WorldWideScience

Sample records for included 10g electromagnetic

  1. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2006-01-01

    This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

  2. Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Rothwell, Edward J

    2009-01-01

    Introductory concepts Notation, conventions, and symbology The field concept of electromagneticsThe sources of the electromagnetic field Problems Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism The postulate Maxwell's equations in moving frames The Maxwell-Boffi equations Large-scale form of Maxwell's equationsThe nature of the four field quantities Maxwell's equations with magnetic sources Boundary (jump) conditions Fundamental theorems The wave nature of the electromagnetic field ProblemsThe static electromagnetic field Static fields and steady currents ElectrostaticsMagnetostatics Static field theorem

  3. Electromagnetic field nonuniformities in large area, high-frequency capacitive plasma reactors, including electrode asymmetry effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansonnens, L; Howling, A A; Hollenstein, Ch

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave propagation effects can give rise to important limitations for processing uniformity in large area, radio-frequency (rf) capacitive plasma reactors. The electromagnetic wavefield solution is derived for a capacitive, high-frequency, cylindrical reactor with symmetric or asymmetric electrode areas containing a uniform plasma slab. It is shown that only two distinct electromagnetic modes are necessary and sufficient to determine the electromagnetic fields everywhere within the reactor except close to the sidewalls. The first mode gives rise to the interelectrode rf voltage standing wave effect associated with high frequencies in large area reactors, and the second mode gives rise to the telegraph effect associated with asymmetric electrode areas, which necessitates the redistribution of rf current along the plasma to maintain rf current continuity. This work gives a unified treatment of both effects which have previously been studied separately, experimentally and theoretically, in the literature. The equivalent circuit of each mode is also derived from its respective dispersion relation. Examples of this electromagnetic wavefield solution show that both modes can cause nonuniformity of the plasma rf potential, depending on the reactor geometry, excitation frequency and plasma permittivity and sheath width, which has consequences for large-area plasma processing

  4. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  5. Electromagnetic Flow Meter Having a Driver Circuit Including a Current Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, David M. (Inventor); Cushing, Vincent (Inventor); Patel, Sandeep K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) accurately measures both the complete flow rate and the dynamically fluctuating flow rate of a fluid by applying a unipolar DC voltage to excitation coils for a predetermined period of time, measuring the electric potential at a pair of electrodes, determining a complete flow rate and independently measuring the dynamic flow rate during the "on" cycle of the DC excitation, and correcting the measurements for errors resulting from galvanic drift and other effects on the electric potential. The EMFM can also correct for effects from the excitation circuit induced during operation of the EMFM.

  6. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Martin L

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system and have near universal roles in release of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Soviet and Western literature shows that much of the impact of non-thermal microwave exposures in experimental animals occurs in the brain and peripheral nervous system, such that nervous system histology and function show diverse and substantial changes. These may be generated through roles of VGCC activation, producing excessive neurotransmitter/neuroendocrine release as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress and other responses. Excessive VGCC activity has been shown from genetic polymorphism studies to have roles in producing neuropsychiatric changes in humans. Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose-response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression

  7. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  8. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  9. What Are Electromagnetic Fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sources of electromagnetic fields Besides natural sources the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by human-made sources: ... ability to break bonds between molecules. In the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays given off by radioactive materials, cosmic ...

  10. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  11. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  12. Optical frame synchronizer for 10 G Ethernet packets aiming at 1 Tb/s OTDM Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist; Laguardia Areal, Janaina

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization of 10 G Ethernet packets to a local clock was demonstrated using a phase modulator and a SMF as retiming elements. Error free performances for the synchronized packets with different lengths were achieved.......Synchronization of 10 G Ethernet packets to a local clock was demonstrated using a phase modulator and a SMF as retiming elements. Error free performances for the synchronized packets with different lengths were achieved....

  13. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  14. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems  and summaries.   The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...

  15. Genomic Variation in IbA10G2 and Other Patient-Derived Cryptosporidium hominis Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Per; Andersson, Sofia; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Hallström, Björn; Alsmark, Cecilia; Troell, Karin; Beser, Jessica; Arrighi, Romanico B G

    2017-03-01

    In order to improve genotyping and epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp., genomic data need to be generated directly from a broad range of clinical specimens. Utilizing a robust method that we developed for the purification and generation of amplified target DNA, we present its application for the successful isolation and whole-genome sequencing of 14 different Cryptosporidium hominis patient specimens. Six isolates of subtype IbA10G2 were analyzed together with a single representative each of 8 other subtypes: IaA20R3, IaA23R3, IbA9G3, IbA13G3, IdA14, IeA11G3T3, IfA12G1, and IkA18G1. Parasite burden was measured over a range of more than 2 orders of magnitude for all samples, while the genomes were sequenced to mean depths of between 17× and 490× coverage. Sequence homology-based functional annotation identified several genes of interest, including the gene encoding Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein 9 (COWP9), which presented a predicted loss-of-function mutation in all the sequence subtypes, except for that seen with IbA10G2, which has a sequence identical to the Cryptosporidium parvum reference Iowa II sequence. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that all the IbA10G2 genomes form a monophyletic clade in the C. hominis tree as expected and yet display some heterogeneity within the IbA10G2 subtype. The current report validates the aforementioned method for isolating and sequencing Cryptosporidium directly from clinical stool samples. In addition, the analysis demonstrates the potential in mining data generated from sequencing multiple whole genomes of Cryptosporidium from human fecal samples, while alluding to the potential for a higher degree of genotyping within Cryptosporidium epidemiology. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Chemical composition analysis of simulated waste glass T10-G-16A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    In this report, SRNL provides chemical composition analyses of a simulated LAW glass designated T10-G-16A.The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component. No issues were identified in reviewing the analytical data.

  17. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  18. Research on Automatic Measurement of Weights from 1 mg to 10 g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Changqing; Wang, Jian; Ren, Xiaoping; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Yue; Zhong, Ruilin; Ding, Jing'an

    To reduce the effect of environment factor against mass measurement of high accuracy, robot system with three-axis motion, data acquisition of environment parameters and function of remote communication is developed for realizing automatic remote measurement of high accurate weights. The system consists of function of automatic centering, combined weights to be load and unload, combined comparison measurement and function of automatic measuring for temperature, humidity and air pressure. Weights from 1 mg to 10 g are determined by the system with method of direct comparison and combined comparison. The experimental results show extended uncertainty of direct comparison and combined comparison from 1 mg to 10 g is better than 4.3 μg (k=2).

  19. Genetic recombination and Cryptosporidium hominis virulent subtype IbA10G2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Xiao, Lihua; Cama, Vitaliano A; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H; Guo, Meijin; Feng, Yaoyu

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes.

  20. A TTC upgrade proposal using bidirectional 10G-PON FTTH technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotouros, D. M.; Baron, S.; Soos, C.; Vasey, F.

    2015-04-01

    A new generation FPGA-based Timing-Trigger and Control (TTC) system based on emerging Passive Optical Network (PON) technology is being proposed to replace the existing off-detector TTC system used by the LHC experiments. High split ratio, dynamic software partitioning, low and deterministic latency, as well as low jitter are required. Exploiting the latest available technologies allows delivering higher capacity together with bidirectionality, a feature absent from the legacy TTC system. This article focuses on the features and capabilities of the latest TTC-PON prototype based on 10G-PON FTTH components along with some metrics characterizing its performance.

  1. Analysis of Coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simulation model of coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON systems is presented, which has been developed for the analysis of feasibility and implementation issues of this coexistence. The aim was to analyze the impact of the most important parameters of the components that are needed for new network elements, on the performance of these coexistent networks. On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal parameters of the new system components were defined.

  2. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  3. The classical electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Eyges, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This excellent text covers a year's course in advanced theoretical electromagnetism, first introducing theory, then its application. Topics include vectors D and H inside matter, conservation laws for energy, momentum, invariance, form invariance, covariance in special relativity, and more.

  4. Implementation of Modified FEC Codec and High-Speed Synchronizer in 10G-EPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward parallel forward error correction(FEC codec for 10 Gb/s Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON , which adopts 8-parallel algorithm based on improved state space transformation (SST method for Reed-Solomon (RS encoder and 9-parallel algorithm based on enhanced degree computation-less modified Euclid’s (EDCME algorithm to solve the key equation for RS decoder. The designed 10 Gb/s codec and high-speed synchronizer are implemented with Verilog HDL on Xilinx FPGA ML523. The implementation results show that, with the high-speed synchronizer, the RS (255, 223 encoder and decoder are able to operate at 15.232 Gb/s and 13.2 Gb/s respectively with shorter time latency than those of the reported designs.

  5. Ten dimensional SO(10) G.U.T. models with dynamical symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.E.; Joshi, G.C.

    1993-01-01

    To date, considerations on SO (10) models within Coset Space Dimensional Reduction (CSDR) have been diagonalized to the standard model or rely upon imaginative applications of Wilson lines so as to avoid the problem of the nonexistence of an intermediate Higgs mechanism. However, there is an alternative approach involving four fermion condensates, breaking symmetries by a dynamical mechanism. Indeed, dynamical symmetry breaking has been the direction taken in some SU(5) models within this framework in order to avoid the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking at the compactification scale. This paper presents realistic models which utilize this mechanism. It is shown that the appropriate fermionic representations can emerge from CSDR and the construction of such condensates within the constraints of this scheme is presented. By introducing discrete symmetries onto the internal manifold a strong breaking of the SO(10) G.U.T. is produced and, more importantly, eliminate Higgs fields of geometrical origin. 31 refs

  6. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media, specifically in electromagnetic materials. An account is presented of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials. The author presents the theory of time-varying electromagnetic fields, which involves a discussion of Faraday's laws, Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic wave propagation under a variety of conditions. The author gives a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Chapters are included on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The mathematical foundation of electromagnetic waves vis a vis partial differential equations is discussed

  7. Electromagnetic Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milson, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)

  8. Electromagnetic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  9. Heavy traffic feasible hybrid intracycle and cyclic sleep for power saving in 10G-EPON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintian; Wang, Liqian; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Xue

    2014-01-01

    Energy consumption in optical access networks costs carriers substantial operational expense (OPEX) every year and is one of contributing factors for the global warming. To reduce energy consumption in the 10-gigabit Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON), a hybrid intracycle and cyclic sleep mechanism is proposed in this paper. Under heavy traffic load, optical network units (ONUs) can utilize short idle slots within each scheduling cycle to enter intracycle sleep without postponing data transmission. In this way, energy conservation is achieved even under heavy traffic load with quality of service (QoS) guarantee. Under light traffic load, ONUs perform long cyclic sleep for several scheduling cycles. The adoption of cyclic sleep instead of intracycle sleep under light traffic load can reduce unnecessary frequent transitions between sleep and full active work caused by using intracycle sleep. Further, the Markov chain of the proposed mechanism is established. The performances of the proposed mechanism and existing approaches are analyzed quantitatively based on the chain. For the proposed mechanism, power saving ability with QoS guarantee even under heavy traffic and better power saving performance than existing approaches are verified by the quantitative analysis. Moreover, simulations validate the above conclusions based on the chain.

  10. Heavy Traffic Feasible Hybrid Intracycle and Cyclic Sleep for Power Saving in 10G-EPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in optical access networks costs carriers substantial operational expense (OPEX every year and is one of contributing factors for the global warming. To reduce energy consumption in the 10-gigabit Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON, a hybrid intracycle and cyclic sleep mechanism is proposed in this paper. Under heavy traffic load, optical network units (ONUs can utilize short idle slots within each scheduling cycle to enter intracycle sleep without postponing data transmission. In this way, energy conservation is achieved even under heavy traffic load with quality of service (QoS guarantee. Under light traffic load, ONUs perform long cyclic sleep for several scheduling cycles. The adoption of cyclic sleep instead of intracycle sleep under light traffic load can reduce unnecessary frequent transitions between sleep and full active work caused by using intracycle sleep. Further, the Markov chain of the proposed mechanism is established. The performances of the proposed mechanism and existing approaches are analyzed quantitatively based on the chain. For the proposed mechanism, power saving ability with QoS guarantee even under heavy traffic and better power saving performance than existing approaches are verified by the quantitative analysis. Moreover, simulations validate the above conclusions based on the chain.

  11. General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...

  12. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  13. Synchronization and NRZ-to-RZ format conversion of 10 G Ethernet packet based on a time lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist

    2010-01-01

    10 G Ethernet packet with maximum frame size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a global clock using a time lens. The 10 Gb/s NRZ signal is converted into RZ signal at the same time.......10 G Ethernet packet with maximum frame size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a global clock using a time lens. The 10 Gb/s NRZ signal is converted into RZ signal at the same time....

  14. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  15. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electromagnetic force on a brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza–Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also derived with the stress–energy tensor for electromagnetic fields explicitly included and the Weyl tensor term explicitly expressed with matter fields and their derivatives in the direction of the extra-dimension. The model proposed in the paper can be regarded as unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in the framework of brane world theory. (paper)

  17. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  18. Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics provides an in-depth introduction of the three main full-wave numerical methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM); namely, the method of moment (MoM), the finite element method (FEM), and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Numerous monographs can be found addressing one of the above three methods. However, few give a broad general overview of essentials embodied in these methods, or were published too early to include recent advances. Furthermore, many existing monographs only present the final numerical results without specifyin

  19. Electromagnetic structure of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs

  20. Introduction to electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Clayton R.

    A formal and extensive treatment of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is presented. Basic principles are reviewed in detail, including reasons for EMC in electronic design. Also discussed are: nonideal behavior of components, signal spectra, radiated emission and susceptibility, conducted emissions and susceptibility, crosstalk, shielding, electrostatic discharge, and system design for EMC.

  1. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  2. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  3. Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Rylander, Thomas; Bondeson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Computational Electromagnetics is a young and growing discipline, expanding as a result of the steadily increasing demand for software for the design and analysis of electrical devices. This book introduces three of the most popular numerical methods for simulating electromagnetic fields: the finite difference method, the finite element method and the method of moments. In particular it focuses on how these methods are used to obtain valid approximations to the solutions of Maxwell's equations, using, for example, "staggered grids" and "edge elements." The main goal of the book is to make the reader aware of different sources of errors in numerical computations, and also to provide the tools for assessing the accuracy of numerical methods and their solutions. To reach this goal, convergence analysis, extrapolation, von Neumann stability analysis, and dispersion analysis are introduced and used frequently throughout the book. Another major goal of the book is to provide students with enough practical understan...

  4. Electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen-Shian V.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are well known in the art in forms such as gaskets, caulking compounds, adhesives, coatings and the like for a variety of EMI shielding purposes. In the past, where high shielding performance is necessary, EMI shielding has tended to use silver particles or silver coated copper particles dispersed in a resin binder. More recently, aluminum core silver coated particles have been used to reduce costs while maintaining good electrical and physical properties. (author). 8 figs

  5. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  6. Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism of chemokine CXCL10 G-210A and the chronicity and severity of HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ming LIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP in the promoter of chemokine CXCL10 G-201A,and explore the relationship between the SNP and the chronicity and severity of hepatitis B virus(HBV infection.Methods Blood samples were collected from 792 patients with HBV infection,including 200 with acute hepatitis B(AHB,200 with mild/moderate chronic hepatitis B(CHB-M,192 with severe chronic hepatitis B(CHB-S and 200 with acute liver failure of chronic hepatitis(ACLF,and 300 healthy people were enrolled as normal control(NC.DNA were extracted and subjected to PCR amplification of fragment containing C-1596 site that links with G-201 variation,followed by restriction fragment length polymerase(RFLP analysis.Simultaneously,400 samples were randomly extracted from various groups for direct sequencing of G-201 variation.The consistency of SNP typing results of the two methods was analyzed.Results Variation rates of G-201A were 17.77% for AHB group,25.26% for CHB-M group,26.59% for CHB-S group,21.28% for ACLF group,and 13.82% for NC group.The overall P value obtained from the general χ2 test among the 5 groups was 0.0037.The correlation test(P=0.0015 demonstrated that the variation rate was related to different disease status,and the linear trend test(P=0.0029,Z=-2.9748 indicated an increasing trend of variation rate with the disease progression.Paired comparison showed that the differences in variation rate between CHB-M and NC(P=0.0024,CHB-S and NC(P=0.0007,ACLF and NC(P=0.0428,as well as CHB-S and CHB(P=0.0488 were statistically significant.Direct PCR sequencing showed 98.68% identity with the results from PCR-RFLP.Kappa test(U=58.425,P < 0.05 indicated that the consistency of the two assays met the statistical requirements.Conclusion The G-201A variation in CXCL10 promoter is related to chronicity of HBV infection,and the relations between the variation and the severity of HBV infection remains to be further clarified.

  7. Electromagnetic engineering - from dc to light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic engineering is of great importance to modern world. Some of its various applications can be found in communications science. There is little agreement between the East and West about electromagnetic radiation effects. Although the West believes that there is no danger in power frequency fields, standards for the maximum power densities to which humans may be exposed were laid down by various national and international bodies. Two other effects of electromagnetic energy include: a) The possible ignition of flammable vapours and gases by electromagnetic radiation and; b) the electromagnetic pulse. The application of radar is also discussed

  8. Optical electromagnetic radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miceli, W. J.; Ludman, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    An optical electromagnetic radiation detector having a probe for receiving nearby electromagnetic radiation. The probe includes a loop antenna connected to a pair of transparent electrodes deposited on the end surfaces of an electro-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer. When the loop antenna picks up the presence of electromagnetic radiation, a voltage will be developed across the crystal of the electro-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer thereby changing the optical length of the interferometer. A beam of light from a remote location is transmitted through an optical fiber onto the Fabry-Perot interferometer. The change in optical length of the Fabry-Perot interferometer alters the intensity of the beam of light as it is reflected from the Fabry-Perot interferometer back through the optical fiber to the remote location. A beamsplitter directs this reflected beam of light onto an intensity detector in order to provide an output indicative of the variations in intensity. The variations in intensity are directly related to the strength of the electromagnetic radiation received by the loop antenna

  9. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site......-specific, ragged sonic landscape. The work exhibits intrinsic, non-trivial, emerging behaviour, cyclic or wave-like, which converges and ebbs. It varies its sonic and visual display through a dynamic interaction of light sources, fog and light sensors. The system maintains a fluxing state of ambivalence between...

  10. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  11. Improving the genotyping resolution of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 using one step PCR-based amplicon sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beser, Jessica; Hallström, Björn M; Advani, Abdolreza; Andersson, Sofia; Östlund, Gabriel; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Lebbad, Marianne; Alm, Erik; Troell, Karin; Arrighi, Romanico B G

    2017-11-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis gp60 subtype IbA10G2 is a common cause of cryptosporidiosis. This subtype is responsible for many waterborne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases and is considered virulent and highly important in the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. Due to low heterogeneity within the genome of C. hominis it has been difficult to identify epidemiological markers with higher resolution than gp60. However, new markers are required in order to improve outbreak investigations and studies of the transmission dynamics of this clinically important subtype. Based on the whole genome sequences of 17 C. hominis isolates, we have identified several differential loci and developed a new sequence based typing panel with higher resolution than gp60. An amplicon sequencing method was also developed which is based on a one-step PCR which can be sequenced using a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. Such a system provides a rapid and high-throughput workflow. A panel of nine loci with 10 single nucleotide variants (SNV) was selected and evaluated using clinical IbA10G2 isolates from sporadic, cluster and outbreak associated cases. The specimens were separated into 10 different genetic profiles named sequence types (STs). All isolates within an outbreak or cluster belonged to the same ST, including several samples from the two large waterborne outbreaks which occurred in Sweden between 2010 and 2011 indicating that these outbreaks might be linked. The results demonstrate the methods suitability for improved genotyping of C. hominis IbA10G2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A primer on electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Frezza, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This book is a concise introduction to electromagnetics and electromagnetic fields that covers the aspects of most significance for engineering applications by means of a rigorous, analytical treatment. After an introduction to equations and basic theorems, topics of fundamental theoretical and applicative importance, including plane waves, transmission lines, waveguides, and Green's functions, are discussed in a deliberately general way. Care has been taken to ensure that the text is readily accessible and self-consistent, with conservation of the intermediate steps in the analytical derivations. The book offers the reader a clear, succinct course in basic electromagnetic theory. It will also be a useful lookup tool for students and designers.

  13. Nonlinear electromagnetic fields and symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjašić, Irena; Gulin, Luka; Smolić, Ivica

    2017-06-01

    We extend the classical results on the symmetry inheritance of the canonical electromagnetic fields, described by the Maxwell's Lagrangian, to a much wider class of models, which include those of the Born-Infeld, power Maxwell and the Euler-Heisenberg type. Symmetry inheriting fields allow the introduction of electromagnetic scalar potentials and these are proven to be constant on the Killing horizons. Finally, using the relations obtained along the analysis, we generalize and simplify the recent proof for the symmetry inheritance of the 3-dimensional case, as well as give the first constraint for the higher dimensional electromagnetic fields.

  14. Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, David A.

    2000-11-01

    Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering introduces the key physical and engineering principles of electromagnetics. Throughout the book, David de Wolf describes the intermediate steps in mathematical derivations that many other textbooks leave out. He covers in depth the concepts of fields and potentials and then progresses to magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, electrodynamics and wave propagation, waveguides, transmission lines, and antennas. At each stage, de Wolf stresses the physical principles underlying the mathematical results. He also includes homework exercises, a separate chapter on numerical methods in electromagnetics, and a broad range of worked examples to illustrate important concepts. Solutions manual available.

  15. Electromagnet. Elektromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Amaya, N.; Weiss, F.; Schmitt, A.

    1991-04-18

    An electromagnet, particularly for use in switching valves for the direct control of a fuel injection quantity on fuel injection pumps, has a magnet pot (25) made of soft magnetic material, an annular excitation coil (30) and a magnet armature (29), which is situated with a working air gap in front of the magnet pot (25). To improve the dynamic behaviour of the electromagnet (20), ie: to achieve extremely low switching times with simple manufacture of the magnetic circuit, the magnet pot (25) and/or the magnet armature (29) made as a solid part is provided with an even number of at least four radial slots (41), which pass through the magnet pot (25) or the magnet armature (29) over their whole axial length. Successive radial slots (41a, 41b) extend alternately from the outside or from the inside jacket surface (311 or 321) to near the inside or the outside jacket surface (321 or 311) respectively and end there, always leaving a bar of material (42 or 43).

  16. Predominant virulent IbA10G2 subtype of Cryptosporidium hominis in human isolates in Barcelona: a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Remedios; Prim, Núria; Montemayor, Michel; Valls, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium infection is a worldwide cause of diarrheal disease. To gain insight into the epidemiology of the infection in a certain geographic area, molecular methods are needed to determine the species/genotypes and subtypes. From 2004 to 2009, 161 cryptosporidiosis cases were detected in two hospitals in Barcelona. Diagnosis was performed by microscopic observation of oocysts in stool specimens following modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Most cases (82%) occurred in children. The number of cases increased in summer and autumn. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium was performed in 69 specimens, and C. hominis and C. parvum were identified in 88.4% and 10.1% of the cases, respectively. C. meleagridis was detected in one specimen. Subtyping based on the gp60 polymorphism showed six subtypes, four C. hominis and two C. parvum. Subtype IbA10G2 was the most prevalent subtype corresponding to 90% of all C. hominis isolates. This is the first report on the distribution of specific Cryptosporidium subtypes from humans in Spain. In our geographic area, the anthroponotic behavior of C. hominis, the lower infective dose, and the higher virulence of certain subtypes may contribute to the high incidence of human cryptosporidiosis caused by the IbA10G2 subtype. Further studies should include populations with asymptomatic shedding of the parasite.

  17. Predominant virulent IbA10G2 subtype of Cryptosporidium hominis in human isolates in Barcelona: a five-year study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Segura

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium infection is a worldwide cause of diarrheal disease. To gain insight into the epidemiology of the infection in a certain geographic area, molecular methods are needed to determine the species/genotypes and subtypes.From 2004 to 2009, 161 cryptosporidiosis cases were detected in two hospitals in Barcelona. Diagnosis was performed by microscopic observation of oocysts in stool specimens following modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Most cases (82% occurred in children. The number of cases increased in summer and autumn. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium was performed in 69 specimens, and C. hominis and C. parvum were identified in 88.4% and 10.1% of the cases, respectively. C. meleagridis was detected in one specimen. Subtyping based on the gp60 polymorphism showed six subtypes, four C. hominis and two C. parvum. Subtype IbA10G2 was the most prevalent subtype corresponding to 90% of all C. hominis isolates. This is the first report on the distribution of specific Cryptosporidium subtypes from humans in Spain.In our geographic area, the anthroponotic behavior of C. hominis, the lower infective dose, and the higher virulence of certain subtypes may contribute to the high incidence of human cryptosporidiosis caused by the IbA10G2 subtype. Further studies should include populations with asymptomatic shedding of the parasite.

  18. Introduction to electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, George E

    2003-01-01

    A direct, stimulating approach to electromagnetic theory, this text employs matrices and matrix methods for the simple development of broad theorems. The author uses vector representation throughout the book, with numerous applications of Poisson's equation and the Laplace equation (the latter occurring in both electronics and magnetic media). Contents include the electrostatics of point charges, distributions of charge, conductors and dielectrics, currents and circuits, and the Lorentz force and the magnetic field. Additional topics comprise the magnetic field of steady currents, induced ele

  19. An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Karpowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W or general public (GP members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons. Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs, by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users. Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated. Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both—GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment.

  20. Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  1. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  2. Computational electronics and electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, C C

    1998-01-01

    The Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics thrust area serves as the focal point for Engineering R and D activities for developing computer-based design and analysis tools. Representative applications include design of particle accelerator cells and beamline components; design of transmission line components; engineering analysis and design of high-power (optical and microwave) components; photonics and optoelectronics circuit design; electromagnetic susceptibility analysis; and antenna synthesis. The FY-97 effort focuses on development and validation of (1) accelerator design codes; (2) 3-D massively parallel, time-dependent EM codes; (3) material models; (4) coupling and application of engineering tools for analysis and design of high-power components; and (5) development of beam control algorithms coupled to beam transport physics codes. These efforts are in association with technology development in the power conversion, nondestructive evaluation, and microtechnology areas. The efforts complement technology development in Lawrence Livermore National programs

  3. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magdy F

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...

  4. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  5. Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Terrence W

    2008-01-01

    Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field

  6. Hypergravity of 10 g Changes Plant Growth, Anatomy, Chloroplast Size, and Photosynthesis in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kaori; Watanabe, Rina; Kameishi, Ryuji; Sakaguchi, Naoya; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Kume, Atsushi; Karahara, Ichirou; Hanba, Yuko T.; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2017-12-01

    The photosynthetic and anatomical responses of bryophytes to changes in gravity will provide crucial information for estimating how these plant traits evolved to adapt to changes in gravity in land plant history. We performed long-term hypergravity experiments at 10 g for 4 and 8 weeks using the moss Physcomitrella patens with two centrifuges equipped with lighting systems that enable long-term plant growth under hypergravity with irradiance. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify changes in the anatomy and morphology of P. patens, and (2) to analyze the post-effects of hypergravity on photosynthesis by P. patens in relation to these changes. We measured photosynthesis by P. patens for a population of gametophores (e.g., canopy) in Petri dishes and plant culture boxes. Gametophore numbers increased by 9% for a canopy of P. patens, with 24-27% increases in chloroplast sizes (diameter and thickness) in leaf cells. In a canopy of P. patens, the area-based photosynthesis rate ( A canopy) was increased by 57% at 10 g. The increase observed in A canopy was associated with greater plant numbers and chloroplast sizes, both of which involved enhanced CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts in the canopies of P. patens. These results suggest that changes in gravity are important environmental stimuli to induce changes in plant growth and photosynthesis by P. patens, in which an alteration in chloroplast size is one of the key traits. We are now planning an ISS experiment to investigate the responses of P. patens to microgravity.

  7. Advanced computational electromagnetic methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenxing; Elsherbeni, Atef; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    This new resource covers the latest developments in computational electromagnetic methods, with emphasis on cutting-edge applications. This book is designed to extend existing literature to the latest development in computational electromagnetic methods, which are of interest to readers in both academic and industrial areas. The topics include advanced techniques in MoM, FEM and FDTD, spectral domain method, GPU and Phi hardware acceleration, metamaterials, frequency and time domain integral equations, and statistics methods in bio-electromagnetics.

  8. Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kerker, Milton

    1969-01-01

    The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan

  9. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  10. Electromagnetic fields of Nanometer electromagnetic waves and X-ray. New frontiers of electromagnetic wave engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)

  11. High performance electromagnetic simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Whites, Keith W.

    1994-10-01

    Army Research Office Grant #DAAH04-93-G-0453 has supported the purchase of 24 additional compute nodes that were installed in the Intel iPsC/860 hypercube at the Univesity Of Kentucky (UK), rendering a 32-node multiprocessor. This facility has allowed the investigators to explore and extend the boundaries of electromagnetic simulation for important areas of defense concerns including microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) design/analysis and electromagnetic materials research and development. The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform for MMIC circuit simulations. A number of parallel methods based on direct time-domain solutions of Maxwell's equations have been developed on the iPSC/860, including a parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, and a parallel planar generalized Yee-algorithm (PGY). The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform on which to develop a 'virtual laboratory' to numerically analyze, scientifically study and develop new types of materials with beneficial electromagnetic properties. These materials simulations are capable of assembling hundreds of microscopic inclusions from which an electromagnetic full-wave solution will be obtained in toto. This powerful simulation tool has enabled research of the full-wave analysis of complex multicomponent MMIC devices and the electromagnetic properties of many types of materials to be performed numerically rather than strictly in the laboratory.

