C.

    2002-01-01

    Potassium plays an important role in human life 40 K is a naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium (K) with an abundance of 0.0118%. The measurement of body 40 K in a whole-body counter (WBC) provides a sensitive technique to estimate the total body potassium (TBK). Information on TBK of Indians with age and sex is scanty. Therefore, a systematic study was taken up to generate this information using a sensitive WBC

  16. Reducing the Noise in Behavioral Assays: Sex and Age in Adult Zebrafish Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J.; Cousin, Margot A.; Pierret, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have mov...

  17. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Sarah J.; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate with li...... of outcomes related to health and survival, highlighting complexities of translation of CR into human interventions....

  18. Establishing blood gas ranges in healthy bovine neonates differentiated by age, sex, and breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillane, Patrick; Krump, Lea; Kennedy, Aideen; Sayers, Ríona G; Sayers, Gearóid P

    2018-04-01

    Calf mortality and morbidity commonly occurs within the first month of life postpartum. Standard health ranges are invaluable aids in diagnostic veterinary medicine to confirm normal or the degree and nature of abnormal parameters in (sub)clinically ill animals. Extensive research has indicated significant differences between the physiologies of neonate and adult cattle, particularly for blood parameters such as pH, base excess, anion gap, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ). The objective of this research was to determine the influence of age, sex, and breed type, in addition to environmental factors, on the normal blood gas profiles of neonatal calves, and thus develop a scientifically validated reference range accounting for any significant factors. The study was conducted on healthy neonatal calves (n = 288), and completed over a 2-yr period. Individual calf blood gas analysis was conducted for parameters of pH, base excess, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Cl - , glucose, total hemoglobin, HCO 3 - , pCO 2 , anion gap, strong ion difference, and hematocrit levels. Regression procedures examined the combined effect of year, farm, age, breed type, sex, and hours postfeeding on each variable. Significant effects were observed for age, sex, and breed type on several of the blood gas variables. Furthermore, year, farm, and hours postfeeding appeared to have less of an influence on neonatal bovine blood gas profiles. Consequently, specific ranges based on the neonate's age, sex, and breed type will allow for more detailed and accurate diagnosis of health and ill health in neonatal calves. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  19. Age Effect in the Morphological Traits Performance for Sex Determination in Human Skulls and Mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo Galdames, Iván; Zavando, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that diagnostic performance of the morphological indicators for sexual dimorphism are reduced as they are applied in skull and mandibles of older subjects. We used 275 adult human skulls, 250 of these with mandible, all subjects with sex and age registry. Sixteen classic morphological indicators of sexual dimorphism were evaluated, this information was compared with the registry and results noted in terms of precision. The best general performance of mor...

  20. Odour-mediated orientation of beetles is influenced by age, sex and morph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E J Arnold

    Full Text Available The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless, more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies.

  1. Trail Making Test: normative data for Turkish elderly population by age, sex and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangoz, Banu; Karakoc, Ebru; Selekler, Kaynak

    2009-08-15

    Trail Making Test (TMT) is a neuropsychological test, which has parts A and B that can precisely measure executive functions, like complex visual-motor conceptual screening, planning, organization, abstract thinking and response inhibition. The main purpose of this study is to standardize TMT for Turkish adults and/or elderly population. This study primarily consists of two main parts; norm determination study and reliability/validity studies, respectively. The standardization study was carried on 484 participants (238 female and 246 male). Participants at the age of 50 years and older were selected from a pool of people employed in or retired from governmental and/or private institutions. The research design of this study involves the following variables mainly; age (7 subgroups), sex (2 subgroups) and education (3 subgroups). Age, sex and education variables have significant influence on eight different kinds of TMT scores. Statistical analysis by ANOVA revealed a major effect of age (pKruskal-Wallis Test was performed and chi-square (chi(2)) values revealed that, correction scores for Part A and B were found to be influenced by age groups (pTest-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability coefficients for time scores of Parts A and B were estimated as 0.78, 0.99 and 0.73, 0.93, respectively. This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the executive functions in Turkish elderly population at the age of 50 and over.

  2. Magnetisation transfer imaging of the normal adenohypophysis: the effect of sex and age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Lab. of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)

  3. Magnetisation transfer imaging of the normal adenohypophysis: the effect of sex and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)

  4. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  5. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Transactional Sex in Youth Aging out of Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. Methods: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants…

  6. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  7. The moderating effects of sex and age on the association between traumatic brain injury and harmful psychological correlates among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates.Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8. Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying, bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study.TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored injury prevention efforts.

  8. The moderating effects of sex and age on the association between traumatic brain injury and harmful psychological correlates among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Colantonio, Angela; Turner, Nigel E; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8). Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying), bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored injury prevention efforts.

  9. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery in middle-aged and old-aged people with different age and sex at nanchang city by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Chen Tian; Fan Ping; Yang Zhijie; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in middleaged and old-aged people at different age and sex at Nanchang city and to establish the normal reference value. Methods: Excluding coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, 422 patients, above 30 years old were divided into the normal and the control groups based on whether the dangerous factors of atherosclerosis existed or not. Then each group was divided into 5 sub-groups according to age and sex and IMT of carotid artery measurement was perfrmed with ultrasound. Results: Means of IMT of carotid artery becomes higher as the age became older. IMT got predominant thick only when the age was more than 40 in male and 50 in female. Means of IMT is little higher than that in female,but there was no statistical difference between male and female group at age below 39 or above 50. Means of IMT in the control groups were higher than that in the normal groups and the differences was predominant. The ages older, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries wider, and became more predominant wide as the age was more than 50. Compared with female groups, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries of male groups were wider than those in the female groups'. The incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was higher as the age became older, but the atherosclerosis plaques was not observed in population below 39 years old. In the population above 40 years old, the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was 5. 06% in the normal groups and 20. 60% in the control groups. No statistic differences exited in the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques between the male and female groups. Carotid artery stenosis were observed i. e. five arteries were found in three control patients, and the stenosis degree exceed 50% of the diameter of artery. Conclusions: The IMT of common carotid arteries in the people at age of 40 and above 40 in the

  10. Reference values and age and sex differences in physical performance measures for community-dwelling older Japanese: a pooled analysis of six cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Seino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine age- and sex-specific reference values for six physical performance measures, i.e. hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, and gait speed and step length at both usual and maximum paces, and to investigate age and sex differences in these measures among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six cohort studies collected between 2002 and 2011 as part of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4683 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older (2168 men, 2515 women; mean age: 74.0 years in men and 73.9 years in women. RESULTS: Unweighted simple mean (standard deviation hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, usual gait speed, usual gait step length, maximum gait speed, and maximum gait step length were 31.7 (6.7 kg, 39.3 (23.0 s, 1.29 (0.25 m/s, 67.7 (10.0 cm, 1.94 (0.38 m/s, and 82.3 (11.6 cm, respectively, in men and 20.4 (5.0 kg, 36.8 (23.4 s, 1.25 (0.27 m/s, 60.8 (10.0 cm, 1.73 (0.36 m/s, and 69.7 (10.8 cm, respectively, in women. All physical performance measures showed significant decreasing trends with advancing age in both sexes (all P<0.001 for trend. We also constructed age- and sex-specific appraisal standards according to quintiles. With increasing age, the sex difference in hand-grip strength decreased significantly (P<0.001 for age and sex interaction. In contrast, sex differences significantly increased in all other measures (all P<0.05 for interactions except step length at maximum pace. CONCLUSION: Our pooled analysis yielded inclusive age- and sex-specific reference values and appraisal standards for major physical performance measures in nondisabled, community-dwelling, older Japanese adults. The characteristics of age-related decline in physical performance measures differed between sexes.

  11. Age, Sex, and Ethnic Variations in Inner and Outer Retinal and Choroidal Thickness on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafiq, Rinoza; Mathew, Raeba; Pearce, Elizabeth; Abdel-Hey, Ahmed; Richardson, Matthew; Bailey, Thomas; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate age, sex, and ethnic variations in inner and outer retinal and choroidal thickness and foveal pit, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Single-center observational cross-sectional study. Ninety randomly selected, healthy individuals of white, black, and South Asian origin underwent SD OCT raster and enhanced depth imaging scan. Manual measurements of inner and outer retinal thickness and choroidal thickness up to 3 mm nasal and temporal to the fovea were performed. The age, sex, and ethnic differences in these parameters were analyzed. The mean inner retinal thickness was lower by approximately 12 μm in black subjects across the central retina compared to white subjects (P ethnic groups but the temporal choroid was significantly thinner in black subjects (P < .05). The choroid showed an age-related decline in thickness of 2 μm per year of age of the subjects. Interethnic differences include wider fovea, lower central foveal thickness, and thinner inner retina in eyes of black subjects compared to their white and South Asian counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterizing the normative profile of 18F-FDG PET brain imaging: sex difference, aging effect, and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Hiroshi; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov; Miyata, Yoko; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2014-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate findings of positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET) in normal subjects to clarify the effects of sex differences, aging, and cognitive reserve on cerebral glucose metabolism. Participants comprised 123 normal adults who underwent 18F-FDG PET and a neuropsychological battery. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) to investigate sex differences, and aging effects. The effects of cognitive reserve on 18F-FDG uptake were investigated using years of education as a proxy. Finally, we studied the effect of cognitive reserve on the recruitment of glucose metabolism in a memory task by dichotomizing the data according to educational level. Our results showed that the overall cerebral glucose metabolism in females was higher than that in males, whereas male participants had higher glucose metabolism in the bilateral inferior temporal gyri and cerebellum than females. Age-related hypometabolism was found in anterior regions, including the anterior cingulate gyrus. These areas are part of the attentional system, which may decline with aging even in healthy elderly individuals. Highly educated subjects revealed focal hypermetabolism in the right hemisphere and lower recruitment of glucose metabolism in memory tasks. This phenomenon is likely a candidate for a neural substrate of cognitive reserve. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Relational Aggression in Preschool Students: An Exploration of the Variables of Sex, Age, and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Morine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers wished to ascertain whether there were age (three- and four-year old, sibling (with or without older siblings, and sex (male and female differences in the use of relational aggression in preschool students as rated by peers and teachers. In order to answer this research question, two 2 × 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA procedures with the relational aggression composite score as the dependent variable on the PSBS-P and PSBS-T were used for peer and teacher assessment, respectively, of relational aggression. Results revealed that in the peer ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, there was an disordinal age by sibling interaction, in which four-year-old children with siblings were significantly more likely to be rated by their peers as using relational aggression than three-year-old children without siblings. In the teacher ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, a main effect for age was observed. Teachers rated four-year old children as evidencing significantly higher levels of relational aggression as compared to three-year-olds. No sex differences were observed in the use of relational aggression either at age three or age four in this sample. Implications for these findings are presented.

  14. Effect of age, sex, area and management practices on cattle mortality in Rajshahi division, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Reazul Islam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of age, sex, location and management on cattle mortality rate in Rajshahi division of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in 8 districts of Rajshahi division during July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 17,982 cattle heads were investigated based on age, sex, area. Data were collected from the cattle owners using a closed structured questionnaire. Tentative cause of cattle mortality was identified based on clinical signs, laboratory tests, history, ante-mortem and postmortem reports. Management practices of the cattle were also investigated. Results: Out of 17,982 cattle heads, 549 were found to be dead by various diseases, and an average mortality rate was 3.05%. Age-wise mortality rate of cattle revealed that the maximum mortality rate was found in the age group of 0.05 between the cattle mortality rate in Natore district (2.84% and Joypurhat districts (2.84%. Conclusion: The overall mortality rate of cattle in Rajshahi division was found comparatively low. This might be due to improved management practices, better veterinary services, and awareness among farmers. However, cattle mortality rate in the age group <2-year is alarming due to bad management practices and disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 13-17

  15. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josee; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R.; Murakami, Takamichi; O'Connor, George T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  16. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  17. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in children and adolescents: Effects of sex and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Naliboff, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) refers to the diminution of perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals. Studying CPM in children may inform interventions to enhance central pain inhibition within a developmental framework. We assessed CPM in 133 healthy children (mean age = 13 years; 52.6% girls) and tested the effects of sex and age. Participants were exposed to four trials of a pressure test stimulus before, during, and after the application of a cold water conditioning stimulus. CPM was documented by a reduction in pressure pain ratings during cold water administration. Older children (12–17 years) exhibited greater CPM than younger (8–11 years) children. No sex differences in CPM were found. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) at baseline and after pain induction was associated with less CPM controlling for child age. The findings of greater CPM in the older age cohort suggest a developmental improvement in central pain inhibitory mechanisms. The results highlight the need to examine developmental and contributory factors in central pain inhibitory mechanisms in children to guide effective, age appropriate, pain interventions. PMID:23541066

  18. Sex Education for my Preschooler (ages 3 to 5? Parents’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Cevallos-Neira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted as a result of the lack of studies, specifically on children’s sex education and the role that parents play in it, despite the major advances in the knowledge on sexuality and its education. The main goal of this qualitative study was to understand parents’ perceptions regarding sexual education of their children ages 3 to 5. Three focus group sessions were conducted with parents from Cuenca pre-schools. Data was processed using thematic analysis. The study indicated that parents have a limited conception of sexuality, completely based on the biological aspect. In addition, it was clear that parents have traditional ideas, conceptions and beliefs, which are reflected when educating their children. This research shows parents’ lack of knowledge about sexuality and sex education and gives important data about the need for parents and the school to work jointly to provide children with adequate and appropriate sex education, as well as the need for parent training in order to establish a common language between home and school and to avoid a double discourse in children’s education and to ensure a proper implementation of sex education programs at this level.

  19. AβPP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Show Sex Differences in the Cerebellum Associated with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Gutierrez, Lara; Fernandez-Perez, Ivan; Herrera, Jose Luis; Anton, Marta; Benito-Cuesta, Irene; Wandosell, Francisco

    2016-09-06

    Cerebellar pathology has been related to presenilin 1 mutations in certain pedigrees of familial Alzheimer's disease. However, cerebellum tissue has not been intensively analyzed in transgenic models of mutant presenilins. Furthermore, the effect of the sex of the mice was not systematically analyzed, despite the fact that important gender differences in the evolution of the disease in the human population have been described. We analyzed whether the progression of amyloidosis in a double transgenic mouse, AβPP/PS1, is susceptible to aging and differentially affects males and females. The accumulation of amyloid in the cerebellum differentially affects males and females of the AβPP/PS1 transgenic line, which was found to be ten-fold higher in 15-month-old females. Amyloid-β accumulation was more evident in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, but glia reaction was only observed in the granular layer of the older mice. The sex divergence was also observed in other neuronal, survival, and autophagic markers. The cerebellum plays an important role in the evolution of the pathology in this transgenic mouse model. Sex differences could be crucial for a complete understanding of this disease. We propose that the human population could be studied in this way. Sex-specific treatment strategies in human populations could show a differential response to the therapeutic approach.

  20. Sex and age differences in physical performance: A comparison of Army basic training and operational populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Esther O; Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Alemany, Joseph A; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    To determine the age- and sex-specific differences of physical fitness performances and Body Mass Index (BMI) in basic training and the operational Army. Cross-sectional Study. This secondary analysis utilizes retrospective surveys of U.S. Army Soldiers in Basic Combat Training (BCT) and operational units to compare physical performances between men and women as measured by the Army Physical Readiness Test (APFT). An ANOVA was used to compare mean differences in APFT results and BMI within sex-specific populations. A post hoc Tukey test identified specific mean differences. Adjusting for age, an ANCOVA was used to compare sex and occupation (infantry and non-infantry) differences in APFT results. Surveyed populations consisted of 2216 BCT Soldiers (1573 men and 643 women) and 5515 Operational Soldiers (4987 men and 528 women). Male and female operational Soldiers had greater muscular performance (79%-125% higher APFT push-ups, 66%-85% higher APFT sit-ups) and cardiorespiratory performance (22%-24% faster APFT 2-mile run times) than BCT Soldiers. Male BCT and operational Soldiers outperform their female counterparts on tests of muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance. Sex differences in physical performances attenuated among female Soldiers in operational units compared to BCT. Among male operational Soldiers, infantry Soldiers exhibited greater cardiorespiratory and muscular performance than non-infantry Soldiers. Higher BMI was associated with higher age groups, except for female BCT Soldiers. Gaps in cardiorespiratory and muscular performances between men and women should be addressed through targeted physical training programs that aim to minimize physiological differences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster Gut Microbiota with Respect to Host Strain, Sex, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gangsik; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeong, Sang Eun; Jeon, Che Ok; Hyun, Seogang

    2017-07-01

    Microbiota has a significant impact on the health of the host individual. The complexity of the interactions between mammalian hosts and their microbiota highlights the value of using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism, because of its relatively simple microbial community and ease of physiological and genetic manipulation. However, highly variable and sometimes inconsistent results regarding the microbiota of D. melanogaster have been reported for host samples collected from different geographical locations; discrepancies that may be because of the inherent physiological conditions of the D. melanogaster host. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the gut microbiota of two D. melanogaster laboratory strains, w 1118 and Canton S, with respect to the sex and age of the host, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In addition to the widespread and abundant commensal bacterial genera Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, we identified Enterococcus and Leuconostoc as major host-strain-specific bacterial genera. The relative proportions of these bacterial genera, and those of the species within each, were found to differ markedly with respect to strain, sex, and age of the host, even though host individuals were reared under the same nutritional conditions. By using various bioinformatic tools, we uncovered several characteristic features of microbiota corresponding to specific categories of the flies: host-sex-bias association of specific bacteria, age-dependent alteration of microbiota across host species and sex, and uniqueness of the microbiota of female w 1118 flies. Our results, thus, help to further our understanding of host-microbe interactions in the D. melanogaster model.

  2. Age, sex, and type of medication predict the effect of anti-VEGF treatment on central retinal thickness in wet age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bek T

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Toke Bek, Sidsel Ehlers Klug Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Purpose: Randomized clinical trials studying the effects of VEGF inhibition on wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD are designed so that the effects of individually varying risk factors on the treatment response are eliminated. The influence of these risk factors can be studied in large data sets from real-life experience.Patients and methods: All 2,255 patients diagnosed with wAMD requiring anti-VEGF treatment in at least one eye over more than 9 years in a defined Danish population with 0.9 million inhabitants were studied. The predictive value of eye laterality, sex, current smoking status, type of anti-VEGF compound, membrane position, membrane type, leakage area, number of injections, number of visits, age, time to follow-up, visual acuity, and central retinal thickness (CRT at baseline on change in CRT after three monthly injections with anti-VEGF compound followed by treatment pro re nata for up to 12 months was assessed.Results: After 12 months, 67 patients had died, 903 had had stable CRT for at least 6 months, and 1,285 patients had not achieved stable CRT. The reduction in CRT was -84.8±118.3 µm, whereas the increase in visual acuity was 2.2±14.7 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters. The risk factors included contributed to 64% of the variation in CRT reduction. High age and high CRT at baseline predicted high CRT reduction, whereas more injections, treatment with ranibizumab, and male sex predicted a low CRT reduction.Conclusion: Age, sex, and type of anti-VEGF medication can be used to plan treatment and inform patients about the expected response of anti-VEGF treatment in wAMD. Keywords: wet AMD, anti-VEGF treatment, risk factors, real-life experience 

  3. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpeläinen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Mägi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Grönberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Järvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Hofman, A.; Zillikens, M.C.; den Heijer, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Maschio, A.; Hall, P.; Tyrer, J.; Teumer, A.; Völzke, H.; Kovacs, P.; Tönjes, A.; Mangino, M.; Spector, T.D.; Hayward, C.; Rudan, I.; Hall, A.S.; Samani, N.J.; Attwood, A.P.; Sambrook, J.G.; Hung, J.; Palmer, L.J.; Lokki, M.L.; Sinisalo, J.; Boucher, G.; Huikuri, H.V.; Lorentzon, M.; Ohlsson, C.; Eklund, N.; Eriksson, J.G.; Barlassina, C.; Rivolta, C.; Nolte, I.M.; Snieder, H.; van der Klauw, M.M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Shi, J.; Jacobs, K.B.; Wang, Z.; Bakker, S.J.; Mateo Leach, I.; Navis, G.; van der Harst, P.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Yang, J.; Chasman, D.I.; Ridker, P.M.; Rose, L.M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Raitakari, O.; Absher, D.; Iribarren, C.; Basart, H.; Hovingh, K.G.; Hyppönen, E.; Power, C.; Anderson, D.; Beilby, J.P.; Hui, J.; Jolley, J.; Sager, H.; Bornstein, S.R.; Schwarz, P.E.; Kristiansson, K.; Perola, M.; Lindström, J.; Swift, A.J.; Uusitupa, M.; Atalay, M.; Lakka, T.A.; Rauramaa, R.; Bolton, J.L.; Fowkes, G.; Fraser, R.M.; Price, J.F.; Fischer, K.; Krjuta Kov, K.; Metspalu, A.; Mihailov, E.; Langenberg, C.; Luan, J.; Ong, K.K.; Chines, P.S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemie, S.; Saaristo, T.E.; Edkins, S.; Franks, P.W.; Hallmans, G.; Shungin, D.; Morris, A.D.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Erbel, R.; Moebus, S.; Nöthen, M.M.; Pechlivanis, S.; Hveem, K.; Narisu, N.; Hamsten, A.; Humphries, S.E.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Tremoli, E.; Grallert, H.; Thorand, B.; Illig, T.; Koenig, W.; Müller-Nurasyid, M.; Peters, A.; Boehm, B.O.; Kleber, M.E.; März, W.; Winkelmann, B.R.; Kuusisto, J.; Laakso, M.; Arveiler, D.; Cesana, G.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Virtamo, J.; Yarnell, J.W.; Kuh, D; Wong, A.; Lind, L.; de Faire, U.; Gigante, B.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dedoussis, G.; Dimitriou, M.; Kolovou, G.; Kanoni, S.; Stirrups, K.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Njolstad, I.; Wilsgaard, T.; Ganna, A.; Rehnberg, E.; Hingorani, A.D.; Kivimaki, M.; Kumari, M.; Assimes, T.L.; Barroso, I.; Boehnke, M.; Borecki, I.B.; Deloukas, P.; Fox, C.S.; Frayling, T.M.; Groop, L.C.; Haritunians, T.; Hunter, D.; Ingelsson, E.; Kaplan, R.; Mohlke, K.L.; O'Connell, J.R.; Schlessinger, D.; Strachan, D.P.; Stefansson, K.; van Duijn, C.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; McCarthy, M.I.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Qi, L.; Loos, R.J.; Lindgren, C.M.; North, K.E.; Heid, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  4. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  5. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from 40 K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values

  6. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131 I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In most cases, the available data consisted of the patient's age at the time of administration, the patient's sex, the quantity of activity administered, the clinically-determined uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid, and the time after administration at which the uptake was determined. The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K[exp(-μ 1 t) -exp(-μ 2 t)] (μCi), where μ 1 = λ/sub r/ - λ/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), λ/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and λ/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of λ/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time or maximum uptake an the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptakes at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/μCi-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  7. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131 I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The model was made to conform to these data requirements by the use of age-specific estimates of the biological half-time of iodine in the thyroid and an age- and sex-dependent representation of the mass of the thyroid. Also, it was assumed that the thyroid burden was maximum 24 hours after administration (the 131 I dose is not critically sensitive to this assumption). The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K[exp(-μ 1 t) - exp(-μ 2 t)] (μCi), where μ 1 = lambda/sub r/ + lambda/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), lambda/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and lambda/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of lambda/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time of maximum uptake and the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptake at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/μCi-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. The model could prove useful in the dosimetry of very short-lived radioiodines. Tables of age- and sex-dependent coefficients are provided to enable readers to make their own calculations. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Role of Sex Hormones on Brain Mitochondrial Function, with Special Reference to Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Gaignard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondria have a fundamental role in both cellular energy supply and oxidative stress regulation and are target of the effects of sex steroids, particularly the neuroprotective ones. Aging is associated with a decline in the levels of different steroid hormones, and this decrease may underline some neural dysfunctions. Besides, modifications in mitochondrial functions associated with aging processes are also well documented. In this review, we will discuss studies that describe the modifications of brain mitochondrial function and of steroid levels associated with physiological aging and with neurodegenerative diseases. A special emphasis will be placed on describing and discussing our recent findings concerning the concomitant study of mitochondrial function (oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative stress and brain steroid levels in both young (3-month-old and aged (20-month-old male and female mice.

