WorldWideScience

Sample records for include health risk

  1. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 2. Quantitative comparison of pathogen risk to other impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-08-19

    Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential.

  2. Should catastrophic risks be included in a regulated competitive health insurance market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, W P; Schut, F T

    1994-11-01

    In 1988 the Dutch government launched a proposal for a national health insurance based on regulated competition. The mandatory benefits package should be offered by competing insurers and should cover both non-catastrophic risks (like hospital care, physician services and drugs) and catastrophic risks (like several forms of expensive long-term care). However, there are two arguments to exclude some of the catastrophic risks from the competitive insurance market, at least during the implementation process of the reforms. Firstly, the prospects for a workable system of risk-adjusted payments to the insurers that should take away the incentives for cream skimming are, at least during the next 5 years, more favorable for the non-catastrophic risks than for the catastrophic risks. Secondly, even if a workable system of risk-adjusted payments can be developed, the problem of quality skimping may be relevant for some of the catastrophic risks, but not for non-catastrophic risks. By 'quality skimping' we mean the reduction of the quality of care to a level which is below the minimum level that is acceptable to society. After 5 years of health care reforms in the Netherlands new insights have resulted in a growing support to confine the implementation of the reforms to the non-catastrophic risks. In drawing (and redrawing) the exact boundaries between different regulatory regimes for catastrophic and non-catastrophic risks, the expected benefits of a cost-effective substitution of care have to be weighted against the potential harm caused by cream skimming and quality skimping.

  3. Conceptualizing a Dynamic Fall Risk Model Including Intrinsic Risks and Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Schwickert, Lars; Rapp, Kilan; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Todd, Chris; Lord, Stephen R; Kerse, Ngaire

    2017-11-01

    Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors. First, current models consider risk factors to be stable for each person and not change over time, an assumption that does not reflect real-life experience. Second, current models do not consider the interplay of individual exposure including type of activity (eg, walking, undertaking transfers) and environmental risks (eg, lighting, floor conditions) in which activity is performed. Therefore, we posit a dynamic fall risk model consisting of intrinsic risk factors that vary over time and exposure (activity in context). eHealth sensor technology (eg, smartphones) begins to enable the continuous measurement of both the above factors. We illustrate our model with examples of real-world falls from the FARSEEING database. This dynamic framework for fall risk adds important aspects that may improve understanding of fall mechanisms, fall risk models, and the development of fall prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Should catastrophic risks be included in a regulated competitive health insurance market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); F.T. Schut (Erik)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn 1988 the Dutch government launched a proposal for a national health insurance based on regulated competition. The mandatory benefits package should be offered by competing insurers and should cover both non-catastrophic risks (like hospital care, physician services and drugs) and

  5. Risk assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticles via oral exposure, including toxicokinetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, Minne B; Geraets, Liesbeth; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Vandebriel, Rob J; de Jong, Wim H; Oomen, Agnes G

    2016-12-01

    Titanium dioxide white pigment consists of particles of various sizes, from which a fraction is in the nano range (food as additive E 171 as well as in other products, such as food supplements and toothpaste. Here, we assessed whether a human health risk can be expected from oral ingestion of these titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs), based on currently available information. Human health risks were assessed using two different approaches: Approach 1, based on intake, i.e. external doses, and Approach 2, based on internal organ concentrations using a kinetic model in order to account for accumulation over time (the preferred approach). Results showed that with Approach 1, a human health risk is not expected for effects in liver and spleen, but a human health risk cannot be excluded for effects on the ovaries. When based on organ concentrations by including the toxicokinetics of TiO 2 NPs (Approach 2), a potential risk for liver, ovaries and testes is found. This difference between the two approaches shows the importance of including toxicokinetic information. The currently estimated risk can be influenced by factors such as absorption, form of TiO 2 , particle fraction, particle size and physico-chemical properties in relation to toxicity, among others. Analysis of actual particle concentrations in human organs, as well as organ concentrations and effects in liver and the reproductive system after chronic exposure to well-characterized TiO 2 (NPs) in animals are recommended to refine this assessment.