  12. The Teaching of Electromagnetism at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houldin, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses different kinds of material presentation in the teaching of electromagnetism at the university level, including three "classical" approaches and the Keller personalized proctorial system. Indicates that a general introduction to generators and motors may be useful in an electromagnetism course. (CC)

  13. Project Physics Tests 4, Light and Electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 4 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 22 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of light and electromagnetism are examined on charges, reflection, electrostatic forces, electric potential, speed of light, electromagnetic waves and radiations, Oersted's and Faraday's work,…

  14. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  15. COHERENCE PROPERTIES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , COHERENT SCATTERING), (*COHERENT SCATTERING, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), LIGHT, INTERFERENCE, INTENSITY, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS, QUANTUM THEORY, BOSONS, INTERFEROMETERS, CHINA

  16. Electromagnetics and optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kriezis, E. E; Chrissoulidis, D. P; Papagiannakis, A. G

    1992-01-01

    ..., since light is a high-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Although both electromagnetics and optics are their common origin is only superficially realised physics or electrical engineering. Deeper physical by treating electromagnetics and optics in parallel thus enlightening the natural link between them. By presenting principles, theory a...

  17. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…

  18. Electromagnetic design calculation of the control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qirong; Zhu Jingchang

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic design calculation of the step-by-step magnetic jacking control rod drive mechanism includes magnetic field force calculation and design calculation of magnetomotive force for three electromagnetic iron and their coilds. The basic principle and method of electromagnetic design calculation had been expounded to take the lift magnet and lift coil for example

  19. Some direct methods in electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, J.; Scheurer, B.

    1991-01-01

    At the CEA/DAM, various studies including ones aimed at researching for low observability have stimulated the development of electromagnetics computer codes. For this purpose both mathematical and numerical methods have been devised. Two of them are described in this paper. The first approach consists of enlarging to electromagnetics problems some ideas and methods issued from mechanics and structural design. A flexible computer code covering a wide range of applications has been developed. The second approach is explicitly concerned with axisymmetric bodies and low observability problems. Boundary element methods, as well as mixed boundary element and finite element methods are briefly described and exemplified. (author). 21 refs., 13 figs., 3 insets

  20. Mathematical methods of electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrichs, Kurt O

    2014-01-01

    This text provides a mathematically precise but intuitive introduction to classical electromagnetic theory and wave propagation, with a brief introduction to special relativity. While written in a distinctive, modern style, Friedrichs manages to convey the physical intuition and 19th century basis of the equations, with an emphasis on conservation laws. Particularly striking features of the book include: (a) a mathematically rigorous derivation of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter, (b) a straightforward explanation of how to use variational principles to solve problems in el

  1. Electromagnetic geothermometry theory, modeling, practice

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Geothermometry explores, presents and explains the new technique of temperature estimation within the Earth's interior; the Electromagnetic technique will identify zones of geothermal anomalies and thus provides locations for deep drilling. This book includes many case studies from geothermal areas such as Travale (Italy), Soultz-sous-Forêts (France) and Hengill (Iceland), allowing the author and reader to draw conclusions regarding the dominating heat transfer mechanisms, location of its sources and to constrain the locations for drilling of the new boreholes. Covering a to

  2. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  3. CIME School on "Computational Electromagnetism"

    CERN Document Server

    Valli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Presenting topics that have not previously been contained in a single volume, this book offers an up-to-date review of computational methods in electromagnetism, with a focus on recent results in the numerical simulation of real-life electromagnetic problems and on theoretical results that are useful in devising and analyzing approximation algorithms. Based on four courses delivered in Cetraro in June 2014, the material covered includes the spatial discretization of Maxwell’s equations in a bounded domain, the numerical approximation of the eddy current model in harmonic regime, the time domain integral equation method (with an emphasis on the electric-field integral equation) and an overview of qualitative methods for inverse electromagnetic scattering problems. Assuming some knowledge of the variational formulation of PDEs and of finite element/boundary element methods, the book is suitable for PhD students and researchers interested in numerical approximation of partial differential equations and scienti...

  4. Electromagnetic compatibility and interference metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M. T.; Kanda, M.

    1986-07-01

    The material included in the report is intended for a short course on electromagnetic compatibility/interference (EMC/EM) metrology. The entire course is presented in nine chapters with the introductory part given as Chapter 1. The particular measurement topics to be covered are: (1) open sites (Chapters 2 and 6), (2) transverse electromagnetic cells (Chapter 3), (3) techniques for measuring the electromagnetic shielding of materials (Chapter 4), (4) anechoic chambers (Chapter 5), and (5) reverberating chambers (Chapter 8). In addition, since small probe antennas play an important role in some of the EMC/EMI measurements discussed, a separate chapter on various probe systems developed at NBS is given in Chapter 7. Selected contemporary EMI topics such as the characterization and measurement of a complex EM environment, interferences in the form of out-of-band receptions to an antenna, and some conducted EMI problems are also briefly discussed (Chapter 9).

  5. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, James C

    2016-01-01

    As wireless technology becomes more sophisticated and accessible to more users, the interactions of electromagnetic fields with biological systems have captured the interest not only of the scientific community but also the general public. Unintended or deleterious biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation may indicate grounds for health and safety precautions in their use. Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems explores the range of consequences these fields have on the human body. With contributions by an array of experts, topics discussed include: Essential interactions and field coupling phenomena, highlighting their importance in research on biological effects and in scientific, industrial, and medical applications Electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields The effect of exposure to naturally occurring and human-made static, low-frequency, and pulsed magnetic fields in biological systems Dosi...

  6. Electromagnetic corrections to baryon masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic contributions to the octet and decuplet baryon masses using the heavy-baryon approximation in chiral effective field theory and methods we developed in earlier analyses of the baryon masses and magnetic moments. Our methods connect simply to Morpurgo's general parametrization of the electromagnetic contributions and to semirelativistic quark models. Our calculations are carried out including the one-loop mesonic corrections to the basic electromagnetic interactions, so to two loops overall. We find that to this order in the chiral loop expansion there are no three-body contributions. The Coleman-Glashow relation and other sum rules derived in quark models with only two-body terms therefore continue to hold, and violations involve at least three-loop processes and can be expected to be quite small. We present the complete formal results and some estimates of the matrix elements here. Numerical calculations will be presented separately

  7. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  8. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment-all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, 'space-coiling' metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials ('meta-liquids'), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  9. Theory of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the theory of electromagnetic fields, with an emphasis on aspects relevant to radiofrequency systems in particle accelerators. We begin by reviewing Maxwell's equations and their physical significance. We show that in free space, there are solutions to Maxwell's equations representing the propagation of electromagnetic fields as waves. We introduce electromagnetic potentials, and show how they can be used to simplify the calculation of the fields in the presence of sources. We derive Poynting's theorem, which leads to expressions for the energy density and energy flux in an electromagnetic field. We discuss the properties of electromagnetic waves in cavities, waveguides and transmission lines.

  10. Knotted solutions, from electromagnetism to fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniel W. F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Nastase, Horatiu; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Knotted solutions to electromagnetism and fluid dynamics are investigated, based on relations we find between the two subjects. We can write fluid dynamics in electromagnetism language, but only on an initial surface, or for linear perturbations, and we use this map to find knotted fluid solutions, as well as new electromagnetic solutions. We find that knotted solutions of Maxwell electromagnetism are also solutions of more general nonlinear theories, like Born-Infeld, and including ones which contain quantum corrections from couplings with other modes, like Euler-Heisenberg and string theory DBI. Null configurations in electromagnetism can be described as a null pressureless fluid, and from this map we can find null fluid knotted solutions. A type of nonrelativistic reduction of the relativistic fluid equations is described, which allows us to find also solutions of the (nonrelativistic) Euler’s equations.

  11. X-ray electromagnetic application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)

  12. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  13. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  14. Electromagnetic Gowdy universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charach, C.

    1979-01-01

    Following Gowdy and Berger we construct an inhomogeneous closed electromagnetic universe with three-torus topology. This model is obtained as a result of the homogeneity breaking in the electromagnetic Bianchi type-I universe and contains interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves. This cosmological solution provides an exactly solvable model for the study of the nonlinear fully relativistic regime of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the early universe. The asymptotic behavior is considered (i) in the vicinity of the initial singularity and (ii) in the high-frequency limit. It is shown that the effects of coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational waves cause an evolution which is significantly different from that of the vacuum model. The influence of the primordial homogeneous electromagnetic field on the dynamics of the model is also discussed

  15. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  16. Bathymetry, electromagnetic streamlines and the marine controlled source electromagnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethick, Andrew; Harris, Brett

    2014-07-01

    Seafloor topography must influence the strength and direction of electromagnetic fields generated during deep ocean controlled source electromagnetic surveying. Neither mathematical equation nor rules of thumb provide a clear perspective of how changes in water column thickness alters electromagnetic fields that engulf hundreds of cubic kilometres of air, ocean, host and reservoir. We use streamline visualisation to provide a generalised representation of how electromagnetic fields propagate into a 2D geo-electrical setting that includes strong bathymetry. Of particular interest are: (i)' dead zones' where electric fields at the ocean floor are demonstrated to be weak and (ii) the 'airwave' that appears in the electric field streamlines as circulating vortices with a shape that is clearly influenced by changes in ocean depth. Our analysis of the distribution of electric fields for deep and shallow water examples alludes to potential benefits from placement of receivers and/or transmitters higher in the water column as is the case for towed receiver geometries. Real-time streamline representation probably holds the most value at the survey planning stage, especially for shallow water marine EM surveys where ocean bottom topography is likely to be consequential.

  17. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...

  18. Electromagnetic Radiation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-10

    A methodology is given for determining whether electromagnetic radiation of sufficient strength to cause performance degradation to the test item...exists at the test item location. The results of an electromagnetic radiation effects test are used to identify the radio frequencies and electromagnetic ... radiation levels to which the test item is susceptible. Further, using a test bed, comparisons are made with the representative signal levels to

  19. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  20. Electromagnetic Environmental Effects System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    includes such items as machine tools, micromanipulators, sheet metal fabricating tools, TOP 01-2-511A 20 November 2013 4 microscopes, Hazards of...Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO) sensors, pneumatic switching, and those equipments associated with fiber optic technology. c. Test...and current flow. These effects include puncture, tearing, bending , burning, vaporization, or blasting of hardware. TOP 01-2-511A 20

  1. Correlated Electromagnetic Levitation Actuator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Approach is to first characterize the capabilities of correlated electromagnets by developing a prototype with readily available materials and manufacturing...

  2. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  3. Electromagnetic fields and life

    CERN Document Server

    Presman, A S

    1970-01-01

    A broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum long assumed to have no influence on living systems under natural conditions has been critically re-examined over the past decade. This spectral region extends from the superhigh radio frequencies, through de­ creasing frequencies, to and including essentially static electric and magnetic fields. The author of this monograph, A. S. Presman, has reviewed not only the extensive Russian literatur!;"l, but also al­l most equally comprehensively the non-Russian literature, dealing with biological influences of these fields. Treated also is literature shedding some light on possible theoretical foundations for these phenomena. A substantial, rapidly increasing number of studies in many laboratories and countries has now clearly established bio­ logical influences which are independent of the theoretically predictable, simple thermal effects. Indeed many of the effects are produced by field strengths very close to those within the natural environment. The author has,...

  4. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  5. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  6. First Demonstration of Real-Time End-to-End 40 Gb/s PAM-4 System using 10-G Transmitter for Next Generation Access Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved.......We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved....

  7. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  8. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  9. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Lipp, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: ► Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). ► Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. ► Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. ► EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. ► Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  10. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  11. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L`Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  12. Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs

  13. Electromagnetic brake/clutch device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1994-01-01

    An electromagnetic brake/clutch device includes a drive shaft supported by at least one bearing for transmitting torque, a housing, affixed to prevent its rotation, surrounding the drive shaft, and an electromagnetically activated device within the housing to selectively prevent and allow rotation of the drive shaft. The electromagnetically activated device includes a plurality of cammed rollers to prevent counter-clockwise rotation of the drive shaft. The drive shaft includes a circumferential disk and the housing includes a reaction ring for engagement with the plurality of cammed rollers. The plurality of cammed rollers are released from engagement with the circumferential disk and the reaction ring by a plurality of tripping mechanisms within the housing. The tripping action uses the locking force to act as a release force merely by changing the boundary conditions of the roller interface angles. The tripping mechanisms include trippers for disengaging the plurality of cammed rollers and an anvil shaped portion for providing lateral movement of the trippers. The plurality of cammed rollers is preloaded to engagement with the circumferential disk and reaction ring by a spring, and is located with respect to an adjacent tripping mechanism with another spring.

  14. Multifunctional Carbon Electromagnetic Materials - Motors & Actuators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposal is to apply multifunctional carbon electromagnetic materials, including carbon nanotube electrical thread (replaces copper wire) and...

  15. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  16. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  17. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.

    1992-03-24

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

  18. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  19. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  20. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  1. Health hazards and electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, T

    2003-11-01

    Biological rhythms, physical wellbeing and mental states are dependent on our electrical brainwave system interacting with the extremely weak electromagnetic fields generated by the Earth's telluric and Cosmic radiations. In a single generation, since the evolution of humankind over millions of years, we are exposed to a wide range of powerful, artificially generated electromagnetic radiation which adversely affects the subtle balance in nature's energy fields and has become the source of so-called 'diseases of civilization'. This also includes electromagnetic sensitivity. Generally, there is a lack of awareness and understanding of the impact electromagnetic fields can have upon health and wellbeing.Our ancestors were acutely aware that certain locations, were perceived to have a positive energy field which was beneficial to health and vitality. Over time, these areas are now referred to as sacred sites for spiritual ceremony and as healing centres. In contrast, there are other geographical locations that can have a negative effect upon health and these are known as geopathic stress zones. It is believed that such zones can interfere with the brain's normal function that inhibits the release of melatonin and other endocrine secretions needed to replenish the immune system. Geopathic stress can affect animals and plant life as well as human beings and significantly contributes to sick building syndrome (SBS). Whilst there is an increasing body of opinion amongst eminent researchers and scientists who are addressing these issues, the establishment professions are slow to change. However, very gradually, modern allopathic medicine and attitudes are beginning to recognise the extraordinary wisdom and efficacy of ancient traditions such as acupuncture, light, colour and other therapies based on the understanding and treatment of the interaction of a person's electromagnetic subtle body and the immediate environment. These and many other 'complementary' therapies may

  2. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  3. Invariants in electromagnetic and gravitational adjoint fields

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Zihua

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of adjoint fields on the conservation laws in the gravitational field and electromagnetic field, by means of the characteristics of octonions. When the adjoint field can not be neglected, it will cause the predictions to departure slightly from the conservation laws, which include mass continuity equation, charge continuity equation, and conservation of spin. The adjoint field of electromagnetic field has an effect on conservation of mass, and that of gravitatio...

  4. The Wiener-Hopf method in electromagnetics

    OpenAIRE

    Zich, Rodolfo; Daniele, Vito

    2014-01-01

    A function-theoretic method, The Wiener-Hopf technique has found applications in a variety of fields, most notably in analytical studies of diffraction and scattering of waves. The Wiener‐Hopf Method in Electromagnetics is an advanced academic book which provides a rare comprehensive treatment of the Wiener-Hopf method. Using a high level mathematical approach to complex electromagnetics problems and applications, this new book illustrates the wide range of the latest applications, including ...

  5. Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenfelder, W; Kaye, S M; Nevins, W M; Wang, E; Bell, R E; Hammett, G W; LeBlanc, B P; Mikkelsen, D R

    2011-03-23

    This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.

  6. Electromagnetism Tutorial (Tutorial de Eletromagnetismo)

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas, Christine C.

    2009-01-01

    The present tutorial aims at covering the fundamentals of electromagnetism, in a condensed and clear manner. Some solved and proposed exercises have been included. The reader is assumed to have knowledge of basic electricity, partial derivatives and multiple integrals. ----- O presente tutorial visa cobrir os fundamentos do eletromagnetismo, de forma condensada e clara. Alguns exercicios resolvidos e propostos foram incluidos. Assume-se conhecimento de eletricidade basica, derivadas parciais ...

  7. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones Fact sheet N° ... Electromagnetic fields: base stations and wireless technologies Electromagnetic fields: electromagnetic ... research agenda for electromagnetic fields You ...

  8. Electromagnetic shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    As an electromagnetic shaft seal, there are disposed outwarding electromagnetic induction devices having generating power directing to an electroconductive fluid as an object of sealing, and inwarding electromagnetic induction device added coaxially. There are disposed elongate rectangular looped first coils having a predetermined inner diameter, second coils having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the first coil and third coil having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the second coil respectively each at a predetermined inner diameter of clearance to the outwarding electromagnetic induction devices and the inwarding electromagnetic induction device. If the inwarding electromagnetic induction device and the outwarding electromagnetic induction device are operated, they are stopped at a point that the generating power of the former is equal with the sum of the generating power of the latter and a differential pressure. When three-phase AC is charged to the first coil, the second coil and the third coil successively, a force is generated in the advancing direction of the magnetic field in the electroconductive fluid by the similar effect to that of a linear motor, and the seal is maintained at high reliability. Moreover, the limit for the rotational angle of the shaft is not caused. (N.H.)

  9. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  10. Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2005-10-01

    The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)

  11. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  12. Electromagnetic transitions in the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulehla, I.; Suk, M.; Trka, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Methods to achieve excitation of atoms are outlined and conditions necessary for the occurrence of electromagnetic transitions in the atomic shell are given. Radiative transitions between the energy states of the atom include stimulated absorption, spontaneous emission, and stimulated emission. Selection rules applying to the majority of observed transitions are given. The parity concept is explained. It is shown how the electromagnetic field and its interaction with the magnetic moment of the atom lead to a disturbance of the energy states of the atom and the occurrence of various electro-optical and magneto-optical phenomena. The Stark effect and electron spin resonance are described. X-rays and X-ray spectra, the Auger effect and the internal photoeffect are also dealt with. The principle of the laser is explained. (M.D.). 22 figs., 1 tab

  13. Broadband Electromagnetic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    The objectives of this project are to continue the enhancements to the combined Broadband Electromagnetic and Full Encirclement Unit (BEM-FEU) technologies and to evaluate the systems capability in the laboratory and the field. The BEM instrument ...

  14. Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Joseph J S

    2016-01-01

    Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...

  15. Electromagnetism in the Movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Lori R.; Patterson, Evelyn T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the authors used portions of popular movies to help students review concepts related to electromagnetism. Movies used and concepts covered in the review are listed, and a sample activity is described. (WRM)

  16. Purely electromagnetic spacetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, B. V.

    2007-01-01

    Electrovacuum solutions devoid of usual mass sources are classified in the case of one, two and three commuting Killing vectors. Three branches of solutions exist. Electromagnetically induced mass terms appear in some of them.

  17. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  18. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  19. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  20. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai Shrish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases. Electromagnetism has played a vital role in the progress of human kind ever since it has been understood. Electromagnets are found everywhere. One can find them in speakers, doorbells, home security systems, anti-shoplifting systems, hard drives, mobiles, microphones, Maglev trains, motors and many other everyday appliances and products. Before diving into the education system, it is necessary to reiterate its importance in various technologies that have evolved over time. Almost every domain of social life has electromagnetic playing its role. Be it the mobile vibrators you depend upon, a water pump, windshield wipers during rain and the power windows of your car or even the RFID tags that may ease your job during shopping. A flavor of electromagnetics is essential during primary level of schooling for the student to understand its future prospects and open his/her mind to a broad ocean of ideas. Due to such advancements this field can offer, study on such a field is highly beneficial for a developing country like India. The paper presents the scenario of electromagnetic education in India, its importance and numerous schemes taken by the government of India to uplift and acquaint the people about the importance of EM and its applications.

  1. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Alexander Lee

    2010-08-01

    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  2. Grid computing for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Tarricone, Luciano

    2004-01-01

    Today, more and more practitioners, researchers, and students are utilizing the power and efficiency of grid computing for their increasingly complex electromagnetics applications. This cutting-edge book offers you the practical and comprehensive guidance you need to use this new approach to supercomputing for your challenging projects. Supported with over 110 illustrations, the book clearly describes a high-performance, low-cost method to solving huge numerical electromagnetics problems.

  3. Electromagnetic processes and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, F.

    1983-01-01

    The electron and muon are important tools in testing the structure of the fundamental electromagnetic interactions. On the other hand, if these interactions are known, they serve as ideal probes for the internal structure of complex hadronic targets such as nucleons and nuclei. Purely electromagnetic interactions play a distinctive role, for obvious experimental reasons: At low and intermediate energies the effective electromagnetic coupling is larger by many orders of magnitude than the weak couplings, so that electromagnetic processes are measurable to much higher accuracy than purely weak processes. The present chapter deals primarily with applications of charged leptons to problems of nucleon and nuclear structure, and to selected precision tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED) at low momentum transfers. In most of these applications the electromagnetic interactions effectively appear in the form of external fields in the leptonic particle's Dirac equation. This is the domain where the physics of (electromagnetically) interacting leptons can still be described in the framework of an effective, though relativistic, single particle theory. (orig.)

  4. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  5. Covariant jump conditions in electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itin, Yakov

    2012-01-01

    A generally covariant four-dimensional representation of Maxwell’s electrodynamics in a generic material medium can be achieved straightforwardly in the metric-free formulation of electromagnetism. In this setup, the electromagnetic phenomena are described by two tensor fields, which satisfy Maxwell’s equations. A generic tensorial constitutive relation between these fields is an independent ingredient of the theory. By use of different constitutive relations (local and non-local, linear and non-linear, etc.), a wide area of applications can be covered. In the current paper, we present the jump conditions for the fields and for the energy–momentum tensor on an arbitrarily moving surface between two media. From the differential and integral Maxwell equations, we derive the covariant boundary conditions, which are independent of any metric and connection. These conditions include the covariantly defined surface current and are applicable to an arbitrarily moving smooth curved boundary surface. As an application of the presented jump formulas, we derive a Lorentzian type metric as a condition for existence of the wave front in isotropic media. This result holds for ordinary materials as well as for metamaterials with negative material constants. - Highlights: ► Covariant metric-free jump conditions for the electromagnetic field are derived. ► Covariantly defined surface current is considered. ► Lorentzian type metric from existence of the wave front in isotropic media. ► The result holds for ordinary materials as well as for metamaterials.

  6. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, A.; Kumar, M.; Knapp, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations

  7. Potential of Nanocellulose Composite for Electromagnetic Shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Yah Nurul Fatihah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most people rely on the electronic devices for work, communicating with friends and family, school and personal enjoyment. As a result, more new equipment or devices operates in higher frequency were rapidly developed to accommodate the consumers need. However, the demand of using wireless technology and higher frequency in new devices also brings the need to shield the unwanted electromagnetic signals from those devices for both proper operation and human health concerns. This paper highlights the potential of nanocellulose for electromagnetic shielding using the organic environmental nanocellulose composite materials. In addition, the theory of electromagnetic shielding and recent development of green and organic material in electromagnetic shielding application has also been reviewed in this paper. The use of the natural fibers which is nanocelllose instead of traditional reinforcement materials provides several advantages including the natural fibers are renewable, abundant and low cost. Furthermore, added with other advantages such as lightweight and high electromagnetic shielding ability, nanocellulose has a great potential as an alternative material for electromagnetic shielding application.

  8. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genuis, Stephen J., E-mail: sgenuis@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta (Canada); Lipp, Christopher T. [Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  9. Electromagnetic fields and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Neeta; Mathur, R.; Behari, J.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies in recent years have raised the possibility that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may be hazardous to human health, in particular by promotion or initiation of cancer. Recent reports have indicated increased cancer risk from industrial and domestic exposure to environmental ELF fields and to RF fields that are amplitude modulated at ELF. EMF fields have been reported to affect biological systems in various ways, affecting changes in the morphology and or functional behavior of cells, which have been observed in a variety of tissues. Although the mechanism of interaction of EMFs with living cells are not known, it has been proposed that they have multiple effects and can affect cell signalling, including modification of plasma membrane permeability and ion transport. Our findings suggest that EMFs can affect post translational modification of proteins such as poly ADP-ribosylation by epigenetic mechanism and that the effect of EMFs are highly specific regarding both the cell type and the frequency and amplification of the applied field. (author)

  10. Fundamentals of electromagnetics 1 internal behavior of lumped elements

    CERN Document Server

    Voltmer, David

    2007-01-01

    This book is the first of two volumes which have been created to provide an understanding of the basic principles and applications of electromagnetic fields for electrical engineering students. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics Vol 1: Internal Behavior of Lumped Elements focuses upon the DC and low-frequency behavior of electromagnetic fields within lumped elements. The properties of electromagnetic fields provide the basis for predicting the terminal characteristics of resistors, capacitors, and inductors. The properties of magnetic circuits are included as well. For slightly higher frequencie

  11. Maxwell's equations and their consequences elementary electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W 0

    2013-01-01

    Elementary Electromagnetic Theory Volume 3: Maxwell's Equations and their Consequences is the third of three volumes that intend to cover electromagnetism and its potential theory. The third volume considers the implications of Maxwell's equations, such as electromagnetic radiation in simple cases, and its relation between Maxwell's equation and the Lorenz transformation. Included in this volume are chapters 11-14, which contain an in-depth discussion of the following topics: Electromagnetic Waves The Lorentz Invariance of Maxwell's Equation Radiation Motion of Charged Particles Intended

  12. Electromagnetic fields and their impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prša, M. A.; Kasaš-Lažetić, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to briefly recall some different electromagnetic field definitions, some macroscopic sources of electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic fields classification regarding time dependences, and the ways of field determination in concrete cases. After that, all the mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic field and substance, on atomic level, are described in details. Interaction between substance and electric field is investigated separately from the substance and magnetic field interaction. It is demonstrated that, in all cases of the unique electromagnetic field, total interaction can be treated as a superposition of two separated interactions. Finally, the main electromagnetic fields surrounding us is cited and discussed.

  13. Optical Synchronization of a 10-G Ethernet Packet and Time-Division Multiplexing to a 50-Gb/s Signal Using an Optical Time Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist

    2010-01-01

    A 10-G Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a master clock with 200-kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The input 10-Gb/s non-return-to-zero packet is at the same time converted into a return-to-zero (RZ) packet with a pulsewidth of 10 ps and then time......-division multiplexed with four 10-Gb/s optical time-division-multiplexing (OTDM) channels, thus constituting a 50-Gb/s OTDM serial signal. Error-free performances of the synchronized RZ packet and demultiplexed packet from the aggregated 50-Gb/s OTDM signal are achieved....

  14. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  15. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  16. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ultra-Wideband, Short Pulse Electromagnetics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Rachidi, Farhad; Kaelin, Armin; Sabath, Frank; UWB SP 9

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 9 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP9 Conference, which was held from July 21-25, 2008, in Lausanne, Switzerland. The wide-ranging coverage includes contributions on electromagnetic theory, time-domain computational techniques, modeling, antennas, pulsed-power, UWB interactions, radar systems, UWB communications, and broadband systems and components. This book serves as a state-of-the-art r...

  18. Electromagnetic compatibility engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Henry W

    2009-01-01

    Praise for Noise Reduction Techniques IN electronic systems ""Henry Ott has literally 'written the book' on the subject of EMC. . . . He not only knows the subject, but has the rare ability to communicate that knowledge to others.""-EE Times Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott's popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reduction¿and their practical applications t

  19. Electromagnetic clutches and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli

  20. Lectures on electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes on electromagnetism have evolved from graduate and undergraduate EM theory courses given by the author at the University of Rochester, with the basics presented with clarity and his characteristic attention to detail. The thirteen chapters cover, in logical sequence, topics ranging from electrostatics, magnetostatics and Maxwell's equations to plasmas and radiation. Boundary value problems are treated extensively, as are wave guides, electromagnetic interactions and fields. This second edition comprises many of the topics expanded with more details on the derivation of vari

  1. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  2. Electromagnetic Structure of Few-Nucleon Systems: a Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavilla, R.

    2000-01-01

    Our current understanding of the structure of nuclei with up to A=8, including energy spectra, electromagnetic form factors, and capture reactions, is critically reviewed within the context of a realistic approach to nuclear dynamics based on two- and three-nucleon interactions and associated electromagnetic currents.

  3. Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the

  4. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  5. Electromagnetic fields in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with an important branch of electromagnetic theory with many useful applications in subsurface communication, radar, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics, this book introduces electromagnetic theory and wave propagation in complex media.

  6. Novel electromagnetic micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, M.; Demming, S.; Lesche, C.; Büttgenbach, S.