  9. Single and Multiple Ascending-dose Studies of Oral Delafloxacin: Effects of Food, Sex, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Randall; Hunt, Thomas; Benedict, Michael; Paulson, Susan K; Lawrence, Laura; Cammarata, Sue; Sun, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is describe the results of 2 studies that examined the pharmacokinetic parameters, safety profile, and tolerability of single and multiple ascending doses of oral delafloxacin and the effects of food, sex, and age on oral delafloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters, safety profile, and tolerability. The first study contained 3 parts and used unformulated delafloxacin in a capsule. Part 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single (50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 mg) ascending-dose study of oral delafloxacin in healthy men. Part 2 was a single-dose crossover study in which 20 men received 250 mg delafloxacin with or without food. Part 2 also included a parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 16 women and 16 elderly men and women who were randomized (3:1) to receive 250 mg delafloxacin or placebo. Part 3 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple (100, 200, 400, 800, 1200 mg once daily for 5 days) ascending-dose study of oral delafloxacin in healthy men. The second study was a single-dose, randomized, 3-period crossover study in which participants received 900 mg delafloxacin (2 × 450-mg tablets) under fasted conditions, with a high-fat meal, or fasted with a high-fat meal 2 hours after dosing. Serial blood samples were collected, and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of delafloxacin were determined. Delafloxacin Cmax and AUC0-∞ increased with increasing oral dose over the dose range of 50 to 1600 mg. The increases in delafloxacin AUC0-∞ were dose proportional at doses of ≥200 mg. Steady state was reached by day 3 of dosing with minimal accumulation of delafloxacin. The Cmax of delafloxacin was decreased slightly in the presence of food. No sex difference in delafloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters was observed. In the elderly men and women, mean delafloxacin Cmax and AUC0-∞ were 35% higher than observed for young adults, which could be partially explained by a decrease in

  10. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  11. Analysis by age and sex of efficacy data from placebo-controlled trials of desvenlafaxine in outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornstein, Susan G; Clayton, Anita H; Soares, Claudio N; Padmanabhan, Sudharshan K; Guico-Pabia, Christine J

    2010-06-01

    This pooled analysis evaluated the efficacy of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in patients grouped by age and sex. Nine clinical trials were pooled. Outpatients 18 years or older with MDD received desvenlafaxine 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/d (men = 709; women = 1096) or placebo (men = 399; women = 709) for 8 weeks. Data were analyzed by sex and by age groups of 40 years and younger, 41 to 54 years, 55 to 64 years, and 65 years and older. The primary outcome was change from baseline in the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) total score at the final evaluation. Secondary measures included response (> or =50% reduction in HAM-D17) and remission (HAM-D17 sex-treatment, age-treatment, or sex-age-treatment interactions were observed. Differences in the HAM-D17 change from baseline for desvenlafaxine versus placebo were -1.72 for women (P differences from placebo observed in the 18-to-40 (P depressive symptoms across age and sex subgroups.

  12. Evolution of Sex Differences in Trait- and Age-Specific Vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C

    2016-11-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice generally have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. They have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and nutritional and social stressors, and they are compromised by exposure to man-made toxins. Although these traits can differ from one species or sex to the next, an understanding of the dynamics of competition and choice can in theory be used to generate a priori predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species. I provide a review of these dynamics and illustrate associated vulnerabilities in nonhuman species. The age- and sex-specific vulnerability of such traits is then illustrated for stressor-related disruptions of boys' and girls' physical growth and play behavior, as well as for aspects of boys' and girls' and men's and women's personality, language, and spatial abilities. There is much that remains to be determined, but enough is now known to reframe trait sensitivity in ways that will allow scientists and practitioners to better identify and understand vulnerable human traits, and eventually ameliorate or prevent their expression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Personality traits, age and sex as predictors for self-handicapping tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-handicapping is one of the strategies people use when facing potential failure. Paper presents new scale for assessing self-handicapping tendency as relatively stable trait, as well as its relations with personality traits, sex and age. Self-handicapping questionnaire and shortened form of Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire were administered to 230 participants of both sexes, age 18 to 59. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that model with four latent dimensions, encompassed by a higher-order latent dimension, fits the data well. Those lower order dimensions correspond to originally created scales: External handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in achievement area and External handicaps in achievement area. Results of MANCOVA shows that Neuroticism is predictor of all dimensions of self- handicapping. Impulsive sensation seeking predicts choice of external handicaps in interpersonal area, as well as internal handicaps in achievement area. Latter is predicted also by low Activity. Younger subjects show significantly higher tendency to use internal handicaps, and men in general show more self-handicapping tendency than women, except in choosing internal handicaps in achievement area, where sex shows no significant effect.

  14. Few Sex Differences in Hospitalized Suicide Attempters Aged 70 and Above

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wiktorsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80 were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety. Forty-five percent of the men and 14% of the women had a history of substance use disorder (p = 0.02. At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men (p = 0.55. Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79, and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1%, p = 0.64. We found strikingly similar figures for depression scores, functional disability and attributions for attempting suicide in older men and women. Larger studies are needed in diverse settings as sex differences might be influenced by cultural context.

  15. Few Sex Differences in Hospitalized Suicide Attempters Aged 70 and Above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Rydberg Sterner, Therese; Mellqvist Fässberg, Madeleine; Skoog, Ingmar; Ingeborg Berg, Anne; Duberstein, Paul; Van Orden, Kimberly; Waern, Margda

    2018-01-16

    Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80) were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety. Forty-five percent of the men and 14% of the women had a history of substance use disorder ( p = 0.02). At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men ( p = 0.55). Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79), and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1%, p = 0.64). We found strikingly similar figures for depression scores, functional disability and attributions for attempting suicide in older men and women. Larger studies are needed in diverse settings as sex differences might be influenced by cultural context.

  16. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers

    OpenAIRE

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60?years. By comparison, recent data (1999?2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved....

  17. A Content Analysis of Testosterone Websites: Sex, Muscle, and Male Age-Related Thematic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Nicholas; Vuong, Jimmy; Gray, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men. Codes were created based on inductive observations and drawing upon the medical, life history, and human behavioral endocrinology literatures. Approximately half ( n = 24) of websites were oriented toward younger men (estimated audience of men 40 years of age or younger) and half ( n = 25) toward older men (estimated audience over 40 years of age). Results indicated that the most frequent content codes concerned online sales (e.g., product and purchasing information). Apart from sales information, the most frequent codes concerned, in order, muscle, sex/sexual functioning, low T, energy, fat, strength, aging, and well-being, with all four hypotheses also supported. These findings are interpreted in the light of medical, evolutionary life history, and human behavioral endocrinology approaches.

  18. The significance of age and sex for the absence of immune response to hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosić Ilija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Seroepidemiological investigations after the administration of hepatitis B vaccine have shown that even 15% of vaccinated healthy persons do not generate immune response to the vaccines currently in use. OBJECTIVE The aim of the research is to test the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in different age groups on the adult vaccinated population sample in Serbia. METHOD The tested general population sample consisted of 154 adult subjects. Immunization was done using the recombinant fungal vaccine obtained by genetic engineering (Euvax B vaccine, manufacturer LG, distributor Sanofi Pasteur. All tested subjects in the research received 1 ml of hepatitis B vaccine administered intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle by 0, 1, 6 schedule. RESULTS In the tested sample, 3.13% of persons aged up to 29 years, 6.25% aged 30-35 year and 19.23% of the tested persons aged 40 years and older had no immune response. The relative risk of “no response" findings was twice higher in the group aged 30-39 as compared to the population aged up to 29 years. The detected risk was six times higher for the population of 40 years and older in comparison to the population aged up to 29 years. Also, the relative risk of “no response" findings for the population of 40 years and older was more than three times higher than for the group aged 30-39. Absent immune response in relation to sex was found to be higher in male subjects. CONCLUSION The rates of “no response" finding was the following: 3.13% in the group aged up to 29 years, 6.25% in the group aged 30-39, as well as in the group aged 40 years and older (19.23%. Immune response in relation to age groups was statistically significantly different (p<0.001, while there was a statistically significant correlation (C=0.473; p<0.001 between the age of the subjects and the immune response. In relation to sex, the “no response" finding was found to be increased in the males, but without any statistically

  19. Acceleration of leukocytes' epigenetic age as an early tumor and sex-specific marker of breast and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Danielle Fernandes; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Sala, Claudia; Pirazzini, Chiara; Marasco, Elena; Bonafé, Massimiliano; do Valle, Ítalo Faria; Gentilini, Davide; Castellani, Gastone; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Franceschi, Claudio; Garagnani, Paolo; Nardini, Christine

    2017-04-04

    Changes in blood epigenetic age have been associated with several pathological conditions and have recently been described to anticipate cancer development. In this work, we analyze a publicly available leukocytes methylation dataset to evaluate the relation between DNA methylation age and the prospective development of specific types of cancer. We calculated DNA methylation age acceleration using five state-of-the-art estimators (three multi-site: Horvath, Hannum, Weidner; and two CpG specific: ELOV2 and FHL2) in a cohort including 845 subjects from the EPIC-Italy project and we compared 424 samples that remained cancer-free over the approximately ten years of follow-up with 235 and 166 subjects who developed breast and colorectal cancer, respectively. We show that the epigenetic age estimated from blood DNA methylation data is statistically significantly associated to future breast and male colorectal cancer development. These results are corroborated by survival analysis that shows significant association between age acceleration and cancer incidence suggesting that the chance of developing age-related diseases may be predicted by circulating epigenetic markers, with a dependence upon tumor type, sex and age estimator. These are encouraging results towards the non-invasive and perspective usage of epigenetic biomarkers.

  20. Effects of age and sex on the results of an ankle plantar-flexor manual muscle test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Mei-Hwa; Chai, Huei-Ming; Lin, Yeong-Fwu; Lin, Janice Chien-Ho; Tsai, Li-Ying; Ou, Yu-Chih; Lin, Da-Hon

    2005-10-01

    The ability to perform 20 or more one-leg heel-rises is considered a "normal" grade for muscle strength (force-generating capacity of muscle) of the ankle plantar flexors, regardless of age and sex. Because muscle strength is closely related to age and sex, the "normal" test criterion was re-evaluated in different groups categorized by age and sex. One hundred eighty sedentary volunteers (21-80 years of age) without lower-limb lesions performed as many repetitions of one-leg heel-rise as possible. Lunsford and Perry criteria were used to determine completion of the test. The age and sex of the participants influenced the maximal repetitions of heel-rise, and the repetitions decreased with age and in female subjects. The muscle strength of the ankle plantar flexors, as measured by manual muscle testing, varied with age and sex. Clinicians should consider the variances of age and sex when they perform manual muscle testing of the ankle plantar flexors.

  1. Oxidative stress and the evolution of sex differences in life span and ageing in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Catharine R; Sakaluk, Scott K; Selman, Colin; Royle, Nick J; Hunt, John

    2013-03-01

    The Free Radical Theory of Ageing (FRTA) predicts that oxidative stress, induced when levels of reactive oxygen species exceed the capacity of antioxidant defenses, causes ageing. Recently, it has also been argued that oxidative damage may mediate important life-history trade-offs. Here, we use inbred lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, to estimate the genetic (co)variance between age-dependent reproductive effort, life span, ageing, oxidative damage, and total antioxidant capacity within and between the sexes. The FRTA predicts that oxidative damage should accumulate with age and negatively correlate with life span. We find that protein oxidation is greater in the shorter lived sex (females) and negatively genetically correlated with life span in both sexes. However, oxidative damage did not accumulate with age in either sex. Previously we have shown antagonistic pleiotropy between the genes for early-life reproductive effort and ageing rate in both sexes, although this was stronger in females. In females, we find that elevated fecundity early in life is associated with greater protein oxidation later in life, which is in turn positively correlated with the rate of ageing. Our results provide mixed support for the FRTA but suggest that oxidative stress may mediate sex-specific life-history strategies in G. sigillatus. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Psychological adjustment to amputation: variations on the bases of sex, age and cause of limb loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Haider, S.K.F.

    2017-01-01

    Amputation is the removal of a limb or part of a limb by a surgical procedure in order to save the life of a person. The underlying reasons behind the occurrence of this tragic incidence may be varied. However, irrespective of its cause limb loss is associated with wide range of life challenges. The study was done to investigate the psychological sequel of an individual after losing a limb and to know the level of strain and pressure they experience after this traumatic event. It also attempts to examine the moderating role of some demographic traits such as age, sex and cause of limb loss in psychosocial adjustment to amputation. Methods: The study includes 100 adult amputees of both genders and the data was collected from major government and private hospitals of Peshawar district. Demographic data sheet was constructed in order to know the demographics traits of amputees and a standardize Psychological Adjustment Scale developed by Sabir (1999) was used to find out the level of psychological adjustment after limb loss. Results: Nearly all the amputees' exhibit signs of psychological maladjustment at varying degrees. Males showed much greater signs of maladjustment than women and young adults were much psychologically shattered and disturbed as a result of limb loss. Amputation caused by planned medical reasons leads to less adjustment issues as compared to unplanned accidental amputation in which patient were not mentally prepare to accept this loss. Conclusion: Psychological aspect of amputation is an important aspect of limb loss which needs to be addressed properly in order to rehabilitate these patients and helps them to adjust successfully to their limb loss. (author)

  3. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...

  4. Age and sex distributions in the catches of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas , in West Greenland and in western Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Lockyer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Age and sex were determined for belugas or white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, harvested in West Greenland in 1985-86 and 1989-1997. There was a clear segregation of whales in the drive fishery conducted during autumn in Qaanaaq and Upernavik. Primarily immature whales of both sexes together wit...

  5. Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W

    2015-01-01

    the associations between biomarkers and subjective health have sex-specific patterns. MATERIALS: Previously collected data in the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (SAHR, n = 1800) were used to examine sex differences in biomarkers and their associations with physical functioning and self-rated health...

  6. Children's Age, Intelligence and Sex as Variables Mediating Reactions to TV Commercials: Repetition and Content Complexity Implications for Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Donald W.; And Others

    To learn if differences in age, intelligence, and sex account for differences in children's recall of TV commercials and in the degree of insistence with which they request that the advertised product be purchased, 54 gifted, 71 normal, and 53 educable mentally retarded children of both sexes were questioned after viewing commercials for breakfast…

  7. Age, Sex, and Dose Effects of Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics on Hip Fracture in Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, David D; Zullo, Andrew R; Mor, Vincent; Lee, Yoojin; Berry, Sarah D

    2018-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recommends a reduced dose of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics in women, yet little is known about the age-, sex-, and dose-specific effects of these drugs on risk of hip fracture, especially among nursing home (NH) residents. We estimated the age-, sex-, and dose-specific effects of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics on the rate of hip fracture among NH residents. Case-crossover study in US NHs. A total of 691 women and 179 men with hip fracture sampled from all US long-stay NH residents. Measures of patient characteristics were obtained from linked Medicare and the Minimum Data Set (2007-2008). The outcome was hospitalization for hip fracture with surgical repair. We estimated rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from conditional logistic regression models for nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (vs nonuse) comparing 0 to 29 days before hip fracture (hazard period) with 60 to 89 and 120 to 149 days before hip fracture (control periods). We stratified analyses by age, sex, and dose. The average RR of hip fracture was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) for any use. The RR of hip fracture was higher for residents aged ≥90 years vs <70 years (2.2 vs 1.3); however, the CIs overlapped. No differences in the effect of the hypnotic on risk of hip fracture were evident by sex. Point estimates for hip fracture were greater with high-dose versus low-dose hypnotics (RR 1.9 vs 1.6 for any use), but these differences were highly compatible with chance. The rate of hip fracture in NH residents due to use of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics was greater among older patients than among younger patients and, possibly, with higher doses than with lower doses. When clinicians are prescribing a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic to any NH resident, doses of these drugs should be kept as low as possible, especially among those with advanced age. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of age, sex, and race on college students' exercise motivation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W; Melton, Bridget F; Czech, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. Significant differences were found in 3 of 14 exercise motivational subscales by age (affiliation, health pressures, and ill health avoidance) (p motivated by intrinsic factors (strength, competition, and challenge) (p motivations (p motivations in college-aged population by demographics were documented. Understanding these differences is important for college health professionals for programming strategies and promoting physical activity.

  9. An Overview of Age, Sex and Race Determination from Teeth and Skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Forensic dentistry represents the overlap between the dental and legal professions. Throughout this century, odontological examinations have been a critical determinant in the search for identity of individual remains. Dental maturity has played an important role in estimating the chronological age of individuals. Age estimation is a sub-discipline of the forensic sciences and should be an important part of every identification process, especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Forensic dentist helps in identification of deceased victims by age, sex and race determination from teeth and skull. Since the scope of forensic odontology is very broad and challenging, dental surgeons trained in forensic odontology can make unique contributions in the administration of justice, which is the key note of democracy.

  10. Executive Functions: Influence of Sex, Age and Its Relationship With Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Oliveira e Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Tower of Hanoi is a tool used to evaluate executive functions. However, few studies describe what functions are evaluated in this test. This study investigates the executive functions, evaluated by the Tower of Hanoi (ToH, and the influence of gender, age and its relationship with intelligence. We evaluated 55 children and adolescents, between the ages of ten and 16, without diagnosed neuropsychiatric disorders. The results showed that the performance and time in to complete the Tower of Hanoi have no discriminative power when comparing age groups and sex; there was also no significant correlation found between the ToH and the execution quotient of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition (WISC III, perceptual organization and the speed of processing. Only the subtest coding were positively related to the ToH, demonstrating that these instruments may be measuring related aspects of intelligence and executive functions, namely intelligence and working memory.

  11. Amazonian onchocerciasis: parasitological profiles by host-age, sex, and endemicity in southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M G; Botto, C; Rojas, S; García, M; Pacheco, M; Curtis, C F

    2000-11-01

    This paper describes, for the human onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela, the age profiles of Onchocerca volvulus microfilarial (mf) and nodule prevalence, mf intensity, and mf aggregation for the whole examined population (836 Yanomami people) living in 20 villages, and for these communities classified according to endemicity levels (hypoendemic: < or = 20 %; mesoendemic: 21-59 %; hyperendemic: < or = 60 % infected). Mf prevalence and intensity increased with age, particularly in the hyperendemic areas, and there were no marked differences between the sexes. The prevalence of nodules followed the same age pattern. Fifty percent mf prevalence was reached in the 15-19 year age-class when the population was taken as a whole; nearly in the 10 to 14-year-olds for the hyperendemic level, in those aged 20-29 years in mesoendemic areas, and not reached at all in hypoendemic villages. The degree of mf aggregation was measured by the k value of the negative binomial distribution and by the variance to mean ratio (VMR). The relationship between the standard deviation (S.D.) of mf counts and the mean mf density was also explored. These 3 indices (k, VMR, and S.D.) showed a tendency to increase with both mean mf load and host age. Since infection intensity and host age were themselves positively related, it was not possible to draw definite conclusions about age-specific changes of parasite aggregation. There was not a significant decrease of mf intensity after an earlier peak neither was there a shift towards younger ages of the maximum no. of mf/mg reached as the endemicity level increased. These results are discussed in relation to detection of density dependence in the human host, selection of an indicator age-group for rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) methods, and strategies of ivermectin distribution in the Amazonian focus. It is recommended that, for the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus, the indicator group for REA consists of all those aged 15 years and over.

  12. Normal morphology of sacroiliac joints in children: magnetic resonance studies related to age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollow, M.; Paris, S.; Mutze, S.; Hamm, B.; Braun, J.; Kannenberg, J.; Biedermann, T.; Schauer-Petrowskaja, C.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine in a prospective study the normal MRI morphology of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in relation to age and sex during adolescence. Design and patients. A total of 98 children (63 boys, mean age 12.7±2.8 years; 35 girls, mean age 13.7±2.3 years), ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) but without signs of sacroiliitis fulfilled the study prerequisites (no back pain and no pathologic changes of the SIJs on physical examination before MRI in a 1.5-year follow-up). An additional eight HLA-B27-negative boys and eight HLA-B27-negative girls without arthritis served as controls. The MRI protocol comprised a T1-weighted SE sequence, an opposed-phase T2*-weighted GE sequence, and a dynamic contrast-enhanced study in single-section technique. Results. Noncontrast MRI permitted differentiation of ''open'' from ossified segmental and lateral apophyses of the sacral wings, with a significant difference in age (P <0.05) between children with open and ossified apophyses. Ossification of the apophyses of the sacral wings was seen significantly earlier (P <0.05) in girls than in boys. Girls also had a significantly higher incidence of transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, pelvic asymmetries, and accessory joints. In the contrast-enhanced opposed-phase MRI study, normal cartilage of the SIJs showed no contrast enhancement whereas the joint capsule showed a moderate enhancement. Conclusion. There are significant age- and sex-related differences in the normal MRI morphology of juvenile SIJs. Our findings might serve as a standard of comparison for the evaluation of pathologic changes - in particular for the early identification of juvenile sacroiliitis. (orig.)

  13. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption.

  14. Meat quality of "Galician Mountain" foals breed. Effect of sex, slaughter age and livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Daniel; Rodríguez, Eva; Purriños, Laura; Crecente, Santiago; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of sex, slaughter age (9 vs. 12 months) and livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) vs. semi extensive system (SES)) of "Galician Mountain" foals breed on meat quality from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were investigated. Forty-two foals had been used for this study, 19 (11 females and 8 males) were reared in a semi extensive system and weaned three months prior to slaughtering (8 and 11 were slaughtered at 9 and 12 months, respectively) while the other 23 (11 females and 12 males) were reared together with its mothers in a system in freedom and were slaughtered at the age of 9 months. The obtained results showed that there were no significant differences between the sexes and the slaughter age whereas the livestock production system was a significant variation source on intramuscular fat content and meat tenderness because SES foals showed 51.6% more of IMF and the improved meat tenderness achieved a shear force of lean meat (20.5%) and heme-iron (1.62 mg/100g meat) comparable to veal meat. Furthermore, the meat samples showed a higher luminosity (L*>40), a very good water holding capacity, measured by cooking losses (<18.3%), and a tenderness less than 4 kg. Thus, it can be classified as "very tender" meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential sex- and age-related migration of Bluethroats Luscinia svecica at Eilat, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovets, Mikhail L.; Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the phenology and biometrics of Bluethroats staging in the Eilat region. This is of special interest because of the extreme conditions with which this temperate zone breeding species has to contend because Eilat is a desert habitat and is the last green area before the crossing of the deserts in autumn or after it in spring. Data were collected during 20 spring and 18 autumn migration seasons in the years 1984-2003, and a total of 7,464 Bluethroat were recorded. The number of trapped birds was much higher in autumn than in spring. The majority of Bluethroats caught in both the autumn and spring migrations were juveniles. We found differences in sex ratio in the individual age classes only in the autumn wherein among both adults and juveniles, males were in greater numbers. We also found significant differences in the dates of ringed birds from different sex-age classes in the spring and in autumn migrations. In spring, males from both age classes were caught earlier than females. In autumn, adult birds arrived earlier than juveniles. We think that it is important to identify and conserve the high quality stopover habitats such as Eilat wherein not only Bluethroats have been shown to stopover but also several hundred other species.