  6. Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA): transforming the way we assess health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela R D; Dotson, G Scott; Maier, Andrew

    2012-10-16

    Human health risk assessments continue to evolve and now focus on the need for cumulative risk assessment (CRA). CRA involves assessing the combined risk from coexposure to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors for varying health effects. CRAs are broader in scope than traditional chemical risk assessments because they allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of the interaction between different stressors and their combined impact on human health. Future directions of CRA include greater emphasis on local-level community-based assessments; integrating environmental, occupational, community, and individual risk factors; and identifying and implementing common frameworks and risk metrics for incorporating multiple stressors.

  7. Including oral health training in a health system strengthening program in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Seymour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design: In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results: The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions: Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come.

  8. Including oral health training in a health system strengthening program in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brittany; Muhumuza, Ibra; Mumena, Chris; Isyagi, Moses; Barrow, Jane; Meeks, Valli

    2013-01-01

    Objective Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come. PMID:23473054

  9. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision

  10. Risk factors for fishermen's health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first occupational health study in Greek fishing. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational...... injury, of which half caused more than one day absence, while 14% had a near drowning experience. The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk...... factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken...

  11. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive lifestyle ... By not getting regular exercise, you raise your risk of Obesity Heart diseases, including coronary artery disease ...

  12. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  13. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  14. Health risks of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    This volume examines occupational, public health, and environmental risks of the coal fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle, and unconventional energy technologies. The 6 chapters explore in detail the relationship between energy economics and risk analysis, assess the problems of applying traditional cost-benefit analysis to long-term environmental problems (such as global carbon dioxide levels), and consider questions about the public's perception and acceptance of risk. Also included is an examination of the global risks associated with current and proposed levels of energy production and comsumption from all major sources. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 6 chapters; all are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA) and four in Energy Research Abstracts

  15. Examining relationships between multiple health risk behaviors, well-being, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Kerry E; Castle, Patricia H; Prochaska, James O; Prochaska, Janice M

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, the concept of health promotion has emphasized the reduction of health risk behaviors to reduce disease and impairment. Well-being research expands this focus to include positive constructs such as thriving, productivity, life-evaluation, and emotional and physical health. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between health risk behaviors and specific measures of individual well-being. Participants (N = 790) from 49 states completed a one-time online assessment that included the Life-Evaluation Index, Emotional and Physical Health Ladders, the Health Risk Intervention Assessment, and the Work Productivity and Activity Improvement Questionnaire for General Health. Life Evaluation and physical and emotional health were all inversely related to the number of health risk behaviors, with higher well-being scores associated with lower number of risk behaviors. Across the three Life Evaluation categories (Suffering, Struggling, and Thriving) the number of health risk behaviors decreased, productivity loss decreased, and emotional and physical health increased. The results add to previous research on how reducing multiple health risk behaviors can be combined with well-being, i.e., an emphasis on increasing life-evaluation, emotional and physical health, better functioning, and productivity.

  16. Risk segmentation in Chilean social health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hector; Chipulu, Maxwell; Ojiako, Udechukwu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify how risk and social variables are likely to be impacted by an increase in private sector participation in health insurance provision. The study focuses on the Chilean health insurance industry, traditionally dominated by the public sector. Predictive risk modelling is conducted using a database containing over 250,000 health insurance policy records provided by the Superintendence of Health of Chile. Although perceived with suspicion in some circles, risk segmentation serves as a rational approach to risk management from a resource perspective. The variables that have considerable impact on insurance claims include the number of dependents, gender, wages and the duration a claimant has been a customer. As shown in the case study, to ensure that social benefits are realised, increased private sector participation in health insurance must be augmented by regulatory oversight and vigilance. As it is clear that a "community-rated" health insurance provision philosophy impacts on insurance firm's ability to charge "market" prices for insurance provision, the authors explore whether risk segmentation is a feasible means of predicting insurance claim behaviour in Chile's private health insurance industry.

  17. Risk factors for fishermen’s health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational environment, thus providing a current baseline for further research in the future and for documentation....... The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions......: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken into consideration in prevention programmes. The results are comparable withinternational fisheries experience...

  18. Young people's perspectives on health-related risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Elisabeth Spencer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon current socio-cultural understandings of risk, this study highlights the disjunction between the expert risk discourses that permeate official public health policy and practice, and young people’s own perspectives on health and risk. Data were collected from young people aged 14-16 years through the use of group and individual interviews in a school and community youth centre setting. Findings from this study question the saliency of expert-defined health-related risks to young people’s everyday lives. Young people in this study saw health as closely linked to ‘being happy’. Friendships and a sense of personal achievement were particularly important to participants’ health and well-being. When accounting for their participation in health-related practices identified as ‘risky’ in government policy – such as smoking, alcohol and substance use – young people emphasised the levels of pressure they experienced. Sources of pressure included arguments and bullying, school work, and negative stereotypes of young people in general. These areas indicated young people’s concerns that reach beyond the official prescriptions permeating current health policy.