    2007-12-01

    The mergence of partial aspects and functional components of micro actuators and micro fluidic technology allows the development of complex micro systems, which are more and more interesting for MEMS application, especially for BioMEMS. This enormous potential is shown in this article showing the realization of an electro magnetic micro pump. The basic build-up consists of a polymer magnet integrated into a pump chamber of a fluidic PDMS device, which is located above a double layer micro coil. By applying a current, the polymer magnet performs a bidirectional movement, which results in a pumping effect by the two arranged passive check valves being perpendicularly arranged to the flow channels. The valve membrane is flexible and opens the channel towards the flow direction. The advantage of this configuration is that leakage can be avoided by the special geometrical configuration of the fluid chamber and the valves. The fabrication process includes UV depth lithography using AZ9260, electroforming of copper for the double layer spiral coil and Epon SU-8 for insulation, embedding and manufacturing of the valve seat. Furthermore, the fluidic devices are realized by replica molding of PDMS using a multilayer SU-8 master. Furthermore, a new technology for realizing micro polymer magnets was optimized and deployed. Using these fabrication processes, a magnetic micro actuator has already been developed based on the movable plunger principle, which forms the basic set-up of the micro pump. This actuator is monolithically fabricated and successfully tested. In addition, the fluidic system of the micro pump was successfully fabricated and tested. In order to connect the valve seats based on SU-8 to the PDMS fluidic chamber and the valve lips, a special bonding process was developed. The combination of the fluidic system with the electromagnetic part is currently under investigation. The dimension of the micro pump is about 10 × 6 × 3 mm.

  7. Low frequency electromagnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Min; Zhou Yan; He Yicheng; Zheng Zhenxing; Liu Sunkun

    2000-01-01

    The measurement technique of low frequency electromagnetic field is reported. According to this principle, the authors have designed a sensor, which is used to measure the natural electromagnetic field, SLEMP and electromagnetic signals generated by some explosions. The frequency band of this sensor is from 0.08 Hz to 2 MHz

  8. A class of non-null toroidal electromagnetic fields and its relation to the model of electromagnetic knots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayás, Manuel; Trueba, José L

    2015-01-01

    An electromagnetic knot is an electromagnetic field in vacuum in which the magnetic lines and the electric lines coincide with the level curves of a pair of complex scalar fields ϕ and θ (see equations (A.1), (A.2)). When electromagnetism is expressed in terms of electromagnetic knots, it includes mechanisms for the topological quantization of the electromagnetic helicity, the electric charge, the electromagnetic energy inside a cavity and the magnetic flux through a superconducting ring. In the case of electromagnetic helicity, its topological quantization depends on the linking number of the field lines, both electric and magnetic. Consequently, to find solutions of the electromagnetic knot equations with nontrivial topology of the field lines has important physical consequences. We study a new class of solutions of Maxwell's equations in vacuum Arrayás and Trueba (2011 arXiv:1106.1122) obtained from complex scalar fields that can be interpreted as maps S 3 →S 2 , in which the topology of the field lines is that of the whole torus-knot set. Thus this class of solutions is built as electromagnetic knots at initial time. We study some properties of those fields and consider if detection based on the energy and momentum observables is possible. (paper)

  9. Simple Superconducting "Permanent" Electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed short tube of high-temperature-superconducting material like YBa2Cu3O7 acts as strong electromagnet that flows as long as magnetic field remains below critical value and temperature of cylinder maintained sufficiently below superconducting-transition temperature. Design exploits maximally anisotropy of high-temperature-superconducting material.

  10. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  11. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...

  12. Electromagnetism and Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    The classical concept of "mass density" is not fundamental to the quantum theory of matter. Therefore, mass density cannot be the source of gravitation. Here, we treat electromagnetic energy, momentum, and stress as its source. The resulting theory predicts that the gravitational potential near any charged elementary particle is many orders of magnitude greater than the Newtonian value.

  13. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  14. Faraday: Father of Electromagnetism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Faraday: Father of Electromagnetism. S V Bhat. General Article Volume 7 Issue 3 March 2002 pp 46-50. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/03/0046-0050. Keywords. Faraday ...

  15. Gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soln, J.

    1980-01-01

    An SU 2 x U 1 algebra, in addition to the ordinary electric charge, also establishes the existence of the dual electric charge. This is taken as an indication of the existence of dual electromagnetic interactions in nature. Here, the unification of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions is performed. The Yang-Mills-type group which contains the electromagnetic, dual electromagnetic and weak currents is SUsub(L,2) x U 1 x U' 1 . The masses of vector mesons are generated through the Higgs-Kibble mechanism. A simple consistency requirement suggests that dual electromagnetism and ordinary electromagnetism have the same strengths, leading the theory to a rather good agreement with experiments. (author)

  16. Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFord, J.F.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics thrust area is a focal point for computer modeling activities in electronics and electromagnetics in the Electronics Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Traditionally, they have focused their efforts in technical areas of importance to existing and developing LLNL programs, and this continues to form the basis for much of their research. A relatively new and increasingly important emphasis for the thrust area is the formation of partnerships with industry and the application of their simulation technology and expertise to the solution of problems faced by industry. The activities of the thrust area fall into three broad categories: (1) the development of theoretical and computational models of electronic and electromagnetic phenomena, (2) the development of useful and robust software tools based on these models, and (3) the application of these tools to programmatic and industrial problems. In FY-92, they worked on projects in all of the areas outlined above. The object of their work on numerical electromagnetic algorithms continues to be the improvement of time-domain algorithms for electromagnetic simulation on unstructured conforming grids. The thrust area is also investigating various technologies for conforming-grid mesh generation to simplify the application of their advanced field solvers to design problems involving complicated geometries. They are developing a major code suite based on the three-dimensional (3-D), conforming-grid, time-domain code DSI3D. They continue to maintain and distribute the 3-D, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code TSAR, which is installed at several dozen university, government, and industry sites.

  17. Biological and Health Effects of Electromagnetic (Nonionizing) Radiation. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasz, Hisako, Comp.

    The environment we live in today is filled with human-created electromagnetic fields generated by a variety of sources, including radio and television transmitters, power lines, and visual display terminals. (In addition, there exists a natural background of electromagnetic fields.) The term "electromagnetic pollution" is often used to…

  18. Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte

  19. Program For Displaying Computed Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Kam W.

    1995-01-01

    EM-ANIMATE computer program specialized visualization displays and animates output data on near fields and surface currents computed by electromagnetic-field program - in particular MOM3D (LAR-15074). Program based on windows and contains user-friendly, graphical interface for setting viewing options, selecting cases, manipulating files, and like. Written in FORTRAN 77. EM-ANIMATE also available as part of package, COS-10048, includes MOM3D, IRIS program computing near-field and surface-current solutions of electromagnetic-field equations.

  20. Fundamentals of electromagnetics 2 quasistatics and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Voltmer, David

    2007-01-01

    This book is the second of two volumes which have been created to provide an understanding of the basic principles and applications of electromagnetic fields for electrical engineering students. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics Vol 2: Quasistatics and Waves examines how the low-frequency models of lumped elements are modified to include parasitic elements. For even higher frequencies, wave behavior in space and on transmission lines is explained. Finally, the textbook concludes with details of transmission line properties and applications. Upon completion of this book and its companion Fundame

  1. Experimental demonstrations of 30Gb/s/λ digital orthogonal filtering-multiplexed multiple channel transmissions over IMDD PON systems utilizing 10G-class optical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M L; Sankoh, A; Giddings, R P; Tang, J M

    2017-10-02

    By utilizing digital orthogonal filtering (DOF) in the digital domain, we report, for the first time, experimental demonstrations of aggregated 30.078Gb/s/λ transmissions of DOF-multiplexed spectrally-overlapped and/or frequency gapless six channels over IMDD PON systems incorporating off-the-shelf and low-cost 10G-class optical devices. Experimental results show that simple adaptive channel power loading implemented in the digital domain enables very similar transmission performances of individual channels regardless of their locations in the digital filter space. As a direct result of the interplay between the transmission system-associated negative chromatic dispersion and the intensity modulation-induced frequency chirp, negative power penalties of >0.2dB are experimentally observed for all the involved channels under various transmission system configurations. In addition, excellent performance robustness of the demonstrated systems is also obtainable for various transmission distances up to 45km.

  2. Electromagnetic Field Theory A Collection of Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Mrozynski, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the theory of electromagnetic fields and the definition of the field quantities the book teaches the analytical solution methods of Maxwell’s equations by means of several characteristic examples. The focus is on static and stationary electric and magnetic fields, quasi stationary fields, and electromagnetic waves. For a deeper understanding, the many depicted field patterns are very helpful. The book offers a collection of problems and solutions which enable the reader to understand and to apply Maxwell’s theory for a broad class of problems including classical static problems right up to waveguide eigenvalue problems. Content Maxwell’s Equations - Electrostatic Fields - Stationary Current Distributions – Magnetic Field of Stationary Currents – Quasi Stationary Fields: Eddy Currents - Electromagnetic Waves Target Groups Advanced Graduate Students in Electrical Engineering, Physics, and related Courses Engineers and Physicists Authors Professor Dr.-Ing. Gerd Mrozynski...

  3. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Smolenski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    As power systems develop to incorporate renewable energy sources, the delivery systems may be disrupted by the changes involved. The grid’s technology and management must be developed to form Smart Grids between consumers, suppliers and producers. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids considers the specific side effects related to electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by the application of these Smart Grids. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids presents specific EMI conducted phenomena as well as effective methods to filter and handle them once identified. After introduction to Smart Grids, the following sections cover dedicated methods for EMI reduction and potential avenues for future development including chapters dedicated to: •potential system services, •descriptions of the EMI spectra shaping methods, •methods of interference voltage compensation, and theoretical analysis of experimental results.  By focusing on these key aspects, Conducted El...

  4. Electromagnetic neutron-atom interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    In the collision of a neutron with an atom there exists, in addition to the strong interaction with the nucleus and the magnetic dipole interaction with the magnetic electrons, a number of secondary electromagnetic interactions. The latter interactions include the spin-orbit (or Schwinger) interaction, the Foldy interaction, the nuclear magnetic dipole interaction, and interactions arising from the electric polarizability and the finite intrinsic charge radius of the neutron. We present in this paper a comprehensive review of the electromagnetic neutron-atom interactions with particular emphasis on the question of the extent to which the secondary interactions are already included implicitly in the scattering lengths obtained from accurate neutron optical measurements, which one finds listed in data tables, and the conditions under which explicit corrections for the residual secondary interactions are required in the analysis of neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering data for condensed matter. The main conclusion is that, except for the lightest atoms, the current habit of neglecting the secondary interactions can lead to significant systematic errors of up to 2 to 3% in neutron scattering experiments which extend over a wide range of momentum transfers. (orig.)

  5. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  6. Was The Electromagnetic Spectrum A Blackbody Spectrum In The Early Universe?

    OpenAIRE

    Opher, Merav; Opher, Reuven

    1997-01-01

    It is assumed, in general, that the electromagnetic spectrum in the Primordial Universe was a blackbody spectrum in vacuum. We derive the electromagnetic spectrum, based on the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem that describes the electromagnetic fluctuations in a plasma. Our description includes thermal and collisional effects in a plasma. The electromagnetic spectrum obtained differs from the blackbody spectrum in vacuum at low frequencies. In particular, concentrating on the primordial nucleo...

  7. Analytical and computational methods in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    This authoritative resource offers you clear and complete explanation of this essential electromagnetics knowledge, providing you with the analytical background you need to understand such key approaches as MoM (method of moments), FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) and FEM (Finite Element Method), and Green's functions. This comprehensive book includes all math necessary to master the material.

  8. Electromagnetic Transmission Through Resonant Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven M.

    Electromagnetic resonators store energy in the form of oscillatory electric and magnetic fields and gradually exchange that energy by coupling with their environment. This coupling process can have profound effects on the transmission and reflection properties of nearby interfaces, with rapid transitions from high transmittance to high reflectance over narrow frequency ranges, and has been exploited to design useful optical components such as spectral filters and dielectric mirrors. This dissertation includes analytic, numeric, and experimental investigations of three different electromagnetic resonators, each based on a different method of confining electromagnetic fields near the region of interest. First, we show that a structure with two parallel conducting plates, each containing a subwavelength slit, supports a localized resonant mode bound to the slits and therefore exhibits (in the absence of nonradiative losses), perfect resonant transmission over a narrow frequency range. In practice, the transmission is limited by conduction losses in the sidewalls; nevertheless, experimental results at 10 GHz show a narrowband transmission enhancement by a factor of 104 compared to the non-resonant transmission, with quality factor (ratio of frequency to peak width) Q ~ 3000. Second, we describe a narrowband transmission filter based on a single-layer dielectric grating. We use a group theory analysis to show that, due to their symmetry, several of the grating modes cannot couple to light at normal incidence, while several others have extremely large coupling. We then show how selectively breaking the system symmetry using off-normal light incidence can produce transmission peaks by enabling weak coupling to some of the previously protected modes. The narrowband filtering capabilities are validated by an experimental demonstration in the long wavelength infrared, showing transmission peaks of quality factor Q ~ 100 within a free-spectral range of 8-15 mum. Third, we

  9. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lipp, Christopher T

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electromagnetic induction spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, I. J.; Keiswetter, Dean A.

    1998-09-01

    An object, made partly or wholly of metals, has a distinct combination of electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, and geometrical shape and size. When the object is exposed to a low-frequency electromagnetic field, it produces a secondary magnetic field. By measuring the secondary field in a broadband spectrum, we obtain a distinct spectral signature that may uniquely identify the object. Based on the response spectrum, we attempt to 'fingerprint' the object. This is the basic concept of Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy (EMIS). EMIS technology may be particularly useful for detecting buried landmines and unexploded ordnance. By fully characterizing and identifying an object without excavation. We should be able to reduce significantly the number of false targets. EMIS should be fully applicable to many other problems where target identification and recognition (without intrusive search) are important. For instance, an advanced EMIS device at an airport security gate may be able to recognize a particular weapon by its maker and type.

  11. The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Cabibbo, G.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giannasi, A.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Keeble, L.; Kim, W.; Kuo, C.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, T.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Mei, W.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Pacciani, L.; Palomba, M.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Ventura, A.; Woelfle, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zema, P.F.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, J.Q.; Zhao, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    The KLOE detector was designed primarily for the study of CP violation in neutral kaon decays at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory. The detector consists of a tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter. A lead-scintillating-fiber sampling calorimeter satisfies best the requirements of the experiment, providing adequate energy resolution and superior timing accuracy. We describe in the following the construction of the calorimeter, its calibration and how the calorimeter information is used to obtain energy, point of entry and time of the arrival of photons, electrons and charged particles. With e + e - collision data at DAPHINE for an integrated luminosity of some 2 pb -1 we find for electromagnetic showers, an energy resolution of 5.7%/√E(GeV) and a time resolution of 54/√E(GeV) ps. We also present a measurement of efficiency for low energy photons

  12. The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Barbiellini, G; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Cabibbo, G; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervelli, F; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Doria, A; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giannasi, A; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Keeble, L; Kim, W; Kuo, C; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, T A; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Mei, W; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Murtas, F; Müller, S; Pacciani, L; Palomba, M; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passeri, A; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Sciascia, B; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spiriti, E; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Ventura, A; Wu, Y; Wölfle, S; Xie, Y G; Zema, P F; Zhang, C D; Zhang, J Q; Zhao, P P

    2002-01-01

    The KLOE detector was designed primarily for the study of CP violation in neutral kaon decays at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory. The detector consists of a tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter. A lead-scintillating-fiber sampling calorimeter satisfies best the requirements of the experiment, providing adequate energy resolution and superior timing accuracy. We describe in the following the construction of the calorimeter, its calibration and how the calorimeter information is used to obtain energy, point of entry and time of the arrival of photons, electrons and charged particles. With e sup + e sup - collision data at DAPHINE for an integrated luminosity of some 2 pb sup - sup 1 we find for electromagnetic showers, an energy resolution of 5.7%/sq root E(GeV) and a time resolution of 54/sq root E(GeV) ps. We also present a measurement of efficiency for low energy photons.

  13. Classical Electromagnetic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    VanderLinde, Jack

    2004-01-01

    This book is a self contained course in electromagnetic theory suitable for senior physics and electrical engineering students as well as graduate students whose past has not prepared them well for books such as Jackson or Landau and Lifschitz. The text is liberally sprinkled with worked examples illustrating the application of the theory to various physical problems. In this new edition I have endeavored to improve the accuracy and readability, added and further clarified examples, added sections on Schwarz-Christoffel mappings, and to make the book more self sufficient added an appendix on orthogonal function expansions and added the derivation of Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials as well as derivation of their generating functions. The number of student exercises has been increased by 45 over the previous edition. This book stresses the unity of electromagnetic theory with electric and magnetic fields developed in parallel. SI units are used throughout and considerable use is made of tensor notatio...

  14. Fractal Electromagnetic Showers

    OpenAIRE

    Anchordoqui, L. A.; Kirasirova, M.; McCauley, T. P.; Paul, T.; Reucroft, S.; Swain, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    We study the self-similar structure of electromagnetic showers and introduce the notion of the fractal dimension of a shower. Studies underway of showers in various materials and at various energies are presented, and the range over which the fractal scaling behaviour is observed is discussed. Applications to fast shower simulations and identification, particularly in the context of extensive air showers, are also discussed.

  15. The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Cabibbo, G.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giannasi, A.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Keeble, L.; Kim, W.; Kuo, C.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, T.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Mei, W.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Pacciani, L.; Palomba, M.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Ventura, A.; Woelfle, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zema, P.F.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, J.Q.; Zhao, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    The KLOE calorimeter is a fine lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter. We describe in the following the calibration procedures and the calorimeter performances obtained after 3 years of data taking. We get an energy resolution for electromagnetic showers of 5.4%/√E(GeV) and a time resolution of 56 ps/√E(GeV). We also present a measurement of efficiency for low-energy photons

  16. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; hide

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  17. Static electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.; Vaidya, A.N.; Som, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of static electromagnetic field admitting a time-like and two space-like Killing vectors is completely solved. The solutions contain plane-symmetric solution as a special case. The solutions can be transformed into solutions describing the gravitational field of a charge line-mass by suitably introducing weyl's canonical coordinates. Further, these solutions are true generalizations of Kasner solutions. (Author) [pt

  18. Aircraft Electromagnetic Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    report) 20. Securty Clasif . (of this page) 21. No. of Pages 22. Price FORM 00 For ale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield...34 the plane with the steering column having steel cable strung from the column to hydraulic actuators which then amplify the force and operate control...surfaces (figure 2.1-14). The engine throttle is operated by a steel cable. A steel cable does not recognize electromagnetic interference. Navigation

  19. Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons are reviewed, after a discussion of classical analogues. Differences between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches can lead to conflicts with conventional nuclear physics sum rules and calculational techniques. The nucleon polarizabilities are discussed in the context of the non-relativistic valence quark model, which provides a good qualitative description. The recently measured pion polarizabilities are discussed in the context of chiral symmetry and quark-loop models. 58 refs., 5 figs

  20. Electromagnetism and interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Charruau, S

    2009-01-01

    This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.

  1. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J [Jemez Springs, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  2. The electromagnetic mass differences of the π and K mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanik, J.

    1979-01-01

    Within the quantum field theory relations are found for the electromagnetic mass differences of the pseudoscalar mesons. The basic Hamiltonian includes the photonic forces as well as the isotopic symmetry breaking term. (Z.J.)

  3. Comparison of NRZ and duo-binary format in adaptive equalization assisted 10G-optics based 25G-EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junqi; Li, Zhengxuan; Li, Yingchun; Xu, Tingting; Chen, Jian; Song, Yingxiong; Wang, Min

    2018-03-01

    We investigate and compare the requirements of FFE/DFE based adaptive equalization techniques for NRZ and Duo-binary based 25-Gb/s transmission, which are two of the most promising schemes for 25G-EPON. A 25-Gb/s transmission system based on 10G optical transceivers is demonstrated and the performance of only FFE and combination of FFE and DFE with different number of taps are compared with two modulation formats. The FFE/DFE based Duo-binary receiver shows better performance than NRZ receiver. For Duo-binary receiver, only 13-tap FFE is needed for BtB case and the combination of 17-tap FFE and 5-tap DFE can achieve a sensitivity of -23.45 dBm in 25 km transmission case, which is ∼0.6 dB better than the best performance of NRZ equalization. In addition, the requirements of training sequence length for FFE/DFE based adaptive equalization is verified. Experimental results show that 400 symbols training length is optimal for the two modulations, which shows a small packet preamble in up-stream burst-mode transmission.

  4. Fast breeder reactor electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Murakami, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    Main pumps circulating sodium in the FBR type reactor have been mechanical types, not electromagnetic pumps. Electromagnetic pump of 1-2 m 3 /min has been used as an auxiliary pump. Large sized electromagnetic pumps such as several hundred m 3 /min have not been commercialized due to technical difficulties with electromagnetic instability and pressure pulsations. This article explained electromagnetic and fluid equations and magnetic Reynolds number related with electromagnetic pumps and numerical analysis of instability characteristics and pressure pulsations and then described applications of the results to FBR system. Magnetic Reynolds number must be chosen less than one with appropriate operating frequency and optimum slip of 0.2-0.4. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Electromagnetic Devices for Stopping Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Valouch

    2016-01-01

    An effective way to stop a vehicle is to disrupt the operation of electronic systems using high power electromagnetic pulses, which can be generated using electromagnetic weapons. This article describes the design idea of a stationary generator of electromagnetic pulses that would be useful for stopping vehicles at the entrances to the object, at checkpoints, and in front of sensitive infrastructure. An important aspect of the proposal is the comparison of contemporary devices and systems use...

  6. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Abdurrahman; Ali, Runak Tahir; Fattah, Nabeel Abdulrazzaq

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic energy, like light waves or radio waves, and occupy a part of the electromagnetic spectrum of power, or energy. Microwaves are very short waves of electromagnetic energy that travel at the speed of light (186,282 miles per second). In our modern technological age, microwaves are used to relay long distance telephone signals, television programs, and computer information across the earth or to a satellite in space. But the microwave is most ...

  7. Electromagnetic corrections to pseudoscalar decay constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaessle, Benjamin Simon

    2017-03-06

    First principles Lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) calculations enable the determination of low energy hadronic amplitudes. Precision LQCD calculations with relative errors smaller than approximately 1% require the inclusion of electromagnetic effects. We demonstrate that including (quenched) quantum electrodynamics effects in the LQCD calculation effects the values obtained for pseudoscalar decay constants in the per mille range. The importance of systematic effects, including finite volume effects and the charge dependence of renormalization and improvement coefficients, is highlighted.

  8. Electromagnetic Devices for Stopping Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valouch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An effective way to stop a vehicle is to disrupt the operation of electronic systems using high power electromagnetic pulses, which can be generated using electromagnetic weapons. This article describes the design idea of a stationary generator of electromagnetic pulses that would be useful for stopping vehicles at the entrances to the object, at checkpoints, and in front of sensitive infrastructure. An important aspect of the proposal is the comparison of contemporary devices and systems used for stopping vehicles and analysis of the requirements of technical standards for electromagnetic immunity of vehicles.

  9. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  10. Electromagnetic waves in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne

  11. Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) develops, maintains, and operates the Army Materiel Command (AMC) databases for spectrum management, per...

  12. Method of moments in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Walton C

    2007-01-01

    Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t

  13. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  14. Electromagnetic structure of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, R.; Gross, Franz

    2001-01-01

    Recent measurements of the deuteron electromagnetic structure functions A, B, and T 20 extracted from high energy elastic ed scattering, and the cross sections and asymmetries extracted from high energy photodisintegration gamma + d to n + p, are reviewed and compared to theory. The theoretical calculations range from nonrelativistic and relativistic models using the traditional meson and baryon degrees of freedom, to effective field theories, to models based on the underlying quark and gluon degrees of freedom of QCD, including nonperturbative quark cluster models and perturbative QCD. We review what has been learned from these experiments, and discuss why elastic ed scattering and photodisintegration seem to require very different theoretical approaches, even though they are closely related experimentally

  15. Tracking Electromagnetic Energy With SQUIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a gadget used to measure extremely weak signals, specifically magnetic flux. It can detect subtle changes in energy, up to 100 billion times weaker than the electromagnetic energy required to move a compass needle. SQUIDs are used for a variety of testing procedures where extreme sensitivity is required and where the test instrument need not come into direct contact with the test subject. NASA uses SQUIDs for remote, noncontact sensing in a variety of venues, including monitoring the Earth s magnetic field and tracking brain activity of pilots. Scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have been making extensive use of this technology, from astrophysical research, to tracking the navigational paths of bees in flight to determine if they are using internal compasses. These very sensitive measurement devices have a wide variety of uses within NASA and even more uses within the commercial realm.

  16. Numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Pei Bai

    1993-01-01

    Numerical methods for solving boundary value problems have developed rapidly. Knowledge of these methods is important both for engineers and scientists. There are many books published that deal with various approximate methods such as the finite element method, the boundary element method and so on. However, there is no textbook that includes all of these methods. This book is intended to fill this gap. The book is designed to be suitable for graduate students in engineering science, for senior undergraduate students as well as for scientists and engineers who are interested in electromagnetic fields. Objective Numerical calculation is the combination of mathematical methods and field theory. A great number of mathematical concepts, principles and techniques are discussed and many computational techniques are considered in dealing with practical problems. The purpose of this book is to provide students with a solid background in numerical analysis of the field problems. The book emphasizes the basic theories ...

  17. Patient safety and electromagnetic protection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Noemí; Febles, Víctor; Hernández, José A; Bardasano, José L; Monteagudo, José L; Fernández de Aldecoa, José C; Ramos, Victoria

    2011-05-01

    A systematic literature review was carried out to study patient security and possible harmful effects, immunity and interferences on medical devices, and effectiveness and transmission problems in healthcare and hospital environments due to electromagnetic interferences. The objective was to determine already-reported cases of patient security, immunity of medical devices, and transmission/reception failure in order to evaluate safety and security of patients. Literature published in the last 10 years has been reviewed by searching in bibliographic databases, journals, and proceedings of conferences. Search strategies developed in electronic databases identified a total of 820 references, with 50 finally being included. The study reveals the existence of numerous publications on interferences in medical devices due to radiofrequency fields. However, literature on effectiveness, transmission problems and measurements of electromagnetic fields is limited. From the studies collected, it can be concluded that several cases of serious interferences in medical instruments have been reported. Measures of electromagnetic fields in healthcare environments have been also reported, concluding that special protective measures should be taken against electromagnetic interferences by incoming radio waves.

  18. Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Standard 5-2 Figure 5-3 Graphical Depiction of the IEEE C95.1TM-2005 Pulse RF Standard 5-3 with Thermally -Based Standard Extended Figure 5-4...Electromagnetic Ground Environment STO-TR-HFM-189 ix SLED Stanford Linear Energy Doubler SME Subject-Matter Expert SOH Safety and Occupational Health...as grasping versus touch. ICC will be a secondary project that will be addressed and scheduled as time permits and as laboratories are found to have

  19. Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E

  20. Introduction to electromagnetic engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, Roger E

    2003-01-01

    This study of electromagnetic theory introduces students to a broad range of quantities and concepts, imparting the necessary vector analysis and associated mathematics and reinforcing its teachings with several elementary field problems. Based on circuit theory rather than on the classical force-relationship approach, the text uses the theory of electric circuits to provide a system of experiments already familiar to the electrical engineer; a series of field concepts are then introduced as a logical extension of circuit theory. Virtually unobtainable elsewhere, this text was written by a pr

  1. Electromagnetic foundations of solar radiation collection a technology for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Sangster, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to illuminate, mainly for the electrical power engineers of the future, the topic of large scale solar flux gathering schemes, which arguably represent the major source of renewable power available. The aim of the content is to impart, from an electromagnetic perspective, a deep and sound understanding of the topic of solar flux collection, ranging from the characteristics of light to the properties of antennas. To do this five chapters are employed to provide a thorough grounding in relevant aspects of electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves including optics, electromagneti

  2. Theory of electromagnetic fluctuations for magnetized multi-species plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Roberto E., E-mail: roberto.navarro@ug.uchile.cl; Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Araneda, Jaime [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386 (Chile); Moya, Pablo S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 20064 (United States); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, Juan A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios Básicos y Aplicados en Complejidad, CEIBA complejidad, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-09-15

    Analysis of electromagnetic fluctuations in plasma provides relevant information about the plasma state and its macroscopic properties. In particular, the solar wind persistently sustains a small but detectable level of magnetic fluctuation power even near thermal equilibrium. These fluctuations may be related to spontaneous electromagnetic fluctuations arising from the discreteness of charged particles. Here, we derive general expressions for the plasma fluctuations in a multi-species plasma following arbitrary distribution functions. This formalism, which generalizes and includes previous works on the subject, is then applied to the generation of electromagnetic fluctuations propagating along a background magnetic field in a plasma of two proton populations described by drifting bi-Maxwellians.

  3. Statistical fluctuations of electromagnetic transition intensities and electromagnetic moments in pf-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamoudi, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Alhassid, Y.