  16. Age and sex differences in steadiness of elbow flexor muscles with imposed cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo M.; Spears, Vincent C.; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Yoon, Tejin; Nielson, Kristy A.; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose These studies determined (1) age and sex-related differences in steadiness of isometric contractions when high cognitive demand was imposed across a range of forces with the elbow flexor muscles (study 1) and, (2) sex differences in steadiness among older adults when low cognitive demand was imposed (study 2). Methods 36 young adults (18–25 years; 18 women) and 30 older adults (60–82 years; 17 women) performed isometric contractions at 5%, 30% and 40% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Study 1 involved a high-cognitive demand session (serial subtractions by 13 during the contraction) and a control session (no mental math). Study 2 (older adults only) involved a low-cognitive demand session (subtracting by 1s). Results Older individuals exhibited greater increases in force fluctuations (coefficient of variation of force, CV) with high cognitive demand than young adults, with the largest age difference at 5% MVC (P = 0.01). Older adults had greater agonist EMG activity with high-cognitive demand and women had greater coactivation than men (Pdemand for the older women but not for the older men (P = 0.03). Conclusion Older adults had reduced steadiness and increased muscle activation when high cognitive demand was imposed while low cognitive demand induced increased force fluctuations in older women but not older men. These findings have implications for daily and work-related tasks that involve cognitive demand performed simultaneously during submaximal isometric contractions in an aging workforce. PMID:25633070

  17. [Physical self-concept and teenagers with intellectual disability: age, sex, and weight category effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégarie, Jérôme; Maïano, Christophe; Ninot, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    To study the effects of age, sex, weight, and their interactions on global self-esteem (GSE) and physical self-concept in teenagers with intellectual disability (ID). A sample of 353 teenagers with ID, aged 12 to 18 years, participated in this study. The Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory—for adolescents with ID (PSI-VSF-ID) was used to assess GSE and physical self-perceptions (physical value perceived [PVP], sport skills [SS], physical condition, physical appearance, and strength). Multivariate covariance analyses show: (i) lower GSE and physical self levels (except for PVP) in females, compared with males; (ii) reduced GSE, PVP, SS, and perceived physical appearance (PPA) scores during adolescence; (iii) lower GSE, PVP, and PPA scores in obese adolescents, compared with overweight or normal weight peers; and (iv) lower PPA scores in obese females, compared with other teenagers. The sex and age results are almost identical to those for the general population, according to the literature. However, they are far from the main effect in the weight category.

  18. Coordinated analysis of age, sex, and education effects on change in MMSE scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Clouston, Sean; Reynolds, Chandra A; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Deary, Ian J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Johansson, Boo; Mackinnon, Andrew; Spiro, Avron; Starr, John M; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M

    2013-05-01

    We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ.

  19. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Science as father? Sex and gender in the age of reproductive technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Merete

    2002-01-01

    The new reproductive technologies affect several of our conceptual distinctions, and most basically the one between nature and culture. This includes the understanding of reproduction as natural, biological processes and of the body as a product of nature. Nature and culture has been a basic conceptual distinction in Western culture and it is paralleled in the division between sex, understood as nature, and gender, understood as culture. The process of reproduction is central to the understan...

  1. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki

    2009-01-01

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6±18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6±19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  2. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea)). e-mail: growthkim@daum.net/growthkim@pusan.ac.kr)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6+-18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6+-19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  3. Masculine sex ratios, population age structure and the potential spread of HIV in China

    OpenAIRE

    M. Giovanna Merli; Sara Hertog

    2010-01-01

    There is much speculation regarding the contribution of China's changing demography to the spread of HIV/AIDS. We employ a bio-behavioral macrosimulation model of the heterosexual spread of HIV/AIDS to evaluate the roles that China's unique demographic conditions -- (1) masculine sex ratios at birth and (2) a population age structure that reflects rapid fertility decline since the 1970's -- play in altering the market for sexual partners, thereby potentially fueling an increase...

  4. Adult ADHD Symptoms and Satisfaction With Life: Does Age and Sex Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Ørbeck, Beate; Øvergaard, Kristin Romvig; Pripp, Are Hugo; Aase, Heidi; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Zeiner, Pål

    2015-01-01

    - Objective:To investigate adult ADHD symptoms and satisfaction with life, with a focus on age and sex differences. Method: This study is based on parents in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The Adult Self- Report Scale (ASRS-6) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) scores were analyzed from 33,210 men and 41,983 women from young to middle adulthood. Results: Mean ASRS total score was significantly higher in men, where 5.1% scored above cutoff, compared wit...

  5. Cranial thickness in relation to age, sex and general body build in a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N

    2001-01-01

    thickness and these parameters. This study, thus, adds to other studies showing that cranial thickness cannot be used in aging or sexing human remains. Likewise, in a forensic pathological setting, cranial thickness cannot be inferred from the individuals stature and build, which may be an issue in cases......The cranial thickness was measured in 64 individuals (43 males, 21 females) autopsied at our institute. The thickness was measured by taking a biopsy with a trephine at four specific locations on the skull. Complete medical records and pathologic autopsy results were available. While none...

  6. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  7. Postoperative subdural hygroma and chronic subdural hematoma after unruptured aneurysm surgery: age, sex, and aneurysm location as independent risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaechan; Cho, Jae-Hoon; Goh, Duck-Ho; Kang, Dong-Hun; Shin, Im Hee; Hamm, In-Suk

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the incidence and risk factors for the postoperative occurrence of subdural complications, such as a subdural hygroma and resultant chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), following surgical clipping of an unruptured aneurysm. The critical age affecting such occurrences and follow-up results were also examined. The case series included 364 consecutive patients who underwent aneurysm clipping via a pterional or superciliary keyhole approach for an unruptured saccular aneurysm in the anterior cerebral circulation between 2007 and 2013. The subdural hygromas were identified based on CT scans 6-9 weeks after surgery, and the volumes were measured using volumetry studies. Until their complete resolution, all the subdural hygromas were followed using CT scans every 1-2 months. Meanwhile, the CSDHs were classified as nonoperative or operative lesions that were treated by bur-hole drainage. The age and sex of the patients, aneurysm location, history of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and surgical approach (pterional vs superciliary) were all analyzed regarding the postoperative occurrence of a subdural hygroma or CSDH. The follow-up results of the subdural complications were also investigated. Seventy patients (19.2%) developed a subdural hygroma or CSDH. The results of a multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (p = 0.003), male sex (p 60 years, which achieved a 70% sensitivity and 69% specificity with regard to predicting such subdural complications. The female patients ≤ 60 years of age showed a negligible incidence of subdural complications for all aneurysm groups, whereas the male patients > 60 years of age showed the highest incidence of subdural complications at 50%-100%, according to the aneurysm location. The subdural hygromas detected 6-9 weeks postoperatively showed different follow-up results, according to the severity. The subdural hygromas that converted to a CSDH were larger in volume than the subdural hygromas that resolved

  8. Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The sexual domain is unified only by the phenomenal quality of the occurrence of the desires, activities, and pleasures it includes. There is no conceptual restriction on the range of intentional objects those desires, activities, and pleasures can take. Neither is there good conceptual reason to privilege any class of them as paradigmatic. Since the quality unifying the sexual is not morally significant, the morality of sexuality is no different from morality in general. The view that partic...

  9. Caste-, sex-, and age-dependent expression of immune-related genes in a Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Mitaka

    Full Text Available Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested. Although termite immune-inducible genes have been identified, few studies have investigated the differential expression of these genes between reproductive and neuter castes, and between sexes in each caste. In this study, we compared the expression levels of immune-related genes among castes, sexes, and ages in a Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus. Using RNA-seq, we found 197 immune-related genes, including 40 pattern recognition proteins, 97 signalling proteins, 60 effectors. Among these genes, 174 showed differential expression among castes. Comparing expression levels between males and females in each caste, we found sexually dimorphic expression of immune-related genes not only in reproductive castes, but also in neuter castes. Moreover, we identified age-related differential expression of 162 genes in male and/or female reproductives. In addition, although R. speratus is known to use the antibacterial peptide C-type lysozyme as an egg recognition pheromone, we determined that R. speratus has not only C-type, but also P-type and I-type lysozymes, as well as other termite species. Our transcriptomic analyses revealed immune response plasticity among all castes, and sex-biased expression of immune genes even in neuter castes, suggesting a sexual division of labor in the immune system of R. speratus. This study heightens the understanding of the evolution of

  10. Sex-dependent age modulation of frontostriatal and temporo-parietal activation during cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, Anastasia; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B; Ifkovits, Eve; Brammer, Mick; Rubia, Katya

    2009-10-15

    Developmental functional imaging studies of cognitive control show progressive age-related increase in task-relevant fronto-striatal activation in male development from childhood to adulthood. Little is known, however, about how gender affects this functional development. In this study, we used event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine effects of sex, age, and their interaction on brain activation during attentional switching and interference inhibition, in 63 male and female adolescents and adults, aged 13 to 38. Linear age correlations were observed across all subjects in task-specific frontal, striatal and temporo-parietal activation. Gender analysis revealed increased activation in females relative to males in fronto-striatal areas during the Switch task, and laterality effects in the Simon task, with females showing increased left inferior prefrontal and temporal activation, and males showing increased right inferior prefrontal and parietal activation. Increased prefrontal activation clusters in females and increased parietal activation clusters in males furthermore overlapped with clusters that were age-correlated across the whole group, potentially reflecting more mature prefrontal brain activation patterns for females, and more mature parietal activation patterns for males. Gender by age interactions further supported this dissociation, revealing exclusive female-specific age correlations in inferior and medial prefrontal brain regions during both tasks, and exclusive male-specific age correlations in superior parietal (Switch task) and temporal regions (Simon task). These findings show increased recruitment of age-correlated prefrontal activation in females, and of age-correlated parietal activation in males, during tasks of cognitive control. Gender differences in frontal and parietal recruitment may thus be related to gender differences in the neurofunctional maturation of these brain regions.

  11. Variation of elemental concentration in hair of the Japanese in terms of age, sex and hair treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Takada, J.; Hayashi, Y.; Koyama, M.; Shinogi, M.; Aoki, A.; Tomiyama, T.; Katayama, K.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been performed on human hair of the normal Japanese individuals to define the baseline levels of trace elements. A statistical analysis which is not influenced by detection limits, has been carried out to elucidate the variations of elemental concentrations in terms of age, sex and hair treatment. Correlation coefficients have been calculated between the logarithmic concentrations of the elements determined in the groups classified according to sex, age and hair treatment. Their significant levels have been evaluated. (author)

  12. Size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis and the significance of patients' age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, A

    1981-01-01

    To determine the significance of patients' age and sex on the size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis, 420 consecutive phlebograms with acute deep vein thrombosis were studied. A significant correlation between the size of the thrombus and increasing age of the patient as well as the sex of male was noted. It is concluded that older patients and men often are at a high risk of pulmonary embolism at the time of diagnosis.

  13. Sex-specific effects of natural and sexual selection on the evolution of life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, C.R.; Duffy, E.; Hosken, D.J.; Mokkonen, M.; Okada, K.; Oku, K.; Sharma, M.D.; Hunt, J.

    2015-01-01

    1. Variation in the strength of age-dependent natural selection shapes differences in ageing rates across species and populations. Likewise, sexual selection can promote divergent patterns of senescence across the sexes. However, the effects of these processes on the evolution of ageing have largely

  14. Biopsychosocial problem-related distress in cancer: examining the role of sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karen; Bergerot, Cristiane Decat; Philip, Errol J; Buga, Sorin; Obenchain, Richard; Loscalzo, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    The current study explores how sex and age relate to biopsychosocial distress by applying a large-scale analysis among individuals diagnosed with a variety of cancers. A retrospective study was conducted involving 6462 patients treated for cancer at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center between 2009 and 2014. Patients were asked to complete the biopsychosocial problem-related distress touchscreen instrument prior to starting treatment as part of their routine clinical care. There was a significant interaction of age and sex on the total number of problems rated as high distress and the total number of problems that prompted a request to talk with a member of the team. Male patients between 18 and 39 reported significantly more problems as high distress than female patients in the same age group (mean = 5.34 and mean = 4.92, respectively; p = 0.005). A similar trend was found where male patients between 18-39 and 40-64 requested to talk with a member of the team significantly more often than female patients in these same age groups (mean = 3.25 and mean = 3.22 vs. mean = 2.70 and mean = 3.07, respectively; p = 0.016). The results of the current study serve to refute generalizations regarding age or gender demographics and support preferences and thus reinforce the need to offer services in the context of cancer in flexible and varied ways. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effects of age and sex on blood biochemistry of dorper lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Espírito Santo da Cruz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological variations and influence of age group and sex on biochemical variables of 32 male and female Dorper sheep at the age of 15 to 121 days. Four blood samples were collected from each animal, at monthly intervals, totaling 128 samples. Biochemical variables determined in each sample were total protein (TP, albumin (ALB, globulin (GLB, albumin/globulin ratio (A/G, glucose (GLU, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (tCHOL, high density cholesterol carrying lipoproteins (HDL-C, low density cholesterol carrying lipoproteins (LDL-C, very low density cholesterol carrying lipoproteins (VLDL-C, urea, creatinine (CRE, total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa, phosphorus (P, calcium/phosphorus ratio (Ca/P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. The results were obtained in four moments according to age: M1 - sheep from 15 to 30 days, M2 - sheep from 45 to 61 days, M3 - sheep from 74 to 90 days and M4 - sheep from 105 to 121 days. Comparing the values of the biochemical variables among the four age groups studied a significant difference (p 0.05 the values of the biochemical variables analyzed. Based on the results, it is concluded that the age groups exert a significant influence on the majority of blood biochemical variables of Dorper sheep from 15 to 121 days of age.

  16. THE AGE OF FREE WILL AND HUMAN VALUES : Sex Tourisms Evolution and Its Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mahfuz; Baghdasaryan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discussed about sex tourism which refers to how sex tourism works and its history. Human trafficking and sex trafficking was discussed as well as sex tourism which is involved directly to tourism industry was explained. The main goal of this thesis was to raise awareness of sex tourism violations. This thesis is about sex tourism and discussed the definition of rules and regulations from different international organizations and international newspapers and magazines as well a...

  17. Vasopressin regulates social recognition in juvenile and adult rats of both sexes, but in sex- and age-specific ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, A H; Bredewold, R; De Vries, G J

    2012-01-01

    In adult male rats, vasopressin (AVP) facilitates social recognition via activation of V1a receptors within the lateral septum. Much less is known about how AVP affects social recognition in adult females or in juvenile animals of either sex. We found that administration of the specific V1a receptor antagonist d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2)]AVP into the lateral septum of adult rats impaired, whereas AVP extended, social discrimination in both sexes. In juveniles, however, we detected a sex difference, such that males but not females showed social discrimination. Interestingly, administration of the V1a receptor antagonist to juveniles (either intracerebroventricularly or locally in the lateral septum) did not prevent social discrimination, but instead significantly decreased the investigation of a novel as opposed to a familiar animal in both sexes, with stronger effects in males. V1a receptors were found to be abundantly expressed in the lateral septum with higher binding density in females than in males. These findings demonstrate that activation of V1a receptors in the lateral septum is important for social recognition in both sexes, and that the roles of septal V1a receptors in social recognition change during development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Genotype Lines, Age at Slaughter and Sexes on the Composition of Rabbit Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Polak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition (water, proteins, ash, intramuscular fat, cholesterol, fatty acid composition, sensory characteristics and instrumental profiles (colour and texture of lean rabbit meat were investigated. It originated from animals of three different lines of SIKA genotype (A – mother line, C – father line, AC – hybrid of mother and father lines, two animal ages at slaughter (93 and 105 days and both sexes. Rabbits were fed a commercial diet ad libitum. The boneless muscles of the back (longissimus lumborum including muscles of abdominal wall and hind legs were sampled from thirty-six animals. On the average rabbit meat contains 71.5 % of water, 22.0 % of proteins, 1.17 % of ash, 5.4 % of intramuscular fat, 67.6 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of fresh meat, and as for fatty acid composition, 34.1 % belong to monounsaturated, 25.1 % to polyunsaturated and 40.9 % to saturated fatty acids. The P/S mass ratio (0.62, the atherogenic index (0.70, the n-6/n-3 ratio (8.1 and the cholesterol content show that the rabbit meat can and should be included into a balanced human diet. Meat of female rabbits contains more intramuscular fat and cholesterol compared to the male ones (5.7 vs. 5.2 g of intramuscular fat/100 g; p0.05; 71.5 vs. 63.7 mg of cholesterol/100 g, respectively; p0.01. Genotype line does not affect either the fatty acid profile or the content of cholesterol, but it has a significant impact on intramuscular fat (A line 5.0 g/100 g; AC line 5.9 g/100 g; C line 5.4 g/100 g; p0.05 as well as on cutting values across the fibres (Instron apparatus; A line 43 N; AC line 38 N; C line 42 N; p0.05. Meat of 105-day-old rabbits contains more intramuscular fat (5.7 vs. 5.2 g/100 g; respectively; p0.05 and shows darker and redder colour (both sensorially evaluated colour as well as instrumentally measured L* and a* values; p0.01 compared to the 93-day-old ones.

  19. Are incident gallstones associated to sex-dependent changes with age? A cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, D M; Holmboe, S A; Sørensen, L T

    2017-01-01

    Age and female sex have repeatedly been identified as gallstone determinants but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. The objectives of this study were to determine if changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were associated with incident gallstones. A cohort...... pressure, blood lipids, self-rated health), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, dietary habits, physical activity level), and indices of reproductive function (number of births, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, male reproductive hormones) were explored in females...... (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.90; 0.98]) and the cessation of hormone replacement therapy (OR 0.29, 95% CI [0.10; 0.83]) inversely determined incident gallstones. In males, increasing levels of SHBG (OR 0.97, 95% CI [0.94; 0.998]) inversely determined incident gallstones. Other changes...

  20. Association of Donor Age and Sex With Survival of Patients Receiving Transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Following animal model data indicating the possible rejuvenating effects of blood from young donors, there have been at least 2 observational studies conducted with humans that have investigated whether donor age affects patient outcomes. Results, however, have been conflicting...... and Denmark who received at least 1 red blood cell transfusion of autologous blood or blood from unknown donors between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012. Patients were followed up from the first transfusion until death, emigration, or end of follow-up. Data analysis was performed from September 15...... to November 15, 2016. Exposures: The number of transfusions from blood donors of different age and sex. Exposure was treated time dependently throughout follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) for death and adjusted cumulative mortality differences, both estimated using Cox proportional...

  1. The clinical presentation of acute bacterial meningitis varies with age, sex and duration of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson Kostenniemi, Urban; Norman, David; Borgström, Malin; Silfverdal, Sven Arne

    2015-11-01

    This Swedish study reviewed differences in clinical presentation and laboratory findings of acute bacterial meningitis in children aged one month to 17 years in Västerbotten County, Sweden. A register-based study was performed for the period 1986 to 2013 using the Västerbotten County Council's patient registration and laboratory records at the Department of Laboratory Medicine at Umeå University Hospital. The medical records were reviewed to extract data and confirm the diagnosis. We found 103 cases of acute bacterial meningitis, and Haemophilus influenzae was the most common pathogen, causing 40.8% of all cases, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae at 30.1% and Neisseria meningitidis at 9.7%. Significant differences in clinical presentation and laboratory findings were found. Younger children were more unwell than older ones and had more diffuse symptoms on admission. In addition, important sex-related differences were found that might explain the higher case fatality rates for boys than girls. For example, boys tended to have a higher disturbance in the blood-brain barrier, which is known to be a negative prognostic factor. This study showed that clinical presentation for acute bacterial meningitis varied with age and sex and, to a lesser extent, on the duration of the illness. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Integrated analysis of ischemic stroke datasets revealed sex and age difference in anti-stroke targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures.

  3. Family functioning in the context of parental bipolar disorder: associations with offspring age, sex, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Rachel D; Tompson, Martha C; Wang, Christine H; Otto, Michael W; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Henin, Aude

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has shown that families with a parent who has bipolar disorder (BD) may experience family functioning difficulties. However, the association between family functioning and psychopathology among offspring of parents with BD, and offspring characteristics that may moderate this association, remains poorly understood. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between family functioning (cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict) and psychopathology in 117 offspring (ages 5-18) of 75 parents with BD. We also examined whether age and sex differences moderated these associations. We measured offspring psychopathology by examining current dimensional symptoms and DSM-IV emotional and behavioral disorders. Correlational analyses indicated that higher family conflict and lower cohesion were associated with higher internalizing and externalizing symptoms in offspring. Lower family cohesion was also associated with current offspring mood disorders. Moderation analyses indicated, first, that the link between lower family cohesion and internalizing symptoms was stronger for younger offspring compared to older offspring. Second, higher family conflict and current mood disorder were associated in younger males but not in older males or in females. Results remained the same after controlling for parental anxiety or substance use disorder comorbidity. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for family functioning when working with offspring at risk for BD, while also recognizing that the connections between family functioning and offspring outcomes are complex and differ based on offspring sex and developmental stage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer [ 14 C]-α-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels

  5. LIFE QUALITY IN CASES WITH CHRONICAL DEGENERATIVE ILLNESS OF LOCOMOTIVE SYSTEM REGARDING SEX, AGE AND OVERWEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevera Bećarević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of muscle and skeleton system are related to pain, functional damages and inability to work. Measure of life quality offers a sequence of data on illness influence on everyday functioning. The aim of this paper is evaluation of life quality in cases with degenerative illnesses of locomotive system and influence of sex, age, weist and BMI on life quality. Epidemiologic research was conducted on 71 tested subjects with diagnosis of chronical degenerative reumatical illness. Tested subject were measured weist values, BMI was determined and all of them fulfilled EQ5D questionnaire for life quality assessment. According to VAS scale their health condition was evaluated. Life quality of tested subjects was decreased especially in department of depression and increased concern (2.30 – 2.57 as well as pain and discomfort (2.11 – 2.31. We didn't determine statistically significant sex influence (p> 0,05, age, (p> 0,05 weist values (p> 0,05 or BMI (p> 0,05 our tested subjects life quality. According to VAS scale health condition of tested subjects is low (6, 76 ± 1,04.