  19. Assessment of health risks of policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Ádány, Róza; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bitenc, Katarina; Chereches, Razvan; Cori, Liliana; Fehr, Rainer; Kobza, Joanna; Kollarova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals

  20. Assessment of health risks of policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ádám, Balázs, E-mail: badam@cmss.sdu.dk [Unit for Health Promotion Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Molnár, Ágnes, E-mail: MolnarAg@smh.ca [Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Centre for Research on Inner City Health, Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael' s Hospital, Victoria 209, Rm. 3-26.22, M5B 1C6 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ádány, Róza, E-mail: adany.roza@sph.unideb.hu [Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Bianchi, Fabrizio, E-mail: Fabriepi@ifc.cnr.it [Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bitenc, Katarina, E-mail: katarina.bitenc@ivz-rs.si [National Institute of Public Health, Trubarjeva 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Chereches, Razvan, E-mail: razvan.m.chereches@gmail.com [Faculty of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences, Babes-Bolyai University, Strada Mihail Kogalniceanu 1, 3400 Cluj (Romania); Cori, Liliana, E-mail: liliana.cori@ifc.cnr.it [Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Fehr, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.fehr@uni-bielefeld.de [NRW Centre for Health, Westerfeldstr. 35-37, 33611 Bielefeld (Germany); Kobza, Joanna, E-mail: koga1@poczta.onet.pl [Public Health Department, Silesian Medical University, 18 Medykow Street, 40-752 Katowice (Poland); Kollarova, Jana, E-mail: janakollarova@yahoo.com [Department of Health Promotion, Regional Public Health Authority, Ipelska 1, 04011 Kosice (Slovakia); and others

    2014-09-15

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals.

  1. Latino Solo Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Health Risks and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this descriptive report is to provide the first representative information on the sociodemographic profile and the prevalence of mental and physical health conditions of two "at-risk" groups of Latino caregivers: solo grandparent caregivers and single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System was used to compare five dimensions of health on a sample of Latino solo grandparents and Latino single parents, raising their grandchildren/children alone. Bivariate and logistic regression comparative analyses were conducted on study measures. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of chronic health conditions, including arthritis (51%), depression (40%), diabetes (34%), and asthma (34%). Latino single parents have lower but troubling health risks, including depression (22%), diabetes (14%), and asthma (14%). Differences between the two groups were largely due to the grandparents older age. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of several chronic medical conditions. The prevalence of disorders is much lower for Latino single parents, although they too have disturbing health risks. Latino solo grandparents perform their parenting role under intense physical and emotional strain. Health professionals can be instrumental in facilitating interventions that affect the well-being of this expanding family group.

  2. Incidence of online health information search: a useful proxy for public health risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Scammon, Debra L

    2013-06-17

    Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers' search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public's attitudes and behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population's environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population's general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables-the incidence of the flu (Phealth lifestyles (P=.009); and public resources, such as hospital care utilization (P=.008) and public health funds (P=.02)-have significant effects on Web searches for queries related to the flu. After

  3. Frequency and prioritization of patient health risks from a structured health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Siobhan M; Glasgow, Russell E; Bello, Ghalib; Ory, Marcia G; Glenn, Beth A; Sheinfeld-Gorin, Sherri N; Sabo, Roy T; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Krist, Alex H