    2002-01-01

    We study the fluctuation properties of ΔT=0 electromagnetic transition intensities and electromagnetic moments in A∼60 nuclei within the framework of the interacting shell model, using a realistic effective interaction for pf-shell nuclei with a 56 Ni core. The distributions of the transition intensities and of the electromagnetic moments are well described by the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices. In particular, the transition intensity distributions follow a Porter-Thomas distribution. When diagonal matrix elements (i.e., moments) are included in the analysis of transition intensities, the distributions remain Porter-Thomas except for the isoscalar M1. This deviation is explained in terms of the structure of the isoscalar M1 operator

  4. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  5. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  6. Electro-magnetic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Full details of the invention are given. A sensing unit assembly for an electromagnetic flux distortion flowmeter for use in liquid metal coolant of a nuclear reactor is described. The assembly comprises coils of electrically insulated conductors each wound on an individual former. The formers and coils are mounted coaxially on a spine to form at least three spaced groups arranged end to end. Each group comprises two secondary coils and an intermediate primary coil. Leads extend along a duct formed in the spine, each lead terminating at a common end. Alternative versions of the assembly are also described. The primary coil leads are connected to an alternating power supply; those for the secondary coils connected to suitable display instrumentation. When liquid metal flows along the conductor the electromagnetic field is disturbed and the induced voltage in the secondary coils is disturbed-(set at zero for no flow); the distortion depends on the rate of flow. When the induced voltage differential of at least two of the groups falls or rises outside a pre-set level a trip signal is initiated to shut down the reactor. (UK)

  7. The Electromagnetic Spectrum: Using Light and Color To Search for Astronomical Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; DeVore, Edna

    2003-01-01

    Discusses various ways to use the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Origin's Education Forum's Electromagnetic Spectrum poster to teach earth science concepts. Includes the poster. (SOE)

  8. Knots in electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrayás, M.; Bouwmeester, D.; Trueba, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Maxwell equations in vacuum allow for solutions with a non-trivial topology in the electric and magnetic field line configurations at any given moment in time. One example is a space filling congruence of electric and magnetic field lines forming circles lying on the surfaces of nested tori. In this example the electric, magnetic and Poynting vector fields are orthogonal everywhere. As time evolves the electric and magnetic fields expand and deform without changing the topology and energy, while the Poynting vector structure remains unchanged while propagating with the speed of light. The topology is characterized by the concept of helicity of the field configuration. Helicity is an important fundamental concept and for massless fields it is a conserved quantity under conformal transformations. We will review several methods by which linked and knotted electromagnetic (spin-1) fields can be derived. A first method, introduced by A. Rañada, uses the formulation of the Maxwell equations in terms of differential forms combined with the Hopf map from the three-sphere S3 to the two-sphere S2. A second method is based on spinor and twistor theory developed by R. Penrose in which elementary twistor functions correspond to the family of electromagnetic torus knots. A third method uses the Bateman construction of generating null solutions from complex Euler potentials. And a fourth method uses special conformal transformations, in particular conformal inversion, to generate new linked and knotted field configurations from existing ones. This fourth method is often accompanied by shifting singularities in the field to complex space-time points. Of course the various methods must be closely related to one another although they have been developed largely independently and they suggest different directions in which to expand the study of topologically non-trivial field configurations. It will be shown how the twistor formulation allows for a direct extension to massless

  9. Exploration of the Electromagnetic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullekrug, M.

    2009-01-01

    The electromagnetic environment is composed of electric and magnetic fields which result from man-made and natural sources. An elementary experiment is described to explore the electromagnetic environment by measuring electric fields in the frequency range from approximately equal to 10 to 24 000 Hz. The equipment required to conduct the…

  10. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  11. Electromagnetic actuation in MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Chemnitz, Steffen

    . Electromagnetic actuation is a very promising approach to operate such MEMS and Power MEMS devices, due to the long range, reproducible and strong forces generated by this method, among other advantages. However, the use of electromagnetic actuation in such devices requires the use of thick magnetic films, which...

  12. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Philbin, Thomas Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Krame...

  13. Hybrid synchronous motor electromagnetic torque research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorkova Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic field distribution models in reluctance and permanent magnet parts were made by means of Elcut. Dependences of electromagnetic torque on torque angle were obtained.

  14. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and TEMPEST Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and TEMPEST testing are conducted at EPG's Blacktail Canyon Test Facility in one of its two...

  15. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  16. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  17. Mathematical models and numerical simulation in electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bermúdez, Alfredo; Salgado, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The book represents a basic support for a master course in electromagnetism oriented to numerical simulation. The main goal of the book is that the reader knows the boundary-value problems of partial differential equations that should be solved in order to perform computer simulation of electromagnetic processes. Moreover it includes a part devoted to electric circuit theory  based on ordinary differential equations. The book is mainly oriented to electric engineering applications, going from the general to the specific, namely, from the full Maxwell’s equations to the particular cases of electrostatics, direct current, magnetostatics and eddy currents models. Apart from standard exercises related to analytical calculus, the book includes some others oriented to real-life applications solved with MaxFEM free simulation software.

  18. Analysis of an Active Control Damper Using Electromagnetic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    長屋, 幸助; 武田, 定彦; 井開, 重男; 永井, 健一; 松本, 康臣; 塩野, 二朗

    1989-01-01

    This paper proposes an active control damper using an electromagnetic fluid, and presents an expression for obtaining the damping coefficient of the damper. The damping coefficient has been obtained by using the solution of the equation for the electromagnetic fluid which includes both Navier-Stokes' equation and Maxwell's equation. Numerical calculations have been carried out for some sample problems, and the effects of sizes of the damper and the magnetic flux density on the damping coeffic...

  19. US develops electromagnetic weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The principles of electromagnetic weapons (EMWs) which accumulate and switch energy have been known for over 50 years, but the US has made significant progress in recent years in the development of single-pole generators. A design which eliminates the breaker and pulse generator and increases reliability of the EMWs is undergoing tests in the US. There will be significant advantages for the EMW used for air and antimissile defense. In addition to weapons of varying purpose and basing, the EMW can be effective as launchers, as an alternative to rocket engines. The EMW is an area in which the US is trying to achieve superiority, and is a violation of the 1972 Antimissile Defense Treaty. 4 figures.

  20. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  1. Solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong  didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .

  2. Electromagnetically revolving sphere viscometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Maiko; Sakai, Keiji

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of low viscosity measurement, in which the rolling of a probe sphere on the flat solid bottom of a sample cell is driven remotely and the revolution speed of the probe in a sample liquid gives the viscosity measurements. The principle of this method is based on the electromagnetically spinning technique that we developed, and the method is effective especially for viscosity measurements at levels below 100 mPa·s with an accuracy higher than 1%. The probe motion is similar to that in the well-known rolling sphere (ball) method. However, our system enables a steady and continuous measurement of viscosity, which is problematic using the conventional method. We also discuss the limits of the measurable viscosity range common to rolling-sphere-type viscometers by considering the accelerating motion of a probe sphere due to gravity, and we demonstrate the performance of our methods.

  3. PANDA electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, P.A.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Uzunian, A.V.; Chernichenko, S.K.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Davidenko, A.M.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Kachanov, V.A.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kormilitsin, V.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Melnick, Y.M.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Novotny, R.W.; Ryazantsev, A.A.; Soldatov, A.P.; Soloviev, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    PANDA is a challenging experimental setup to be implemented at the high-energy storage ring (HESR) at the international facility FAIR, GSI (Germany). PANDA physics program relies heavily on the capability to measure photons with excellent energy, position and timing resolution. For this purpose PANDA proposed to employ electromagnetic calorimeters using two different technologies: compact crystal calorimeter cooled to -25 deg. C around target and lead-scintillator sandwich calorimeter with optical fibers light collection (so-called shashlyk calorimeter) in the forward region. Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) PANDA group reports on two types of measurements performed at IHEP, Protvino: radiation hardness of the PWO crystals at -25 deg. C and testbeam studies of the energy and position resolution of the shashlyk calorimeter prototype in the energy range up to 19 GeV.

  4. KEKB electromagnet power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masato; Kubo, Tadashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Numbers of electromagnet power supply for KEKB are 2,243 except BT. To satisfy stability, DAC in the current control circuit, current detector, R and D of small thermostatic bath and a calibration method of current using CPU were introduced. They satisfied needs. With producing R and D apparatus of switching source, problems of ripple, stability and noise were solved, so that we began mass production. In this paper, many kinds of R and D and performance and troubles after operation of KEKB power source are described. A plan of design of power supply consisted of seven items such as high accuracy, serial communication of interface, small type, high affectivity, easy maintenance, independence of current setting and current detector for monitor and control of radiation and conduction noise of switching power supply. These items were satisfied by development of interface board of ARCNET communication, introduction of double buffer method for interface through CPU, power supply unit by air-cooled method using a switching method and small thermostatic oven for bending and quadrupole electromagnet. R and D of DCCT, burden and shunt resistance, DAC, thermostatic bath, power supply, offset and gain calibration by double buffer method, specification of power supply, various kinds of measurements of mass production apparatus at rising, after long operation and problems before and after operation are reported. The results of R and D made satisfy the specification of stability and ripple of power supply. Although many switching power supply were operated, there was no noise and troubles at the initial period decreased. However, in order to use many power supply, the performance measurement and maintenance are very important at long shut down. (S.Y.)

  5. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Saada, F. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, {mu}{sub {nu}}, of the order of 10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B} would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of {approx_equal}10 eV would give {mu}{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}10{sup -18} {mu}{sub B}, much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10{sup -10} {mu}{sub B}. Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of {mu}{sub {nu}}, larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, {nu}e{sup -} scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the {nu}{sub e}, extending down to 2x10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B}. (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs.

  6. Use of electro-magnetic damping for vibration control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, George Juraj; Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Vibration of machines is an unwanted phenomenon, and it is usually of interest to eliminate it. There are various means to be used in order to reach the goal, where the utilization of the electromagnet augmented by an external shunt circuit is analyzed in the paper. The magnetic force is used...... to introduce additional electromagnetic damping into vibrating mechanical system. The hysteretic losses and eddy currents are included in the model, to take into account more realistic dynamic behaviour of the system. The mathematical model of the controller is derived using lumped parameter approach....... The parameters are assumed from an experimental set-up using and an industrial type of electromagnet. Considering the harmonic excitation of mechanical system, a steady-state response and performance of the controller is analyzed. Simulation results show the influence of so introduced electromagnetic damping...

  7. Electromagnetic environment and telecommunications: towards a cognitive electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeddam, Ahmed; Avril, Gautier; Tlich, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the electromagnetic environment management problem within the context of high speed digital transmissions deployed in wired telecommunication networks. Traditionally, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is assured by filtering for better electromagnetic immunity, and by cable shielding for emission limitation. However, like cognitive radio, we can also, for high speed wired transmissions, treat the EMC as an intelligent and autonomous system capable of perceiving its environment, interpreting it, making suited decisions, and reacting according to the constraints related to the electromagnetic environment. In this context, some application examples are here given in order to illustrate this evolution towards a cognitive EMC in wired networks. To cite this article: A. Zeddam et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  8. Differential forms on electromagnetic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, N V; Sen Gupta, D P

    2013-01-01

    Differential Forms on Electromagnetic Networks deals with the use of combinatorial techniques in electrical circuit, machine analysis, and the relationship between circuit quantities and electromagnetic fields. The monograph is also an introduction to the organization of field equations by the methods of differential forms. The book covers topics such as algebraic structural relations in an electric circuit; mesh and node-pair analysis; exterior differential structures; generalized Stoke's theorem and tensor analysis; and Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Also covered in the book are the app

  9. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  10. Electromagnetic foundations of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, J A Brandao

    2008-01-01

    The applications of electromagnetic phenomena within electrical engineering have been evolving and progressing at a fast pace. In contrast, the underlying principles have been stable for a long time and are not expected to undergo any changes. It is these electromagnetic field fundamentals that are the subject of discussion in this book with an emphasis on basic principles, concepts and governing laws that apply across the electrical engineering discipline. Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering begins with an explanation of Maxwell's equations, from which the fundament

  11. Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Carpet Cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Baile

    2015-05-01

    It has been shown that a spherical invisibility cloak originally proposed by Pendry et al. can be electromagnetically detected by shooting a charged particle through it, whose underlying mechanism stems from the asymmetry of transformation optics applied to motions of photons and charges [PRL 103, 243901 (2009)]. However, the conceptual three-dimensional invisibility cloak that exactly follows specifications of transformation optics is formidably difficult to implement, while the simplified cylindrical cloak that has been experimentally realized is inherently visible. On the other hand, the recent carpet cloak model has acquired remarkable experimental development, including a recently demonstrated full-parameter carpet cloak without any approximation in the required constitutive parameters. In this paper, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle passing through a perfect carpet cloak and propose an experimentally verifiable model to demonstrate symmetry breaking of transformation optics.

  12. Penetrating power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guilizzoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of revealing the presence and identifying the nature of conductive targets is of central interest in many fields, including security, medicine, industry, archaeology and geophysics. In many applications, these targets are shielded by external materials and thus cannot be directly accessed. Hence, interrogation techniques are required that allow penetration through the shielding materials, in order for the target to be identified. Electromagnetic interrogation techniques represent a powerful solution to this challenge, as they enable penetration through conductive shields. In this work, we demonstrate the power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging to penetrate through metallic shields (1.5-mm-thick and image targets (having conductivities σ ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm−1 concealed behind them.

  13. Signal integrity applied electromagnetics and professional practice

    CERN Document Server

    Russ, Samuel H

    2016-01-01

    This textbook teaches how to design working systems at very high frequencies. It is designed to introduce computer engineers to the design of extremely high speed digital systems. Combining an intuitive, physics-based approach to electromagnetics with a focus on solving realistic problems, the author presents concepts that are essential for computer and electrical engineers today. The book emphasizes an intuitive approach to electromagnetics, and then uses this foundation to show the reader how both physical phenomena can cause signals to propagate incorrectly; and how to solve commonly encountered issues. Emphasis is placed on real problems that the author has encountered in his professional career, integrating problem-solving strategies and real signal-integrity case studies throughout the presentation. Students are challenged to think about managing complex design projects and implementing successful engineering and manufacturing processes. Each chapter includes exercises to test concepts introduced.

  14. Tadpole diagrams in constant electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2017-10-01

    We show how all possible one-particle reducible tadpole diagrams in constant electromagnetic fields can be constructed from one-particle irreducible constant-field diagrams. The construction procedure is essentially algebraic and involves differentiations of the latter class of diagrams with respect to the field strength tensor and contractions with derivatives of the one-particle irreducible part of the Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian in constant fields. Specific examples include the two-loop addendum to the Heisenberg-Euler effective action as well as a novel one-loop correction to the charged particle propagator in constant electromagnetic fields discovered recently. As an additional example, the approach devised in the present article is adopted to derive the tadpole contribution to the two-loop photon polarization tensor in constant fields for the first time.

  15. Integration of basic electromagnetism and engineering technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1995-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetism is taught as a part of most contemporary electrical engineering curricula. Usually a basic course is intended to cover all the fundamental electromagnetic theory which is needed in later engineering courses. However it is often found that students fail to understand...... theoretical course contents have been reduced to a core of fundamental principles. These are combined with the study of magnetic properties of materials closely related to manufacturer's data sheets. To enhance the understanding of these fundamentals, practical topics from engineering technology are included....... Components or systems that combine magnetic, electrical and mechanical aspects are preferred. Also, a series of hands-on lab projects give the students an opportunity to learn by doing. The topics that are covered by the course are outlined. By integrating the teaching of basic physical laws...

  16. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Railways Analysis and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunsola, Ade

    2013-01-01

    A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process f...

  17. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.

  18. Gallilei covariant quantum mechanics in electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Wilhelm

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A formulation of the quantum mechanics of charged particles in time-dependent electromagnetic fields is presented, in which both the Schroedinger equation and wave equations for the electromagnetic potentials are Galilei covariant, it is shown that the Galilean relativity principle leads to the introduction of the electromagnetic substratum in which the matter and electromagnetic waves propagate. The electromagnetic substratum effects are quantitatively significant for quantum mechanics in reference frames, in which the substratum velocity w is in magnitude comparable with the velocity of light c. The electromagnetic substratum velocity w occurs explicitly in the wave equations for the electromagnetic potentials but not in the Schroedinger equation.

  19. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  20. Electromagnetic field theories for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Salam, Md Abdus

    2014-01-01

    A four year Electrical and Electronic engineering curriculum normally contains two modules of electromagnetic field theories during the first two years. However, some curricula do not have enough slots to accommodate the two modules. This book, Electromagnetic Field Theories, is designed for Electrical and Electronic engineering undergraduate students to provide fundamental knowledge of electromagnetic fields and waves in a structured manner. A comprehensive fundamental knowledge of electric and magnetic fields is required to understand the working principles of generators, motors and transformers. This knowledge is also necessary to analyze transmission lines, substations, insulator flashover mechanism, transient phenomena, etc. Recently, academics and researches are working for sending electrical power to a remote area by designing a suitable antenna. In this case, the knowledge of electromagnetic fields is considered as important tool.

  1. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  2. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Julian L

    1990-01-01

    This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro­ magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self­ contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...

  3. International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 24th, Santa Clara, CA, September 8-10, 1982, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incorporation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), and the prevention of electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the design of electronic devices are considered in individual contributions. Topics covered include EMC regulation, spectrum management, equipment shielding, system analysis and modeling, computer-systems EMC, measurement techniques, composite materials in EMC design, personnel electrostatic discharge, EMC testing, electromagnetic environments, and coupling and shielding analysis. Discussion is also presented on EMI design, industrial and commercial EMC, lightning and electromagnetic pulses (including aircraft-design problems), and naval EMC applications. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  4. Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a

  5. Self-dual electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate the utility of self-dual fields in electrodynamics. Stable configurations of free electromagnetic fields can be represented as superpositions of standing waves, each possessing zero Poynting vector and zero orbital angular momentum. The standing waves are themselves superpositions of self-dual and anti-self-dual solutions. The idea of self-duality provides additional insights into the geometrical and spectral properties of stable electromagnetic configurations, such as those responsible for the formation of ball lightning.

  6. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-27

    of 5.5 mT (Bmax) were generated by a doughnut -shaped annular electromagnet device. A rabbit in a holder was placed into the annular electromagnets...powerful tools to stimulate a range of benefits for society, in addition to economic development. However, technological progress in the broadest sense...disease is one of the biggest, if not the biggest problem and challenge, economically as well as in terms of animal welfare and environmental pressure

  7. The law of electromagnetic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calculation peculiarities for Lorentz force, Ampere force, interaction of parallel electric currents, and the moment of electrical machines are analyzed. They have exceptions on application, and they are the rules which result from the law of electromagnetic force as coordinate derivative of the operating magnetic flow. An addition to the direction of electromagnetic force action is proposed. Standards of salient-pole electrical machine designing are considered.

  8. Electromagnetic Spectrum from QGP Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsufumi, HIRANO; Shin, MUROYA; Mikio, NAMIKI; Department of Physics, Waseda University; Tokuyama Women's College, Tokuyama, Yamaguchi; Department of Physics, Waseda University

    1998-01-01

    We calculate thermal photon and electron pair distribution from hot QCD matter produced in high energy heavy-ion collisions, based on a hydrodynamical model which is so tuned as to reproduce the recent experimental data at CERN SPS, and compare these electromagnetic spectra with experimental data given by CERN WA80 and CERES. We investigate mainly the effects of the off-shell properties of the source particles on the electromagnetic spectra.

  9. Electromagnetic Spectrum from QGP Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, T.; Muroya, S.; Namiki, M.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate thermal photon and electron pair distribution from hot QCD matter produced in high energy heavy-ion collisions, based on a hydrodynamical model which is so tuned as to reproduce the recent experimental data at CERN SPS, and compare these electromagnetic spectra with experimental data given by CERN WA80 and CERES. We investigate mainly the effects of the off-shell properties of the source particles on the electromagnetic spectra.

  10. Multiforms, dyadics, and electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the four-dimensional formalism with an extended toolbox of operation rules, allowing readers to define more general classes of electromagnetic media and to analyze EM waves that can exist in them. End-of-chapter exercises. Formalism allows readers to find novel classes of media. Covers various properties of electromagnetic media in terms of which they can be set in different classes.

  11. How Do Pre-Service Teachers Picture Various Electromagnetic Phenomenon? A Qualitative Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Fundamental Electromagnetic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the nature of pre-service teachers' conceptual models of various electromagnetic phenomena, specifically electrical current, electrical resistance, and light/matter interactions. This is achieved through the students answering the three questions on electromagnetism using a free response approach including both verbal and…

  12. Electromagnetic corrections in hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasser, J.; Scimemi, I.; Rusetsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    In many applications of chiral perturbation theory, one has to purify physical matrix elements from electromagnetic effects. On the other hand, the splitting of the Hamiltonian into a strong and an electromagnetic part cannot be performed in a unique manner, because photon loops generate ultraviolet divergences. In the present article, we propose a convention for disentangling the two effects: one matches the parameters of two theories - with and without electromagnetic interactions - at a given scale μ 1 , referred to as the matching scale. This method enables one to analyse the separation of strong and electromagnetic contributions in a transparent manner. We first study in a Yukawa-type model the dependence of strong and electromagnetic contributions on the matching scale. In a second step, we investigate this splitting in the linear sigma model at one-loop order, and consider in some detail the construction of the corresponding low-energy effective Lagrangian, which exactly implements the splitting of electromagnetic and strong interactions carried out in the underlying theory. We expect these model studies to be useful in the interpretation of the standard low-energy effective theory of hadrons, leptons and photons. (orig.)

  13. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  14. Mapping Earth's electromagnetic dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2017-12-01

    The form of a magnetotelluric impedance tensor, obtained for a given geographic site through simultaneous measurement of geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation, is affected by electrical conductivity structure beneath the measurement site. Building on existing methods for characterizing the symmetry of magnetotelluric impedance tensors, a simple scalar measure is developed for measuring the (frequency dependent) proportion of the impedance tensor that is not just a one-dimensional (1D) function of depth ("non-1D-ness"). These measures are applied to nearly 1000 impedance tensors obtained during magnetotelluric surveys, those for the continental United States and obtained principally through the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project. Across geomagnetic/geoelectric variational periods ranging from 30 s to 3,000 s, corresponding to crustal and upper mantle depths, it is shown that local Earth structure is very often not simply 1D-depth-dependent - often less than 50% of magnetotelluric impedance is 1D. For selected variational frequencies, non-1D-ness is mapped and the relationship between electromagnetic dimensionality and known geological and tectonic structures is discussed. The importance of using realistic surface impedances to accurately evaluate magnetic-storm geoelectric hazards is emphasized.

  15. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  16. The CPLEAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, R; Bal, F; Behnke, O; Bloch, P; Damianoglou, D; Dechelette, Paul; Dröge, M; Eckart, B; Felder, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Johner, H U; Löfstedt, B; Kern, J; Kokkas, P; Krause, H; Mall, U; Marin, C P; Nanni, F; Pagels, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Petit, P; Polivka, G; Rheme, C; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tschopp, H; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Witzig, C; Wolter, M

    1997-01-01

    A large-acceptance lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) was constructed for the CPLEAR experiment to detect photons from decays of $\\pi^0$s with momentum $p_{\\pi^0} \\le 800$ MeV$/c$. The main purpose of the ECAL is to determine the decay vertex of neutral-kaon decays $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 4 \\gamma$ and $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 6 \\gamma$. This requires a position-sensitive photon detector with high spatial granularity in $r$-, $\\varphi$-, and $z$-coordinates. The ECAL --- a barrel without end-caps located inside a magnetic field of 0.44 T --- consists of 18 identical concentric layers. Each layer of $1/3$ radiation length (X${_0}$) contains a converter plate followed by small cross-section high-gain tubes of 2640 mm active length which are sandwiched by passive pick-up strip plates. The ECAL, with a total of $6$ X${_0}$, has an energy resolution of $\\sigma (E)/E \\approx 13\\% / \\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ and a position resolution of 4.5 mm for the shower foot. ...

  17. 1987 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Atlanta, GA, Aug. 25-27, 1987, Symposium Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various papers on the state of the art in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are presented. The general topics addressed include: EMC analysis; simulators, facilities, and instrumentation; shield performance assessments; open area test sites; electromagnetic pulse; EMI suppression; and EMC measurements. Also considered are: cable coupling/crosstalk; radiated emission measurement concerns; electrostatic discharge; lightning/EMP; antenna-related EMC; statistical approach to EMC; and electromagnetic environment/system level EMC.

  18. International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Wakefield, MA, August 20-22, 1985, Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various papers on electromagnetic compatibility are presented. The general topics addressed include: EMI transient/impulsive disturbances, electromagnetic shielding, antennas and propagation, measurement technology, anechoic chamber/open site measurements, communications systems, electrostatic discahrge, cables/transmission lines. Also considered are: elecromagnetic environments, antennas, electromagnetic pulse, nonlinear effect, computer/data transmission systems, EMI standards and requirements, enclosures/TEM cells, systems EMC, and test site measurements.

  19. Electromagnetic-radiation absorption by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, P.; Emmert, S.; Gulich, R.; Köhler, M.; Wolf, M.; Schwab, M.; Loidl, A.

    2017-12-01

    Why does a microwave oven work? How does biological tissue absorb electromagnetic radiation? Astonishingly, we do not have a definite answer to these simple questions because the microscopic processes governing the absorption of electromagnetic waves by water are largely unclarified. This absorption can be quantified by dielectric loss spectra, which reveal a huge peak at a frequency of the exciting electric field of about 20 GHz and a gradual tailing off toward higher frequencies. The microscopic interpretation of such spectra is highly controversial and various superpositions of relaxation and resonance processes ascribed to single-molecule or molecule-cluster motions have been proposed for their analysis. By combining dielectric, microwave, THz, and far-infrared spectroscopy, here we provide nearly continuous temperature-dependent broadband spectra of water. Moreover, we find that corresponding spectra for aqueous solutions reveal the same features as pure water. However, in contrast to the latter, crystallization in these solutions can be avoided by supercooling. As different spectral contributions tend to disentangle at low temperatures, this enables us to deconvolute them when approaching the glass transition under cooling. We find that the overall spectral development, including the 20 GHz feature (employed for microwave heating), closely resembles the behavior known for common supercooled liquids. Thus water's absorption of electromagnetic waves at room temperature is not unusual but very similar to that of glass-forming liquids at elevated temperatures, deep in the low-viscosity liquid regime, and should be interpreted along similar lines.

  20. Fast Atom Ionization in Strong Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Goeppert-Mayer and Kramers-Henneberger transformations are examined for bound charges placed in electromagnetic radiation in the non-relativistic approximation. The consistent inclusion of the interaction with the radiation field provides the time evolution of the wavefunction with both structural interaction (which ensures the bound state) and electromagnetic interaction. It is shown that in a short time after switching on the high-intensity radiation the bound charges are set free. In these conditions, a statistical criterion is used to estimate the rate of atom ionization. The results correspond to a sudden application of the electromagnetic interaction, in contrast with the well-known ionization probability obtained by quasi-classical tunneling through classically unavailable non-stationary states, or other equivalent methods, where the interaction is introduced adiabatically. For low-intensity radiation the charges oscillate and emit higher-order harmonics, the charge configuration is re-arranged and the process is resumed. Tunneling ionization may appear in these circumstances. Extension of the approach to other applications involving radiation-induced charge emission from bound states is discussed, like ionization of molecules, atomic clusters or proton emission from atomic nuclei. Also, results for a static electric field are included.

  1. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Streamer Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    We present a full electromagnetic model of streamer propagation where the Maxwell equations are solved self-consistently together with electron transport and reactions including photoionization. We apply this model to the collision of counter-propagating streamers in gaps tens of centimeters wide and with large potential differences of hundreds of kilovolts. Our results show that streamer collisions emit electromagnetic pulses that, at atmospheric pressure, dominate the radio frequency spectrum of an extended corona in the range from about 100 MHz to a few gigahertz. We also investigate the fast penetration, after a collision, of electromagnetic fields into the streamer heads and show that these fields are capable of accelerating electrons up to about 100 keV. By substantiating the link between X-rays and high-frequency radio emissions and by describing a mechanism for the early acceleration of runaway electrons, our results support the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges.

  2. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Streamer Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Alejandro

    2017-10-16

    We present a full electromagnetic model of streamer propagation where the Maxwell equations are solved self-consistently together with electron transport and reactions including photoionization. We apply this model to the collision of counter-propagating streamers in gaps tens of centimeters wide and with large potential differences of hundreds of kilovolts. Our results show that streamer collisions emit electromagnetic pulses that, at atmospheric pressure, dominate the radio frequency spectrum of an extended corona in the range from about 100 MHz to a few gigahertz. We also investigate the fast penetration, after a collision, of electromagnetic fields into the streamer heads and show that these fields are capable of accelerating electrons up to about 100 keV. By substantiating the link between X-rays and high-frequency radio emissions and by describing a mechanism for the early acceleration of runaway electrons, our results support the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges.