  6. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  7. Sex, Age, and Individual Differences in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Response to Environmental Enrichment

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    Holli C. Eskelinen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of environmental enrichment, as a means to successfully decrease undesired behaviors (e.g., stereotypic and improve animal welfare, has been documented in a variety of zoological species. However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists concerning age, sex, and individual differences in response to various types of enrichment tools and activities in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. This study involved a comparative assessment of enrichment participation of three resident, bottlenose dolphin populations, over the course of 17 months, with respect to sex and age class (calf, sub-adult, adult. Enrichment sessions were randomly assigned, conducted, and categorically assessed based on participation during seven, broad based enrichment classes (Object, Ingestible, Human, or a combination of the three. Overall, the proportion of participation in enrichment sessions was high (≥ 0.74, with individual differences in participation noted among the three populations. Sessions involving Humans and/or Ingestible items resulted in a significantly higher mean proportion of participation. Sub-adult and adult males were significantly more likely to participate in enrichment sessions, as well as engage in Human Interaction/Object sessions. Calves participated significantly more than adults or sub-adults across all enrichment classes with no noted differences between males and females. These data can serve as a tool to better understand the intricacies of bottlenose dolphin responses to enrichment in an effort to develop strategic enrichment plans with the goal of improving animal well-being and welfare.

  8. Oxytocin Modulates Meta-Mood as a Function of Age and Sex

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    Natalie eEbner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attending to and understanding one’s own feelings are components of meta-mood and constitute important socio-affective skills across the entire lifespan. Growing evidence suggests a neuromodulatory role of the neuropeptide oxytocin on various socio-affective processes. Going beyond previous work that almost exclusively examined young men and perceptions of emotions in others, the current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin on meta-mood in young and older men and women. In a double-blind between-group design, participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before responding to items from the Trait Meta-Mood Scale about attention to feelings and clarity of feelings. In contrast to older women, oxytocin relative to placebo increased attention to feelings in older men. Oxytocin relative to placebo enhanced meta-mood in young female participants but reduced it in older female participants. This pattern of findings supports an age- and sex-differential modulatory function of the neuropeptide oxytocin on meta-mood, possibly associated with neurobiological differences with age and sex.

  9. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  10. Predicting healthy lifestyle patterns among retirement age older adults in the WELL study: a latent class analysis of sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, Marita; Wang, Wei Chun; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of retirement age older adults with respect to their lifestyle patterns of eating, drinking, smoking, physical activity and TV viewing behaviors, and to examine the association between these patterns and socio-demographic covariates. The sample consisted of 3133 older adults aged 55-65 years from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study, 2010. This study used latent class analysis (stratified by sex), with a set of lifestyle indicators and including socio-demographic covariates. Statistical analyses were performed by generalized linear latent and mixed models in Stata. Two classes of lifestyle patterns were identified: Healthy (53% men and 72% women) and less healthy lifestyles. Physical activity, TV-viewing time, and fruit intake were good indicators distinguishing the "Healthier" class, whereas consumption of vegetables, alcohol (men) and fast food (women) could not clearly discriminate older adults in the two classes. Class membership was associated with education, body mass index, and self-rated health. This study contributes to the literature on lifestyle behaviors among older adults, and provides evidence that there are meaningful sex differences in lifestyle behaviors between subgroups of older adults. From a policy perspective, understanding indicators or "markers" of healthy and less healthy lifestyle patterns is important for identifying target groups for interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metazoan parasite fauna of the bigeye flounder, Hippoglossina macrops, from Northern Chile. Influence of host age and sex

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    González M Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The metazoan parasite fauna of Hippoglossina macrops (n = 123 from northern Chile (30°S is quantitatively described for the first time, and the role of host age and sex was evaluated. Twelve parasite species were recovered, including 5 ectoparasites (2 Monogenea, 2 Copepoda and 1 Piscicolidae and 7 endoparasites (1 Digenea, 3 Cestoda, 2 Acanthocephala, and 1 Nematoda. The copepod Holobomolochus chilensis, the monogenean Neoheterobothrium sp., the adult acanthocephalan Floridosentis sp. and the hirudinean, Gliptonobdella sp. are new geographical and host records. The most prevalent ectoparasitic species were the monogenean, Neoheterobothrium sp. and the copepod, H. chilensis. Among endoparasites, the acanthocephalans Floridosentis sp. and Corynosoma australe were most prevalent and abundant. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection for most parasitic species were not affected by host sex, however the prevalence of Floridosentis sp. was significantly greater in males. Intensity of infection was positively correlated with host age for Neoheterobothrium sp., and negatively correlated for Floridosentis sp. and H. chilensis. The helminth species richness of the host H. macrops was lower compared to related flatfishes from the Northern Hemisphere. The relationship of the helminth fauna of H. macrops, its feeding habits and ecological habitats are discussed.

  12. β-cell serotonin production is associated with female sex, old age, and diabetes-free condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gi; Moon, Joon Ho; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Juok; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Junguee; Kang, Shinae; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Hail

    2017-11-25

    Serotonin is known to be present in pancreatic β-cells and to play several physiological roles, including insulin secretion, β-cell proliferation, and paracrine inhibition of α-cells. However, the serotonin production of different cell lines and islets has not been compared based on age, sex, and diabetes related conditions. Here, we directly compared the serotonin concentrations in βTC and MIN6 cell lines, as well as in islets from mice using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The average serotonin concentration was 5-10 ng/mg protein in the islets of male and non-pregnant female mice. The serotonin level was higher in females than males at 8 weeks, although there was no difference at 1 year. Furthermore, we observed serotonin by immunofluorescence staining in the pancreatic tissues of mice and human. Serotonin was detected by immunofluorescence staining in a portion of β-cells from islets of old female mice, but not of male or young female mice. A similar pattern was observed in human pancreas as well. In humans, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with a diabetes-free condition. Thus, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with old age, female sex, and diabetes-free condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations Between AUDIT-C and Mortality Vary by Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Katharine A.; Bowe, Thomas; Henderson, Patricia; Moos, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We sought to determine the sex- and age-specific risk of mortality associated with scores on the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test–Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire using data from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients. Men (N = 215,924) and women (N = 9168) who completed the AUDIT-C in a patient survey were followed for 24 months. AUDIT-C categories (0, 1–4, 5–8, 9–12) were evaluated as predictors of mortality in logistic regression models, adjusted for age, race, education, marital status, smoking, depression, and comorbidities. For women, AUDIT-C scores of 9–12 were associated with a significantly increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (odds ratio [OR] 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67, 18.82). For men overall, AUDIT-C scores of 5–8 and 9–12 were associated with increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.21, and OR 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.84, respectively) but these associations varied by age. These results provide sex- and age-tailored risk information that clinicians can use in evidence-based conversations with patients about the health-related risks of their alcohol consumption. This study adds to the growing literature establishing the AUDIT-C as a scaled marker of alcohol-related risk or “vital sign” that might facilitate the detection and management of alcohol-related risks and problems. (Population Health Management 2010;13:263–268) PMID:20879907

  14. Associations between AUDIT-C and mortality vary by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex H S; Bradley, Katharine A; Bowe, Thomas; Henderson, Patricia; Moos, Rudolf

    2010-10-01

    We sought to determine the sex- and age-specific risk of mortality associated with scores on the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire using data from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients. Men (N = 215,924) and women (N = 9168) who completed the AUDIT-C in a patient survey were followed for 24 months. AUDIT-C categories (0, 1-4, 5-8, 9-12) were evaluated as predictors of mortality in logistic regression models, adjusted for age, race, education, marital status, smoking, depression, and comorbidities. For women, AUDIT-C scores of 9-12 were associated with a significantly increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (odds ratio [OR] 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67, 18.82). For men overall, AUDIT-C scores of 5-8 and 9-12 were associated with increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.21, and OR 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.84, respectively) but these associations varied by age. These results provide sex- and age-tailored risk information that clinicians can use in evidence-based conversations with patients about the health-related risks of their alcohol consumption. This study adds to the growing literature establishing the AUDIT-C as a scaled marker of alcohol-related risk or "vital sign" that might facilitate the detection and management of alcohol-related risks and problems.

  15. Effect of age, sex and level of surgical difficulty on inflammatory complications after third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunde, Otasowie D; Saheeb, Birch D

    2015-03-01

    Patients' factors such as age and sex and surgical variables such as level of difficulty have been linked with surgical outcome in third molar surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of these variables on inflammatory complications in patients undergoing third molar surgery. Patients referred to our institution for surgical extraction of their impacted lower third molar between January 2007 and December 2008 were the subjects of the study. Patients' demographics as well as types of impaction, indication and level of difficulty based on Pederson criteria were obtained. Post operative pain, swelling and mouth opening limitation were evaluated at day 1, day 2, day 3, day 5 and 1 week after the surgery and analyzed. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 150 patients aged 16-38 years (25.9 ± 4.47) met the inclusion criteria. Male accounted for 66 (44.0 %) while females were 84 (56.0 %), giving male to female ratio of 1:1.3. Age, sex and difficulty index had no effect on pain and trismus throughout the periods of postoperative evaluation (p > 0.05). Postoperative swelling was not affected by gender but patients above 25 years who had high scores of difficulty index had more facial swelling. The results of this study shows that age, gender and the level of surgical difficulty have no effect on pain and mouth opening limitation after third molar surgery.

  16. Impact of sex steroid ablation on viral, tumour and vaccine responses in aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy S P Heng

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the decline in resistance to viral infections with age occurs predominantly as a result of a gradual loss of naïve antigen-specific T cells. As such, restoration of the naïve T cell repertoire to levels seen in young healthy adults may improve defence against infection in the aged. We have previously shown that sex steroid ablation (SSA rejuvenates the ageing thymus and increases thymic export of naïve T cells, but it remains unclear whether T cell responses are improved. Using mouse models of clinically relevant diseases, we now demonstrate that SSA increases the number of naïve T cells able to respond to antigen, thereby enhancing effector responses in aged mice. Specifically, aged mice exhibit a delay in clearing influenza A virus, which correlates with diminished specific cytotoxic activity. This is due to a decreased magnitude of response and not an intrinsic defect in effector T cell function. Upon SSA, aged mice exhibit increased T cell responsiveness that restores efficient viral clearance. We further demonstrate that SSA decreases the incidence of an inducible tumour in aged mice and can potentially increase their responsiveness to a low-dose human papillomavirus vaccine in clearing pre-formed tumours. As thymectomy abrogates the increase in T cell numbers and responsiveness following SSA, we propose that the T cell effects of SSA are dependent on thymic reactivation and subsequent replenishment of the peripheral T cell pool with newly emigrated naïve T cells. These findings have important implications for strategies to improve protection from infection and responsiveness to vaccination in the aged.

  17. Learning to remember: Cognitive training-induced attenuation of age-related memory decline depends on sex and cognitive demand, and can transfer to untrained cognitive domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talboom, Joshua S.; West, Stephen G.; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B.; Enders, Craig K.; Crain, Ian; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive changes in learning and memory. A potential approach to attenuate age-related cognitive decline is cognitive training. In this study, adult male and female rats were given either repeated exposure to a T-maze, or no exposure to any maze, and then tested on a final battery of cognitive tasks. Two groups of each sex were tested from 6-18 months old on the same T-maze; one group received a version testing spatial reference memory, and the other group received only the procedural testing components with minimal cognitive demand. Groups three and four of each sex had no maze exposure until the final battery, and were comprised of aged or young rats. The final maze battery included the practiced T-maze plus two novel tasks, one with a similar, and one with a different, memory type to the practice task. The fifth group of each sex was not maze tested, serving as an aged control for the effects of maze testing on neurotrophin protein levels in cognitive brain regions. Results showed that adult intermittent cognitive training enhanced performance on the practice task when aged in both sexes, that cognitive training benefits transferred to novel tasks only in females, and that cognitive demand was necessary for these effects since rats receiving only the procedural testing components showed no improvement on the final maze battery. Further, for both sexes, rats that showed faster learning when young demonstrated better memory when aged. Age-related increases in neurotrophin concentrations in several brain regions were revealed, which was related to performance on the training task only in females. This longitudinal study supports the tenet that cognitive training can help one remember later in life, with broader enhancements and associations with neurotrophins in females. PMID:25104561

  18. Self-Esteem, Parent Identification and Sex Role Development in Preschool Age Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Donald P.

    1971-01-01

    Self esteem was shown to be associated more closely to high sex role orientation for boys and low sex role adoption for girls; while father identification, for boys only, was related to moderate levels of sex role orientation and sex role preference. Bibliography. (Author)

  19. Including Online-Recruited Seeds: A Respondent-Driven Sample of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, Nathan John; Lal, Allan; Forrest, Jamie I; Card, Kiffer George; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Rich, Ashleigh; Raymond, Henry Fisher; Roth, Eric A; Moore, David M; Hogg, Robert S

    2016-03-15

    Technology has changed the way men who have sex with men (MSM) seek sex and socialize, which may impact the implementation of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) among this population. Initial participants (also known as seeds) are a critical consideration in RDS because they begin the recruitment chains. However, little information is available on how the online-recruited seeds may effect RDS implementation. The objectives of this study were to compare (1) online-recruited versus offline-recruited seeds and (2) subsequent recruitment chains of online-recruited versus offline-recruited seeds. Between 2012 and 2014, we recruited MSM using RDS in Vancouver, Canada. RDS weights were used with logistic regression to address each objective. A total of 119 seeds were used, 85 of whom were online-recruited seeds, to recruit an additional 600 MSM. Compared with offline-recruited seeds, online-recruited seeds were less likely to be HIV-positive (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.88), to have attended a gay community group (AOR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.90), and to feel gay community involvement was "very important" (AOR 0.16, 95% CI 0.03-0.93). Online-recruited seeds were more likely to ask a sexual partner's HIV status always versus online (AOR 4.29, 95% CI 1.53-12-12.05). Further, compared with recruitment chains started by offline-recruited seeds, recruits from chains started by online-recruited seeds (283/600, 47.2%) were less likely to be HIV-positive (AOR 0.25, 95% CI 0.16-0.40), to report "versatile" versus "bottom" sexual position preference (AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.88), and to be in a relationship lasting >1 year (AOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06-2.56). Recruits of online seeds were more likely to be out as gay for longer (eg, 11-21 vs 1-4 years, AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.27-3.88) and have fewer Facebook friends (eg, 201-500 vs >500, AOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.80). Online-recruited seeds were more prevalent, recruited fewer participants, but were different from those recruited offline. This may therefore

  20. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables.

  1. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex on the brain! Associations between sexual activity and cognitive function in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hayley; Jenks, Rebecca A

    2016-03-01

    the relationship between cognition and sexual activity in healthy older adults is under-researched. A limited amount of research in this area has shown that sexual activity is associated with better cognition in older men. The current study explores the possible mediating factors in this association in men and women, and attempts to provide an explanation in terms of physiological influences on cognitive function. using newly available data from Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, the current study explored associations between sexual activity and cognition in adults aged 50-89 (n = 6,833). Two different tests of cognitive function were analysed: number sequencing, which broadly relates to executive function, and word recall, which broadly relates to memory. after adjusting for age, education, wealth, physical activity, depression, cohabiting, self-rated health, loneliness and quality of life, there were significant associations between sexual activity and number sequencing and recall in men. However, in women there was a significant association between sexual activity and recall, but not number sequencing. possible mediators of these associations (e.g. neurotransmitters) are discussed. The cross-sectional nature of the analysis is limiting, but provides a promising avenue for future explorations and longitudinal studies. The findings have implications for the promotion of sexual counselling in healthcare settings, where maintaining a healthy sex life in older age could be instrumental in improving cognitive function and well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  3. Sex Differences in Balance Among Alpine Ski Racers: Cross-Sectional Age Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschner, Christian; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Mohr, Johanna; Müller, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    Although balance is a key ability in the strength demands of alpine ski racing, affecting both performance and injury prevention, few studies have examined balance or related sex differences among still-maturing athletes. In this 10-year study, we investigated cross-sectional balance performances at different age periods of a representative sample of over 500 11-18-year-old elite skiers of both genders. Participants performed balance tests using the MFT S3-Check. Left-right and forward-backward movements were used to calculate sensory and symmetry balance scores, which were both incorporated into a stability score. Mann-Whitney U tests assessed gender-specific differences by age-group with a significance level set at p gender differences only on forward-backward measurements for 14-16-year-olds, with females showing better stability and sensory (but not symmetry) scores than males. Thus, gender interacted with age and maturation to influence balance ability in these participants. Additionally, these rare 10-year data support coaches in their training and talent development of maturing athletes by providing important sport-, age-, and gender-specific normative comparison data for individual trainees.

  4. [Quantitative and qualitative changes in the sex chromatin of diabetic women of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiumov, E G; Dmitrieva, E N

    1975-01-01

    There was revealed a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of occurrence of sex chromatine (SC) in the patients (female) suffering from diabetes mellitus aged from 15 to 65 years before the treatment in comparison with the healthy women. After the compensation of the carbohydrate metabolism there was noted its further reduction in the patients aged from 25 to 65 years. In 15-65-year women who contracted diabetes mellitus there was an increase in the circular form of the SC bodies looking like thickenings of the nuclear membrane; SC bodies of round shape enlarged as well in women aged from 25 to 65 years. Oval, triangular and semicircular forms decreased in all the age groups. After the compensation of the carbohydrate metabolism the content of the SC bodies of various shapes remained the same as at the beginning of the disease without returning to the normal level. The area of the SC bodies enlargement was statistically significant in women who fell ill with diabetes mellitus.

  5. Challenging social myths and stereotypes of women and aging: heterosexual women talk about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron; Gott, Merryn

    2008-01-01

    Cultural representations of aging and sexuality combine to paint a particular picture of mid and later life for women: menopause is constructed as a time when women either lose or renew their interest in sex, and later life a time when sexual activity no longer assumes importance yet remains vital to healthy aging. This article examines the importance of sexual activity to "older" women, paying particular attention to how they negotiate such representations. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 women aged 50 and older recruited from Sheffield, UK. A material-discursive analysis revealed that whilst participants rejected the asexual discourse of aging they accepted it for women older than themselves. They constructed women per se as sexually complex, in comparison to men, making sexual activity "risky business" for women, and positioned their own sexual desire as responsive, either to a man's sexual desire or to their own hormones. Finally, sexual activity was constructed as having psychological and physiological benefits for couples within committed relationships. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for research, theory and clinical practice.

  6. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Donald S A; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D; Ain, Kenneth B; Cooper, David S; Fein, Henry G; Haugen, Bryan R; Ladenson, Paul W; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S; Skarulis, Monica C; Steward, David L; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R; Maxon, Harry R; Sherman, Steven I

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R(2)). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45-50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50-55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003-0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation.

  7. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804

  8. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  9. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  10. References of Birth Weights for Gestational Age and Sex from a Large Cohort of Singleton Births in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  11. Self-concept of academic ability as a function of sex, age, and academic achievement among African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboya, M M

    1998-08-01

    This study examined (a) sex and age variations for scores on Self-concept of Academic Ability and academic achievement among 244 African adolescents attending a coeducational high school and (b) correlations between scores on Self-concept of Academic Ability and academic achievement by sex and age. No significant sex differences were found, but there were significant age differences on the Self-concept scores and measures of English, science, and history but not in mathematics. A significant positive correlation was found between Self-concept scores and academic achievement for boys and girls and in all age groups, but the magnitude of the correlations with achievement in mathematics was stronger among boys than among girls.

  12. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-05-10

    This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Age, sex, and telomere dynamics in a long-lived seabird with male-biased parental care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Young

    Full Text Available The examination of telomere dynamics is a recent technique in ecology for assessing physiological state and age-related traits from individuals of unknown age. Telomeres shorten with age in most species and are expected to reflect physiological state, reproductive investment, and chronological age. Loss of telomere length is used as an indicator of biological aging, as this detrimental deterioration is associated with lowered survival. Lifespan dimorphism and more rapid senescence in the larger, shorter-lived sex are predicted in species with sexual size dimorphism, however, little is known about the effects of behavioral dimorphism on senescence and life history traits in species with sexual monomorphism. Here we compare telomere dynamics of thick-billed murres (Urialomvia, a species with male-biased parental care, in two ways: 1 cross-sectionally in birds of known-age (0-28 years from one colony and 2 longitudinally in birds from four colonies. Telomere dynamics are compared using three measures: the telomere restriction fragment (TRF, a lower window of TRF (TOE, and qPCR. All showed age-related shortening of telomeres, but the TRF measure also indicated that adult female murres have shorter telomere length than adult males, consistent with sex-specific patterns of ageing. Adult males had longer telomeres than adult females on all colonies examined, but chick telomere length did not differ by sex. Additionally, inter-annual telomere changes may be related to environmental conditions; birds from a potentially low quality colony lost telomeres, while those at more hospitable colonies maintained telomere length. We conclude that sex-specific patterns of telomere loss exist in the sexually monomorphic thick-billed murre but are likely to occur between fledging and recruitment. Longer telomeres in males may be related to their homogamous sex chromosomes (ZZ or to selection for longer life in the care-giving sex. Environmental conditions appeared to

  14. Menopausal age and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Farholt, S

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate age at menopause and serum sex hormone profiles in postmenopausal women with stable chronic liver disease, six non-cirrhotic alcoholics, 13 with alcoholic cirrhosis, eight with non-alcoholic cirrhosis, and 46 healthy controls were studied. In all three groups, patients were...... and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) (p less than 0.05). The observed changes may be a consequence of liver disease since similar changes were observed in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, but an additional effect of alcohol cannot be excluded....... significantly (p less than 0.05) younger at the time of natural menopause than controls. Compared to controls, non-cirrhotic alcoholic women had significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced levels of DHAS, significantly (p less than 0.05) more alcoholic cirrhotic women had detectable oestradiol concentrations...

  15. Risk of Stroke in Migraineurs Using Triptans. Associations with Age, Sex, Stroke Severity and Subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albieri, Vanna; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2016-01-01

    for a first stroke were identified in the Danish Registries. Information on stroke severity/subtype and cardiovascular risk factors was available for stroke patients. FINDINGS: Of the 49,711 patients hospitalized for a first stroke, 1084 were migraineurs using triptans. Adjusting for age, sex, income......, and educational level, risk for stroke was higher among migraineurs in respect to all strokes (RR 1.07; CI 1.01-1.14) and ischemic strokes (RR 1.07; CI 1.00-1.14). Risk for hemorrhagic stroke was increased but only in women (RR 1.41; CI 1.11-1.79). Risk was for mild strokes (RR 1.31; CI 1.16-1.48) while risk...

  16. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Åsa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10−8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  17. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Randall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%, including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9 and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG, all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8, but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

  18. The prevalence of Non-suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among high school students in relation to age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kądziela-Olech, Halina; Zak, Gabriel; Kalinowska, Barbara; Wągrocka, Anna; Perestret, Grzegorz; Bielawski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The undertaken research aimed at determining the frequency of deliberate self-injurious behaviour (D-SIB) among the students of secondary schools and also the analysis of the frequency of repeated Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) occurrences in accordance with DSM-5 criteria in reference to the age and sex in the studied population. The data was collected via survey method according to the questionnaire prepared in compliance with the criteria DSM-5 and Self-Harm Inventory. The study included randomly selected students: 1193 boys and 1027 girls in Bialystok aged 12 and 19 (average age ± SD:16.8 ± 1.65). Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the application Statistica 10.0 PL, StatSoft. These results indicate that D-SIB and NSSI affect both sexes. In the studied group 8.3 % of students engage in deliberate self-injurious behaviour. The percentage of NSSI was 4.8% (6.3% in the group of boys, 3.2 % among girls; p(Chi2)=0.01). Self-cutting was most common among 15-year-old pupils ((D-SIB:14.75%; NNSI:8.1%). The majority of respondents (82% of girls and 74% of boys) revealed that as a result of self-injury behaviour they experience relief. Conducting further research in the area of NSSI seems to be crucial due to chronicity and prevalence as well as the fact that numerous repeated self-injuries bringing relief or causing positive state of mind might indicate a mechanism similar to an addiction syndrome in adolescence.

  19. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehul D; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S; Patel, Ajay G; Joshi, Axay B

    2016-01-01

    To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases.

  20. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  1. Effects of Age, Colony, and Sex on Mercury Concentrations in California Sea Lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHuron, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Melin, Sharon R; Harris, Jeffrey D; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ (15)N) and carbon (δ (13)C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg(-1) ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg(-1) dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ (15)N or δ (13)C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  2. Conditioned taste aversion to ethanol in a social context: impact of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; Schatz, Kelcie C; Anderson, Rachel I; Spear, Linda P; Varlinskaya, Elena I

    2014-03-15

    Given that human adolescents place a high value on social interactions-particularly while consuming alcohol-the current study utilized a novel social drinking paradigm to examine rewarding and aversive properties of ethanol in non-water deprived rats that were housed and tested in groups of five same-sex littermates. On postnatal day P34 (adolescents) or P69 (adults), rats were habituated to the testing apparatus for 30 min. On the next day, animals were placed into the test apparatus and given 30 min access to a supersaccharin solution (3% sucrose; 0.125% saccharin), followed immediately by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Subsequent intake of the supersacharrin solution was assessed on three consecutive test days. Adolescent males were less sensitive to ethanol's aversive effects than adult males, with adolescent males maintaining an aversion on all three test days only at the 1.5 g/kg dose, whereas adults demonstrated aversions across test days to 1 and 1.5 g/kg. Adolescent females maintained aversions to 1 and 1.5 g/kg across days, whereas adult females continued to show an aversion to the 1.5 g/kg dose only. These opposite patterns of sensitivity that emerged among males and females at each age in the propensity to maintain an ethanol-induced taste aversion under social conditions may contribute to age- and sex-related differences in ethanol intake. Testing in social groups may be useful for future work when studying rodent models of adolescent alcohol use given the importance that human adolescents place on drinking in social settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Age and sex differences in perceptions of networks of personal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, W; Buhrmester, D

    1992-02-01

    In this study, 549 youths in the fourth grade, seventh grade, tenth grade, and college completed Network of Relationship Inventories assessing their perceptions of their relationships with significant others. The findings were largely consistent with 7 propositions derived from major theories of the developmental courses of personal relationships. In particular, mothers and fathers were seen as the most frequent providers of support in the fourth grade. Same-sex friends were perceived to be as supportive as parents in the seventh grade, and were the most frequent providers of support in the tenth grade. Romantic partners moved up in rank with age until college, where they, along with friends and mothers, received the highest ratings for support. Age differences were also observed in perceptions of relationships with grandparents, teachers, and siblings. Finally, age differences in perceived conflict, punishment, and relative power suggested that there was a peak in tension in parent-child relationships in early and middle adolescence. Discussion centers around the role various relationships are perceived as playing at different points in development.

  4. First-Time Sports-Related Concussion Recovery: The Role of Sex, Age, and Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidecker, John M; Gealt, David B; Luksch, John R; Weaver, Martin D

    2017-10-01

    Concussion is one of the most common injuries in athletes. Current concussion consensus statements propose that female sex may be a modifying factor in concussion management and recovery. To determine whether female athletes in middle school and high school with a first-time, sports-related concussion remained symptomatic longer than their male counterparts. A retrospective medical record analysis was performed among athletes who sustained a concussion between 2011 and 2013. Inclusion criteria consisted of age between 11 and 18 years and diagnosis of first-time concussion sustained while playing organized sports. Using the documented notes in the medical record, length of time that each athlete was symptomatic from his or her concussion was calculated. A total of 110 male and 102 female athletes (N=212) met the eligibility criteria for the study. A significant difference was found in the median number of days female athletes remained symptomatic (28 days) when compared with male athletes (11 days) (Psports played. Female athletes aged 11 to 18 years with first-time, sports-related concussions remained symptomatic for a longer period when compared with male athletes of similar age, regardless of sport played. The mechanism behind this difference needs to be further elucidated.

  5. Effects of age and sex on 125I-β-CIT binding to DAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingdang; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of age and sex on 125 I-β-CIT binding to dopamine transporter (DAT). Methods: Detection of the differences in 125 I-β-CIT binding kinetics in vivo between 6 week and 6 month old KM mice, and the differences of in vivo binding between female and male, and between 3 month and 12 month old SD rats.The animals were sacrificed 2 h after injection. Results: Uptake of 125 I-β-CIT in the striatum, frontal cortex, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, occipital cortex, hippocampus, brain stem and whole brain in 6 week old mice was higher than that in 6 month old mice, and similar uptake pattern happened in between 3 month old and in 12 month old SD rats. In 12 months old SD rats, female rats had higher uptake in the striatum than male rats did. Conclusions: Young mice and rats have a higher uptake of 125 I-β-CIT in the striatum than aged ones and female rats have a higher uptake than male ones do. This result indicates that the density of DAT in rat or mouse striatum may be reduced with aging

  6. Socioeconomic status and overweight prevalence in polish adolescents: the impact of single factors and a complex index of socioeconomic status in respect to age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Weronika Wuenstel, Justyna; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence. The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls.

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight Prevalence in Polish Adolescents: The Impact of Single Factors and a Complex Index of Socioeconomic Status in Respect to Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOWALKOWSKA, Joanna; WADOLOWSKA, Lidia; WERONIKA WUENSTEL, Justyna; SŁOWIŃSKA, Małgorzata Anna; NIEDŹWIEDZKA, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. Results The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls. PMID:25909059

  8. Tell me your life: including life stories in an adult development and aging course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdran, Montserrat; Fabà, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the learning impact of an assignment that consisted of interviewing and analyzing older people's life stories, and to explore how the assignment was evaluated by students. Participants in the study were 122 first-year social education students enrolled in an adult development and aging course. They evaluated the assignment using an eight-adjective questionnaire and were asked about the benefits of the task. Their answers to the questionnaire were then reviewed using content analysis. The results indicated that marks on the life story assignment predicted marks on an exam about basic course concepts. Students considered that the assignment was interesting, useful, and integrated into the course, although most of them also thought that it was very time-consuming. They identified benefits related to the explicit goals of the course (improvement in the learning of developmental concepts, the acquisition of research-related skills, and the deactivation of aging stereotypes) and personal, growth-related benefits. The authors discuss the difficulties posed by the assignment and its usefulness as a complement to more traditional, lecture-based teaching methods in adult development and aging courses.

  9. The importance of age, sex and place in understanding socioeconomic inequalities in allostatic load: Evidence from the Scottish Health Survey (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tony; Watts, Eleanor

    2016-02-09

    Given the broad spectrum of health and wellbeing outcomes that are patterned by socioeconomic position (SEP), it has been suggested that there may be common biological pathways linking SEP and health. Allostatic load is one such pathway, which aims to measure cumulative burden/dysregulation across multiple physiological systems. This study aimed to determine the contextual and demographic factors (age, sex and place) that may be important in better understanding the links between lower SEP and higher allostatic load. Data were from a nationally representative sample of adults (18+): the Scottish Health Survey (2008-2011). Higher SEP ('1') was defined as having 'Higher'-level, secondary school qualifications versus having lower level or no qualifications ('0'). For allostatic load, a range of 10 biomarkers across the cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems were used. Respondents were scored "1" for each biomarker that fell into the highest quartile of risk. Linear regressions were run in STATA, including SEP, age (continuous and as a 7-category variable), sex (male/female), urbanity (a 5-category variable ranging from primary cities to remote rural areas) and geographical location (based on 10 area-level healthboards). Interactions between SEP and each predictor, as well as stratified analyses, were tested. Lower SEP was associated with higher allostatic load even after adjusting for age, sex and place (b = -0.631, 95 % CI -0.795, -0.389, p < 0.001). There was no significant effect moderation between SEP and age, sex or place. Stratified analysis did show that the inequality identified in the baseline models widened with age, becoming significant at ages 35-44, before narrowing at older ages (75+). There was no difference by sex, but more mixed findings with regards place (urbanity or geographical location), with a mix of significant and non-significant results by SEP that did not appear to follow any pattern. Inequalities in allostatic load by educational

  10. Biometric gonioscopy and the effects of age, race, and sex on the anterior chamber angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; Foster, P J; Wamsley, S; Gutmark, J; Nolan, W; Seah, S K; Johnson, G J; Broman, A T

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To utilise a novel method for making measurements in the anterior chamber in order to compare the anterior chamber angles of people of European, African, and east Asian descent aged 40 years and over. Methods: A cross sectional study on 15 people of each sex from each decade from the 40s to the 70s, from each of three racial groups—black, white, and Chinese Singaporeans. Biometric gonioscopy (BG) utilises a slit lamp mounted reticule to make measurements from the apparent iris insertion to Schwalbe's line through a Goldmann one mirror goniolens. The main outcome measures were BG measurements of the anterior chamber angle as detailed above. Results: There was no significant difference in angle measurement between black, white, and Chinese races in this study. However, at younger ages people of Chinese race appeared to have deeper angles than white or black people, whereas the angles of older Chinese were significantly narrower (p = 0.004 for the difference in slope of BG by age between Chinese and both black and white people). Conclusion: The failure to detect a difference in angle measurements between these groups was surprising, given the much higher prevalence of angle closure among Chinese. It appears that the overall apparent similarity of BG means between Chinese and Western populations may mask very different trends with age. The apparently more rapid decline in angle width measurements with age among Chinese may be due to the higher prevalence of cataract or “creeping angle closure.” However, longitudinal inferences from cross sectional data are problematic, and this may represent a cohort phenomenon caused by the increasing prevalence of myopia in the younger Singaporean population. PMID:11801496

  11. Influence of age and sex on winter site fidelity of sanderlings Calidris alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Lourenço

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities. Winter site fidelity often varies among age groups, but sexual differences have seldom been recorded in birds. We studied a population of individually colour-marked sanderlings wintering in and around the Tejo estuary, a large estuarine wetland on the western coast of Portugal. For 160 individuals, sighted a total of 1,249 times between November 2009 and March 2013, we calculated the probability that they moved among five distinct wintering sites and how this probability is affected by distance between them. To compare site fidelity among age classes and sexes, as well as within the same winter and over multiple winters, we used a Site Fidelity Index (SFI. Birds were sexed using a discriminant function based on biometrics of a large set of molecularly sexed sanderlings (n = 990. The vast majority of birds were observed at one site only, and the probability of the few detected movements between sites was negatively correlated with the distance among each pair of sites. Hardly any movements were recorded over more than 15 km, suggesting small home ranges. SFI values indicated that juveniles were less site-faithful than adults which may reflect the accumulated knowledge and/or dominance of older animals. Among adults, females were significantly less site faithful than males. A sexual difference in winter site fidelity is unusual in shorebirds. SFI values show site-faithfulness is lower when multiple winters were considered, and most birds seem to chose a wintering site early in the season and use that site throughout the winter. Sanderlings show a very limited tendency to explore alternative wintering options, which might have implications for their survival when facing habitat change

  12. Early life status epilepticus and stress have distinct and sex-specific effects on learning, subsequent seizure outcomes, including anticonvulsant response to phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury. 3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event. Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eHeuskin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD. Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera.

  14. Effect of age and sex on the association between lipid profile and obesity among telecomunication workers in Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Darmawan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to examine the effects of age and sex on the association between various obesity parameters and lipid profile. The measurements of whole body obesity (body fat, body fat % and BMI, abdominal obesity (waist to hip ratio, waist to thigh ratio and waist circumference and lipid profile (HDL, LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride were performed on 112 telecom workers in Palembang (84 men and 28 women, age 25, 35, 45, and 55 years. All lipid parameters results depend on sex and age of subjects. The association between obesity assessments and HDL or LDL was independent of sex and age of subjects, whereas the association between obesity assessments and total cholesterol, VLDL and triglyceride is dependent on sex and age of subjects. Abdominal obesity has greater effect on VLDL and triglyceride levels than on other lipid parameters. Whole body obesity has equal effects on all lipid parameters. When comparing results of male and female subjects, obesity measurements and lipid profile association is stronger in male subjects of almost all age groups. The exception is a stronger association between abdominal obesity and VLDL or triglyceride levels in 45 years old female subjects. Obesity measurements and VLDL or triglyceride level association is independent of age, whereas obesity and total cholesterol association is stronger in younger subjects. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:251-6Keywords: Lipid profile, fat distribution, obesity, abdominal obesity

  15. Influence of age, sex and herd characteristics on the occurrence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E.M.; Tegtmeier, Conny; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    animals were sampled, and 3.6% of these excreted VTEC O157. These animals were located on 10 farms (17%). On average, 21% of the sampled animals in the positive herds excreted VTEC O157. Register data, including age, sex, breed, housing conditions and herd composition, were extracted from a database....... No influence of herd size or housing conditions was found. A strong effect of age was seen with 2-6-month-old calves as the high-risk age group (8.6% positive) in contrast to calves...

  16. Prevalence and associations of anisometropia with spherical ametropia, cylindrical power, age, and sex in refractive surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Stephan J; Richard, Gisbert; Katz, Toam

    2011-09-29

    To analyze the prevalence and associations of anisometropia with spherical ametropia, astigmatism, age, and sex in a refractive surgery population. Medical records of 27,070 eyes of 13,535 refractive surgery candidates were reviewed. Anisometropia, defined as the absolute difference in mean spherical equivalent powers between right and left eyes, was analyzed for subjective (A(subj)) and cycloplegic refraction (A(cycl)). Correlations between anisometropia (>1 diopter) and spherical ametropia, cylindrical power, age, and sex, were analyzed using χ² and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-Whitney tests and binomial logistic regression analyses. Power vector analysis was applied for further analysis of cylindrical power. Prevalence of A(subj) was 18.5% and of A(cycl) was 19.3%. In hyperopes, logistic regression analysis revealed that only spherical refractive error (odds ratio [OR], 0.72) and age (OR, 0.97) were independently associated with anisometropia. A(subj) decreased with increasing spherical ametropia and advancing age. Cylindrical power and sex did not significantly affect A(subj). In myopes all explanatory variables (spherical power OR, 0.93; cylindrical power OR, 0.75; age OR, 1.02; sex OR, 0.8) were independently associated with anisometropia. Cylindrical power was most strongly associated with anisometropia. Advancing age and increasing spherical/cylindrical power correlated positively with increasing anisometropia in myopic subjects. Female sex was more closely associated with anisometropia. This large-scale retrospective analysis confirmed an independent association between anisometropia and both spherical ametropia and age in refractive surgery candidates. Notably, an inverse relationship between these parameters in hyperopes was observed. Cylindrical power and female sex were independently associated with anisometropia in myopes.

  17. Coronary calcium predicts events better with absolute calcium scores than age-sex-race/ethnicity percentiles: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram; McClelland, Robyn L; Detrano, Robert; Wong, Nathan; Blumenthal, Roger S; Kondos, George; Kronmal, Richard A

    2009-01-27

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether age-sex-specific percentiles of coronary artery calcium (CAC) predict cardiovascular outcomes better than the actual (absolute) CAC score. The presence and extent of CAC correlates with the overall magnitude of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and with the development of subsequent coronary events. MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort study of 6,814 asymptomatic participants followed for coronary heart disease (CHD) events including myocardial infarction, angina, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or CHD death. Time to incident CHD was modeled with Cox regression, and we compared models with percentiles based on age, sex, and/or race/ethnicity to categories commonly used (0, 1 to 100, 101 to 400, 400+ Agatston units). There were 163 (2.4%) incident CHD events (median follow-up 3.75 years). Expressing CAC in terms of age- and sex-specific percentiles had significantly lower area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) than when using absolute scores (women: AUC 0.73 versus 0.76, p = 0.044; men: AUC 0.73 versus 0.77, p better model fit with the overall score. Both methods robustly predicted events (>90th percentile associated with a hazard ratio [HR] of 16.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.30 to 28.9, and score >400 associated with HR of 20.6, 95% CI: 11.8 to 36.0). Within groups based on age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific percentiles there remains a clear trend of increasing risk across levels of the absolute CAC groups. In contrast, once absolute CAC category is fixed, there is no increasing trend across levels of age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific categories. Patients with low absolute scores are low-risk, regardless of age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific percentile rank. Persons with an absolute CAC score of >400 are high risk, regardless of percentile rank. Using absolute CAC in standard groups performed better than age-, sex-, and race

  18. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Henry S; Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011-2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men's SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40-49 (men) or 60-69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral groups. Documenting the distribution and sociodemographic features

  19. Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Moskowitz, D S; Lavoie, Joel; D'Antono, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    Socio-demographics and workplace stress may affect men and women differently. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex-specific interactions among age, occupational status, and workplace Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) factors in relation to psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load levels representing multi-systemic "wear and tear". It was hypothesized that beyond main effects, D-C-S factors would be moderated by occupational status and age in sex-specific directions predictive of subjective psychiatric symptoms and objective physiological dysregulations. Participants included healthy male (n = 81) and female (n = 118) Montreal workers aged 20 to 64 years (Men: M = 39.4 years, SD = 11.3; Women: M = 42.8 years, SD = 11.38). The Job Content Questionnaire was administered to assess workplace D-C-S factors that included psychological demands, decisional latitude, and social support. Occupational status was coded using the Nam--Powers--Boyd system derived from the Canadian census. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sex-specific allostatic load indices were calculated based on fifteen biomarkers. Regression analyses revealed that higher social support was associated with less depressive symptoms in middle aged (p = 0.033) and older men (p = 0.027). Higher occupational status was associated with higher allostatic load levels for men (p = 0.035), while the reverse occurred for women (p = 0.048). Women with lower occupational status but with higher decision latitude had lower allostatic load levels, as did middle-aged (p = 0.031) and older women (p = 0.003) with higher psychological demands. In summary, age and occupational status moderated workplace stress in sex-specific ways that have occupational health implications.

  20. Course of mental symptoms in patients with stress-related exhaustion: does sex or age make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glise Kristina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sick leave due to mental health problems, especially among women, is a substantial problem in many countries, and a major reason for this is thought to be psychosocial stress. The recovery period of different patient groups with stress-related mental health problems can differ considerably. We have studied the course of mental health symptoms during 18 months of multimodal treatment in relation to sex and age in a group of patients with stress-related exhaustion. Methods The study group includes 232 patients (68% women referred to a stress clinic and who fulfilled the criteria for Exhaustion Disorder (ED. The majority also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for depression and/or anxiety; this was similar among women and men. Symptoms were assessed at baseline, three, six, 12 and 18 months by the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD. A total SMBQ mean score of ≥ 4 was used to indicate clinical burnout, which correlates well with the clinical diagnosis of ED. Results There were no statistically significant differences between women and men or between young and old patients in the self-reported symptoms at baseline. The proportion that had high burnout scores decreased over time, but one-third still had symptoms of clinical burnout after 18 months. Symptoms indicating probable depression or anxiety (present in 34% and 65% of the patients at baseline, respectively declined more rapidly, in most cases within the first three months, and were present only in one out of 10 after 18 months. The course of illness was not related to sex or age. The duration of symptoms before seeking health care, but not the level of education or co-morbid depression, was a predictor of recovery from symptoms of burnout after 18 months. Conclusions The course of mental illness in patients seeking specialist care for stress-related exhaustion was not related to sex or age. The burden of

  1. A review of sex differences in sexual jealousy, including self-report data, psychophysiological responses, interpersonal violence, and morbid jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R

    2003-01-01

    The specific innate modular theory of jealousy hypothesizes that natural selection shaped sexual jealousy as a mechanism to prevent cuckoldry, and emotional jealousy as a mechanism to prevent resource loss. Therefore, men should be primarily jealous over a mate's sexual infidelity and women over a mate's emotional infidelity. Five lines of evidence have been offered as support: self-report responses, psychophysiological data, domestic violence (including spousal abuse and homicide), and morbid jealousy cases. This article reviews each line of evidence and finds only one hypothetical measure consistent with the hypothesis. This, however, is contradicted by a variety of other measures (including reported reactions to real infidelity). A meta-analysis of jealousy-inspired homicides, taking into account base rates for murder, found no evidence that jealousy disproportionately motivates men to kill. The findings are discussed from a social-cognitive theoretical perspective.

  2. Enduring effects of severe developmental adversity, including nutritional deprivation, on cortisol metabolism in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Andrew, Ruth; Schmeidler, James; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2009-06-01

    In animal models, early life exposure to major environmental challenges such as malnutrition and stress results in persisting cardiometabolic, neuroendocrine and affective effects. While such effects have been associated with pathogenesis, the widespread occurrence of 'developmental programming' suggests it has adaptive function. Glucocorticoids may mediate 'programming' and their metabolism is known to be affected by early life events in rodents. To examine these relationships in humans, cortisol metabolism and cardiometabolic disease manifestations were examined in Holocaust survivors in relation to age at exposure and affective dysfunction, notably lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-one Holocaust survivors and 22 controls without Axis I disorder collected 24-h urine samples and were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and cardiometabolic diagnoses. Corticosteroids and their metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS); cortisol was also measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Holocaust survivors showed reduced cortisol by RIA, and decreased levels of 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF) and total glucocorticoid production by GC-MS. The latter was associated with lower cortisol metabolism by 5alpha-reductase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type-2. The greatest decrements were associated with earliest age of Holocaust exposure and less severe PTSD symptomatology. Cardiometabolic manifestations were associated with decreased 11beta-HSD-2 activity. In controls, 5alpha-reductase was positively associated with trauma-related symptoms (i.e., to traumatic exposures unrelated to the Holocaust). Extreme malnutrition and related stress during development is associated with long-lived alterations in specific pathways of glucocorticoid metabolism. These effects may be adaptive and link with lower risks of cardiometabolic and stress-related disorders in later life.