  3. Electromagnetic-radiation absorption by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, P; Emmert, S; Gulich, R; Köhler, M; Wolf, M; Schwab, M; Loidl, A

    2017-12-01

    Why does a microwave oven work? How does biological tissue absorb electromagnetic radiation? Astonishingly, we do not have a definite answer to these simple questions because the microscopic processes governing the absorption of electromagnetic waves by water are largely unclarified. This absorption can be quantified by dielectric loss spectra, which reveal a huge peak at a frequency of the exciting electric field of about 20 GHz and a gradual tailing off toward higher frequencies. The microscopic interpretation of such spectra is highly controversial and various superpositions of relaxation and resonance processes ascribed to single-molecule or molecule-cluster motions have been proposed for their analysis. By combining dielectric, microwave, THz, and far-infrared spectroscopy, here we provide nearly continuous temperature-dependent broadband spectra of water. Moreover, we find that corresponding spectra for aqueous solutions reveal the same features as pure water. However, in contrast to the latter, crystallization in these solutions can be avoided by supercooling. As different spectral contributions tend to disentangle at low temperatures, this enables us to deconvolute them when approaching the glass transition under cooling. We find that the overall spectral development, including the 20 GHz feature (employed for microwave heating), closely resembles the behavior known for common supercooled liquids. Thus water's absorption of electromagnetic waves at room temperature is not unusual but very similar to that of glass-forming liquids at elevated temperatures, deep in the low-viscosity liquid regime, and should be interpreted along similar lines.

  4. Comparison between electroglottography and electromagnetic glottography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titze, Ingo R.; Story, Brad H.; Burnett, Gregory C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.; Lea, Wayne A.

    2000-01-01

    Newly developed glottographic sensors, utilizing high-frequency propagating electromagnetic waves, were compared to a well-established electroglottographic device. The comparison was made on four male subjects under different phonation conditions, including three levels of vocal fold adduction (normal, breathy, and pressed), three different registers (falsetto, chest, and fry), and two different pitches. Agreement between the sensors was always found for the glottal closure event, but for the general wave shape the agreement was better for falsetto and breathy voice than for pressed voice and vocal fry. Differences are attributed to the field patterns of the devices. Whereas the electroglottographic device can operate only in a conduction mode, the electromagnetic device can operate in either the forward scattering (diffraction) mode or in the backward scattering (reflection) mode. Results of our tests favor the diffraction mode because a more favorable angle imposed on receiving the scattered (reflected) signal did not improve the signal strength. Several observations are made on the uses of the electromagnetic sensors for operation without skin contact and possibly in an array configuration for improved spatial resolution within the glottis. (c) 2000 Acoustical Society of America

  5. Hybrid techniques for complex aerospace electromagnetics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Important aerospace electromagnetics problems include the evaluation of antenna performance on aircraft and the prediction and control of the aircraft's electromagnetic signature. Due to the ever increasing complexity and expense of aircraft design, aerospace engineers have become increasingly dependent on computer solutions. Traditionally, computational electromagnetics (CEM) has relied primarily on four disparate techniques: the method of moments (MoM), the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the finite element method (FEM), and high frequency asymptotic techniques (HFAT) such as ray tracing. Each of these techniques has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and no single technique is capable of accurately solving all problems of interest on computers that are available now or will be available in the foreseeable future. As a result, new approaches that overcome the deficiencies of traditional techniques are beginning to attract a great deal of interest in the CEM community. Among these new approaches are hybrid methods which combine two or more of these techniques into a coherent model. During the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program a hybrid FEM/MoM computer code was developed and applied to a geometry containing features found on many modern aircraft.

  6. An experimental study on the characteristics of electromagnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geum Yong; Lim, Seung Cheol; Lee, Kun Jai

    1993-01-01

    The electromagnetic filter has been recognized as a technological replacement for the conventional filtration systems of the nuclear power plant coolant. But, as of now there are neither clear understandings of the phenomena occurring in the electromagnetic filter nor the general theoretical analyses. These facts make the application of the electromagnetic filter to the real systems a little risky, and therfore it has not been commercialized although it shows excellent performances in such situations as the plant abnormality, where the conventional filters usually fail. This experimental study of the low power electromagnetic filter aims at the clarification of the general characteristics under varying operational parameters. Since the detailed characteristics may differ from one electromagnetic filter to another, they are considered secondary. The impurities applied are the highly magnetic magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and the diamagnetic cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O). The empirical equations are derived from the experimental data by the regressional analyses. They are classified of three types : Efficiencies vs. Time, Efficiencies vs. Load, and Load vs. Time. The characteristics of the electromagnetic filter observed in this experiment agreed well with other related works in many aspects. Especially in this study, some assumptions and discussions including the physical deposition are combined for the explanations of the filter characteristics found in our and other experimental works. (Author)

  7. THE GENERATION OF THERMOELASTIC STRESS WAVES BY IMPULSIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , ABSORPTION), (*STRESSES, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), SURFACE PROPERTIES, INTERACTIONS, HEAT TRANSFER, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES, LASERS, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, SOLIDS

  8. The electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churches, D.K.

    1999-10-01

    The research work explores the Electromagnetic and Acoustic Properties of Smoke Particulates from real fires, and the initial development of an alternative method of smoke detection based on the study work. The research was entirely self-funded including the purchase of the experimental apparatus, test equipment and calibration to international standards. The study includes the properties of solid and liquid post combustion particulates in air suspension forming smoke plumes, and the associated fluid flow dynamics. As part of the study the electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates, a somewhat unique detection method described as the ''Double Matrix Board System'' was developed and used. It was initially developed to assist in the electromagnetic study work, and was later modified to examine the acoustic properties. The published results of the research on the ''Double Matrix Board System'' and the details of the patent application for the device are included in the Appendices to the Thesis document. (author)

  9. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  10. Was The Electromagnetic Spectrum A Blackbody Spectrum In The Early Universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opher, M.; Opher, R.

    1997-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the electromagnetic spectrum in the primordial universe was a blackbody spectrum in vacuum. We derive the electromagnetic spectrum based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem that describes the electromagnetic fluctuations in a plasma. Our description includes thermal and collisional effects in a plasma. The electromagnetic spectrum obtained differs from a blackbody spectrum in vacuum at low frequencies. In particular, concentrating on the primordial nucleosynthesis era, it has more energy than the blackbody spectrum for frequencies less than 3ω pe to 6ω pe , where ω pe is the electron plasma frequency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Attracting electromagnet for control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Sasaki, Kotaro.

    1989-01-01

    Non-magnetic material plates with inherent resistivity of greater than 20 μΩ-cm and thickness of less than 3 mm are used for the end plates of attracting electromagnets for closed type control rods. By using such control rod attracting electromagnets, the scram releasing time can be shortened than usual. Since the armature attracting side of the electromagnet has to be sealed by a non-magnetic plate, a bronze plate of about 5 mm thickness has been used so far. Accordingly, non-magnetic plate is inserted to the electromagnet attracting face to increase air source length for improving to shorten the scram releasing time. This method, however, worsens the attracting property on one hand to require a great magnetomotive force. For overcoming these drawbacks, in the present invention, the material for tightly closing end plates in an electromagnet is changed from bronze plate to non-magnetic stainless steel SUS 303 or non-magnetic Monel metal and, in addition, the plate thickness is reduced to less than 5 mm thereby maintaining the attracting property and shortening the scram releasing time. (K.M.)

  12. Broadband electromagnetic environments simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, N.

    1977-01-01

    A new test facility has been developed by Sandia Laboratories for determining the effects of electromagnetic environments on systems and components. The facility is capable of producing uniform, vertically polarized, continuous wave (CW) and pulsed fields over the frequency range of dc to 10 GHz. This broadband capability addresses the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) threat and is ideally suited to computer controlled sweeping and data acquisition. EMES is also capable of producing uniform transient fields having the wave shape and magnitude characteristic of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and near lightning. The design consists of a truncated, triplate, rectangular coaxial transmission line. The spacing between the flat center conductor and the ground planes is 4 meters. The line is terminated in its characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. At frequencies below the first resonance of the facility it behaves as a typical coaxial system. Above resonance, a wall of electromagnetic absorbing material provides a nonreflecting termination. Thus, EMES essentially combines the elements of a transmission line and an anechoic chamber. It will not radiate electromagnetic energy into the surrounding area because it is a shielded transmission line

  13. A framework for simulation and inversion in electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagy, Lindsey J.; Cockett, Rowan; Kang, Seogi; Rosenkjaer, Gudni K.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    2017-10-01

    Simulations and inversions of electromagnetic geophysical data are paramount for discerning meaningful information about the subsurface from these data. Depending on the nature of the source electromagnetic experiments may be classified as time-domain or frequency-domain. Multiple heterogeneous and sometimes anisotropic physical properties, including electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability, may need be considered in a simulation. Depending on what one wants to accomplish in an inversion, the parameters which one inverts for may be a voxel-based description of the earth or some parametric representation that must be mapped onto a simulation mesh. Each of these permutations of the electromagnetic problem has implications in a numerical implementation of the forward simulation as well as in the computation of the sensitivities, which are required when considering gradient-based inversions. This paper proposes a framework for organizing and implementing electromagnetic simulations and gradient-based inversions in a modular, extensible fashion. We take an object-oriented approach for defining and organizing each of the necessary elements in an electromagnetic simulation, including: the physical properties, sources, formulation of the discrete problem to be solved, the resulting fields and fluxes, and receivers used to sample to the electromagnetic responses. A corresponding implementation is provided as part of the open source simulation and parameter estimation project SIMPEG (http://simpeg.xyz). The application of the framework is demonstrated through two synthetic examples and one field example. The first example shows the application of the common framework for 1D time domain and frequency domain inversions. The second is a field example that demonstrates a 1D inversion of electromagnetic data collected over the Bookpurnong Irrigation District in Australia. The final example is a 3D example which shows how the modular implementation is used to compute the

  14. Electromagnetic coupling of high-altitude, nuclear electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    We have used scale models to measure the predicted coupling of electromagnetic fields simulating the effects of high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulses (HEMP) on the interior surfaces of electronic components. Predictive tools for exterior coupling are adequate. For interior coupling, however, such tools are in their infancy. Our methodological approach combines analytical, computational, and laboratory techniques in a complementary way to take advantage of their separate strengths. Computer models are a promising tool, as they can be used to treat complex objects with arbitrary shapes, dielectrics, and cables, and multiple apertures. Laboratory tests can expand the domain of investigation even further

  15. Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Svintradze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  16. Traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Ross

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes that a wide range of traditional beliefs and practices may provide clues to real electromagnetic field interactions in the biosphere. For instance, evil eye beliefs may be a cultural elaboration of the sense of being stared at, which in turn may have a basis in real electromagnetic emissions through the eye. Data to support this hypothesis are presented. Other traditional beliefs such as remote sensing of game and the importance of connection to the Earth Mother may also contain a kernel of truth. A series of testable scientific hypotheses concerning traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields is presented. At this stage, the theory does not have sufficient evidence to be accepted as proven; its purpose is to stimulate thought and research

  17. Heliborne time domain electromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD), are using heliborne and ground time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for the exploration of deep seated unconformity type uranium deposits. Uranium has been explored in various parts of the world like Athabasca basin using time domain electromagnetic system. AMD has identified some areas in India where such deposits are available. Apart from uranium exploration, the TDEM systems are used for the exploration of deep seated minerals like diamonds. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is involved in the indigenous design of the heliborne time domain system since this system is useful for DAE and also it has a scope of wide application. In this paper we discuss about the principle of time domain electromagnetic systems, their capabilities and the development and problems of such system for various other mineral exploration. (author)

  18. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  19. Clinical importance of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppe, I.

    1993-01-01

    The clinical importance of most of the electromagnetic fields is not highly. Mostly they only have thermal effects, produced by energy-absorption. About 1 C increase of whole-body-temperature is valid for tolerable limit. For measuring is used the SAR-Value (Specific Absorption Rate) in W/kg body mass. SAR = 0,8W/kg for the whole body is valid to be safety. For the evaluation of possible other effects of electromagnetic fields the scientific knowledges are till now not sufficient to allow a final statement. That could be impacts of electromagnetic fields to conduction or switch processes in the nerves or brains, in the framwork of cellular regulations, in the genetic reactions are occurig is little, but if is necessary to find it out in scinentific investigations. (orig.) [de

  20. Electromagnetic Invisibility of Elliptic Cylinder Cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Yao; Chao, Li; Fang, Li

    2008-01-01

    Structures with unique electromagnetic properties are designed based on the approach of spatial coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations. This approach is applied to scheme out invisible elliptic cylinder cloaks, which provide more feasibility for cloaking arbitrarily shaped objects. The transformation expressions for the anisotropic material parameters and the field distribution are derived. The cloaking performances of ideal and lossy elliptic cylinder cloaks are investigated by finite element simulations. It is found that the cloaking performance will degrade in the forward direction with increasing loss. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  1. The automatic electromagnetic field generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audone, B.; Gerbi, G.

    1982-07-01

    The technical study and the design approaches adopted for the definition of the automatic electromagnetic field generating system (AEFGS) dedicated to EMC susceptibility testing are presented. The AEFGS covers the frequency range 10 KHz to 40 GHZ and operates successfully in the two EMC shielded chambers at ESTEC. The performance of the generators/amplifiers subsystems, antennas selection, field amplitude and susceptibility feedback and monitoring systems is described. System control modes which guarantee the AEFGS full operability under different test conditions are discussed. Advantages of automation of susceptibility testing include increased measurement accuracy and testing cost reduction.

  2. Electromagnetic fields with vanishing quantum corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaggio, Marcello; Pravda, Vojtěch

    2018-04-01

    We show that a large class of null electromagnetic fields are immune to any modifications of Maxwell's equations in the form of arbitrary powers and derivatives of the field strength. These are thus exact solutions to virtually any generalized classical electrodynamics containing both non-linear terms and higher derivatives, including, e.g., non-linear electrodynamics as well as QED- and string-motivated effective theories. This result holds not only in a flat or (anti-)de Sitter background, but also in a larger subset of Kundt spacetimes, which allow for the presence of aligned gravitational waves and pure radiation.

  3. Electromagnetic Effices from Impacts on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Sigrid

    2018-04-01

    Hypervelocity micro particles, including meteoroids and space debris with masses electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with a broad frequency spectrum. Subsequent plasma oscillations resulting from instabilities can also emit significant power and may be responsible for many reported satellite anomalies. We present theory and recent results from ground-based impact tests aimed at characterizing hypervelocity impact plasma and show that impact-produced radio frequency (RF) emissions occurred in frequencies ranging from VHF through L-band and that these emissions were highly correlated with fast (> 20 km/s) impacts that produced a fully ionized plasma.

  4. Electromagnetic computations for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1989-09-01

    Among the difficulties in making nuclear fusion a useful energy source, two important ones are producing the magnetic fields needed to drive and confine the plasma, and controlling the eddy currents induced in electrically conducting components by changing fields. All over the world, researchers are developing electromagnetic codes and employing them to compute electromagnetic effects. Ferromagnetic components of a fusion reactor introduce field distortions. Eddy currents are induced in the vacuum vessel, blanket and other torus components of a tokamak when the plasma current disrupts. These eddy currents lead to large forces, and 3-D codes are being developed to study the currents and forces. 35 refs., 6 figs

  5. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Volakis, John

    2012-01-01

    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  6. Electromagnetic reciprocity in antenna theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stumpf, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The reciprocity theorem is among the most intriguing concepts in wave field theory and has become an integral part of almost all standard textbooks on electromagnetic (EM) theory. This book makes use of the theorem to quantitatively describe EM interactions concerning general multiport antenna systems. It covers a general reciprocity-based description of antenna systems, their EM scattering properties, and further related aspects. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, Electromagnetic Reciprocity in Antenna Theory provides readers first with the basic prerequisites before offering coverage of the equivalent multiport circuit antenna representations, EM coupling between multiport antenna systems and their EM interactions with scatterers, accompanied with the corresponding EM compensation theorems.

  7. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bajlo, Darko

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...

  8. The Search for Electromagnetic Induction (1820-1831). Experiment No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devons, Samuel

    This paper focuses on the search for electromagnetic induction from 1820 to 1831 and the efforts by Augustin Fresnel's colleague, Andre Marie Ampere, in electric and magnetic induction. Faraday's work is discussed with excerpts from his diary on electromagnetism. A variety of different experiments by researchers including Francoise Jean Arago,…

  9. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Devices on Hybrid Electromagnetic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesev, S. G.; Khazieva, R. T.; Kirillov, R. V.; Gainutdinov, I. Z.; Kondratyev, E. Y.

    2018-01-01

    There is a general tendency to reduce the weight and dimensions, the consumption of conductive and electrical insulating materials, increase the reliability and energy efficiency of electrical devices. In recent years, designers have been actively developing devices based on hybrid electromagnetic components (HEMC) such as inductive-capacitive converters (ICC), voltages pulse generators (VPG), secondary power supplies (SPS), capacitive storage devices (CSD), induction heating systems (IHS). Sources of power supplies of similar electrical devices contain, as a rule, links of increased frequency and function in key (pulse) modes, which leads to an increase in electromagnetic interference (EMI). Nonlinear and periodic (impulse) loads, non-sinusoidal (pulsation) of the electromotive force and nonlinearity of the internal parameters of the source and input circuits of consumers distort the shape of the input voltage lead to an increase in thermal losses from the higher harmonic currents, aging of the insulation, increase in the weight of the power supply filter units, resonance at higher harmonics. The most important task is to analyze the operation of electrotechnical devices based on HEMC from the point of view of creating EMIs and assessing their electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with power supply systems (PSS). The article presents the results of research on the operation of an IHS, the operation principle of a secondary power supply source of which is based on the operation of a half-bridge autonomous inverter, the switching circuit of which is made in the form of a HEMC, called the «multifunctional integrated electromagnetic component»" (MIEC).

  10. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Computer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitai, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Computers and the Internet have gradually penetrated into every aspect of people’s daily work. But with the improvement of electronic equipment as well as electrical system, the electromagnetic environment becomes much more complex. Electromagnetic interference has become an important factor to hinder the normal operation of electronic equipment. In order to analyse the computer circuit compatible with the electromagnetic compatibility, this paper starts from the computer electromagnetic and the conception of electromagnetic compatibility. And then, through the analysis of the main circuit and system of computer electromagnetic compatibility problems, we can design the computer circuits in term of electromagnetic compatibility. Finally, the basic contents and methods of EMC test are expounded in order to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment.

  11. Electromagnetic problems in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the electromagnetic characterization of fractured rock during various phases of radioactive waste disposal investigations and construction, and also discusses the methods of the electromagnetic safeguards monitoring

  12. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  13. Nuclear structure investigations with electromagnetic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drechsel, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is related to the study of electromagnetic interactions, current of hadronic systems, deep inelastic scattering, quasifree scattering, low energy theorems and electromagnetic reactions above pion threshold. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  14. ORDNANCE CORPS VIEWS ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION HAZARDS TO WEAPONS SYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    EXPLOSIVES INITIATORS, * ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), HAZARDS, ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, ANTENNAS, ATTENUATORS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING, SENSITIVITY, WEAPON SYSTEMS, MODULATION, CIRCUITS, BROADBAND

  15. Performance Tests on the Electromagnet of Secondary CRA Gripper System of the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, Sung Kyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The system automatically releases the control rod assembly (CRA) around the set temperature in an emergency condition of the reactor, and then drops the CRA by gravity without any external control signals and any actuating power. This paper describes the design of a passive shutdown system consisted of a thermal expansion device and an electromagnet. The electromagnet design concept for gripping and releasing the secondary control rod assembly is also suggested, and the several functional tests of the electromagnet are performed in the high temperature environment condition, and the test results are presented. The application feasibility of the electromagnet of a passive shutdown system was verified based on several test results in point of view of the electromagnetic force and the response time. In future, the thermal expansion device system integrated with this electromagnet will be verified. The electromagnet trigger-off time was tested for the several cases in Table 4 using the same method. The average response time is 0.184 seconds in the case of using SS410 material as an armature, while the 2.25Cr-1Mo material as an armature has a response time of 0.16 seconds as shown in Figure 6. The final acceptability of the electromagnetic response time data obtained by these tests will be evaluated with CRA drop test results because the control rod drop time should be within 1 - 2 seconds including the electromagnetic response time.

  16. Performance Tests on the Electromagnet of Secondary CRA Gripper System of the PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    The system automatically releases the control rod assembly (CRA) around the set temperature in an emergency condition of the reactor, and then drops the CRA by gravity without any external control signals and any actuating power. This paper describes the design of a passive shutdown system consisted of a thermal expansion device and an electromagnet. The electromagnet design concept for gripping and releasing the secondary control rod assembly is also suggested, and the several functional tests of the electromagnet are performed in the high temperature environment condition, and the test results are presented. The application feasibility of the electromagnet of a passive shutdown system was verified based on several test results in point of view of the electromagnetic force and the response time. In future, the thermal expansion device system integrated with this electromagnet will be verified. The electromagnet trigger-off time was tested for the several cases in Table 4 using the same method. The average response time is 0.184 seconds in the case of using SS410 material as an armature, while the 2.25Cr-1Mo material as an armature has a response time of 0.16 seconds as shown in Figure 6. The final acceptability of the electromagnetic response time data obtained by these tests will be evaluated with CRA drop test results because the control rod drop time should be within 1 - 2 seconds including the electromagnetic response time

  17. Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles XV: Celebrating 150 Years of Maxwell's Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Andreas; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The 15th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference (ELS-XV) was held in Leipzig, Germany from 21 to 26 of June 2015. This conference built on the great success of the previous meetings held in Amsterdam (1995), Helsinki(1997) [2], New York City(1998) [3], Vigo (1999),Halifax (2000), Gainesville (2002), Bremen (2003), Salobreña (2005), St. Petersburg (2006), Bodrum (2007), Hatfield (2008), Helsinki (2010), Taormina (2011), and Lille as well as the workshops held in Bremen (1996,1998) and Moscow (1997). As usual, the main objective of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, and PhD students studying various aspects of electromagnetic scattering and to provide a relaxed atmosphere for in-depth discussion of theory, measurements, and applications. Furthermore, ELS-XV supported the United Nations "Year of Light" and celebrated the150th anniversary of Maxwell's electromagnetics. Maxwell's paper on "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" was published in1865 and has widely been acknowledged as one of the supreme achievements in the history of science. The conference was attended by136 scientists from 22 countries. The scientific program included two plenary lectures, 16 invited reviews, 88 contributed oral talks, and 70 poster presentations. The program and the abstracts of conference presentations are available at the conference website http://www.els-xv-2015.net/home.html. Following the well-established ELS practice and with Elsevier's encouragement, we solicited full-size papers for a topical issue of the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT). The result of this collective effort is now in the reader's hands. As always, every invited review and regular paper included in this topical issue has undergone the same rigorous peer review process as any other manuscript published in the JQSRT.

  18. Biologic effects of electromagnetic radiation and microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation and microwave exist mankind's environment widely. People realize they disserve authors' health when authors make use of them. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physic factors which injure people's health. A review of the biologic mechanism about electromagnetic radiation and microwave, their harmful effects to human body, problems in authors' research and the prospect

  19. Electromagnetic Pulse Coupling Analysis of Electronic Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Lei; Qingying LI

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity nuclear explosion caused by high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse through the antenna, metal cables, holes and other channels, coupled with very high energy into the electronic device, and cause serious threats. In this paper, the mechanism, waveform, coupling path and damage effect of nuclear electromagnetic pulse is analyzed, and the coupling mechanism of nuclear electromagnetic pulse is studied.

  20. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    Particle interaction with plane electromagnetic pulses is studied. It is shown that particle acceleration by a wavy pulse, depending on the shape of the pulse, may not be small. Further, a diffusive-type particle acceleration by multiple weak pulses is described and discussed. (author)

  1. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.; Hunziker, J.W.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled?source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a de?risking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Although there have been successful applications of CSEM, this technique is still not widely used in the industry because the limited types of hydrocarbon reservoirs CSEM can detect.

  2. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  3. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  4. Contributions of Maxwell to Electromagnetism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 5. Contributions of Maxwell to Electromagnetism. P V Panat. General Article Volume 8 Issue 5 May 2003 pp 17-29. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/05/0017-0029. Keywords.

  5. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil

    2015-10-01

    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  6. Fast electromagnetic field strength probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Serra, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    Diode detectors and thermocouple detectors are conventionally used to measure electromagnetic field strength. Both detectors have some disadvantages for applications where a fast response and a high dynamic range is required. The diode detector is limited in dynamic range. The dynamic range is

  7. Explanations, Education, and Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    Explaining complex scientific and environmental subjects in the mass media is difficult to do, particularly under such constraints as short deadlines and lack of space or time. When a scientific controversy and human health risk are involved, this becomes an even harder task to accomplish. The subject of electromagnetic fields (EMF) involves…

  8. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.

    1993-01-01

    In this generally intelligible article, the author describes at first the physical fundamentals of electromagnetic fields and their basic biological significance and effects for animals and human beings before dealing with the discussion regarding limiting values and dangers. The article treats possible connections with leukaemia as well as ith melatonine production more detailed. (vhe) [de

  9. Electromagnetic semi-implantable hearing device: phase I. Clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, T M; Kartush, J M; Heide, J C; Bojrab, D I; Clemis, J D; Kulick, K C

    1991-04-01

    Conventional hearing aids have improved significantly in recent years; however, amplification of sound within the external auditory canal creates a number of intrinsic problems, including acoustic feedback and the need for a tight ear mold to increase usable gain. Nonacoustic alternatives which could obviate these encumbrances have not become practical due to inefficient coupling (piezoelectric techniques) or unfeasible power requirements (electromagnetic techniques). Recent technical advances, however, prompted a major clinical investigation of a new electromagnetic, semi-implantable hearing device. This study presents the details of clinical phase I, in which an electromagnetic driver was coupled with a target magnet temporarily affixed onto the lateral surface of the malleus of six hearing aid users with sensorineural losses. The results indicate that the electromagnetic hearing device provides sufficient gain and output characteristics to benefit individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. Significant improvements compared to conventional hearing aids were noted in pure-tone testing and, to a lesser degree, in speech discrimination. Subjective responses were quite favorable, indicating that the electromagnetic hearing device 1. produces no acoustic feedback; 2. works well in noisy environments; and 3. provides a more quiet, natural sound than patients' conventional hearing aids. These favorable results led to phase II of the project, in which patients with surgically amendable mixed hearing losses were implanted with the target magnet incorporated within a hydroxyapatite ossicular prosthesis. The results of this second-stage investigation were also encouraging and will be reported separately.

  10. Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF) for Sparse Aperture Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Daniel W.; Miller, David W.; Sedwick, Raymond J.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional methods of actuating spacecraft in sparse aperture arrays use propellant as a reaction mass. For formation flying systems, propellant becomes a critical consumable which can be quickly exhausted while maintaining relative orientation. Additional problems posed by propellant include optical contamination, plume impingement, thermal emission, and vibration excitation. For these missions where control of relative degrees of freedom is important, we consider using a system of electromagnets, in concert with reaction wheels, to replace the consumables. Electromagnetic Formation Flight sparse apertures, powered by solar energy, are designed differently from traditional propulsion systems, which are based on V. This paper investigates the design of sparse apertures both inside and outside the Earth's gravity field.

  11. Some direct methods in electromagnetics. Quelques methodes directes en electromagnetisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France)); Scheurer, B. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Limeil, 94 - Villeneuve-Saint-Georges (France))

    1991-12-01

    At the CEA/DAM, various studies including ones aimed at researching for low observability have stimulated the development of electromagnetics computer codes. For this purpose both mathematical and numerical methods have been devised. Two of them are described in this paper. The first approach consists of enlarging to electromagnetics problems some ideas and methods issued from mechanics and structural design. A flexible computer code covering a wide range of applications has been developed. The second approach is explicitly concerned with axisymmetric bodies and low observability problems. Boundary element methods, as well as mixed boundary element and finite element methods are briefly described and exemplified. (author). 21 refs., 13 figs., 3 insets.

  12. Electromagnetic instabilities attributed to a cross-field ion drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. L.; Wong, H. K.; Wu, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Instabilities due to a cross-field ion flow are reexamined by including the electromagnetic response of the ions, which has been ignored in existing discussions. It is found that this effect can lead to significant enhancement of the growth rate. Among the new results, a purely growing, electromagnetic unstable mode with a wave vector k parallel to the ambient magnetic field is found. The plasma configuration under consideration is similar to that used in the discussion of the well-known modified-two-stream instability. This instability has a growth rate faster than the ion cyclotron frequency, and is not susceptible to high-plasma-beta stabilization.

  13. Innovation for soil studies with electromagnetic induction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditama, Iqbal F.; Widodo, Setiawan, Tedy; Bijaksana, Satria; Sanny, Teuku A.

    2017-07-01

    Electromagnetic methods for soil research have been applied in the worldwide over the decades. In particular Electromagnetic induction (EMI) techniques have been developed to provide more accurately soil maps. Present EMI methods can identify, characterize, and map spatially-varying soil types and properties offers better than traditional methods. In the future, the EMI techniques will be integrated with agricultural machinery and will be more effective to mapping of both lateral and vertical variations in soil properties. With that advantages, the systems should be utilized in precision agriculture more often in Indonesia. In addition, forward modelling also included in this research as a survey design tool before the outset of field campaign.

  14. Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki H.; Xie, Gan Q.

    1994-01-01

    A method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The traveltimes corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter .alpha. for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography.

  15. Electromagnetic Interference in Implantable Rhythm Devices - The Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Implantable rhythm device (IRD is the generic name for the group of implantable devices used for diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Devices in this category include cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators and implantable loop recorders. Since these devices have complex microelectronic circuitry and use electromagnetic waves for communication, they are susceptible to interference from extraneous sources of electromagnetic radiation and magnetic energy. Electromagnetic interference (EMI is generally not a major problem outside of the hospital environment. The most important interactions occur when a patient is subjected to medical procedures such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, electrocautery and radiation therapy. Two articles in this issue of the journal discusses various aspects of EMI on IRD1,2 . Together these articles provide a good review of the various sources of EMI and their interaction with IRD for the treating physician.

  16. QUICKSILVER - A general tool for electromagnetic PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, David B.; Coats, Rebecca S.; Johnson, William A.; Kiefer, Mark L.; Mix, L. Paul; Pasik, Michael F.; Pointon, Timothy D.; Quintenz, Jeffrey P.; Riley, Douglas J.; Turner, C. David

    1997-01-01

    The dramatic increase in computational capability that has occurred over the last ten years has allowed fully electromagnetic simulations of large, complex, three-dimensional systems to move progressively from impractical, to expensive, and recently, to routine and widespread. This is particularly true for systems that require the motion of free charge to be self-consistently treated. The QUICKSILVER electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (EM-PIC) code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to provide a general tool to simulate a wide variety of such systems. This tool has found widespread use for many diverse applications, including high-current electron and ion diodes, magnetically insulated power transmission systems, high-power microwave oscillators, high-frequency digital and analog integrated circuit packages, microwave integrated circuit components, antenna systems, radar cross-section applications, and electromagnetic interaction with biological material. This paper will give a brief overview of QUICKSILVER and provide some thoughts on its future development

  17. New technologies in electromagnetic non-destructive testing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces novel developments in the field of electromagnetic non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT/E). The topics include electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave testing, pulsed eddy current testing, remote field eddy current testing, low frequency eddy current testing, metal magnetic memory testing, and magnetic flux leakage testing. Considering the increasing concern about the safety maintenance of critical structures in various industries and everyday life, these topics presented here will be of particular interest to the readers in the NDT/E field. This book covers both theoretical researches and the engineering applications of the electromagnetic NDT technology. It could serve as a valuable reference for college students and relevant NDT technicians. It is also a useful material for qualification training and higher learning for nondestructive testing professionals.

  18. Problems in classical electromagnetism 157 exercises with solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Macchi, Andrea; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This book contains 157 problems in classical electromagnetism, most of them new and original compared to those found in other textbooks. Each problem is presented with a title in order to highlight its inspiration in different areas of physics or technology, so that the book is also a survey of historical discoveries and applications of classical electromagnetism. The solutions are complete and include detailed discussions, which take into account typical questions and mistakes by the students. Without unnecessary mathematical complexity, the problems and related discussions introduce the student to advanced concepts such as unipolar and homopolar motors, magnetic monopoles, radiation pressure, angular momentum of light, bulk and surface plasmons, radiation friction, as well as to tricky concepts and ostensible ambiguities or paradoxes related to the classical theory of the electromagnetic field. With this approach the book is both a teaching tool for undergraduates in physics, mathematics and electric engine...

  19. Strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles.

  20. A System for Electromagnetic Field Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A system is provided for conversion of a first electromagnetic field into a desired second electromagnetic field, for example for coupling modes between waveguides or into microstructured waveguides. The system comprises a complex spatial electromagnetic field converter that is positioned...... for reception of at least a part of the first electromagnetic field and that is adapted for conversion of the received field into the desired electromagnetic field, and wherein at least one of the first and second fields matches a mode of a microstructured waveguide. It is an important advantage of the present...

  1. Particle physics in intense electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The quantum field theory in the presence of classical background electromagnetic field is reviewed giving a pedagogical introduction to the Feynman-Furry method of describing non-perturbative interactions with very strong electromagnetic fields. A particular emphasis is given to the case of the plane-wave electromagnetic field for which the charged particles' wave functions and propagators are presented. Some general features of quantum processes proceeding in the intense electromagnetic background are argued. The possibilities of searching new physics through the investigations of quantum phenomena induced by a strong electromagnetic environment are also discussed

  2. Velocity measurement of conductor using electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gu Hwa; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Joon Po; Jeong, Hee Tae; Lee, Eui Wan

    2002-01-01

    A basic technology was investigated to measure the speed of conductor by non-contact electromagnetic method. The principle of the velocity sensor was electromagnetic induction. To design electromagnet for velocity sensor, 2D electromagnetic analysis was performed using FEM software. The sensor output was analyzed according to the parameters of velocity sensor, such as the type of magnetizing currents and the lift-off. Output of magnetic sensor was linearly depended on the conductor speed and magnetizing current. To compensate the lift-off changes during measurement of velocity, the other magnetic sensor was put at the pole of electromagnet.

  3. Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wireless telecommunication devices and equipment, including cell phones, smart meters, and portable wireless devices, such as tablets and ... Digital electric and gas meters, also known as “smart meters.” These devices, which operate at about the same ...

  4. Introduction to Eye-Opening Technology: The Electromagnetic Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; DeVore, Edna; Bianchi, Luciana

    2003-01-01

    Provides classroom activities centered around how the electromagnetic spectrum yields vital insights about the evolution of the universe. Activities targeted for grade levels 6-12 illustrate the importance of light and color in space exploration. Includes a poster. (Author/SOE)

  5. Resolution analyses for selecting an appropriate airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; Lawrie, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The choice of an appropriate airborne electromagnetic system for a given task should be based on a comparative analysis of candidate systems, consisting of both theoretical considerations and field studies including test lines. It has become common practice to quantify the system...

  6. Electromagnetic-gravitational conversion cross sections in external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Ngoc Long; Dang Van Soa; Tuan Tran, A.

    1994-09-01

    The classical processes: the conversion of photons into gravitons in the static electromagnetic fields are considered by using Feynman perturbation techniques. The differential cross sections are presented for the conversion in the electric field of the flat condenser and the magnetic field of the solenoid. A numerical evaluation shows that the cross sections may have the observable value in the present technical scenario. (author). 11 refs

  7. Electromagnetic Basis of Metabolism and Heredity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Stolc, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms control their cellular biological clocks to maintain functional oscillation of the redox cycle, also called the "metabolic cycle" or "respiratory cycle". Organization of cellular processes requires parallel processing on a synchronized time-base. These clocks coordinate the timing of all biochemical processes in the cell, including energy production, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. When this universal time keeping function is perturbed by exogenous induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the rate of metabolism changes. This causes oxidative stress, aging and mutations. Therefore, good temporal coordination of the redox cycle not only actively prevents chemical conflict between the reductive and oxidative partial reactions; it also maintains genome integrity and lifespan. Moreover, this universal biochemical rhythm can be disrupted by ROS induction in vivo. This in turn can be achieved by blocking the electron transport chain either endogenously or exogenously by various metabolites, e.g. hydrogen sulfide (H2S), highly diffusible drugs, and carbon monoxide (CO). Alternatively, the electron transport in vivo can be attenuated via a coherent or interfering transfer of energy from exogenous ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) fields, suggesting that-on Earth-such ambient fields are an omnipresent (and probably crucially important) factor for the time-setting basis of universal biochemical reactions in living cells. Our work demonstrated previously un-described evidence for quantum effects in biology by electromagnetic coupling below thermal noise at the universal electron transport chain (ETC) in vivo.

  8. Enhanced Microfluidic Electromagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovangrandi, Laurent (Inventor); Ricco, Antonio J. (Inventor); Kovacs, Gregory (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for enhanced microfluidic impedance spectroscopy include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. Flow in the channel is laminar. A dielectric constant of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than a dielectric constant of the core fluid. Electrical impedance is measured in the channel between at least a first pair of electrodes. In some embodiments, enhanced optical measurements include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. An optical index of refraction of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than an optical index of refraction of the core fluid. An optical property is measured in the channel.

  9. Electromagnetic trapping of cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V.I.; Minogin, V.G.; Letokhov, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes the methods of trapping cold atoms in electromagnetic fields and in the combined electromagnetic and gravity fields. We discuss first the basic types of the dipole radiation forces used for cooling and trapping atoms in the laser fields. We outline next the fundamentals of the laser cooling of atoms and classify the temperature limits for basic laser cooling processes. The main body of the review is devoted to discussion of atom traps based on the dipole radiation forces, dipole magnetic forces, combined dipole radiation-magnetic forces, and the forces combined of the dipole radiation-magnetic and gravity forces. Physical fundamentals of atom traps operating as waveguides and cavities for cold atoms are also considered. The review ends with the applications of cold and trapped atoms in atomic, molecular and optical physics. (author)

  10. Simple Electromagnetic Analysis in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main principle and methods of simple electromagnetic analysis and thus provides an overview of simple electromagnetic analysis.The introductions chapters describe specific SPA attack used visual inspection of EM traces, template based attack and collision attack.After reading the article, the reader is sufficiently informed of any context of SEMA.Another aim of the article is the practical realization of SEMA which is focused on AES implementation.The visual inspection of EM trace of AES is performed step by step and the result is the determination of secret key Hamming weight.On the resulting EM trace, the Hamming weight of the secret key 1 to 8 was clearly visible.This method allows reduction from the number of possible keys for following brute force attack.

  11. Magnetic correlates in electromagnetic consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboff, A R

    2016-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that consciousness is a manifestation of the electromagnetic field, finding supportive factors not previously considered. It is not likely that traditional electrophysiological signaling modes can be readily transmitted throughout the brain to properly enable this field because of electric field screening arising from the ubiquitous distribution of high dielectric lipid membranes, a problem that vanishes for low-frequency magnetic fields. Many reports over the last few decades have provided evidence that living tissue is robustly sensitive to ultrasmall (1-100 nT) ELF magnetic fields overlapping the γ-frequency range often associated with awareness. An example taken from animal behavior (coherent bird flocking) lends support to the possibility of a disembodied electromagnetic consciousness. In contrast to quantum consciousness hypotheses, the present approach is open to experimental trial.

  12. Falling Magnets and Electromagnetic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbreath, Christopher; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The slow fall of a rare earth magnet through a copper pipe is a striking example of electromagnetic braking; this remarkable phenomenon has been the subject of a number of scientific paper s [1, 2]. In a pipe having radius R and wall thickness D, the terminal velocity of the falling magnet is proportional to (R̂4)/D. It is interesting to ask what happens in the limit as D becomes very large. We report our experimental observations and theoretical predictions of the dependence of the terminal velocity on pipe radius R for large D. [1] Y. Levin, F.L. da Silveira, and F.B. Rizzato, ``Electromagnetic braking: A simple quantitative model''. American Journal of Physics, 74(9): p. 815-817 (2006). [2] J.A. Pelesko, M. Cesky, and S. Huertas, Lenz's law and dimensional analysis. American Journal of Physics, 3(1): p. 37-39. 2005.

  13. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved

  14. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Barney

    2012-01-01

      All necessary improvements to the online system and configuration to cope with the high-pile-up running conditions in 2012 have been commissioned successfully before the start of data-taking and during 2012 RunA. Hardware interventions included a rework of the preshower HV distribution system (increasing the number of working silicon sensor channels by 2%) and the deployment of two new lasers (blue and green) to improve the long-term stability of the monitoring system. The new lasers were deployed before the start of 2012 running and have been steadily producing monitoring constants since April, in parallel with the old laser, which is still used for the default monitoring corrections. Improvements to the DAQ include a firmware upgrade to recover on-the-fly from many types of suspected single-event upsets (SEUs). Configuration changes include new zero-suppression settings applied online and a new tuning for the algorithm to reduce the rate of anomalous signals firing the Level-1 trigger. Moreo...

  15. The KLOE fiber electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incagli, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The construction and equipment of the KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter has ended in March 1997. In parallel to the construction, all modules have been tested at the Cosmic Ray Test Stand (CRTS) facility, in Frascati National Laboratories (Rome). The construction technique, based on scintillating fibers alternated to very thin (0.5 mm) grooved lead planes, is described and the main results both from the CRTS and from a preliminary Test Beam with low energy electrons and muons are reported in this note

  16. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ramos P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  17. Next Generation CALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Denis; Jeans, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents mechanical R&D for the CALICE Silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. After the physics ECAL prototype, tested in 2006 (DESY-CERN), 2007 (CERN), 2008 (FNAL) and before the design of different 'modules 0' (barrel and endcap) for a final detector, a technological ECAL prototype, called the EUDET module, is under design in order to have a close to full scale technological solution which could be used for the final detector, taking into account future industrialisation o...

  18. Next Generation CALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Denis; Jeans, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents mechanical R&D for the CALICE Silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. After the physics ECAL prototype, tested in 2006 (DESY-CERN), 2007 (CERN), 2008 (FNAL) and before the design of different "modules 0" (barrel and endcap) for a final detector, a technological ECAL prototype, called the EUDET module, is under design in order to have a close to full scale technological solution which could be used for the final detector, taking into account future industrialisation o...

  19. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin

    2010-01-01

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  20. Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinfeld, Michael; Grinfeld, Pavel

    2017-06-01

    Basic principles of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) have been formulated in Grinfeld and Wright. To some extent, it is a natural extension of the traditional damage theory, presented by Kachanov. Contrary to Kachanov's approach, the PMD theory includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and generalized them by taking into account electromagnetic effects.

  1. Gravitational radiation from electromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the spectrum of gravitational radiation of a charge e with mass m, undergoing finite motion in an electromagnetic field, smoothly varying in the neighborhood of the orbit over a region of the order of the radius of curvature, differs in the ultrarelativistic limit from the spectrum of the charge's electromagnetic radiation. The difference consists of the frequency-independent coefficient 4πGm 2 Λ 2 /e 2 , where Λ is of the order of the Lorentz factor of the charge and depends on the direction of the wave vector and on the behavior of the field in the above-indicated region. For a plane-wave external field the gravitational and electromagnetic spectra are strictly proportional to each other for arbitrary velocities of the charge. Localization of the external forces near the orbit violates this proportionality of the spectra and weakens the gravitational radiation by an amount of the order of the square of the Lorentz factor

  2. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Philippe Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) Great progress has been achieved during the last few months on Barrel commissioning. All 36 supermodules have been run concurrently during the CRUZET in early May. The EB readout has reached the expected performance and is included regularly with central DAQ.  ECAL has been used as a source of triggers during cosmic runs. ECAL Endcaps (EE) Important milestones have been recently achieved: The Endcaps crystal production was completed in mid March. The gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals, the assembly of Supercrystals (a set of 25 crystals) and their mounting on the Dee backplates (including the connection of the laser monitoring fibers) were finished during May. The mechanical assembly of the four endcap Dees is therefore completed. The assembly of the services and electronics on the backside of the Dees’ back-plates is also proceeding at a fast speed. The laying of the high voltage cables, the inner moderator, the optical fibers for the LED stabilit...

  3. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  4. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C; Christ, A; Kuster, N

    2010-01-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR wb ) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR 10g ). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR wb ) and 58% (SAR 10g ) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR wb is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR 10g values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  5. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Hyperthermia, PO box 5201, NL-3008 AE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Christ, A; Kuster, N, E-mail: j.bakker@erasmusmc.n [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS) (Switzerland)

    2010-06-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR{sub wb}) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR{sub 10g}). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR{sub wb}) and 58% (SAR{sub 10g}) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR{sub wb} is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR{sub 10g} values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  6. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-01-31

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  7. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-10-17

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  8. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  9. From Engineering Electromagnetics to Electromagnetic Engineering: Using Computational Electromagnetics for Synthesis Problems

    OpenAIRE

    TIJHUIS, Anton G.; BEURDEN, Martijn C. van; HON, Bastiaan P. de

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a two-stage approach is proposed for using computational electromagnetics in antenna engineering. First, stochastic optimization techniques are used in combination with approximate models. Second, line-search techniques are combined with full-wave modeling. For the first stage, we show an illustrative example. The second stage is considered in detail; both the acceleration of the underlying field computations and the implementation of the optimization are discussed.

  10. Non-perturbative approach to high-index-contrast variations in electromagnetic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2006-01-01

    We present a method that formally calculates exact frequency shifts of an electromagnetic field for arbitrary changes in the refractive index. The possible refractive index changes include both anisotropic changes and boundary shifts. Degenerate eigenmode frequencies pose no problems...

  11. Ion optical system of a 255 deg double-focusing electromagnetic isotope separator at IAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Naifeng; Lu Hongyou; Cai Rentai

    1987-01-01

    The ion optical system of a 255 deg double-focusing electro-magnetic isotope separator at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE), Beijing, is described, including the analysis of ion beam focusing and the calculation of magnetic field shaping

  12. Escape to infinity under the action of a potential and a constant electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Gascon, F G

    2003-01-01

    Escape to infinity is proved for a great variety of potentials, including the potential created by an infinite number of sources. Relativistic escape is studied. Escape in the presence of a constant electromagnetic field and a potential is also considered.

  13. An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Cui Tiejun; Jiang Weixiang; Cai Bengeng

    2010-01-01

    In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 041106) an optical omnidirectional light absorber based on metamaterials was proposed, in which theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all optical waves hitting the absorber are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of an omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber in the microwave frequency. The proposed device is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99 per cent in the microwave frequency. The all-directional full absorption property makes the device behave like an 'electromagnetic black body', and the wave trapping and absorbing properties simulate, to some extent, an 'electromagnetic black hole.' We expect that such a device could be used as a thermal emitting source and to harvest electromagnetic waves.

  14. Electromagnetic force support for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Makoto; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Tachikawa, Nobuo; Omori, Junji.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention certainly supports electromagnetic force exerted on toroidal magnetic field coils. That is, a pair of support members are disposed being abutted against each other between toroidal magnetic field coils disposed radially in the torus direction of a vacuum vessel. Both of the support members are connected under an insulative state by way of an insulative structural portion having an insulation key. In addition, each of the support members and each of the toroidal magnetic field coils are connected by electromagnetic force support portions having a metal taper key and a metal spacer and supporting the electromagnetic force. With such a constitution, the electromagnetic force exerted on the toroidal magnetic field coils is supported by the electromagnetic force support portion having the metal taper key and the metal spacer. As a result, stable electromagnetic force support can be attained. Further, since the insulative structural portion has the insulation key, it can be assembled easily. (I.S.)

  15. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel The integration of the last Supermodule was completed early July. The insertion of the second half Barrel (EB+) was performed in the second half of July. The Barrel ECAL (36 Supermodules comprising 61200 channels) is now complete, and its cabling campaign has just started. Each Supermodule has been tested after insertion. The number of dead or partially-dead channels amounts to only 28 (0.05% of the total), a performance showing the excellence of the quality control during the whole construction process. The Barrel Off-detector electronics is installed in the CMS Service cavern (with the exception of a few Trigger modules), ready to be connected to the Supermodules after cabling. The ECAL DAQ has been integrated with the CMS DAQ system: at the end of August one supermodule was included in a CMS global run, allowing us to record cosmic muons in both ECAL and DTs. ECAL Endcaps The Endcaps crystal production is proceeding at full speed, and the delivery rate (summing both producers) exceeds ...

  16. Electromagnetic Interactions of Muons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment was the first in a programme of physics experiments with high-energy muons using a large spectrometer facility. The aim of this experiment is to study the inelastic scattering of muons with various targets to try to understand better the physics of virtual photon interactions over a wide range of four-momentum transfer (q$^{2}$).\\\\ \\\\ The spectrometer includes a large aperture dipole magnet (2m x 1m) of bending power $\\simeq$5 T.m and a magnetized iron filter to distinguish the scattered muons from hadrons. Drift chambers and MWPC are used before and after the magnet to detect charged products of the interaction and to allow a momentum determination of the scattered muon to an accuracy of $\\simeq$at 100 GeV/c, and an angular definition of $\\pm$ 0.1 mrad. The triggering on scattered muons relies on three planes of scintillation counter hodoscopes before and after the magnetized iron, whose magnetic field serves to eliminate triggers from low momentum muons which are produced copiously by pion d...

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Petyt

    2013-01-01

    In a break with tradition, the ECAL general meetings during the April CMS Week were devoted to a series of brainstorming sessions, focusing on a small number of hot-topic items. These included sessions on ECAL upgrades, analysis of 2012 detector performance and resolution, software development plans and a review of the ECAL calibration sequence. These sessions were well attended and extremely productive, and have helped to define and guide the direction of the ECAL effort planned for LS1. The area of ECAL upgrades has been particularly active over the past several months. A note summarising the test-beam performance of crystal matrices, irradiated with proton fluences representative of the end of Phase 1 LHC running, has been prepared and is being reviewed by ECAL. This important note provides data to tune and validate the simulation of ECAL ageing that has been implemented in CMSSW. This simulation is being used by the ECAL group and others to evaluate the physics performance of the ECAL at the end of Pha...

  18. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) The cabling of the ECAL Barrel services on YB0 was completed early December 2007. The team has now commissioned the complete Barrel. To run all the supermodules in parallel, it is necessary to remove the heat from the service cables on YB0. The corresponding thermal screens are being installed and, for the time being, a max¬imum of 25 supermodules has been run concurrently. EB is read out regularly with a local DAQ as well as with the central DAQ and trigger. The calorimeter trigger has also been commissioned, allowing us to trigger on cosmic muons. ECAL Endcaps (EE) The Endcaps crystal production will be completed before the end of March 2008, as planned. The gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals and the assembly of Supercrystals (sets of 25 crystals) are proceeding at the pace of 16 Supercrystals (400 channels) per week. Two thirds of the Supercrystals needed for the complete EE have been produced. Their mounting on the Dee backplates (including the connectio...

  19. Low frequency electromagnetic fields and health problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.; Cosic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Electromagnetic fields developed around the electric circuits are considered as magnetic pollution and these fields are produced wherever electric appliances or machinery are used at home as well as at workplace. Electric fields and magnetic fields around the home are produced by anything with electric current flowing through it including: the street power lines, the home wiring system, electric ovens, refrigerators, washing machines, electric clothes dryers, vacuum cleaners, television sets, video cassette recorders, toasters, light bulbs, clock radios, electric blankets, mobile phones, etc. In the workplace they would be produced by: nearby power lines, factory machinery, computers/video display units, lights, photocopiers, electrical cabling etc. As one can see, human life is strongly dependent on using-electric appliance. A large number of studies have been undertaken to find out the correlation between electromagnetic fields and health problems. The following significant results have been reported [Lerner E.J., IEEE Spectrum, 57-67, May 1984]: (a) Induction of chromosomal defects in mice spermatogenetic cells following microwave radiation in the Ghz range; (b) Changes in the calcium balance of living cats' brains exposed to microwaves modulated at extremely low frequencies; (c) Alternation of nerve and bone cells exposed to extremely low frequency fields; (d) Decreased activity of the immune cells of mice exposed to modulated microwaves; (e) Apparent increase in deformed foetuses among miniature swine exposed to intense power-line frequency fields. The mostly investigated effect is the effect of electromagnetic irradiation in particular one produced by power lines, and cancer. More than 100 epidemiological studies have been reported but no conclusive result was achieved. A number of studies with laboratory animals were also inconclusive. However, some of these experiments have shown improvements in immune system and tumour suppression when

  20. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  1. The finite element method in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A new edition of the leading textbook on the finite element method, incorporating major advancements and further applications in the field of electromagnetics The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful simulation technique used to solve boundary-value problems in a variety of engineering circumstances. It has been widely used for analysis of electromagnetic fields in antennas, radar scattering, RF and microwave engineering, high-speed/high-frequency circuits, wireless communication, electromagnetic compatibility, photonics, remote sensing, biomedical engineering, and space exploration. The

  2. Interacting electromagnetic waves in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    The problem is considered of finding exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which describe the physical situation of two colliding and subsequently interacting electromagnetic waves. The general theory of relativity predicts a nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic waves. The situation is described using an approximate geometrical method, and a new exact solution describing two interacting electromagnetic waves is given. This describes waves emitted from two sources mutually focusing each other on the opposite source. (author)

  3. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Usman; W. F.W. Ahmad; M. Z.A.A. Kadir; M. Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when th...

  4. Homology in Electromagnetic Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Pellikka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how homology computation can be exploited in computational electromagnetism. We represent various cellular mesh reduction techniques, which enable the computation of generators of homology spaces in an acceptable time. Furthermore, we show how the generators can be used for setting up and analysis of an electromagnetic boundary value problem. The aim is to provide a rationale for homology computation in electromagnetic modeling software.

  5. Integration of basic electromagnetism and engineering technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1995-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetism is taught as a part of most contemporary electrical engineering curricula. Usually a basic course is intended to cover all the fundamental electromagnetic theory which is needed in later engineering courses. However it is often found that students fail to understand and retain much of the course material, which in turn makes their subsequent studies more difficult. We describe a freshman course in electromagnetism which alleviates these problems. Our hypothesis ...

  6. The multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) for solving large-scale computational electromagnetics problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ergul, Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    The Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA) for Solving Large-Scale Computational Electromagnetic Problems provides a detailed and instructional overview of implementing MLFMA. The book: Presents a comprehensive treatment of the MLFMA algorithm, including basic linear algebra concepts, recent developments on the parallel computation, and a number of application examplesCovers solutions of electromagnetic problems involving dielectric objects and perfectly-conducting objectsDiscusses applications including scattering from airborne targets, scattering from red

  7. Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)

  8. Calculation principles for a synchronous electromagnetic clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenkov, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed explanation of the calculation principles, for a synchronous salient-pole electromagnetic clutch with lumped excitation windings is supplied by direct current. Practical recommendations are given.

  9. Friction & Wear Under Very High Electromagnetic Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowan, Richard S; Danyluk, Steven; Moon, Francis; Ford, J. C; Brenner, Donald W

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes initial progress toward advancing the fundamental understanding of the friction, wear and mechanics of interfaces subjected to extreme electromagnetic stress, high relative...

  10. Phase-space representation of electromagnetic radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The phase-space representation of electromagnetic radiometry is founded on the electromagnetic generalized radiance tensors, which allow overcoming the limitations due to the scalar electromagnetic generalized radiances. The fundamental quantities of both scalar generalized radiometry and classical radiometry or photometry become particular cases. The transport of measurable radiometric quantities by the electromagnetic field is described in terms of the propagation of the contributions from individual radiators and their redistribution over each wavefront on propagation. A physical meaning is given to the negative values of the generalized radiance, which gives new insights into Poynting's theory of energy transport.

  11. Isogeometric analysis and shape optimization in electromagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Dang Manh

    In this thesis a recently proposed numerical method for solving partial differential equations, isogeometric analysis (IGA), is utilized for the purpose of shape optimization, with a particular emphasis on applications to two-dimensional design problems arising in electromagnetic applications...... parametrization are combined into an iterative algorithm for shape optimization of two dimensional electromagnetic problems. The algorithm may also be relevant for problems in other engineering disciplines. Using the methods developed in this thesis, remarkably we have obtained antennas that perform one million...... times better than an earlier topology optimization result. This shows a great potential of shape optimization using IGA in the area of electromagnetic antenna design in particular, and for electromagnetic...

  12. Integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Solin, Pavel; Karban, Pavel; Ulrych, Bohus

    2009-01-01

    A modern presentation of integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics This book provides state-of-the-art knowledge on integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics. Blending theory with numerous examples, it introduces key aspects of the integral methods used in engineering as a powerful alternative to PDE-based models. Readers will get complete coverage of: The electromagnetic field and its basic characteristics An overview of solution methods Solutions of electromagnetic fields by integral expressions Integral and integrodifferential methods

  13. Electromagnetic Radiation Interface System and Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinbrecher, Donald H

    2005-01-01

    .... The termination section may comprise an electrical resistance for capturing substantially all the electromagnetic wave energy received by each respective bristle to thereby prevent reflections...

  14. Parallel QR Decomposition for Electromagnetic Scattering Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boleng, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    This report introduces a new parallel QR decomposition algorithm. Test results are presented for several problem sizes, numbers of processors, and data from the electromagnetic scattering problem domain...

  15. Electromagnetic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Holm, D.D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1985-03-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation, in terms of noncanonical Poisson bracket, is presented for a nonlinear fluid system that includes reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation as limiting cases. The single-helicity and axisymmetric versions possess three nonlinear Casimir invariants, from which a generalized potential can be constructed. Variation of the generalized potential yields a description of exact nonlinear stationary states. The new equilibria, allowing for plasma flow as well as partial electron adiabaticity, are distinct from those found in conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. They differ from electrostatic stationary states in containing plasma current and magnetic field excitation. One class of steady-state solutions is shown to provide a simple electromagnetic generalization of drift-solitary waves

  16. Minimizing electromagnetic interference from surgical instruments on electromagnetic surgical navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Faustin; Conditt, Michael A; Kulkarni, Nikhil; Ismaily, Sabir K; Noble, Philip C; Lionberger, David R

    2010-08-01

    Electromagnetic computer-assisted surgery (EM-CAS) can be affected by various metallic or ferromagnetic factors. We determined to what extent metals interfere with accuracy and identified measures to prevent interference from occurring. Using an EM-CAS system, we made six standard measurements of tibiofemoral position and alignment on a surrogate knee. A stainless steel mallet was positioned 10 cm from the stylus, and then 10 cm from the localizer to create errors attributable to electromagnetic interference. The experiment was repeated with bars of different metals placed 10 cm from the stylus. The maximum errors recorded with a mallet were: varus/valgus alignment, -2.7 degrees and 2.4 degrees; flexion/extension, -5.8 degrees and 3.0 degrees; lateral resection level, -3.1 and 7.5 mm; and medial resection level, -4.0 and 2.3 mm, respectively. The smallest errors were recorded with cylinders of titanium, cobalt-chrome alloy, and stainless steels. When moved more than 10 cm away from the stylus, errors became negligible. The accuracy of EM navigation systems is affected substantially by the size, type, proximity, and shape of metal objects. Stainless steel objects, such as cutting blocks and trial prostheses, should be kept more than 10 cm from EM-CAS instruments to minimize error.