  3. A psychometric evaluation of the DSM-IV borderline personality disorder criteria: age and sex moderation of criterion functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggen, S. H.; Neale, M. C.; Røysamb, E.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T.; Kendler, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite its importance as a paradigmatic personality disorder, little is known about the measurement invariance of the DSM-IV borderline personality disorder (BPD) criteria ; that is, whether the criteria assess the disorder equivalently across different groups. Method BPD criteria were evaluated at interview in 2794 young adult Norwegian twins. Analyses, based on item-response modeling, were conducted to test for differential age and sex moderation of the individual BPD criteria characteristics given factor-level covariate effects. Results Confirmatory factor analytic results supported a unidimensional structure for the nine BPD criteria. Compared to males, females had a higher BPD factor mean, larger factor variance and there was a significant age by sex interaction on the factor mean. Strong differential sex and age by sex interaction effects were found for the ‘ impulsivity ’ criterion factor loading and threshold. Impulsivity related to the BPD factor poorly in young females but improved significantly in older females. Males reported more impulsivity compared to females and this difference increased with age. The ‘ affective instability ’ threshold was also moderated, with males reporting less than expected. Conclusions The results suggest the DSM-IV BPD ‘ impulsivity ’ and ‘ affective instability ’ criteria function differentially with respect to age and sex, with impulsivity being especially problematic. If verified, these findings have important implications for the interpretation of prior research with these criteria. These non-invariant age and sex effects may be identifying criteria-level expression features relevant to BPD nosology and etiology. Criterion functioning assessed using modern psychometric methods should be considered in the development of DSM-V. PMID:19400977

  4. Effect of Age and Sex on Histomorphometrical Characteristics of Two Muscles of Laticauda Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Velotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experiment was to determine the effect of sex and age on histochemical and morphometric characteristics of muscle fibres (myocytes in lambs born by single, twin, triplet and quadruplet birth. Thirty lambs were slaughtered at 60 days of age; thirty were weaned at 60 days and fed until 120 days with flakes (60% and food supplements, and then slaughtered. Muscle tissues were obtained from two muscles, namely m. semitendinosus and m. longissimus dorsi of all lambs. For each fibre type, area perimeter and diameter (maximum and minimum were measured and slow-twitch oxidative fibres, fast-twitch glycolytic fibres, fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibres were histochemically differentiated. The muscles were stained for myosin ATPase, and succinic dehydrogenase. At 60 days, females had fibres larger than males, whereas the opposite was observed at 120 days. Besides, at 60 days, the lambs born by single birth had fibres larger than those born by multiple birth, whereas the opposite was observed at 120 days. Single lambs were heavier than twin lambs and multiple lambs. Fast-twitch glycolytic fibres had the largest size, followed by slow-twitch oxidative and fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic fibres. The dimensions of fibre types in m. longissimus dorsi were larger than in m. semitendinosus (P < 0.001.These muscle fibre characteristics are thought to be important factors influencing meat quality, which is often related to metabolic and contractile properties as determined by the muscle fibre type distribution.

  5. The Influence of the Size, Age and Sex on the Computed Tomographic Measured Size of the Pituitary Gland in Normal Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crijns, C P; Van Bree, H J; Broeckx, B J G; Schauvliege, S; Van Loon, G; Martens, A; Vanderperren, K; Dingemanse, W B; Gielen, I M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the size, age and sex of the horse on the size of the pituitary gland and determine the possibility of using the pituitary gland height-to-brain area ratio (P:B ratio) to allow comparison of different sized and aged horses. Thirty-two horses without pituitary pars inter-media dysfunction that underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) examination were included in a cross-sectional study. On the CT images, the pituitary gland height was measured and the P:B ratio was calculated. These measurements were correlated to the size, age and sex of the horses. The pituitary gland height was significantly associated with the size (P horses. No significant association was found between the P:B ratio and the size (P = 0.25), the age (P = 0.06) or the sex (P = 0.25) of the horses. In conclusion, the pituitary gland size varies between different sized and aged horses. The use of the P:B ratio is a valuable metric for making comparisons between the pituitary glands of these horses. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  7. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădescu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Age- and sex-specific reference limits for creatinine, cystatin C and the estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Friedrich, Nele; Dittmann, Kathleen; Spielhagen, Christin; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Rettig, Rainer; Endlich, Karlhans; Lendeckel, Uwe; Stracke, Sylvia; Nauck, Matthias

    2011-11-14

    Early detection of patients with chronic kidney disease is of great importance. This study developed reference limits for serum creatinine and serum cystatin C concentrations and for the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in healthy subjects from the general population aged 25-65 years. This study defined a reference population including 985 subjects from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum creatinine was measured with a modified kinetic Jaffé method. Serum cystatin C was measured with a nephelometric assay. The eGFR was calculated from serum creatinine according to the Cockcroft-Gault (eGFR(CG)) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (eGFR(MDRD)) equation, respectively, as well as from serum cystatin C according to the formula by Larsson (eGFR(Larsson)). Non-parametric quantile regression was used to estimate the reference limits. For serum creatinine and serum cystatin C the 95th percentile and for eGFR(CG), eGFR(MDRD) and eGFR(Larsson) the 5th percentile were selected as reference limits. All data was weighted to reflect the age- and sex-structure of the German population in 2008. The reference limits for serum creatinine (men: 1.11-1.23 mg/dL; women: 0.93-1.00 mg/dL) and serum cystatin C levels (men: 0.92-1.04 mg/L; women: 0.84-1.02 mg/L) increased with advancing age. The reference limits for eGFR decreased with increasing age (eGFR(CG) men: 106.0-64.7 mL/min, women 84.4-57.9 mL/min; eGFR(MDRD) men: 82.5-62.2 mL/min/1.73 m², women 75.0-58.2 mL/min/1.73 m²; eGFR(Larsson) men: 85.5-72.9 mL/min, women 94.5-75.7 mL/min). This study presents age- and sex-specific reference limits for five measures of renal function based on quantile regression models.

  9. Experimental Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation: age- and sex-related differences in symptoms and mortality in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucca MB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various methods for evaluating animal venom toxicity, the calculation of the median lethal dose (LD50 is the most widely used. Although different protocols can be used to calculate the LD50, the source of the venom and the method of extraction, as well as the strain, age, and sex of the animal model employed, should be taken into consideration. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of sex and age on the toxicity of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in Swiss mice. Although the symptoms of envenomation were similar in male and female animals, female mice proved to be more resistant to the venom. In females, age had no impact on the susceptibility to scorpion envenomation. Male mice were more sensitive to T. serrulatus venom. Moreover, in males, age was an important parameter since sensitivity to the venom increased with age.

  10. Men: good health and high mortality. Sex differences in health and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Juel, Knud; Vaupel, James W

    2008-01-01

    with women: the so-called male-female health-survival paradox. A number of proposed explanations for this paradox are rooted in biological, social, and psychological interpretations. It is likely to be due to multiple causes that include fundamental biological differences between the sexes such as genetic...... factors, immune system responses, hormones, and disease patterns. Behavioral differences such as risk-taking and reluctance to seek and comply with medical treatment may also play a role. Another consideration is that part of the difference may be due to methodological challenges, such as selective non......-participation and under-reporting of health problems, and delayed seeking of treatment by men. The Nordic countries provide a unique opportunity for such studies, as they have good-quality data in their national health registers, which cover the whole population, and a long tradition of high participation rates...

  11. EFFECTS OF AGE, SEX, AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ON FINANCIAL DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Shivapour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to make sound financial decisions across the lifespan is critical for interpersonal, occupational, and psychological health and success. In the present study, we examined how healthy younger and older adults make a series of increasingly complex financial decisions. One-hundred and sixteen healthy older adults, aged 56 to 90 years, and 102 college undergraduates, completed the Financial Decision Making Questionnaire, which requires selecting and justifying financial choices across four hypothetical scenarios and answering questions pertaining to financial knowledge. Results indicated that Older participants significantly outperformed Younger participants on a multiple-choice test of acquired financial knowledge. After controlling for such pre-existing knowledge, several additional age effects were observed. For example, Older participants were more likely to make immediate investment decisions, whereas Younger participants exhibited a preference for delaying decision-making pending additional information. Older participants also rated themselves as more concerned with avoiding monetary loss (i.e., a prevention orientation, whereas Younger participants reported greater interest in financial gain (i.e., a promotion orientation. In terms of sex differences, Older Males were more likely to pay credit card bills and utilize savings accounts than were Older Females. Multiple positive correlations were observed between Older participants’ financial decision-making and performance on neuropsychological measures of non-verbal intellect and executive functioning. Lastly, the ability to justify one’s financial decisions declined with age, among the Older participants. Several of the aforementioned results parallel findings from the medical decision-making literature, suggesting that older adults make decisions in a manner that conserves diminishing cognitive resources.

  12. The effect of age, genotype and sex on carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes of geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Uhlířová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to compare carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes in two different genotypes of geese according to age and sex. Methods The experiment was carried out on 160 birds of two genotypes of geese: the Czech Goose (CG breed and a Eskildsen Schwer (ES hybrid. One-d-old goslings were divided into four groups according to genotype and sex. Two dates for slaughtering (at 8 and 16 wk of age of goslings were undertaken. Results The slaughter weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were affected by all the studied factors, and significant interactions between age, genotype and sex were detected in the slaughter weight (p<0.001 and cold carcass weight (p = 0.004. The pH was not affected by any of studied factors, whereas in terms of meat colour parameters there were observed significant effects of age on L* and b* value and a significant effect of sex on a* value. The meat fat content was higher (p = 0.002 in ES. Higher score for overall acceptance of goose meat was recorded for ES at both ages compared to CG. Conclusion ES had higher dressing percentage and better sensory attributes, whereas CG exceled in the favourable nutritional value of the meat.

  13. From swing to cane: Sex differences of EEG resting-state temporal patterns during maturation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Tomescu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available While many insights on brain development and aging have been gained by studying resting-state networks with fMRI, relating these changes to cognitive functions is limited by the temporal resolution of fMRI. In order to better grasp short-lasting and dynamically changing mental activities, an increasing number of studies utilize EEG to define resting-state networks, thereby often using the concept of EEG microstates. These are brief (around 100 ms periods of stable scalp potential fields that are influenced by cognitive states and are sensitive to neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the rising popularity of the EEG microstate approach, information about age changes is sparse and nothing is known about sex differences. Here we investigated age and sex related changes of the temporal dynamics of EEG microstates in 179 healthy individuals (6–87 years old, 90 females, 204-channel EEG. We show strong sex-specific changes in microstate dynamics during adolescence as well as at older age. In addition, males and females differ in the duration and occurrence of specific microstates. These results are of relevance for the comparison of studies in populations of different age and sex and for the understanding of the changes in neuropsychiatric diseases.

  14. Age and sex specific variation in hematological and serum biochemical parameters of Beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the age- and sex-specific changes of various haematological and blood serum biochemical blood parameters of Beluga (Huso huso were investigated. Blood samples were collected from 4-, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old beluga (n = 7 for each sex and age. The specimens were fed at a rate of 0.5-3% body weight per day. AST and LDH levels in 7- and 8-year-old fish of both sexes were significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in 4- and 6-year-old individuals. The mean ALT were significantly different (P<0.05 in both sexes of 4-, 6-, and 7-year-old sturgeon. However, the 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old female sturgeon had higher ALP levels (P<0.05. Additionally, mean RBC, PCV, and Hb values were significantly higher (P<0.05 in 7- and 8-year-old females and males than the others. Two-tailed Pearson’s correlation between the biochemical and haematological parameters obtained for beluga sturgeon indicated significant positive correlations between AST and ALP, AST and LDH, ALP and LDH, RBC and Hb, RBC and PCV, Hb and PCV, MCH and MCHC, and MCV and MCH. However, significant negative correlations were found between RBC and MCV and MCH. These results suggest that the blood parameters of beluga are influenced by age- and sex-specific factors.

  15. Incorporating harvest rates into the sex-age-kill model for white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    Although monitoring population trends is an essential component of game species management, wildlife managers rarely have complete counts of abundance. Often, they rely on population models to monitor population trends. As imperfect representations of real-world populations, models must be rigorously evaluated to be applied appropriately. Previous research has evaluated population models for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the precision and reliability of these models when tested against empirical measures of variability and bias largely is untested. We were able to statistically evaluate the Pennsylvania sex-age-kill (PASAK) population model using realistic error measured using data from 1,131 radiocollared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. We used these data and harvest data (number killed, age-sex structure, etc.) to estimate precision of abundance estimates, identify the most efficient harvest data collection with respect to precision of parameter estimates, and evaluate PASAK model robustness to violation of assumptions. Median coefficient of variation (CV) estimates by Wildlife Management Unit, 13.2% in the most recent year, were slightly above benchmarks recommended for managing game species populations. Doubling reporting rates by hunters or doubling the number of deer checked by personnel in the field reduced median CVs to recommended levels. The PASAK model was robust to errors in estimates for adult male harvest rates but was sensitive to errors in subadult male harvest rates, especially in populations with lower harvest rates. In particular, an error in subadult (1.5-yr-old) male harvest rates resulted in the opposite error in subadult male, adult female, and juvenile population estimates. Also, evidence of a greater harvest probability for subadult female deer when compared with adult (≥2.5-yr-old) female deer resulted in a 9.5% underestimate of the population using the PASAK model. Because obtaining

  16. Age- and Sex-Specific Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality over 62 Years in a Nation with a Low Effort in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ulrich; Hanke, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: A decrease in lung cancer mortality among females below 50 years of age has been reported for countries with significant tobacco control efforts. The aim of this study was to describe the lung cancer deaths, including the mortality rates and proportions among total deaths, for females and males by age at death in a country with a high smoking prevalence (Germany) over a time period of 62 years. Methods: The vital statistics data were analyzed using a joinpoint regression analysis stratified by age and sex. An age-period-cohort analysis was used to estimate the potential effects of sex and school education on mortality. Results: After an increase, lung cancer mortality among women aged 35–44 years remained stable from 1989 to 2009 and decreased by 10.8% per year from 2009 to 2013. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality among females aged 35–44 years has decreased. The potential reasons include an increase in the number of never smokers, following significant increases in school education since 1950, particularly among females. PMID:27023582

  17. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J.; Krohmer, Randolph W.; Waye, Heather L.; Mason, Robert T.; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M.

    2017-01-01

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species. PMID:28381620

  18. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J; Krohmer, Randolph W; Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M; Friesen, Christopher R

    2017-04-12

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Cause-Specific Mortality after Stroke: Relation to Age, Sex, Stroke Severity, and Risk Factors in a 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, UB; Olsen, TS; Andersen, KK

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cause-specific mortality in relation to age, sex, stroke severity, and cardiovascular risk factor profile in the Copenhagen Stroke Study cohort with 10 years of follow-up. In a Copenhagen community, all patients admitted to the hospital with stroke during 1992-1993 (n = 988) were.......2% for nonvascular disease. Death after stroke was associated with older age, male sex, greater stroke severity, and diabetes regardless of the cause of death. Previous stroke and hemorrhagic stroke were associated with death by stroke, ischemic heart disease was associated with death by heart/arterial disease...... registered on admission. Evaluation included stroke severity, computed tomography scan, and a cardiovascular risk profile. Cause of death within 10 years according to death certificate information was classified as stroke, heart/arterial disease, or nonvascular disease. Competing-risks analyses were...

  20. Estimating ages of white-tailed deer: Age and sex patterns of error using tooth wear-and-replacement and consistency of cementum annuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Beissel, Thomas; Richards, Bryan J.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The age structure of harvested animals provides the basis for many demographic analyses. Ages of harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other ungulates often are estimated by evaluating replacement and wear patterns of teeth, which is subjective and error-prone. Few previous studies however, examined age- and sex-specific error rates. Counting cementum annuli of incisors is an alternative, more accurate method of estimating age, but factors that influence consistency of cementum annuli counts are poorly known. We estimated age of 1,261 adult (≥1.5 yr old) white-tailed deer harvested in Wisconsin and Illinois (USA; 2005–2008) using both wear-and-replacement and cementum annuli. We compared cementum annuli with wear-and-replacement estimates to assess misclassification rates by sex and age. Wear-and-replacement for estimating ages of white-tailed deer resulted in substantial misclassification compared with cementum annuli. Age classes of females were consistently underestimated, while those of males were underestimated for younger age classes but overestimated for older age classes. Misclassification resulted in an impression of a younger age-structure than actually was the case. Additionally, we obtained paired age-estimates from cementum annuli for 295 deer. Consistency of paired cementum annuli age-estimates decreased with age, was lower in females than males, and decreased as age estimates became less certain. Our results indicated that errors in the wear-and-replacement techniques are substantial and could impact demographic analyses that use age-structure information. 

  1. Variation in the bone calcium concentration as a function of age and sex, studied by local neutron activation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazieres, B.; Comar, D.

    An original method of local activation on the hand, using isotopic neutron sources, was used to determine bone Ca and P simultaneously. The calcium concentration variation with age and sex was studied on 120 normal subjects men and women aged between 20 and 80, divided into 10 year age groups. These standards were chosen amongst subjects free from complaints liable to affect bone mineralisation and with more or less normal blood calcium and phosphorus contents. The results are as follows: between 20 and 50 the relative standard derivation observed within a 10 year age group averages 8% in men and 9% in women, after 50 this physiological scattering is much greater in both sexes, after 60 the bone calcium concentration decreases quickly in women at an average rate of 1.15% a year [fr

  2. Age-related collagen turnover of the interstitial matrix and basement membrane: Implications of age- and sex-dependent remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Stephanie N; Willumsen, Nicholas; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Dietzel, Roswitha; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in maintaining normal tissue function. Collagens are major components of the ECM and there is a tight equilibrium between degradation and formation of these proteins ensuring tissue health and homeostasis. As a consequence of tissue turnover, small collagen fragments are released into the circulation, which act as important biomarkers in the study of certain tissue-related remodeling factors in health and disease. The aim of this study was to establish an age-related collagen turnover profile of the main collagens of the interstitial matrix (type I and III collagen) and basement membrane (type IV collagen) in healthy men and women. By using well-characterized competitive ELISA-assays, we assessed specific fragments of degraded (C1M, C3M, C4M) and formed (PINP, Pro-C3, P4NP7S) type I, III and IV collagen in serum from 617 healthy men and women ranging in ages from 22 to 86. Subjects were divided into 5-year age groups according to their sex and age. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis adjusted for Dunn's multiple comparisons test and Mann-Whitney t-test. Age-specific changes in collagen turnover was most profound for type I collagen. PINP levels decreased in men with advancing age, whereas in women, the level decreased in early adulthood followed by an increase around the age of menopause (age 40-60). Sex-specific changes in type I, III and IV collagen turnover was present at the age around menopause (age 40-60) with women having an increased turnover. In summary, collagen turnover is affected by age and sex with the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane being differently regulated. The observed changes needs to be accounted for when measuring ECM related biomarkers in clinical studies.

  3. Age and sex dependent inhalation doses to members of the public from indoor thoron progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, L; Tschiersch, J [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764, Neuherberg (Germany); Li, W B [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, D-85764, Neuherberg (Germany); Li, J L, E-mail: bilei1983@gmail.com [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-12-01

    The increased indoor thoron level in Europe, North America and Asia has shown that the exposure to thoron and its decay products cannot be ignored in some environments. The contribution of thoron and its progeny can be a significant component of the total exposure from radon and thoron. In the present paper, radiation dose assessment of members of the public of different age and sex exposed to {sup 220}Rn progeny under different daily life activities is performed through a dosimetric approach. Dose conversion coefficients under typical indoor conditions were estimated to be in the range of 107 nSv (Bq h m{sup -3}){sup -1} for infant to 81.7 nSv (Bq h m{sup -3}){sup -1} for adult. The results of this work emphasized that small children receive a radiation dose of 25% more than adults under the same conditions, and people performing exercise receive a radiation dose 100% more than when sleeping. The results of this work are appropriate to the risk assessment of thoron exposure to members of the public who live in areas with high radon and thoron concentrations.

  4. Sex differences in the aging pattern of renin-angiotensin system serum peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Atucha, A; Izagirre, A; Fraile-Bermúdez, A B; Kortajarena, M; Larrinaga, G; Martinez-Lage, P; Echevarría, E; Gil, J

    2017-01-01

    Serum peptidases, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), aminopeptidase N (APN), and aminopeptidase A (APA), are important elements of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Dysregulation of these enzymes has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk. In the present study, serum activities of RAS peptidases were analyzed to evaluate the existence of sexual differences, with a possible different pattern in pre- and post-andropausal/post-menopausal participants. One hundred and eighteen healthy men and women between 41 and 70 years of age (58 women and 60 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Serum RAS-regulating enzymes were measured by spectrofluorimetry. Enzymatic activity was recorded as units of enzyme per milliliter of serum (U/mL). Significantly lower serum APA activity was observed in men with respect to women; no sex differences were detected for ACE, ACE2, NEP, or APN. Significantly lower APA and ACE serum activity were observed in older men compared to older women. In contrast, younger (menopausia, on the critical serum enzymatic activities of the RAS, which could correlate with sexual differences in cardiovascular risk.

  5. Age at sexual maturity, sex ratio, fecundity, and longevity of isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Downs; Robert G. White; Bradley B. Shepard

    1997-01-01

    We sampled 19 isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in Montana to provide estimates of fecundity, longevity, sex ratio, and age at sexual maturity. Fecundity was estimated for 31 fish collected from two streams in the upper Missouri River drainage. Females smaller than 149 mm fork length (FL) were generally immature and...

  6. Postural laterality in Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica: effects of age, sex and nursing suggest stress and social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasa, Mathieu; Soriguer, Ramón C; Serrano, Emmanuel; Granados, José-Enrique; Pérez, Jesús M

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of lateralized behaviour have to date focused on active behaviour such as sensorial perception and locomotion and little is known about lateralized postures, such as lying, that can potentially magnify the effectiveness of lateralized perception and reaction. Moreover, the relative importance of factors such as sex, age and the stress associated with social status in laterality is now a subject of increasing interest. In this study, we assess the importance of sex, age and reproductive investment in females in lying laterality in the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Using generalized additive models under an information-theoretic approach based on the Akaike information criterion, we analyzed lying laterality of 78 individually marked ibexes. Sex, age and nursing appeared as key factors associated, in interaction and non-linearly, with lying laterality. Beyond the benefits of studying laterality with non-linear models, our results highlight the fact that a combination of static factors such as sex, and dynamic factors such as age and stress associated with parental care, are associated with postural laterality.

  7. Using a Classification of Occupations to Describe Age, Sex, and Time Differences in Employment Patterns. Report No. 223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Gary D.; Daiger, Denise C.

    Employment data from the 1960 and 1970 censuses were organized using the occupational classification system of John Holland to examine age, sex, and level differences in employment and to detect changes over the 10-year period. Data were organized by both kind and level of work in an attempt to answer the following questions: What are the relative…

  8. Origin-related, environmental, sex, and age determinants of immunocompetence, susceptibility to ectoparasites, and disease symptoms in the barn owl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, Alexandre; Christe, Philippe; Dijkstra, Cor; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Jungi, Thomas W.

    Knowledge of the role of origin-related, environmental, sex, and age factors on host defence mechanisms is important to understand variation in parasite intensity. Because alternative components of parasite defence may be differently sensitive to various factors, they may not necessarily covary.

  9. Morphometric analysis of the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei in the human brain: sex differences and age-dependent changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, M. A.; Fliers, E.; Goudsmit, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The size, shape and cellular morphology of the suprachiasmatic (SCN) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the human hypothalamus were examined in relation to sex and age. In both nuclear regions the following parameters were determined: length of the rostrocaudal axis, maximum cross sectional area,

  10. Age-Sex Structure of the Population and Demographic Processes in Environmentally Challenged Mining Region (on the example of Kemerovo region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshukov, Timofey; Brel, Olga; Zaytseva, Anna; Kaizer, Philipp; Makarov, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of the article is to show the influence of the age-sex structure of the population on the basic demographic processes in the Kemerovo region. During research the authors have established correlation links between the sex-age structure of the population and the main demographic indicators (birth and mortality rate, morbidity rate, migration and others) based on the analysis of official statistical data. The direct influence of internal and external factors on the age-sex structure of the population is revealed. Conclusions about the impact of demographic processes on the sex-age structure of the population of the Kemerovo region are drawn.