  17. Development of High Temperature Electromagnet Coils for Electromagnetic Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Nyung; Kim, Su Hyeon; Byun, Jung Soo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The electromagnet coils for generating high magnetic fields in the electromagnetic pump are required to have high electrical conductivity and strength at 600 deg C. Alumina dispersion strengthened coppers may be appropriate coil materials because they have the high conductivity and strength at room temperature and retain the high strength even at high temperature near the melting point. The heat treatment condition of successful internal oxidation is obtained and formed alumina dispersion was observed. The possible methods of internal oxidation and sheet bonding was evaluated and surface oxidation and hot roll bonding were considered to be most appropriate methods. The sheet fabricated by internal oxidation, hot roll bonding of internally oxidized sheets and subsequent cold rolling had tensile strengths of 484-522MPa, electrical conductivities of 80-89%IACS. The sheet had the thermal stability of mechanical properties after annealing at 600 deg C for 1 hour. In order to obtain 500MPa tensile strength and 85%IACS electrical conductivity, about 100 internally oxidized sheets, the A1 content of which is in the range of 0.15-0.25wt%, the initial thickness of which is less than 80{mu}m, should be hot roll bonded, followed by cold rolling to 200{mu}m in thickness. Insulants for the coils have been reviewed and mica is considered to be the appropriate material because of its high temperature stability. 22 refs., 21 tabs., 35 figs. (author)

  18. Electromagnetic methods for mapping freshwater lenses on Micronesian atoll islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    The overall shape of freshwater lenses can be determined by applying electromagnetic methods and inverse layered-earth modeling to the mapping of atoll island freshwater lenses. Conductivity profiles were run across the width of the inhabited islands at Mwoakilloa, Pingelap, and Sapwuahfik atolls of the Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia using a dual-loop, frequency-domain, electromagnetic profiling system. Six values of apparent conductivity were recorded at each sounding station and were used to interpret layer conductivities and/or thicknesses. A three-layer model that includes the unsaturated, freshwater, and saltwater zones was used to simulate apparent-conductivity data measured in the field. Interpreted results were compared with chloride-concentration data from monitoring wells and indicate that the interface between freshwater and saltwater layers, defined from electromagnetic data, is located in the upper part of the transition zone, where the chloride-concentration profile shows a rapid increase with depth. The electromagnetic method can be used to interpret the thickness of the freshwater between monitoring wells, but can not be used to interpret the thickness of freshwater from monitoring wells to the margin of an island. ?? 1992.

  19. Novel methodology to characterize electromagnetic exposure of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo-Valero, Pedro [Schmid and Partner Engineering AG, Zeughausstr. 43, 8004, Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria; Nikita, Konstantina S [Biomedical Simulations and Imaging Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 157 80 Athens (Greece); Zefferer, Marcel; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Achermann, Peter, E-mail: crespo@speag.com [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-21

    Due to the greatly non-uniform field distribution induced in brain tissues by radio frequency electromagnetic sources, the exposure of anatomical and functional regions of the brain may be a key issue in interpreting laboratory findings and epidemiological studies concerning endpoints related to the central nervous system. This paper introduces the Talairach atlas in characterization of the electromagnetic exposure of the brain. A hierarchical labeling scheme is mapped onto high-resolution human models. This procedure is fully automatic and allows identification of over a thousand different sites all over the brain. The electromagnetic absorption can then be extracted and interpreted in every region or combination of regions in the brain, depending on the characterization goals. The application examples show how this methodology enhances the dosimetry assessment of the brain based on results obtained by either finite difference time domain simulations or measurements delivered by test compliance dosimetry systems. Applications include, among others, the detailed dosimetric analysis of the exposure of the brain during cell phone use, improved design of exposure setups for human studies or medical diagnostic and therapeutic devices using electromagnetic fields or ultrasound.

  20. Novel methodology to characterize electromagnetic exposure of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo-Valero, Pedro; Christopoulou, Maria; Nikita, Konstantina S; Zefferer, Marcel; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels; Achermann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Due to the greatly non-uniform field distribution induced in brain tissues by radio frequency electromagnetic sources, the exposure of anatomical and functional regions of the brain may be a key issue in interpreting laboratory findings and epidemiological studies concerning endpoints related to the central nervous system. This paper introduces the Talairach atlas in characterization of the electromagnetic exposure of the brain. A hierarchical labeling scheme is mapped onto high-resolution human models. This procedure is fully automatic and allows identification of over a thousand different sites all over the brain. The electromagnetic absorption can then be extracted and interpreted in every region or combination of regions in the brain, depending on the characterization goals. The application examples show how this methodology enhances the dosimetry assessment of the brain based on results obtained by either finite difference time domain simulations or measurements delivered by test compliance dosimetry systems. Applications include, among others, the detailed dosimetric analysis of the exposure of the brain during cell phone use, improved design of exposure setups for human studies or medical diagnostic and therapeutic devices using electromagnetic fields or ultrasound.

  1. Electromagnetic fields, environment and health

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A good number of false ideas are circulating on the effects of non-ionizing radiations on our health, which can lead to an oversimplification of the issue, to potentially dangerous misconceptions or to misleading data analysis. Health effects may be exaggerated, or on the contrary underplayed. The authors of this work (doctors, engineers and researchers) have endeavored to supply validated and easily understandable scientific information on the electromagnetic fields and their biological and health effects. After a general review of the physics of the waves and a presentation of non-ionizing r

  2. The CLAS forward electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Amarian, M; Beard, K; Brooks, W; Burkert, V; Carstens, T; Coleman, A; Demirchyan, R; Efremenko, Yu V; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K; Funsten, H; Gavrilov, V; Giovanetti, K; Marshall, R M; Mecking, B; Minehart, R C; Mkrtchan, H; Ohandjanyan, M; Sharabyan, Yu G; Smith, L C; Stepanyan, S; Stephens, W A; Tung, T Y; Zorn, C

    2001-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8 deg. < 45 deg.) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi deg. and eta decays and detect neutrons. This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  3. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, John

    1975-01-01

    Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation covers the theory and experimental application of plasma scattering. The book discusses the basic properties of a plasma and of the interaction of radiation with a plasma; the relationship between the scattered power spectrum and the fluctuations in plasma density; and the incoherent scattering of low-temperature plasma. The text also describes the constraints and problems that arise in the application of scattering as a diagnostic technique; the characteristic performance of various dispersion elements, image dissectors, and detectors; and the ge

  4. Electromagnetic responses of relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, C. A. A.; Reis, D. M.

    2018-02-01

    We compute the real and imaginary parts of the electric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities of relativistic electrons from quantum electrodynamics at finite temperatures and densities, for weak fields, neglecting electron-electron interactions. For non-zero temperatures, electromagnetic responses are reduced to one-dimensional integrals computed numerically. For zero temperature, we find analytic expressions for both their real/dispersive and imaginary/absorptive parts. As an application of our results, we obtain the dispersion relation for longitudinal electric plasmons. Present calculations support our recent claim that, at low frequencies and long wavelengths, the system will exhibit simultaneously negative electric and magnetic responses.

  5. Electromagnetic fields in fractal continua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo “Mecánica Fractal”, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 Mexico (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. (Mexico); Patiño, Julián [Grupo “Mecánica Fractal”, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 Mexico (Mexico); Morales, Daniel [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, México D.F., 07730 Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-04-01

    Fractal continuum electrodynamics is developed on the basis of a model of three-dimensional continuum Φ{sub D}{sup 3}⊂E{sup 3} with a fractal metric. The generalized forms of Maxwell equations are derived employing the local fractional vector calculus related to the Hausdorff derivative. The difference between the fractal continuum electrodynamics based on the fractal metric of continua with Euclidean topology and the electrodynamics in fractional space F{sup α} accounting the fractal topology of continuum with the Euclidean metric is outlined. Some electromagnetic phenomena in fractal media associated with their fractal time and space metrics are discussed.

  6. From ER to E.T. how electromagnetic technologies are changing our lives

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    From ER to ET: How Electromagnetic Technologies Are Changing Our Lives explores electromagnetic wave theory including its founders, scientific underpinnings, ethical issues, and applications through history. Utilizing a format of short essays, this book explains in a balanced, and direct style how electromagnetic technologies are changing the world we live in and the future they may create for us. Quizzes at the end of each chapter provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the material. This book is a valuable resource for microwave engineers of varying levels of experience, and for instructors to motivate their students and add depth to their assignments.

  7. Operator of pair electron-ion collisions in alternating electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Collisions of electrons with ions in the presence of an alternating electromagnetic field are considered. Based on the first principles (the Liouville equations for N particles), a general expression for the collisional operator in the approximation of pair collisions at an arbitrary scattering potential, including that depending periodically on time, is derived. The problem of collisions in plasma in the presence of an electromagnetic field can be reduced to this case by introducing drift coordinates. It is shown that the method of test particles can be applied to the problem of particle collisions in an alternating electromagnetic field.

  8. Electromagnets 1: Turn on the Power. Science in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Betsy Blizard

    1992-01-01

    The article presents inexpensive activities to teach elementary school students about electromagnets. Students learn to make an electromagnet with a battery, nail, and wire, then different activities help them explore the difference between permanent magnets and electromagnets. (SM)

  9. At the heart of the waves - Electromagnetic fields in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndagijimana, Fabien; Gaudaire, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This document briefly presents a book in which the author describes what an electromagnetic wave is, the use of electromagnetic waves, how an information is transmitted by means of an electromagnetic wave, what wave modulation is, what multiplexing is, what the characteristics of an antenna are, how waves propagate, how electromagnetic shielding works, what the CEM (electromagnetic compatibility) is, and how a cellular phone network works, in the framework of electromagnetic fields risk assessment

  10. Flipping the Electromagnetic Theory classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J.

    2017-08-01

    Electromagnetic Theory is a required junior-year course for Optics majors at the University of Rochester. This foundational course gives students their first rigorous exposure to electromagnetic vector fields, dipole radiation patterns, Fresnel reflection/transmission coefficients, waveguided modes, Jones vectors, waveplates, birefringence, and the Lorentz model of refractive index. To increase the percentage of class time devoted to student-centered conceptual reasoning and instructor feedback, this course was recently "flipped". Nearly all of the mathematically-intensive derivations were converted to narrated screencasts ("Khan Academy" style) and made available to students through the course's learning management system. On average, the students were assigned two 10-15 minute videos to watch in advance of each lecture. An electronic survey after each tutorial encouraged reflection and counted towards the student's participation grade. Over the past three years, students have consistently rated the videos as being highly valuable. This presentation will discuss the technical aspects of creating tutorial videos and the educational tradeoffs of flipping a mathematically-intensive upper-level course. The most important advantage is the instructor's increased ability to identify and respond to student confusion, via activities that would consume too much time in a lecture-centered course. Several examples of such activities will be given. Two pitfalls to avoid are the temptation for the instructor not to update the videos from year to year and the tendency of students not to take lecture notes while watching the videos.

  11. Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

    2011-01-01

    When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

  12. Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations

  13. Electromagnetic probes of the QGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratkovskaya E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the properties of the QCD matter across the deconfinement phase transition in the scope of the parton-hadron string dynamics (PHSD transport approach. We present here in particular the results on the electromagnetic radiation, i.e. photon and dilepton production, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. By comparing our calculations for the heavy-ion collisions to the available data, we determine the relative importance of the various production sources and address the possible origin of the observed strong elliptic flow v2 of direct photons. We argue that the different centrality dependence of the hadronic and partonic sources for direct photon production in nucleusnucleus collisions can be employed to shed some more light on the origin of the photon v2 “puzzle”. While the dilepton spectra at low invariant mass show in-medium effects like an enhancement from multiple baryonic resonance formation or a collisional broadening of the vector meson spectral functions, the dilepton yield at high invariant masses (above 1.1 GeV is dominated by QGP contributions for central heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. This allows to have an independent view on the parton dynamics via their electromagnetic massive radiation.

  14. Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    83

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) can induce or modulate several neurobehavioral disorders. .... Oxidative stress and accumulation of Aβ1–40 are implicated in the pathogenesis of AD (Chen et al.2010; Fu et. 1 ...... MHz electromagnetic fields have different effects on visual evoked potentials and oxidant/antioxidant status. 9.

  15. Electromagnetic Energy Localization and Characterization of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Drewniak, and B. Archam- beault, “Numerical modeling of periodic composite media for electromagnetic shield - ing application,” 2007 IEEE Int. Symp. on...Electromagnetic Compatibility ( EMC 2007), July 9–13, 2007, pp. 1–5. [40] M. Luo, C. Liu, and H. P. Pan, “Numerical simulation on dielectric enhancement of

  16. Electromagnetic Energy Radiated from Mobile Phone Alters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [5,6] Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles, has ... Background: Electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phones did not show significant effect on the blood pressure, heart rate, ..... Case definitions for acute coronary heart disease in epidemiology and clinical research ...

  17. Electromagnetic Radiation Originating from Unstable Electron Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function.......Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function....

  18. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1957-08-20

    An electromagnetic device for moving an object in a linear path by increments is described. The device is specifically adapted for moving a neutron absorbing control rod into and out of the core of a reactor and consists essentially of an extension member made of magnetic material connected to one end of the control rod and mechanically flexible to grip the walls of a sleeve member when flexed, a magnetic sleeve member coaxial with and slidable between limit stops along the flexible extension, electromagnetic coils substantially centrally located with respect to the flexible extension to flex the extension member into gripping engagement with the sleeve member when ener gized, moving electromagnets at each end of the sleeve to attract the sleeve when energized, and a second gripping electromagnet positioned along the flexible extension at a distance from the previously mentioned electromagnets for gripping the extension member when energized. In use, the second gripping electromagnet is deenergized, the first gripping electromagnet is energized to fix the extension member in the sleeve, and one of the moving electromagnets is energized to attract the sleeve member toward it, thereby moving the control rod.

  19. International Conference on Microelectronics, Electromagnetics and Telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N; Kumar, S; Raj, C; Rao, V; Sarma, G

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains 73 papers presented at ICMEET 2015: International Conference on Microelectronics, Electromagnetics and Telecommunications. The conference was held during 18 – 19 December, 2015 at Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, GITAM Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, INDIA. This volume contains papers mainly focused on Antennas, Electromagnetics, Telecommunication Engineering and Low Power VLSI Design.

  20. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs

  1. Electromagnetic Concepts in Mathematical Representation of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Virginie; Venturini, Patrice; Lascours, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the use of mathematics when studying the physics of electromagnetism. Focuses on common electromagnetic concepts and their associated mathematical representation and arithmetical tools. Concludes that most students do not understand the significant aspects of physical situations and have difficulty using relationships and models specific…

  2. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  3. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  4. Electromagnetic processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Rio de Janeiro Univ.

    1987-05-01

    A study of the processes generated by the electromagnetic interaction in relativistic nuclear, and atomic collisions is presented. Very strong electromagnetic fields for a very short time are present in distant collisions with no nuclear contact. Such fields can also lead to interesting effects, which are discussed here. (orig.)

  5. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments.

  6. Statistical measurements of fast changing electromagnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Ramiro; Serra, Ramiro; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The present works aims at describing important statistical indexes such as the field uniformity, the field inhomogeneity and the statistics near the cavity walls for a special case of fast changing random electromagnetic fields. We generate this kind of electromagnetic environment by means of a

  7. Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields in Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakazu, Kiyotaka; Oshiro, Kazunori

    1996-01-01

    A quantization procedure for the electromagnetic field in a rectangular cavity with perfect conductor walls is presented, where a decomposition formula of the field plays an essential role. All vector mode functions are obtained by using the decomposition. After expanding the field in terms of the vector mode functions, we get the quantized electromagnetic Hamiltonian.

  8. Combine material against electromagnetic pulse disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan

    2004-01-01

    A novel combined material is introduced, which is hard against electromagnetic pulse disturbance, The attenuation characteristics and the penetration probability of the combine material is discussed in detail. The penetration probability of electromagnetic wave is calculated approximately and the characteristic curve is measured for this material. (authors)

  9. Electromagnetic and thermal analysis of electromagnet for SMART control element drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, H.; Kim, J. H.; Park, J. S.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. I.

    1999-01-01

    A numerical electromagnetic and thermal analysis was performed for the electromagnet which is installed in the control element drive mechanism(CEDM) of the integral reactor SMART. A model for the electromagnetic analysis of the electromagnet was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to thrust force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analyzing the trend of the magnetic saturation with finite element method. Also It is important that the temperature of the electomagnet windings be maintained within the allowable limit of the insulation, since the electromagnet of CEDM is always supplied with current during the reactor operation. So the thermal analysis of the winding insulation which is composed of polyimide and air were performed by finite element method. The electromagnetic and thermal properties obtained here will be used as input for the optimization analysis of the electromagnet

  10. On the phenomenon of electromagnetic hypersensitivity; Das Phaenomen der Elektrosensibilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, E.; Reissenweber, J.; Wojtysiak, A.; Pfotenhauer, M. [Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Normale und Pathologische Physiologie; Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Zentrum fuer Elektropathologie

    2002-07-01

    For more than fifteen years electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are intensively discussed in connection with health hazards in mass media as well as questions of standard setting by the authorities. The present elaboration gives an extended overview over the actual situation of the special electromagnetic hypersensitivity issue in relation to electromagnetic field research in the international scientific community. There are parallels and analogies between the symptoms of electromagnetic hypersensitivity and those of the Multiple-Chemical-Sensitivity-Syndrome and other environmental diseases. The first part deals with the biophysical fundamental knowledge of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems such as man or animal including threshold values and threshold philosophy. Then hypothetical mechanisms of action of EMF are demonstrated, with a special focus on the melatonin hypothesis, which has not been proved in all its parts up to now. Additionally, in the context of our biomedical research into disorders of well-being we conducted an analysis of written and telephone questions about the EMF issue which are sent to our center. The results are of scientific and political interest and are demonstrated in detail. (orig.) [German] Das Phaenomen der Elektrosensibilitaet gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung innerhalb der Diskussion um die medizinisch-biologischen Wirkungen elektromagnetischer Felder. Es konnte bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden, dass die Elektrosensibilitaet/Magnetosensibilitaet als eigenstaendige Krankheitseinheit (Krankheitsentitaet) existiert. Es handelt sich dabei um ein Phaenomen, das vor etwa 15 Jahren benannt und zunaechst nicht ernst genommen wurde. Im Rahmen des relativ jungen medizinisch-biologischen Fachgebietes Elektropathologie scheinen weitere Untersuchungen erforderlich, um die teilweise auch widerspruechlichen Befunde aufzuklaeren und zu erfahren, ob Felder Befindlichkeitsstoerungen ausloesen koennen, die in aehnlicher Form

  11. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the Polish Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiech, Jaromir; Kieliszek, Jarosław; Puta, Robert; Bartczak, Dagmara; Stankiewicz, Wanda

    2017-06-19

    Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazard include: radars, missile systems, radio navigation systems and radio transceivers. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the exposure of military personnel to electromagnetic fields. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems). Measurements were carried out at indicators, device terminals, radio panels, above vehicle seats, in vehicle hatches, by cabinets containing high power vacuum tubes and other transmitter components, by transmission lines, connectors, etc. Portable radios emit the electric field strength between 20-80 V/m close to a human head. The manpack radio operator's exposure is 60-120 V/m. Inside vehicles with high frequency/very high frequency (HF/VHF) band radios, the electric field strength is between 7-30 V/m and inside the radar cabin it ranges between 9-20 V/m. Most of the personnel on ships are not exposed to the electromagnetic field from their own radar systems but rather by accidental exposure from the radar systems of other ships. Operators of surface-to-air missile systems are exposed to the electric field strength between 7-15 V/m and the personnel of non-directional radio beacons - 100-150 V/m. In 57% of military devices Polish soldiers work in the occupational protection zones. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22% - only in the intermediate zone. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to electromagnetic field. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):565-577. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the Polish Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kieliszek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazard include: radars, missile systems, radio navigation systems and radio transceivers. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the exposure of military personnel to electromagnetic fields. Material and Methods: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems. Measurements were carried out at indicators, device terminals, radio panels, above vehicle seats, in vehicle hatches, by cabinets containing high power vacuum tubes and other transmitter components, by transmission lines, connectors, etc. Results: Portable radios emit the electric field strength between 20–80 V/m close to a human head. The manpack radio operator’s exposure is 60–120 V/m. Inside vehicles with high frequency/very high frequency (HF/VHF band radios, the electric field strength is between 7–30 V/m and inside the radar cabin it ranges between 9–20 V/m. Most of the personnel on ships are not exposed to the electromagnetic field from their own radar systems but rather by accidental exposure from the radar systems of other ships. Operators of surface-to-air missile systems are exposed to the electric field strength between 7–15 V/m and the personnel of non-directional radio beacons – 100–150 V/m. Conclusions: In 57% of military devices Polish soldiers work in the occupational protection zones. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22% – only in the intermediate zone. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to electromagnetic field. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4:565–577

  13. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  14. The Influence of Electromagnetic Pollution on Living Organisms: Historical Trends and Forecasting Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Redlarski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

  15. The influence of electromagnetic pollution on living organisms: historical trends and forecasting changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Żak, Arkadiusz; Koncicki, Andrzej; Krawczuk, Marek; Piechocki, Janusz; Jakubiuk, Kazimierz; Tojza, Piotr; Jaworski, Jacek; Ambroziak, Dominik; Skarbek, Łukasz; Gradolewski, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

  16. The Influence of Electromagnetic Pollution on Living Organisms: Historical Trends and Forecasting Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, Arkadiusz; Koncicki, Andrzej; Piechocki, Janusz; Jakubiuk, Kazimierz; Tojza, Piotr; Jaworski, Jacek; Ambroziak, Dominik; Skarbek, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. PMID:25811025

  17. Effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves on the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Abdulkadir; Tümkaya, Levent; Terzi, Suat; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Erdivanlı, Özlem Çelebi; Dursun, Engin

    2015-08-01

    The results support that chronic electromagnetic field exposure may cause damage by leading to neuronal degeneration of the auditory system. Numerous researches have been done about the risks of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that occur during the use of these devices, especially the effects on hearing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the mobile phones through the electrophysiological and histological methods. Twelve adult Wistar albino rats were included in the study. The rats were divided into two groups of six rats. The study group was exposed to the electromagnetic waves over a period of 30 days. The control group was not given any exposure to the electromagnetic fields. After the completion of the electromagnetic wave application, the auditory brainstem responses of both groups were recorded under anesthesia. The degeneration of cochlear nuclei was graded by two different histologists, both of whom were blinded to group information. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis showed neuronal degeneration signs, such as increased vacuolization in the cochlear nucleus, pyknotic cell appearance, and edema in the group exposed to the electromagnetic fields compared to the control group. The average latency of wave in the ABR was similar in both groups (p > 0.05).

  18. 7th conference on ultra-wideband, short-pulse electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Schenk, Uwe; Nitsch, Daniel; Sabath, Frank; Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 7; UWBSP7

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 7 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP7 Conference, including wide-ranging contributions on electromagnetic theory, scattering, UWB antennas, UWB systems, ground penetrating radar (GPR), UWB communications, pulsed-power generation, time-domain computational electromagnetics, UWB compatibility, target detection and discrimination, propagation through dispersive media, and wavelet and multi-res...

  19. Including virtual photons in strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusetsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the perturbative field-theoretical models we investigate the inclusion of the electromagnetic interactions into the purely strong theory that describes hadronic processes. In particular, we study the convention for splitting electromagnetic and strong interactions and the ambiguity of such a splitting. The issue of the interpretation of the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory in the presence of electromagnetic interactions is addressed, as well as the scale and gauge dependence of the effective theory couplings. We hope, that the results of these studies are relevant for the electromagnetic sector of ChPT. (orig.)

  20. Electromagnetic safety analysis during major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunming; Wang Yafei; Chen Zhi; Feng Kaiming

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic safety analysis during major disruption is important for safety analysis of the CH HCSB TBM. In this paper, using finite element method, the electromagnetic safety analysis of the CH HCSB TBM is carried out in consideration of major disruption. First, the finite element models of the CH HCSB TBM and its sub-module are established; second, the distributions of the induced eddy currents and electromagnetic forces on the whole CH HCSB TBM module and its sub-module are calculated; third, the torquemoment on whole CH HCSB TBM module and its sub-module are calculated from the distributions of the electromagnetic forces. Comparing the maximum allowable values of the parameters of the materials with the calculated data, the electromagnetic safety of the CH HCSB TBM is investigated. (authors)

  1. Limits on new forces coexisting with electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloor, H.; Fischbach, E.; Talmadge, C.; Greene, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the limits arising from different electromagnetic systems on the existence of a possible new electromagnetic analogue of the fifth force. Although such a force may have no intrinsic connection to electromagnetism (or gravity), its effects could be manifested through various anomalies in electromagnetic systems, for appropriate values of the coupling strength and range. Our work generalizes that of Bartlett and Loegl (who considered the case of a massive vector field coexisting with massless electrodynamics) to encompass a broad class of phenomenological interactions mediated by both scalar and vector exchanges. By combining data from both gravitational and electromagnetic systems, one can eventually set limits on a new force whose range λ extends from the subatomic scale (λ∼10 -15 m) to the astrophysical scale (λ∼10 12 m)

  2. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenberg, David M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Casada, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  3. Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Wiak, Sławomir

    2003-01-01

    From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...

  4. Development of Spectrometer Software for Electromagnetic Radiation Measurement and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Noor Ezati Shuib; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This software was under development using LabVIEW to be using with StellarNet Spectrometer system. StellarNet Spectrometer was supplied with SpectraWiz operating software that can measure spectral data for real-time spectroscopy. This LabVIEW software was used to access real-time data from SpectraWiz dynamic link library as hardware interfacing. This software will acquire amplitude of every electromagnetic wavelength at periodic time. In addition to hardware interfacing, the user interface capabilities of software include plotting of spectral data in various mode including scope, absorbance, transmission and irradiance mode. This software surely can be used for research and development in application, utilization and safety of electromagnetic radiation, especially solar, laser and ultra violet. Of-line capabilities of this software are almost unlimited due to availability of mathematical and signal processing function in the LabVIEW add on library. (author)

  5. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  6. Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Pinhero, Patrick J [Columbia, MO

    2011-12-06

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  7. Theory and approach of information retrievals from electromagnetic scattering and remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Ya-Qiu

    2006-01-01

    Covers several hot topics in current research of electromagnetic scattering, and radiative transfer in complex and random media, polarimetric scattering and SAR imagery technology, data validation and information retrieval from space-borne remote sensing, computational electromagnetics, etc.Including both forward modelling and inverse problems, analytic theory and numerical approachesAn overall summary of the author's works during most recent yearsAlso presents some insight for future research topics.

  8. Influence of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields on the Circadian System: Current Stage of Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Redlarski, Grzegorz; Żak, Arkadiusz; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Krawczuk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest ...

  9. Nuclear β decay with a massive neutrino in an external electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternov, I.M.; Rodionov, V.N.; Zhulego, V.G.; Lobanov, A.E.; Pavlova, O.S.; Dorofeev, O.F.

    1986-01-01

    Beta decay in the presence of an external electromagnetic field is investigated, taking into account the non-zero neutrino rest mass. The spectrum of electrons and polarisation effects of different orientations of nuclear spin are considered. It is shown that the electromagnetic wave substantially modifies the boundaries of the spectrum of β electrons. The results, which include an analysis of the total decay probability in intense magnetic fields, may have various astrophysical implications. (author)

  10. Comments on electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.G.; Wali, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper draws the concept of nucleon form factors further to consider the electromagnetic aspect based on the magnetic moment of the nucleon. These are seen as valid physical interpretations of form factors in electron-nucleon interactions. A linear combination of two functions, associated with charge radius, is derived, which agreed well with experimental results. The paper also expands the specific form to include relativistic cases and consider appropriate frames of reference. (UK)

  11. Inspection of diesel engine injectors by several electromagnetic nondestructive methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Balassa, P.; Gasparics, A.; Tomáš, Ivan; Mészáros, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2017), s. 449-459 ISSN 1383-5416 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electromagnetic nondestructive testing * diesel engine injector * eddy current testing * magnetic hysteresis measurements * magnetic adaptive testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.769, year: 2016

  12. Wiring design for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    1995-01-01

    Wiring design is only one important aspect of EMI control. Other important areas for EMI are: circuit design, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, lighting, electrostatic discharge (ESD), transient suppression, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Topics covered include: wire magnetic field emissions at low frequencies; wire radiated magnetic field emissions at frequencies; wire design guidelines for EMI control; wire design guidelines for EMI control; high frequency emissions from cables; and pulse frequency spectra.

  13. Experimental studies of electromagnetic properties of few body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosted, P.E.

    1987-08-01

    An overview is given of some recent and planned experiments which have or will substantially increase our knowledge of the electromagnetic properties of few body systems. Specific examples include the proton and neutron elastic form factors, the deuteron elastic form factors, deuteron threshold electrodisintegration and quasi-elastic scattering, deuteron photodisintegration, and finally measurements of cross sections in deep inelastic scattering from hydrogen, deuterium, and iron. 47 refs., 13 figs

  14. Experimental studies of electromagnetic properties of few body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosted, P.E.

    1987-08-01

    An overview is given of some recent and planned experiments which have or will substantially increase our knowledge of the electromagnetic properties of few body systems. Specific examples include the proton and neutron elastic form factors, the deuteron elastic form factors, deuteron threshold electrodisintegration and quasi-elastic scattering, deuteron photodisintegration, and finally measurements of cross sections in deep inelastic scattering from hydrogen, deuterium, and iron. 47 refs., 13 figs. (DWL)

  15. Electromagnetic braking for Mars spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Aerobraking concepts are being studied to improve performance and cost effectiveness of propulsion systems for Mars landers and Mars interplanetary spacecraft. Access to megawatt power levels (nuclear power coupled to high-storage inductive or capacitive devices) on a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft may make feasible electromagnetic braking and lift modulation techniques which were previously impractical. Using pulsed microwave and magnetic field technology, potential plasmadynamic braking and hydromagnetic lift modulation techniques have been identified. Entry corridor modulation to reduce loads and heating, to reduce vertical descent rates, and to expand horizontal and lateral landing ranges are possible benefits. In-depth studies are needed to identify specific design concepts for feasibility assessments. Standing wave/plasma sheath interaction techniques appear to be promising. The techniques may require some tailoring of spacecraft external structures and materials. In addition, rapid response guidance and control systems may require the use of structurally embedded sensors coupled to expert systems or to artificial intelligence systems.

  16. Improvements relating to electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to electromagnetic pumps suitable for use in pumping molten Na, and particularly to annular linear induction pumps that may for example be used to pump molten Na at temperatures up to 650 0 in situations where it is not possible to provide cooling. Previous designs of such pumps have employed disk-shaped coils around the outside of the annulus, the coils being energised from a three-phase power supply to produce a travelling radial field. The pump system described obviates the necessity for joints between the coils. It also allows the use of all types of high temperature insultation, simplified manufacture, and enables the windings to be located on the inside of the annulus. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  17. The CLAS Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Amarian; Geram Asryan; Kevin Beard; Will Brooks; Volker Burkert; Tom Carstens; Alan Coleman; Raphael Demirchyan; Yuri Efremenko; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Herb Funsten; Vladimir Gavrilov; Kevin L. Giovanetti; R.M. Marshall; Berhard Mecking; R.C. Minehart; H. Mkrtchan; Mavrik Ohandjanyan; Youri Sharabian; L.C. Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; W.A. Stephens; T.Y. Tung; Carl Zorn

    2001-05-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8deg < (theta) < 45deg) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi-0 and eta decays and detect neutrons, This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  18. Electromagnetic Signatures of SMBH Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    When two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.

  19. Formal analysis of electromagnetic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Afshar, Sanaz; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiène

    2014-09-01

    Optical systems are increasingly being used in safety-critical applications. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification raises many challenges for engineers. Traditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about their correctness by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as a complementary approach to improve optical system analysis. This paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of electromagnetic optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our approach, we present the analysis of resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices.

  20. Ultrarelativistic electromagnetic pulses in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Tajima, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Kennel, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The physical processes of a linearly polarized electromagnetic pulse of highly relativistic amplitude in an underdense plasma accelerating particles to very high energies are studied through computer simulation. An electron-positron plasma is considered first. The maximum momenta achieved scale as the square of the wave amplitude. This acceleration stops when the bulk of the wave energy is converted to particle energy. The pulse leaves behind as a wake a vacuum region whose length scales as the amplitude of the wave. The results can be explained in terms of a snow plow or piston-like action of the radiation on the plasma. When a mass ratio other than unity is chosen and electrostatic effects begin to play a role, first the ion energy increases faster than the electron energy and then the electron energy catches up later, eventually reaching the same value.

  1. Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Immunity Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.

    2000-08-01

    This handbook presents the results of the Boeing Company effort for NASA under contract NAS8-98217. Immunity level data for certain integrated circuit parts are discussed herein, along with analytical techniques for applying the data to electronics systems. This handbook is built heavily on the one produced in the seventies by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC, MDC Report E1929 of 1 August 1978, entitled Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Susceptibility Handbook, known commonly as the ICES Handbook, which has served countless systems designers for over 20 years). Sections 2 and 3 supplement the device susceptibility data presented in section 4 by presenting information on related material required to use the IC susceptibility information. Section 2 concerns itself with electromagnetic susceptibility analysis and serves as a guide in using the information contained in the rest of the handbook. A suggested system hardening requirements is presented in this chapter. Section 3 briefly discusses coupling and shielding considerations. For conservatism and simplicity, a worst case approach is advocated to determine the maximum amount of RF power picked up from a given field. This handbook expands the scope of the immunity data in this Handbook is to of 10 MHz to 10 GHz. However, the analytical techniques provided are applicable to much higher frequencies as well. It is expected however, that the upper frequency limit of concern is near 10 GHz. This is due to two factors; the pickup of microwave energy on system cables and wiring falls off as the square of the wavelength, and component response falls off at a rapid rate due to the effects of parasitic shunt paths for the RF energy. It should be noted also that the pickup on wires and cables does not approach infinity as the frequency decreases (as would be expected by extrapolating the square law dependence of the high frequency roll-off to lower frequencies) but levels off due to mismatch effects.

  2. Research on the electromagnetic structure of movable coil electromagnet drive mechanism for reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jige; Yian Huijie; Wu Yuanqiang; Wu Xinxin; Yu Suyuan; He Shuyan

    2007-01-01

    The movable coil electromagnet drive mechanism (MCEDM) is a new drive scheme for the reactor control rod, and it has a simple structure, good security and reliability property, etc. MCEDM with an air cooled structure has been used in the land research reactor. In order to apply MCEDM to the mobile reactor, experimental and theoretical study on the electromagnet with an oil-water cooled structure and a single magnetic flux circuit (called the type A electro-magnet) has been completed. It is proven by the experiment and theory that the oil-water cooled structure is an excellent measure to increase the coil current of MCEDM. Moreover, a type B electromagnet with an oil-water cooled structure and double magnetic flux circuits is designed to further increase the magnetic force of MCEDM. The analysis of finite element method shows that the type B electromagnet could double the saturation current of type A electro-magnet and the magnetic force of type B electromagnet is greater than that of the type A electromagnet. Moreover, it is proven that the dynamic property of type B electromagnet is better than type A electromagnet. (author)

  3. Electromagnetic and thermal history during microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.; Valente, M.A.; Monteiro, J.; Sousa, J.; Costa, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    In microwave heating, the energy is directly introduced into the material resulting in a rapid and volumetric heating process with reduced thermal gradients, when the electromagnetic field is homogeneous. From those reasons, the microwave technology has been widely used in the industry to process dielectric materials. The capacity to heat with microwave radiation is related with the dielectric properties of the materials and the electromagnetic field distribution. The knowledge of the permittivity dependence with the temperature is essential to understand the thermal distribution and to minimize the non-homogeneity of the electromagnetic field. To analyse the history of the heating process, the evolution of the electromagnetic field, the temperature and the skin depth, were simulated dynamically in a ceramic sample. The evaluation of the thermal runaway has also been made. This is the most critical phenomenon observed in the sintering of ceramic materials because it causes deformations, or even melting on certain points in the material, originating the destruction of it. In our study we show that during the heating process the hot spot's have some dynamic, and at high temperatures most of the microwave energy is absorbed at the surface of the material. We also show the existence of a time-delay of the thermal response with the electromagnetic changes. - Highlights: → Electromagnetic field, the temperature and the skin depth were simulated dynamically. → The evaluation of the thermal runaway has been made. → A time-delay of the thermal response with the electromagnetic changes exists.

  4. Generating a heated fluid using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2018-01-09

    A vessel including a concentrator configured to concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source and a complex configured to absorb EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel is configured to receive a cool fluid from the cool fluid source, concentrate the EM radiation using the concentrator, apply the EM radiation to the complex, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the cool fluid to the heated fluid. The complex is at least one of consisting of copper nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanorods, carbon moieties, encapsulated nanoshells, encapsulated nanoparticles, and branched nanostructures. Further, the EM radiation is at least one of EM radiation in an ultraviolet region of an electromagnetic spectrum, in a visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in an infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  5. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  6. Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, D.; Geralico, A.

    2012-02-01

    Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term à la Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle’s rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the electromagnetic wave, i.e., scalar (spin 0), massless spin (1)/(2) and electromagnetic (spin 1) fields, is studied too.

  7. Interactions between electromagnetic fields and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between Electromagnetic Fields and Matter deals with the principles and methods that can amplify electromagnetic fields from very low levels of signals. This book discusses how electromagnetic fields can be produced, amplified, modulated, or rectified from very low levels to enable these for application in communication systems. This text also describes the properties of matter and some phenomenological considerations to the reactions of matter when an action of external fields results in a polarization of the particle system and changes the bonding forces existing in the matter.

  8. Genetic effects of nonionizing electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Henry

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increased use of electricity and wireless communication devices, there is a concern on whether exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz fields and radiofrequency radiation) can lead to harmful health effects, particularly, genetic effects and cancer development. This presentation will review recent research on genetic effects of power line frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Even though the mechanism of interaction is still unknown, there is increasing evidence that these electromagnetic fields at low intensities can cause genetic damage in cells. There is also evidence suggesting that the effects are caused by oxidative stress. (author)

  9. Body Weight Gain During a Discrete Nursing Episode in Suckling Rats Reared at 1.5-g or 1.5-g Exceeds that of 1.0-g Controls and is Independent of Material Hypergravity Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Plaut, Karen; Wade, Charles E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We recently reported that body weights of suckling rats reared during 1.5-g centrifugation are approximately 10% lower than those of 1.0-g controls. This finding raises the possibility that hypergravity exposed pups ingest less milk than controls due to either impairments in their ability to acquire milk from the nipple, or to decreased availability or palatability of their mother's milk. In the present study, we analyzed body weight gain in suckling rats reared during a discrete nursing episode following rearing at either 1.75-g, 1.5-g or 1.0-g. On Gestational day (G) 10 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy, time-bred SD rat dams were 1:1 matched based on body weight and assigned to either Hypergravity (HG) or Stationary Yoked Control (SYC) conditions and to either 1.75-g or 1.5-g conditions. Beginning on G11, HG dams and litters were exposed to 26 days of continuous centrifugation with brief daily stops for veterinary inspection and animal maintenance. On the day following birth (Postnatal day), litters were pooled within each condition then randomly re-assigned in equivalent proportions to HG and SYC dams. On P15, HG litters were removed from their mother's and placed in an incubator (33 C). Following a 4hr deprivation period, four neonates were tested from each litter, with two pups placed with either their own dam or the SYC dam; two pups from the yoked mother were paired with the HG pups. Pups were individually weighed, permitted to suckle for 75 min, then re-weighed. At the start of the test, the body weights of HG pups were significantly less than those of SYC pups (p less than 0.05). Relative to SYC pups, BG pups showed significantly greater proportional body weight gain (p less than 0.05), possibly due to augmented post-centrifugation feeding. Pup weight gain was independent of maternal hypergravity exposure. Neither impairments in milk acquisition nor milk availability or palatibility of hypergravity-exposed dams cannot account for reduced body mass of hypergravity-reared offspring.

  10. Electromagnetic fields mediate efficient cell reprogramming into a pluripotent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Soonbong; Quan, Xiaoyuan; Kim, Soochan; Lengner, Christopher; Park, Jung-Keug; Kim, Jongpil

    2014-10-28

    Life on Earth is constantly exposed to natural electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and it is generally accepted that EMFs may exert a variety of effects on biological systems. Particularly, extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EL-EMFs) affect biological processes such as cell development and differentiation; however, the fundamental mechanisms by which EMFs influence these processes remain unclear. Here we show that EMF exposure induces epigenetic changes that promote efficient somatic cell reprogramming to pluripotency. These epigenetic changes resulted from EMF-induced activation of the histone lysine methyltransferase Mll2. Remarkably, an EMF-free system that eliminates Earth's naturally occurring magnetic field abrogates these epigenetic changes, resulting in a failure to undergo reprogramming. Therefore, our results reveal that EMF directly regulates dynamic epigenetic changes through Mll2, providing an efficient tool for epigenetic reprogramming including the acquisition of pluripotency.

  11. Electromagnetic Chirps from Neutron Star–Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Dal Canton, Tito; Camp, Jordan; Tsang, David; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2018-02-01

    We calculate the electromagnetic signal of a gamma-ray flare coming from the surface of a neutron star shortly before merger with a black hole companion. Using a new version of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code Pandurata that incorporates dynamic spacetimes, we integrate photon geodesics from the neutron star surface until they reach a distant observer or are captured by the black hole. The gamma-ray light curve is modulated by a number of relativistic effects, including Doppler beaming and gravitational lensing. Because the photons originate from the inspiraling neutron star, the light curve closely resembles the corresponding gravitational waveform: a chirp signal characterized by a steadily increasing frequency and amplitude. We propose to search for these electromagnetic chirps using matched filtering algorithms similar to those used in LIGO data analysis.

  12. Electromagnetic two-dimensional analysis of trapped-ion eigenmodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.; Rewoldt, G.

    1984-11-01

    A two-dimensional electromagnetic analysis of the trapped-ion instability for the tokamak case with ..beta.. not equal to 0 has been made, based on previous work in the electrostatic limit. The quasineutrality condition and the component of Ampere's law along the equilibrium magnetic field are solved for the perturbed electrostatic potential and the component of the perturbed vector potential along the equilibrium magnetic field. The general integro-differential equations are converted into a matrix eigenvalue-eigenfunction problem by expanding in cubic B-spline finite elements in the minor radius and in Fourier harmonics in the poloidal angle. A model MHD equilibrium with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces and large aspect ratio is used which is consistent with our assemption that B << 1. The effect on the trapped-ion mode of including these electromagnetic extensions to the calculation is considered, and the temperature (and ..beta..) scaling of the mode frequency is shown and discussed.

  13. Electromagnetic moments of hadrons and quarks in a hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic moments of baryons are analyzed on the basis of general sum rules following from the theory of broken symmetries and quark models including the relativistic effects and hadronic corrections due to the meson exchange currents. A new sum rule is proposed for the hyperon magnetic moments, which is in accord with the most precise new data and also with a theory of the electromagnetic ΛΣ 0 mixing. The numerical values of the quark electromagnetic moments are obtained within a hybrid model treating the pion cloud effects through the local coupling of the pion field with the constituent massive quarks. Possible sensitivity of the weak neutral current magnetic moments to violation of the Okubo-Zweig-Izuki rule is emphasized nand discussed. 39 refs.; 1 fig

  14. Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation detector using micromechanical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.; Wachter, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation is detected by micromechanical sensors that can be coated with various interactive materials. As the micromechanical sensors absorb radiation, the sensors bend and/or undergo a shift in resonance characteristics. The bending and resonance changes are detected with high sensitivity by any of several detection methods including optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive methods. Wide bands of the electromagnetic spectrum can be imaged with picoJoule sensitivity, and specific absorptive coatings can be used for selective sensitivity in specific wavelength bands. Microcantilevers coated with optical cross-linking polymers are useful as integrating optical radiation dosimeters. Nuclear radiation dosimetry is possible by fabricating cantilevers from materials that are sensitive to various nuclear particles or radiation. Upon exposure to radiation, the cantilever bends due to stress and its resonance frequency shifts due to changes in elastic properties, based on cantilever shape and properties of the coating.

  15. Interference and protection of electromagnetic pulse to digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Jiao Hongling; He Shanhong; Pan Chao; Feng Deren; Che Wenquan; Xiong Ying

    2013-01-01

    The effective electromagnetic pulse protection is studied in this paper, first the interference of electromagnetic pulse simulator path is analyzed, including the digital signal processor (DSP) and the discharge circuit of coupling interference and net electricity coupling interference. Using the structure optimization design, the hardware block reinforcement measurement and the setting of open software trap, and the watchdog anti-jamming measures, the interference test is completed such as the central processor core voltage of DSP, input/output (I/O) ports of DSP and the display screen. The experimental results show that the combination of hardware and software protection reinforcement technology is effective, and the interference pulse amplitude of DSP board I/O port and the kernel work voltage are reduced, and the interference duration is reduced from 2 μs to 400 ns. The interference pulse is effectively restrained. (authors)

  16. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the Cookridge area of Leeds

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, K; Judd, P M; Lowe, A J; Shaw, J

    2002-01-01

    On the 8 and 9 May 2002 representatives of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) performed a radiofrequency electromagnetic field survey in the Cookridge area of Leeds in order to assess exposure to radio signals from transmitters mounted on a water tower/a lattice tower and a radio station tower. Guidelines on limiting exposure to radio signals have been published by NRPB and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These guidelines are designed to prevent established adverse effects on human health. During this survey, the total exposures due to all radio signals from 30 MHz to 18000 MHz (18 GHz) were measured. This frequency range was chosen as it includes mobile phone base station transmissions, which are at around 900 and 1800 MHz and super high frequency (SHF) transmissions from most of the large microwave dish antennas mounted on the towers. In addition, other major sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the environment such as broadcast radio...

  17. Graphite crystals grown within electromagnetically levitated metallic droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Shaahin; Kalaantari, Haamun; Mojgani, Sasan; Abbaschian, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Various graphite morphologies were observed to grow within the electromagnetically levitated nickel–carbon melts, including primary flakes and spheres, curved surface graphite and eutectic flakes, as well as engulfed and entrapped particles. As the supersaturated metallic solutions were cooled within the electromagnetic (EM) levitation coil, the primary graphite flakes and spheres formed and accumulated near the periphery of the droplet due to EM circulation. The primary graphite islands, moreover, nucleated and grew on the droplet surface which eventually formed a macroscopic curved graphite crystal covering the entire liquid. Upon further cooling, the liquid surrounding the primary graphite went under a coupled eutectic reaction while the liquid in the center formed a divorced eutectic due to EM mixing. This brought about the formation of graphite fine flakes and agglomerated particles close to the surface and in the center of the droplet, respectively. The graphite morphologies, growth mechanisms, defects, irregularities and growth instabilities were interpreted with detailed optical and scanning electron microscopies.

  18. Electromagnetic Properties Analysis on Hybrid-driven System of Electromagnetic Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Han, Bingyuan; Bei, Shaoyi

    2018-01-01

    The hybrid-driven system made of permanent-and electromagnets applied in the electromagnetic motor was analyzed, equivalent magnetic circuit was used to establish the mathematical models of hybrid-driven system, based on the models of hybrid-driven system, the air gap flux, air-gap magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force was proposed. Taking the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force as main research object, the hybrid-driven system was researched. Electromagnetic properties of hybrid-driven system with different working current modes is studied preliminary. The results shown that analysis based on hybrid-driven system can improve the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force more effectively and can also guarantee the output stability, the effectiveness and feasibility of the hybrid-driven system are verified, which proved theoretical basis for the design of hybrid-driven system.

  19. Reformulation of electromagnetic and gravito-electromagnetic equations for Lorentz system with octonion algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanışlı, Murat; Kansu, Mustafa Emre; Demir, Süleyman

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the real, complex octonion algebra and their properties are defined. The electromagnetic and gravito-electromagnetic equations with monopoles in terms of S and reference systems are presented in vector notations. Additionally, the duality transformations of gravito-electromagnetic situation for two reference systems are also represented. Besides, it is explained that Maxwell-like equations for gravito-electromagnetism are also invariant under Lorentz transformations. By introducing complex octonionic differential operator, a new generalized complex octonionic field term consisting of electromagnetic and gravito-electromagnetic components has been firstly suggested for Lorentz system. Afterwards, a complex octonionic source equation is obtained as in basic way, more compact and elegant notation. By defining a new complex octonionic general potential term, the field equation is attained once again. The components of complex octonionic field and wave equations are written in detailed for S and reference systems.

  20. A multiscale quantum mechanics/electromagnetics method for device simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, ChiYung; Meng, Lingyi; Zhang, Yu; Chen, GuanHua

    2015-04-07

    Multiscale modeling has become a popular tool for research applying to different areas including materials science, microelectronics, biology, chemistry, etc. In this tutorial review, we describe a newly developed multiscale computational method, incorporating quantum mechanics into electronic device modeling with the electromagnetic environment included through classical electrodynamics. In the quantum mechanics/electromagnetics (QM/EM) method, the regions of the system where active electron scattering processes take place are treated quantum mechanically, while the surroundings are described by Maxwell's equations and a semiclassical drift-diffusion model. The QM model and the EM model are solved, respectively, in different regions of the system in a self-consistent manner. Potential distributions and current densities at the interface between QM and EM regions are employed as the boundary conditions for the quantum mechanical and electromagnetic simulations, respectively. The method is illustrated in the simulation of several realistic systems. In the case of junctionless field-effect transistors, transfer characteristics are obtained and a good agreement between experiments and simulations is achieved. Optical properties of a tandem photovoltaic cell are studied and the simulations demonstrate that multiple QM regions are coupled through the classical EM model. Finally, the study of a carbon nanotube-based molecular device shows the accuracy and efficiency of the QM/EM method.

  1. Inspecting Friction Stir Welding using Electromagnetic Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the use of advanced electromagnetic probes to measure the dimensions, the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity, and related other properties of friction stir welds (FSWs) between parts made of the same or different aluminum alloy(s). The probes are of the type described in in another Tech Brief. To recapitulate: A probe of this type is essentially an eddy-current probe that includes a primary (driver) winding that meanders and multiple secondary (sensing) windings that meander along the primary winding. Electrical conductivity is commonly used as a measure of heat treatment and tempering of aluminum alloys, but prior to the development of these probes, the inadequate sensitivity and limited accuracy of electrical-conductivity probes precluded such use on FSWs between different aluminum alloys, and the resolution of those probes was inadequate for measurement of FSW dimensions with positions and metallurgical properties. In contrast, the present probes afford adequate accuracy and spatial resolution for the purposes of measuring the dimensions of FSW welds and correlating spatially varying electrical conductivities with metallurgical properties, including surface defects.

  2. INNOVATIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS FOR PIPELINE CRAWLERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth

    2004-11-05

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they encounter. Recent development efforts include a new generation of powered inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline and are able to maneuver past the physical barriers that can limit inspection. At Battelle, innovative electromagnetic sensors are being designed and tested for these new pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types can be used to assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, and cracks. The Applied Energy Systems Group at Battelle is concluding the first year of work on a projected three-year development effort. In this first year, two innovative electromagnetic inspection technologies were designed and tested. Both were based on moving high-strength permanent magnets to generate inspection energy. One system involved translating permanent magnets towards the pipe. A pulse of electric current would be induced in the pipe to oppose the magnetization according to Lenz's Law. The decay of this pulse would indicate the presence of defects in the pipe wall. This inspection method is similar to pulsed eddy current inspection methods, with the fundamental difference being the manner in which the current is generated. Details of this development effort were reported in the first semiannual report on this project. This second semiannual report focuses on the development of a second inspection methodology, based on rotating permanent magnets. During this period, a rotating permanent magnet exciter was designed and built. The exciter unit produces strong eddy currents in the pipe wall. The tests have shown that at distances of a pipe diameter or more, the currents flow circumferentially, and that these circumferential

  3. Calculation of electromagnetic force in electromagnetic forming process of metal sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Da; Liu Xuesong; Fang Kun; Fang Hongyuan

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a forming process that relies on the inductive electromagnetic force to deform metallic workpiece at high speed. Calculation of the electromagnetic force is essential to understand the EMF process. However, accurate calculation requires complex numerical solution, in which the coupling between the electromagnetic process and the deformation of workpiece needs be considered. In this paper, an appropriate formula has been developed to calculate the electromagnetic force in metal work-piece in the sheet EMF process. The effects of the geometric size of coil, the material properties, and the parameters of discharge circuit on electromagnetic force are taken into consideration. Through the formula, the electromagnetic force at different time and in different positions of the workpiece can be predicted. The calculated electromagnetic force and magnetic field are in good agreement with the numerical and experimental results. The accurate prediction of the electromagnetic force provides an insight into the physical process of the EMF and a powerful tool to design optimum EMF systems.

  4. Vlasov Antenna Data for Electromagnetic Code Validation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwood, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Measured antenna data is provided for validating computational electromagnetic (CEM) computer programs. The subject antenna is the Vlasov antenna, which is formed by cutting a hollow circular cylindrical waveguide at an oblique angle...

  5. Faraday· Father of Electromagnetism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1921), magneto-optical effect and diamagnetism (1845), and fundamentals of field theory. These discoveries and their applications have changed the world we live in, in an irreversible way. Electromagnetic Rotation. The field of electricity can be ...

  6. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Weiyan

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  7. Electromagnetic field computation by network methods

    CERN Document Server

    Felsen, Leopold B; Russer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This monograph proposes a systematic and rigorous treatment of electromagnetic field representations in complex structures. The book presents new strong models by combining important computational methods. This is the last book of the late Leopold Felsen.

  8. METHODS OF ISOLATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC LITOSPHRIC SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Uvarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical terms of origin and distribution of electromagnetic radiation of litospheric origin and features of registration based on them are examined. Measuring methods offer seismoelectromagnetic activity is parameters and procedures of their measuring

  9. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.

  10. 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2014, the 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Bandung, Indonesia in December 2014. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  11. 2nd Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, Hamzah; Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2015, the 2nd Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Krabi, Thailand in December 2015. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  12. Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed,

  13. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  14. Tabletop Models for Electrical and Electromagnetic Geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Charles T.

    2002-01-01

    Details the use of tabletop models that demonstrate concepts in direct current electrical resistivity, self-potential, and electromagnetic geophysical models. Explains how data profiles of the models are obtained. (DDR)

  15. Carbon nanostructure composite for electromagnetic interference

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-30

    based composite materials for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. With more and more electronic gadgets being used at different frequencies, there is a need for shielding them from one another to avoid interference.

  16. Transformation electromagnetics and metamaterials fundamental principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Douglas H

    2013-01-01

    Transformation electromagnetics is a systematic design technique for optical and electromagnetic devices that enables novel wave-material interaction properties. The associated metamaterials technology for designing and realizing optical and electromagnetic devices can control the behavior of light and electromagnetic waves in ways that have not been conventionally possible. The technique is credited with numerous novel device designs, most notably the invisibility cloaks, perfect lenses and a host of other remarkable devices.Transformation Electromagnetics and Metamaterials: Fundamental Princ

  17. Electromagnetic forces on type-II superconducting rotating cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A.G.; Refai, T.F.; El-Sabagh, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical solutions of the electromagnetic fields are presented for a system composed of an infinitely long superconducting cylinder rotating about its axis and placed parallel to two infinitely long normal conducting wires. Both wires carry the same alternating current. From the obtained electromagnetic fields the electromagnetic power loss on the cylinder surface, electromagnetic forces due to induced currents, electromagnetic torque, and the work opposing the rotation of the cylinder are calculated. (orig.)

  18. Nucleation and Grain Refinement of 7A04 Aluminum Alloy Under a Low-Power Electromagnetic Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qingwei; Ma, Yonglin; Xing, Shuqing; Bao, Xinyu; Feng, Yanfei; Kang, Xiaolan

    2018-02-01

    The effects of a low-power electromagnetic pulse on the grain size and cooling curve of high-strength aluminum alloy 7A04 were investigated for various pulse duty cycles. This electromagnetic pulse treatment was found to effectively produce fine grains with globular crystals and a uniform microstructure for pulse duty cycles between 20 and 40%. The key factors that affected grain refinement under the electromagnetic pulse included the electromagnetic energy and the conversion frequency between \\varvec{B} and \\varvec{E} . The nucleation rate increased as the nucleation period was extended. A new kinetic condition of magnetic nucleation was explored by decreasing the critical Gibbs free energy in the electromagnetic pulse, which was more sensitive under low undercooling. In addition, the crystal orientation was controlled in such a solidification environment.

  19. HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE DOBREF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the next generation, conventional weapon will touch the best performance limits and will became more and more what in what more an important part plans of improvement systems of weapon to the future. Physical laws that govern electromagnetic propulsion of guns, enabling them higher speeds than those of conventional arms projectiles. This is substantially benefit electromagnetic weapons - using electricity as energy for an lectromagnetic weapons.

  20. HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    VASILE DOBREF

    2016-01-01

    For the next generation, conventional weapon will touch the best performance limits and will became more and more what in what more an important part plans of improvement systems of weapon to the future. Physical laws that govern electromagnetic propulsion of guns, enabling them higher speeds than those of conventional arms projectiles. This is substantially benefit electromagnetic weapons - using electricity as energy for an lectromagnetic weapons.