  11. A Kidney Graft Survival Calculator that Accounts for Mismatches in Age, Sex, HLA, and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Valarie B; Leichtman, Alan B; Rees, Michael A; Song, Peter X-K; Bray, Mathieu; Wang, Wen; Kalbfleisch, John D

    2017-07-07

    Outcomes for transplants from living unrelated donors are of particular interest in kidney paired donation (KPD) programs where exchanges can be arranged between incompatible donor-recipient pairs or chains created from nondirected/altruistic donors. Using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, we analyzed 232,705 recipients of kidney-alone transplants from 1998 to 2012. Graft failure rates were estimated using Cox models for recipients of kidney transplants from living unrelated, living related, and deceased donors. Models were adjusted for year of transplant and donor and recipient characteristics, with particular attention to mismatches in age, sex, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), body size, and weight. The dependence of graft failure on increasing donor age was less pronounced for living-donor than for deceased-donor transplants. Male donor-to-male recipient transplants had lower graft failure, particularly better than female to male (5%-13% lower risk). HLA mismatch was important in all donor types. Obesity of both the recipient (8%-18% higher risk) and donor (5%-11% higher risk) was associated with higher graft loss, as were donor-recipient weight ratios of transplants where both parties were of similar weight (9%-12% higher risk). These models are used to create a calculator of estimated graft survival for living donors. This calculator provides useful information to donors, candidates, and physicians of estimated outcomes and potentially in allowing candidates to choose among several living donors. It may also help inform candidates with compatible donors on the advisability of joining a KPD program. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Drug, sex and age differentials in the use of Australian publicly funded treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jane Anne; Clavarino, Alexandra Marie; Najman, Jackob Moses

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those 'at risk', by drug type, sex and age. The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey) and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006-2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset) and public hospitals (2006-2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset) to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. 'At risk' for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001). 'At risk' for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15-19 years) and older adults (40+ years) seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment. Publicly available data can be used to estimate harms associated with the use of particular

  13. Prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in Graves' disease according to sex and age: A clinical study from Babol, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sara; Moazezi, Zoleika; Bayani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid-associated eye disease (TED), previously known as Graves' ophthalmopathy is a cosmetically and functionally debilitating disease that is seen worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical severity of ocular manifestations of Graves' disease according to sex, age and duration in northern Iran. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 105 patients with Graves' disease, underwent ophthalmic examination, including ocular motility, exophthalmometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), slit lamp and fundoscopy. Patients received scores according to modified Werner's NO SPECS classification. Ocular involvement was found in 70 patients with established Graves's disease. The mean age was 35.0 years, (SD 13.0, range 15 to 69). The most common ocular findings were exophthalmometric proptosis of more than 20 mm (63.8%), lid lag (55.7%), lid retraction (52.8%) and tearing (38.6%). Almost 70% of patients had bilateral involvement. Elevated IOP was seen in 15 (25.4%) patients, and was significantly related to proptosis (P=0.007). More than half of the patients (n=36, 52.2%) had a modified Werner's NO SPECS score of 3.00. Clinical severity as shown by the increasing number of signs and symptoms per patient was correlated to increasing age (r=0.31, P=0.01) but not to gender (P=0.17). Both functional (ocular motility disorders, increased IOP) and cosmetic (proptosis, periorbital edema) sequels are common ocular presentations in patients with Graves' disease. Proptosis was the most common finding in this study and was associated with elevated IOP. Clinical severity was found to correlate to increasing age.

  14. Dynamic 31P-MR-spectroscopy of the quadriceps muscle. Influence of sex and age on spectroscopic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, K.; Romaneehsen, B.; Kessler, S.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Thelen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: 31 P-MRS is used to assess the influence of sex and age on quadriceps muscle metabolism before and after exercise. Materials and Methods: 32 healthy volunteers (15 women, 17 men; mean age: 38±17 yrs.) were examined by dynamic phosphorus-31 ( 31 P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In the magnet, the quadriceps muscle was stressed by an isometric and an isotonic form of exercise until exhaustion, respectively. Results: Resting conditions: With increasing subjects' age, the ratio β-adenosine triphosphate/total phosphate decreased (r=-0.37; p=0.02). With increasing subjects' age, the ratios inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine (r=0.79; p=5x10 -8 ), phosphomonoester/β-adenosine triphosphate (r=0.74; p=10 -6 ) and phosphodiester/β-adenosine triphosphate (r=0.62; p=10 -4 ) increased. The pH was the only one of the evaluated spectroscopic parameters which showed a sex-dependence: Female subjects had a significantly lower pH (7.03±0.02) than male subjects (7.05±0.03; p=0,01). Exercise: With increasing age, the maxima of inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine were less extreme during both of the exercises (r=-0.42; p=0.0005). Likewise, the exercise-induced acidosis was less severe with increasing age (r=0.53; p=6x10 -6 ). After the end of the exercise, the times of half recovery of inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine and the pH correlated neither with the subjects' age nor with sex or cross-sectional area of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion: Sex and age of volunteers affect spectroscopic results. This influence has to be considered in the interpretation of spectroscopic studies. (orig.) [de

  15. Optimal Versus Realized Trajectories of Physiological Dysregulation in Aging and Their Relation to Sex-Specific Mortality Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbeev, Konstantin G; Cohen, Alan A; Arbeeva, Liubov S

    2016-01-01

    dysregulation is related to different aging-related characteristics such as decline in stress resistance and adaptive capacity (which typically are not observed in the data and thus can be analyzed only indirectly), and, ultimately, to estimate how such dynamic relationships increase mortality risk with age. We...... substantial sex differences in these processes, with women becoming dysregulated more quickly but with men showing a much greater sensitivity to dysregulation in terms of mortality risk....

  16. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014....

  17. Representations of same-sex relationships between female characters in all-ages comics: Princess Princess Ever After and Lumberjanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, Erica

    2018-04-25

    Representations of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) characters in comics for an all-ages readership have emerged in the United States in the early twenty-first century. This essay examines the narrative constructions of same-sex relationships between female characters in two all-ages speculative fiction comics, Princess Princess Ever After by Katie O'Neill, and Lumberjanes, created by Shannon Watters, Grace Ellis, Noelle Stevenson, and Brooke Allen.

  18. Offline and Online Sexual Risk Behavior among Youth in the Netherlands: Findings from “Sex under the Age of 25”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke De Graaf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexually developing adolescents and emerging adults face sexual health risks as well as potentially negative outcomes of online sexual behaviors. The goal of this study was to describe three categories of sexual risk behavior: (1 behavior related to STI/HIV, (2 behavior related to unplanned pregnancy, and (3 online sexual risk behavior. In addition, we investigated whether these behaviors are actually related to negative (health outcomes. For this purpose, we used data from a Dutch probability survey: “Sex under the age of 25.” Adolescents and emerging adults aged 12 through 24 (8,053 boys and 12,447 girls completed a digital questionnaire, including measures of the risk of STI/HIV and pregnancy, online sexual behavior and non-consensual sex. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to test for gender and age differences and compute associations between risk behavior and negative outcomes. The results showed that the risk of unplanned pregnancy is low in the Netherlands. It seems that adolescents and emerging adults are less aware of the risk of STI/HIV than of the risk of pregnancy. About 11% of the participants had had more than one partner in the last 6 months and had not used condoms consistently with their last partner, and these participants had a 3.56 times higher likelihood of ever being diagnosed with an STI. Although many young people stop using condoms with their partner after a while, most of them did not get tested for STIs. More emerging adults (aged 18–24 engage in sexting (sending personal nude pictures and sex videos to others, but the chance that these images are shared with other people than the intended recipient is higher among adolescents (aged 12–17. The results of this study can guide professionals working in sex education and sexual health services to focus their efforts on the risk behaviors in the Netherlands that deserve most attention.

  19. Offline and Online Sexual Risk Behavior among Youth in the Netherlands: Findings from “Sex under the Age of 25”

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, Hanneke; Verbeek, Mirthe; Van den Borne, Marieke; Meijer, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Sexually developing adolescents and emerging adults face sexual health risks as well as potentially negative outcomes of online sexual behaviors. The goal of this study was to describe three categories of sexual risk behavior: (1) behavior related to STI/HIV, (2) behavior related to unplanned pregnancy, and (3) online sexual risk behavior. In addition, we investigated whether these behaviors are actually related to negative (health) outcomes. For this purpose, we used data from a Dutch probability survey: “Sex under the age of 25.” Adolescents and emerging adults aged 12 through 24 (8,053 boys and 12,447 girls) completed a digital questionnaire, including measures of the risk of STI/HIV and pregnancy, online sexual behavior and non-consensual sex. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to test for gender and age differences and compute associations between risk behavior and negative outcomes. The results showed that the risk of unplanned pregnancy is low in the Netherlands. It seems that adolescents and emerging adults are less aware of the risk of STI/HIV than of the risk of pregnancy. About 11% of the participants had had more than one partner in the last 6 months and had not used condoms consistently with their last partner, and these participants had a 3.56 times higher likelihood of ever being diagnosed with an STI. Although many young people stop using condoms with their partner after a while, most of them did not get tested for STIs. More emerging adults (aged 18–24) engage in sexting (sending personal nude pictures and sex videos to others), but the chance that these images are shared with other people than the intended recipient is higher among adolescents (aged 12–17). The results of this study can guide professionals working in sex education and sexual health services to focus their efforts on the risk behaviors in the Netherlands that deserve most attention. PMID:29594093

  20. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jungert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI, or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects: This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2. Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results: The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion: Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects.

  1. Hepatitis B virus infection among different sex and age groups in Pakistani Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hayat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a serious health problem in the developing countries including Pakistan. Various risk factors are responsible for the spread of this infectious disease. Prevalence of HBV infection in apparently suspected individual of Punjab province of Pakistan was analyzed during January 2008 to December 2010. Current study was aimed to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of HBV infection. Methodology Four thousand eight hundred and ninety patients suffering from chronic liver disease were screened for the presence of HBV DNA using qualitative Real Time PCR methodology to confirm their status of infection. A predesigned standard questionnaire was filled for all the patients that included information about the possible risk factors. Results A total of 4890 ELISA positive patients were screened for Hepatitis B virus infection. Of these 3143 were positive for HBV, includes 68.15% males and 31.85% females. Male were observed to be more frequently infected as compared to the female with a positivity ratio of 2.14: 1. The rate of infection increases with the passage of time in the course of three years. Highest frequency of infection was found in the age of 21-30 was 34.93% followed by 23.83% in 31-40. Only (13.39% were belonging to the age group 11-20 year. The rate of infection declines with increasing age as shown by age groups 41-50 (16.13% and 51-60 (7.09%. While children aged 0-10 and very old >60 age groups were very less frequently 1.49% and 1.65% infected respectively. Important risk factors contributing to HBV spread include barber risk (23.60%, blood transfusion (4.04%, History of injection 26.19%, Reuse of syringes 26.60%, dental risk (11.20% and surgical procedure (4.26%. Among the entire respondents trend sharing personal items was very common. History of injection, barber risk, surgery and dental procedure and reuse of syringes appear as major risk factors for the transmission

  2. Rates of firearm homicide by Chicago region, age, sex, and race/ethnicity, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Garth Nyambi; McLone, Suzanne; Mason, Maryann; Sheehan, Karen

    2016-10-01

    The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions. The Illinois Violent Death Reporting System conducts routine surveillance of violent deaths. Decedents were selected according to the following criteria: manner of death was homicide, weapon type was firearm, and location of injury that led to death was the City of Chicago. Location of injury was broken down by regions: North, Northwest, Center, West, South, Southwest, and Far South. Multiyear rates per 100,000 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. There were 2,254 victims of homicide by firearm in the City of Chicago. The overall rate across Chicago for all demographics was 12.9 (12.1-13.5 per 100,000) with an average age of 27.4. The highest age group (20-24) for firearm homicide rates was 43.2 (39.7-46.7) per 100,000. For the youngest age group (10-14), only the Southwest (3.3-10.4) region reported any firearm incidence. The 20 to 24 age group reported the highest rates of all age groups within the South (107.9-151.7), West (80.3-108.2), and Far South (69.6-105.3) regions, whereas the North and Northwest reported the lowest rates for all regions by age. Black firearm homicide rates were 33.5 (31.9-35.1) per 100,000 versus Hispanic and non-Hispanic white firearm homicide rates of 8.5 (7.7-9.3) and 1.2 (1-1.5) per 100,000, respectively. Lastly, the West reported the highest firearm rates at 29.1 (657). In conclusion

  3. Age group and sex do not influence responses of vitamin K biomarkers to changes in dietary vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Jennifer T; Fu, Xueyan; Saltzman, Edward; Al Rajabi, Ala; Dallal, Gerard E; Gundberg, Caren M; Booth, Sarah L

    2012-05-01

    Inadequate vitamin K intake has been associated with abnormal soft tissue calcification. Older adults may have insufficient intakes of vitamin K and respond less to vitamin K supplementation compared with younger adults. However, little is known about the determinants that influence the response to vitamin K supplementation. Our primary objective was to assess dietary and nondietary determinants of vitamin K status in healthy younger and older adults. In a nonrandomized, nonmasked study, 21 younger (18-40 y) and 21 older (55-80 y) men and women consumed a baseline diet (200 μg phylloquinone/d) for 5 d, a phylloquinone-restricted diet (10 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d, and a phylloquinone-supplemented diet (500 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d. Changes in vitamin K status markers in response to vitamin K depletion and repletion were studied and the influences of BMI, body fat, and circulating TG were assessed by including them as covariates in the model. Despite baseline differences in measures of vitamin K status, plasma phylloquinone tended to increase (P = 0.07) and the percentage of uncarboxylated osteocalcin and uncarboxylated prothrombin both improved with phylloquinone supplementation (P vitamin K metabolite, was greater among younger adults in response to depletion than in older adults (P = 0.012), regardless of sex. Adiposity measures and circulating TG did not predict response of any measures. In conclusion, poor vitamin K status can be similarly improved with vitamin K supplementation, regardless of age group or sex.

  4. Effects of sex, stock, and environment on the shape of known-age Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) otoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardinale, M.; Doering-Arjes, P.; Kastowsky, M.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of sex, stock, and environment on the shape of known-age Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths from the Faroe Islands were investigated. Moreover, the feasibility of otolith shape analysis for stock identification was evaluated. The shape was described by using several normalized Fourier...... descriptors and morphometric variables. There were no consistent differences between the left and right otoliths and between sexes within different age classes, stocks, and environments. With our experimental design, we could evaluate the relative importance of genetic and environmental conditions (water...... temperature and diet regime) on otolith shape and morphometrics. Using otolith shape, cod individuals were significantly separated into Bank and Plateau stocks. Total classification success was between 79% and 85% between stocks and between 85% and 96% between environments for the different age classes...

  5. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-02-19

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations.

  6. Sex differences in perceived stress and early recovery in young and middle-aged patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Bao, Haikun; Strait, Kelly; Spertus, John A; Lichtman, Judith H; D'Onofrio, Gail; Spatz, Erica; Bucholz, Emily M; Geda, Mary; Lorenze, Nancy P; Bueno, Héctor; Beltrame, John F; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-02-17

    Younger age and female sex are both associated with greater mental stress in the general population, but limited data exist on the status of perceived stress in young and middle-aged patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. We examined sex difference in stress, contributing factors to this difference, and whether this difference helps explain sex-based disparities in 1-month recovery using data from 3572 patients with acute myocardial infarction (2397 women and 1175 men) 18 to 55 years of age. The average score of the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale at baseline was 23.4 for men and 27.0 for women (Pstress in women was explained largely by sex differences in comorbidities, physical and mental health status, intrafamily conflict, caregiving demands, and financial hardship. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, women had worse recovery than men at 1 month after acute myocardial infarction, with mean differences in improvement score between women and men ranging from -0.04 for EuroQol utility index to -3.96 for angina-related quality of life (Pstress reduced these sex-based differences in recovery to -0.03 to -3.63, which, however, remained statistically significant (Pstress at baseline was associated with significantly worse recovery in angina-specific and overall quality of life, as well as mental health status. The effect of baseline stress on recovery did not vary between men and women. Among young and middle-aged patients, higher stress at baseline is associated with worse recovery in multiple health outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. Women perceive greater psychological stress than men at baseline, which partially explains women's worse recovery. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and clinical outcomes among young adults reporting high-risk sexual behavior, including men who have sex with men, in coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan M; Mugo, Peter; Gichuru, Evanson; Thiong'o, Alexander; Macharia, Michael; Okuku, Haile S; van der Elst, Elise; Price, Matthew A; Muraguri, Nicholas; Sanders, Eduard J

    2013-05-01

    African men who have sex with men (MSM) face significant stigma and barriers to care. We investigated antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among high-risk adults, including MSM, participating in a clinic-based cohort. Survival analysis was used to compare attrition across patient groups. Differences in adherence, weight gain, and CD4 counts after ART initiation were assessed. Among 250 HIV-1-seropositive adults, including 108 MSM, 15 heterosexual men, and 127 women, patient group was not associated with attrition. Among 58 participants who were followed on ART, 40 % of MSM had less than 95 % adherence, versus 28.6 % of heterosexual men and 11.5 % of women. Although MSM gained less weight after ART initiation than women (adjusted difference -3.5 kg/year), CD4 counts did not differ. More data are needed on barriers to adherence and clinical outcomes among African MSM, to ensure that MSM can access care and derive treatment and prevention benefits from ART.

  8. Age- and sex-specific estimation of dose to a normal thyroid from clinical administration of iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131 I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In most cases, the data available consisted of the patient's age at the time of administration, the patient's sex, the quantity of activity administered, the clinically determined uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid, and the time after administration at which the uptake was determined. The model was made to conform to these data requirements by the use of age-specific estimates of the biological half-time of iodine in the thyroid and an age- and sex-dependent representation of the mass of the thyroid. Also, it was assumed that the thyroid burden was maximum at 24 hours after administration (the 131 I dose is not critically sensitive to this assumption). The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K x (exp(-μ 1 t) - exp(-μ 2 t)) μCi where μ/sub i/ = λ/sub r/ + λ/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), λ/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and the λ/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal-rate coefficients. The values of λ/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time of maximum uptake and the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). An addendum (Appendix C) extends the method to other radioiodines and gives age- and sex-dependent dose conversion factors for most isotopes

  9. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Pilfold

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650 and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida lairs (n=1396 observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation.Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2% while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344 of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344. Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344 of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121, and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78. The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2 =0.30, P=0.04, but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37.Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  10. Effects of age and sex ratios on offspring recruitment rates in translocated black rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Law, Peter R; du Preez, Pierre; Linklater, Wayne L

    2018-06-01

    Success of animal translocations depends on improving postrelease demographic rates toward establishment and subsequent growth of released populations. Short-term metrics for evaluating translocation success and its drivers, like postrelease survival and fecundity, are unlikely to represent longer-term outcomes. We used information theory to investigate 25 years of data on black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) translocations. We used the offspring recruitment rate (ORR) of translocated females-a metric integrating survival, fecundity, and offspring recruitment at sexual maturity-to detect determinants of success. Our unambiguously best model (AICω = 0.986) predicted that ORR increases with female age at release as a function of lower postrelease adult rhinoceros sex ratio (males:females). Delay of first postrelease reproduction and failure of some females to recruit any calves to sexual maturity most influenced the pattern of ORRs, and the leading causes of recruitment failure were postrelease female death (23% of all females) and failure to calve (24% of surviving females). We recommend translocating older females (≥6 years old) because they do not exhibit the reproductive delay and low ORRs of juveniles (recruitment failure of juveniles and young adults (4-5.9 years old). Where translocation of juveniles is necessary, they should be released into female-biased populations, where they have higher ORRs. Our study offers the unique advantage of a long-term analysis across a large number of replicate populations-a science-by-management experiment as a proxy for a manipulative experiment, and a rare opportunity, particularly for a large, critically endangered taxon such as the black rhinoceros. Our findings differ from previous recommendations, reinforce the importance of long-term data sets and comprehensive metrics of translocation success, and suggest attention be shifted from ecological to social constraints on population growth and species recovery, particularly

  11. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n=1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2) =0.30, P=0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37). Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  12. Influence of sex and age on febrile responses to peripheral and central administration of pyrogens in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, J M; Ticknor, C B

    1979-10-01

    1. Intravenous injections of leucocytic pyrogen in doses of 15, 30 and 60 mul./kg caused febrile reactions in male rabbits that were related to age of the animal: rabbits under 2 yr of age developed fevers that were related to dose of pyrogen, while rabbits 2-3 yr old showed large febrile responses which were not dose-related.2. Female rabbits of comparable ages generally showed smaller febrile reactions to I.V. leucocytic pyrogen, and still older females (3-5 yr) developed fever only after the largest dose.3. Dose-related febrile responses to 2.5, 5 and 10 mul. leucocytic pyrogen given intracerebroventricularly (I.C.V.) were greater in male rabbits 1-3 yr old than in females of comparable age. Female rabbits 3-5 yr old showed dose-related fevers that were smaller than those of younger animals of both sexes.4. There were no major differences in response to 125, 250 and 500 ng PGE(2), given I.C.V., between male and female rabbits under 2 yr of age. Females 2-3 yr of age had greater responses to PGE(2) than males of comparable age whilst the oldest females showed smaller responses.5. It is concluded that the febrile response of the rabbit to peripheral and central leucocytic pyrogen varies with both age and sex. Differences in sensitivity of central fever controls to endogenous pyrogen in animals of different ages and sexes may account for the different responses to peripheral pyrogen.

  13. The Prevalence of Nocturia and Nocturnal Polyuria: Can New Cutoff Values Be Suggested According to Age and Sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of nocturia and nocturnal polyuria (NP) and to define new cutoff values according to age and sex for both conditions. Methods Data from a population-based prevalence survey conducted among a random sample of 2,128 adults were analyzed in this study. Participants were requested to fill out a questionnaire including the International Continence Society (ICS) definitions of lower urinary tract symptoms and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form. Additionally, a 1-day bladder diary was given to each individual. The participants were divided into 5 age groups. The prevalence of nocturia was calculated based on definitions of nocturia as ≥1 voiding episodes, ≥2 episodes, and ≥3 episodes. NP was evaluated according to the ICS definition. The mean±standard errors and 95th percentile values were calculated in each group as new cutoff values for NP. Results The prevalence of nocturia was estimated as 28.4%, 17.6%, and 8.9% for ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 voiding episodes each night, respectively. When nocturia was defined as 2 or more voiding episodes at night, the prevalence decreased significantly. The mean NP index was 29.4%±15.0% in men and 23.1%±11.8% in women. For the age groups of <50 years, 50–59 years, and ≥60 years, the new cutoff values for the diagnosis of NP were calculated as 48%, 69%, and 59% for men and 41%, 50%, and 42% for women, respectively. Conclusions We found that the definition of nocturia was still controversial and that waking up once for voiding might be within the normal spectrum of behavior. The definition of NP should be modified, and new cutoff values should be defined using the data presented in our study and in other forthcoming studies. PMID:28043108

  14. Drug, Sex and Age Differentials in the Use of Australian Publicly Funded Treatment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Anne Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. Objective To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those ‘at risk’, by drug type, sex and age. Design and setting The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006–2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset and public hospitals (2006–2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. ‘At risk’ for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001. ‘At risk’ for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Results Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15–19 years and older adults (40+ years seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. Conclusions It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment

  15. analysis on the quality of age and sex data collected in the two

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    important source of such data for a country like Ethiopia is population and housing census. Ethiopia has so far .... standard values of countries with high birth rates. The other sex .... common problem in developing countries, such as. Ethiopia.

  16. Effects of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on sex hormones and antioxidant indices in a d-galactose-induced aging female mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Vitex improved some aging events in the reproductive system of female mice. Therefore, because of its apparent antiaging effects, Vitex can be suitable for some aging problems such as oxidative stress, female sex hormone deficiency, and an atrophic endometrium.

  17. Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in a Resource-Poor Setting in India--Part 1: Association with Age, Sex, Severity of Intellectual Disabilities and IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Kishore, M. Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems are most common in people with intellectual disabilities. Nature of behaviour problems can vary depending upon the age, sex and intellectual level (IQ). Objectives: This study examined the distribution of behaviour problems across intellectual disability categories and their association with IQ age and sex in…

  18. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  19. Sex, ageing and resting blood pressure: gaining insights from the integrated balance of neural and haemodynamic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Emma C; Joyner, Michael J; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2012-05-01

    Young women tend to have lower blood pressure, and less risk of hypertension, compared to young men. As people age, both blood pressure and the risk of hypertension increase in both sexes; this occurs most strikingly in women after menopause. However, the mechanisms for these influences of sex and age remain incompletely understood. In this review we are specifically interested in the interaction between neural (sympathetic nerve activity; SNA) and haemodynamic factors (cardiac output, blood pressure and vascular resistance) and how these change with sex and age. While peripheral vascular SNA can vary 7- to 10-fold among normotensive young men and women, it is reproducible in a given individual. Surprisingly, higher levels of SNA are not associated with higher blood pressures in these groups. In young men, high SNA is associated with higher total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR), and appears to be balanced by lower cardiac output and less peripheral vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. Young women do not exhibit the SNA-TPR relationship. Recent evidence suggests that β-adrenergic vasodilatation offsets the vasoconstrictor effects of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, which may contribute to the generally lower blood pressures in this group. Sympathetic nerve activity increases with age, and in groups over 40, levels of SNA are more tightly linked to levels of blood pressure. The potentially protective β-adrenergic effect seen in young women appears to be lost after menopause and probably contributes to the increased blood pressure and increased risk of hypertension seen in older women.

  20. Sex differences in cognitive ageing: testing predictions derived from life-history theory in a dioecious nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoinska, Martyna K; Kolm, Niclas; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-12-01

    Life-history theory maintains that organisms allocate limited resources to different traits to maximize fitness. Learning ability and memory are costly and known to trade-off with longevity in invertebrates. However, since the relationship between longevity and fitness often differs between the sexes, it is likely that sexes will differentially resolve the trade-off between learning and longevity. We used an established associative learning paradigm in the dioecious nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, which is sexually dimorphic for lifespan, to study age-related learning ability in males and females. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that females (the shorter-lived sex) show higher learning ability than males early in life but senesce faster. Indeed, young females outperformed young males in learning a novel association between an odour (butanone) and food (bacteria). However, while learning ability and offspring production declined rapidly with age in females, males maintained high levels of these traits until mid-age. These results not only demonstrate sexual dimorphism in age-related learning ability but also suggest that it conforms to predictions derived from the life-history theory. © 2013.

  1. Sex, Age, and Emotional Valence: Revealing Possible Biases in the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kynast

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ test (RMET assesses a specific socio-cognitive ability, i.e., the ability to identify mental states from gaze. The development of this ability in a lifespan perspective is of special interest. Whereas former investigations were limited mainly to childhood and adolescence, the focus has been shifted towards aging, and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases recently. Although the RMET is frequently applied in developmental psychology and clinical settings, stimulus characteristics have never been investigated with respect to potential effects on test performance. Here, we analyzed the RMET stimulus set with a special focus on interrelations between sex, age and emotional valence. Forty-three persons rated age and emotional valence of the RMET picture set. Differences in emotional valence and age ratings between male and female items were analyzed. The linear relation between age and emotional valence was tested over all items, and separately for male and female items. Male items were rated older and more negative than female stimuli. Regarding male RMET items, age predicted emotional valence: older age was associated with negative emotions. Contrary, age and valence were not linearly related in female pictures. All ratings were independent of rater characteristics. Our results demonstrate a strong confound between sex, age, and emotional valence in the RMET. Male items presented a greater variability in age ratings compared to female items. Age and emotional valence were negatively associated among male items, but no significant association was found among female stimuli. As personal attributes impact social information processing, our results may add a new perspective on the interpretation of previous findings on interindividual differences in RMET accuracy, particularly in the field of developmental psychology, and age-associated neuropsychiatric diseases. A revision of the RMET might be afforded to

  2. Sex, Age, and Emotional Valence: Revealing Possible Biases in the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynast, Jana; Schroeter, Matthias L.

    2018-01-01

    The ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ test (RMET) assesses a specific socio-cognitive ability, i.e., the ability to identify mental states from gaze. The development of this ability in a lifespan perspective is of special interest. Whereas former investigations were limited mainly to childhood and adolescence, the focus has been shifted towards aging, and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases recently. Although the RMET is frequently applied in developmental psychology and clinical settings, stimulus characteristics have never been investigated with respect to potential effects on test performance. Here, we analyzed the RMET stimulus set with a special focus on interrelations between sex, age and emotional valence. Forty-three persons rated age and emotional valence of the RMET picture set. Differences in emotional valence and age ratings between male and female items were analyzed. The linear relation between age and emotional valence was tested over all items, and separately for male and female items. Male items were rated older and more negative than female stimuli. Regarding male RMET items, age predicted emotional valence: older age was associated with negative emotions. Contrary, age and valence were not linearly related in female pictures. All ratings were independent of rater characteristics. Our results demonstrate a strong confound between sex, age, and emotional valence in the RMET. Male items presented a greater variability in age ratings compared to female items. Age and emotional valence were negatively associated among male items, but no significant association was found among female stimuli. As personal attributes impact social information processing, our results may add a new perspective on the interpretation of previous findings on interindividual differences in RMET accuracy, particularly in the field of developmental psychology, and age-associated neuropsychiatric diseases. A revision of the RMET might be afforded to overcome confounds

  3. Sex, Age, and Emotional Valence: Revealing Possible Biases in the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynast, Jana; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2018-01-01

    The 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET) assesses a specific socio-cognitive ability, i.e., the ability to identify mental states from gaze. The development of this ability in a lifespan perspective is of special interest. Whereas former investigations were limited mainly to childhood and adolescence, the focus has been shifted towards aging, and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases recently. Although the RMET is frequently applied in developmental psychology and clinical settings, stimulus characteristics have never been investigated with respect to potential effects on test performance. Here, we analyzed the RMET stimulus set with a special focus on interrelations between sex, age and emotional valence. Forty-three persons rated age and emotional valence of the RMET picture set. Differences in emotional valence and age ratings between male and female items were analyzed. The linear relation between age and emotional valence was tested over all items, and separately for male and female items. Male items were rated older and more negative than female stimuli. Regarding male RMET items, age predicted emotional valence: older age was associated with negative emotions. Contrary, age and valence were not linearly related in female pictures. All ratings were independent of rater characteristics. Our results demonstrate a strong confound between sex, age, and emotional valence in the RMET. Male items presented a greater variability in age ratings compared to female items. Age and emotional valence were negatively associated among male items, but no significant association was found among female stimuli. As personal attributes impact social information processing, our results may add a new perspective on the interpretation of previous findings on interindividual differences in RMET accuracy, particularly in the field of developmental psychology, and age-associated neuropsychiatric diseases. A revision of the RMET might be afforded to overcome confounds

  4. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05. Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05. The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.

  5. Topological organization of functional brain networks in healthy children: differences in relation to age, sex, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sato, Kazunori; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Thyreau, Benjamin; He, Yong; Evans, Alan C; Li, Xiaobo; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated developmental changes of functional brain networks derived from functional connectivity using graph theoretical analysis, which has been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. However, little is known about sex- and IQ-related differences in the topological organization of functional brain networks during development. In this study, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) was used to map the functional brain networks in 51 healthy children. We then investigated the effects of age, sex, and IQ on economic small-world properties and regional nodal properties of the functional brain networks. At a global level of whole networks, we found significant age-related increases in the small-worldness and local efficiency, significant higher values of the global efficiency in boys compared with girls, and no significant IQ-related difference. Age-related increases in the regional nodal properties were found predominately in the frontal brain regions, whereas the parietal, temporal, and occipital brain regions showed age-related decreases. Significant sex-related differences in the regional nodal properties were found in various brain regions, primarily related to the default mode, language, and vision systems. Positive correlations between IQ and the regional nodal properties were found in several brain regions related to the attention system, whereas negative correlations were found in various brain regions primarily involved in the default mode, emotion, and language systems. Together, our findings of the network topology of the functional brain networks in healthy children and its relationship with age, sex, and IQ bring new insights into the understanding of brain maturation and cognitive development during childhood and adolescence.

  6. Topological organization of functional brain networks in healthy children: differences in relation to age, sex, and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated developmental changes of functional brain networks derived from functional connectivity using graph theoretical analysis, which has been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. However, little is known about sex- and IQ-related differences in the topological organization of functional brain networks during development. In this study, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI was used to map the functional brain networks in 51 healthy children. We then investigated the effects of age, sex, and IQ on economic small-world properties and regional nodal properties of the functional brain networks. At a global level of whole networks, we found significant age-related increases in the small-worldness and local efficiency, significant higher values of the global efficiency in boys compared with girls, and no significant IQ-related difference. Age-related increases in the regional nodal properties were found predominately in the frontal brain regions, whereas the parietal, temporal, and occipital brain regions showed age-related decreases. Significant sex-related differences in the regional nodal properties were found in various brain regions, primarily related to the default mode, language, and vision systems. Positive correlations between IQ and the regional nodal properties were found in several brain regions related to the attention system, whereas negative correlations were found in various brain regions primarily involved in the default mode, emotion, and language systems. Together, our findings of the network topology of the functional brain networks in healthy children and its relationship with age, sex, and IQ bring new insights into the understanding of brain maturation and cognitive development during childhood and adolescence.

  7. Sex- and age-specific associations between major depressive disorder and metabolic syndrome in two general population samples in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Andrea; Schipf, Sabine; Van der Auwera, Sandra; Hannemann, Anke; Nauck, Matthias; John, Ulrich; Völzke, Henry; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Dörr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan; Zygmunt, Marek; Wallaschofski, Henri; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2016-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). As previous data strongly suggested sex and age effects on this association, this study aimed to analyse the association between MDD and MetS in two general population samples under explicit consideration of sex and age. This study analysed cross-sectional data based on two independent general population samples: SHIP-0 (n = 4083; 20-81 years; 49.4% male) and SHIP-TREND-0 (n = 3957; 20-83 years; 49.0% male) that were part of the Study of Health in Pomerania. MDD (SHIP-0: 12.6%; SHIP-TREND-0: 27.2%) was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic-Screener (CID-S) in both samples. Interview assessment of MDD diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) criteria was performed in SHIP-TREND-0 (18.1% MDD). MetS was defined by abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated glucose, elevated triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to established criteria. Data analysis was performed sex- and age-stratified. Prevalence of MetS was high in both samples: 19.4% of females and 30.2% of males in SHIP-0 and 22.1% and 33.2% in SHIP-TREND-0, respectively. Effect modifications were observed by sex and age on the association between MDD and MetS. Particularly, younger females (20-49 years) with MDD were more often affected by MetS than younger females without MDD: OR = 2.21 (95% CI = 1.39-3.50). This association vanished in elderly participants (50-82 years). The data suggest that especially younger (presumably pre-menopausal) females with MDD are more likely to have MetS than those without major depressive disorders, and that age extenuates this association.

  8. Effect of Sex Differences on Brain Mitochondrial Function and Its Suppression by Ovariectomy and in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaignard, Pauline; Savouroux, Stéphane; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Thérond, Patrice; Schumacher, Michael; Slama, Abdelhamid; Guennoun, Rachida

    2015-08-01

    Sex steroids regulate brain function in both normal and pathological states. Mitochondria are an essential target of steroids, as demonstrated by the experimental administration of 17β-estradiol or progesterone (PROG) to ovariectomized female rodents, but the influence of endogenous sex steroids remains understudied. To address this issue, mitochondrial oxidative stress, the oxidative phosphorylation system, and brain steroid levels were analyzed under 3 different experimental sets of endocrine conditions. The first set was designed to study steroid-mediated sex differences in young male and female mice, intact and after gonadectomy. The second set concerned young female mice at 3 time points of the estrous cycle in order to analyze the influence of transient variations in steroid levels. The third set involved the evaluation of the effects of a permanent decrease in gonadal steroids in aged male and female mice. Our results show that young adult females have lower oxidative stress and a higher reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-linked respiration rate, which is related to a higher pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity as compared with young adult males. This sex difference did not depend on phases of the estrous cycle, was suppressed by ovariectomy but not by orchidectomy, and no longer existed in aged mice. Concomitant analysis of brain steroids showed that pregnenolone and PROG brain levels were higher in females during the reproductive period than in males and decreased with aging in females. These findings suggest that the major male/female differences in brain pregnenolone and PROG levels may contribute to the sex differences observed in brain mitochondrial function.

  9. Smoking-attributable medical expenditures by age, sex, and smoking status estimated using a relative risk approach☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciosek, Michael V.; Xu, Xin; Butani, Amy L.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To accurately assess the benefits of tobacco control interventions and to better inform decision makers, knowledge of medical expenditures by age, gender, and smoking status is essential. Method We propose an approach to distribute smoking-attributable expenditures by age, gender, and cigarette smoking status to reflect the known risks of smoking. We distribute hospitalization days for smoking-attributable diseases according to relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality, and use the method to determine national estimates of smoking-attributable expenditures by age, sex, and cigarette smoking status. Sensitivity analyses explored assumptions of the method. Results Both current and former smokers ages 75 and over have about 12 times the smoking-attributable expenditures of their current and former smoker counterparts 35–54 years of age. Within each age group, the expenditures of formers smokers are about 70% lower than current smokers. In sensitivity analysis, these results were not robust to large changes to the relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality which were used in the calculations. Conclusion Sex- and age-group-specific smoking expenditures reflect observed disease risk differences between current and former cigarette smokers and indicate that about 70% of current smokers’ excess medical care costs is preventable by quitting. PMID:26051203

  10. Impacts of age and sex on retinal layer thicknesses measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with Spectralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Moreno, María; Martínez-de-la-Casa, José M; Morales-Fernández, Laura; Sánchez-Jean, Rubén; Sáenz-Francés, Federico; García-Feijoó, Julián

    2018-01-01

    To examine differences in individual retinal layer thicknesses measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis®) produced with age and according to sex. Cross-sectional, observational study. The study was conducted in 297 eyes of 297 healthy subjects aged 18 to 87 years. In one randomly selected eye of each participant the volume and mean thicknesses of the different macular layers were measured by SD-OCT using the instrument's macular segmentation software. Volume and mean thickness of macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor layer (PR). Retinal thickness was reduced by 0.24 μm for every one year of age. Age adjusted linear regression analysis revealed mean GCL, IPL, ONL and PR thickness reductions and a mean OPL thickness increase with age. Women had significantly lower mean GCL, IPL, INL, ONL and PR thicknesses and volumes and a significantly greater mRNFL volume than men. The thickness of most retinal layers varies both with age and according to sex. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the rate of layer thinning produced with age.

  11. New-age ideas about age-old sex: separating meiosis from mating could solve a century-old conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandeis, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. I argue that the obstacle for comprehending the role of sex stems from the conceptual entanglement of two distinct processes - gamete production by meiosis and gamete fusion by mating (mixis). Meiosis is an ancient, highly rigid and evolutionary conserved process identical and ubiquitous in all eukaryotes. Mating, by contrast, shows tremendous evolutionary variability even in closely related clades and exhibits wonderful ecological adaptability. To appreciate the respective roles of these two processes, which are normally linked and alternating, we require cases where one takes place without the other. Such cases are rather common. The heteromorphic sex chromosomes Y and W, that do not undergo meiotic recombination are an evolutionary test case for demonstrating the role of meiosis. Substantial recent genomic evidence highlights the accelerated rates of change and attrition these chromosomes undergo in comparison to those of recombining autosomes. I thus propose that the most basic role of meiosis is conserving integrity of the genome. A reciprocal case of meiosis without bi-parental mating, is presented by self-fertilization, which is fairly common in flowering plants, as well as most types of apomixis. I argue that deconstructing sex into these two distinct processes - meiosis and mating - will greatly facilitate their analysis and promote our understanding of sexual reproduction. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. Auger electron spectroscopy for the determination of sex and age related Ca/P ratio at different bone sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio of normal cortical and trabecular rat bone was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Semiquantitative analysis was carried out using ratio techniques to draw conclusions on how age, sex and bone site affect the relative composition of calcium and phosphorus. Results show that Ca/P ratio is not sex dependent; quite the opposite, bone sites exhibit variations in elemental stoichiometry where femoral sections demonstrate higher Ca/P ratio than rear and front tibias. Age-related changes are more distinct for cortical bone in comparison with the trabecular bone. The latter's Ca/P ratio remains unaffected from all the parameters under study. This study confirms that AES is able to successfully quantify bone mineral main elements when certain critical points, related to the experimental conditions, are addressed effectively.

  13. Seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios from hunter-based surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    dominated by adult males, and juvenile proportions were highest in November and significantly lower before and after this peak. Nationwide field assessments undertaken in January 2012 showed no significant differences from sex and age ratios in the wing survey data from that particular hunting season (2011...... schemes. This study found consistent seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios among Danish hunter-based wing surveys, and describes how accounting for this variation might explain reported discrepancies between this and other monitoring methods. Early season flocks were....../2012), indicating that this survey is a good predictor of Wigeon demography. These results highlight the need to account for consistent temporal variation in such demographic time series when using the results to model population parameters....

  14. Correlation of liver stiffness measured by FibroScan with sex and age in healthy adults undergoing physical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Chongshan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo determine the reference range of liver stiffness in healthy population, and to investigate the influence of age and sex on liver stiffness. MethodsA total of 1794 healthy subjects who underwent physical examination in China National Petroleum Corporation Central Hospital from October 1, 2012 to October 31, 2014 were enrolled, and FibroScan was used to perform liver stiffness measurement (LSM. Since LSM value was not normally distributed, the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare LSM value between male and female patients, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare LSM value between different age groups, and the Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between LSM value and age. The one-sided percentile method was used to determine the range of normal reference values in male and female subjects or in different age groups. ResultsLSM was successfully performed in 1590 patients, and the rate of successful measurement was 88.63%. A total of 107 patients were excluded due to abnormal liver enzymes. The analysis showed that LSM value showed a significant difference between male and female subjects (Z=-4.980, P<0.001, as well as between different age groups (χ2=16.983, P=0.001. Age was positively correlated with LSM value (r=0.087, P=0.001. The reference range was estimated to be ≤7.1 kPa in adults, ≤7.0 kPa in females, and ≤7.2 kPa in males. From the perspective of age, the reference range was estimated to be ≤6.8 kPa in persons aged 20-29 years, ≤6.7 kPa in persons aged 30-44 years, ≤7.8 kPa in persons aged 45-59 years, and ≤8.8 kPa in persons aged 60-74 years. ConclusionLiver stiffness value is influenced by sex and age. Sex and age should be taken into account while performing liver stiffness measurement in healthy subjects.

  15. Macronutrients contribution from beverages according to sex and age: findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Emma; Rodríguez-Alonso, Paula; Ávila-Torres, José Manuel; Valero-Gaspar, Teresa; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-07-13

    Methodologies and procedures used in dietary surveys have been widely developed with the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of a population. However, beverages are often either disregarded at national and international assessment of nutrients intake or poorly mentioned. Moreover, there is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of beverages intake in the general population. Moreover, the contribution of different beverages to macronutrients intake is rarely provided. The latter in the context of a continuous expansion and innovation of the beverages market in Spain. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages macronutrients contribution in the ANIBES study in Spain (9-75 years old).As expected, those contributed to dietary macronutrient intake mainly as total carbohydrates and sugar. The contribution to other macronutrients (proteins and lipids) by the beverage groups was of much less importance. For non-alcoholic beverages, contribution to carbohydrates was much higher in younger populations (children: 10.91 ± 9.49%, mean ± SD for boys and 9.46 ± 8.83% for girls; adolescents: 11.97 ± 11.26% for men and 13.77 ± 10.55% in women) than in adults: 9.01 ± 9.84% for men and 7.77 ± 8.73% in women. Finally, a much lower contribution was observed in the elderly: 4.22 ± 6.10% for men and 4.46 ± 6.56% for women. No sex differences, however, across all age groups were found. Results for sugar contribution showed a similar trend: children (23.14 ± 19.00% for boys and 19.77 ± 17.35% for girls); adolescents (28.13 ± 24.17% for men and 29.83 ± 21.82% in women); adults 20.42 ± 20.35% for men and 16.95 ± 17.76% in women, p ≤ 0.01; and elderly: 14.63% ± 9.97 for men and 9.33 ± 12.86% in women. The main contribution corresponded to sugared soft drinks, juices and nectars, more relevant and significant in the younger populations. As for alcoholic beverages, the

  16. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  17. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    OpenAIRE

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary scho...

  18. Substance Use and Cognitive Function as Drivers of Condomless Anal Sex Among HIV-Positive Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Aged 50 and Older: The Gold Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupprat, Sandra A; Krause, Kristen D; Ompad, Danielle C; Halkitis, Perry N

    2017-12-01

    Substance use has been linked to the sexual transmission of HIV among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) across the lifespan. Among older, HIV-positive, MSM populations, cognitive dysfunction associated with age and HIV disease progression also may play a role in sexual risk-taking. People aged 50 years and older represent a growing proportion of the overall HIV-positive population. This study aimed to explore relationships between substance use and cognitive function, and their impact on condomless anal sex (CAS) among HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other MSM aged 50 years and older. Data from a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive MSM, aged 50 and older (N = 169) were gathered using a computer-assisted survey, researcher-administered behavioral and neurocognitive measures. More than 50% of the men used substances and had one or more cognitive impairments. However, only 25% were at higher risk for dementia (i.e., two or more cognitive impairments). Multivariable modeling indicated that use of alcohol to intoxication and date of HIV diagnosis were the strongest predictors of CAS in both a model that included dementia risk and a model that included impaired executive function risk. Current illicit substance use was a significant predictor of CAS only in the model that included dementia risk. Those with better cognitive and executive function had higher odds of CAS. However, only executive function was a significant cognitive predictor of CAS. Further research is needed to clarify the impact of cognitive function and substance use on sexual risk behaviors as these HIV-positive men achieve normal life expectancies, while continuing to use substances and engage in CAS. Furthermore, addiction treatment remains a critical need for this group even as they transition into later adulthood.

  19. Age-, sex-, and education-specific norms for an extended CERAD Neuropsychological Assessment Battery-Results from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Tobias; Pabst, Alexander; Rodriguez, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, Veronica; Hinz, Andreas; Mehnert, Anja; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2018-03-08

    To provide new age-, sex-, and education-specific reference values for an extended version of the well-established Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) that additionally includes the Trail Making Test and the Verbal Fluency Test-S-Words. Norms were calculated based on the cognitive performances of n = 1,888 dementia-free participants (60-79 years) from the population-based German LIFE-Adult-Study. Multiple regressions were used to examine the association