    2014-01-01

    To describe the frequency and patient-reported readiness to change, desire to discuss, and perceived importance of 13 health risk factors in a diverse range of primary care practices. Patients (n = 1,707) in 9 primary care practices in the My Own Health Report (MOHR) trial reported general, behavioral, and psychosocial risk factors (body mass index [BMI], health status, diet, physical activity, sleep, drug use, stress, anxiety or worry, and depression). We classified responses as "at risk" or "healthy" for each factor, and patients indicated their readiness to change and/or desire to discuss identified risk factors with providers. Patients also selected 1 of the factors they were ready to change as most important. We then calculated frequencies within and across these factors and examined variation by patient characteristics and across practices. On average, patients had 5.8 (SD = 2.12; range, 0-13) unhealthy behaviors and mental health risk factors. About 55% of patients had more than 6 risk factors. On average, patients wanted to change 1.2 and discuss 0.7 risks. The most common risks were inadequate fruit/vegetable consumption (84.5%) and overweight/obesity (79.6%). Patients were most ready to change BMI (33.3%) and depression (30.7%), and most wanted to discuss depression (41.9%) and anxiety or worry (35.2%). Overall, patients rated health status as most important. Implementing routine comprehensive health risk assessments in primary care will likely identify a high number of behavioral and psychosocial health risks. By soliciting patient priorities, providers and patients can better manage counseling and behavior change. © 2014 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  4. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  5. Crowdfunding our health: Economic risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Matthew J; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-10-01

    Crowdfunding is an expanding form of alternative financing that is gaining traction in the health sector. This article presents a typology for crowdfunded health projects and a review of the main economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding in the health market. We use evidence from a literature review, complimented by expert interviews, to extend the fundamental principles and established theories of crowdfunding to a health market context. Crowdfunded health projects can be classified into four types according to the venture's purpose and funding method. These are projects covering health expenses, fundraising health initiatives, supporting health research, or financing commercial health innovation. Crowdfunding could economically benefit the health sector by expanding market participation, drawing money and awareness to neglected health issues, improving access to funding, and fostering project accountability and social engagement. However, the economic risks of health-related crowdfunding include inefficient priority setting, heightened financial risk, inconsistent regulatory policies, intellectual property rights concerns, and fraud. Theorized crowdfunding behaviours such as signalling and herding can be observed in the market for health-related crowdfunding. Broader threats of market failure stemming from adverse selection and moral hazard also apply. Many of the discussed economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding health campaigns are shared more broadly with those of crowdfunding projects in other sectors. Where crowdfunding health care appears to diverge from theory is the negative externality inefficient priority setting may have towards achieving broader public health goals. Therefore, the market for crowdfunding health care must be economically stable, as well as designed to optimally and equitably improve public health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-18

    Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

  7. Incidence of Online Health Information Search: A Useful Proxy for Public Health Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, Debra L

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers’ search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public’s attitudes and behaviors. Objective This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population’s environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population’s general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. Methods We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Results Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables—the incidence of the flu (Psearches for queries related to the flu. After controlling for the number of reported disease cases and Internet access rate by state, we estimate the

  8. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Resources Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk Assessment of weight and health risk involves using ... risk for developing obesity-associated diseases or conditions. Risk Factors for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along ...

  9. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD accounts for more than a third (37% of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954 from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI. Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954 and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs (p Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees.

  10. Effects of an LMR-based partitioning-transmutation system on US nuclear fuel cycle health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, G.E.; Reich, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Health risks for the current US nuclear fuel cycle and for an illustrative partitioning and transmutation (P-T) fuel cycle based on Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) technology are calculated and compared. Health risks are calculated for all non-reactor fuel cycle steps, including reprocessing, transportation, and high-level waste (HLW) disposal. Uranium mining and milling health risks have been updated to include recent occupational injury and death statistics, and the radiological health risk to the general public posed by the uranium mining overburden. In addition, the radiological health risks for transportation have been updated to include latent cancer fatalities associated with both normal transport and accidents. Given the assumptions of the study, it is shown that the deployment of an LMR-based P-T system is expected to reduce overall nuclear fuel cycle health risk

  11. Immunological Assays as an Opportunity of Assessment of Health Risks of Airborne Particle Mixture Including Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzicová, Tána; Danihelka, Pavel; Micka, Vladimír; Lochman, Ivo; Lach, Karel; Lochmanová, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate perspectives of the assessment of nonspecific biological effects of airborne particulate matter including nanoparticles using appropriate immunological assays. We have selected various in vitro immunological assays to establish an array allowing us to monitor activation of the cell-mediated and humoral response of both the innate and adaptive immunity. To assess comprehensive interactions and effects, the assays were performed in whole blood cultures from healthy volunteers and we used an original airborne particle mixture from high pollution period in Ostrava region representing areas with one of the most polluted air in Europe. Even if certain effects were observed, the results of the immunological assays did not prove significant effects of airborne particles on immune cells' functions of healthy persons. However, obtained data do not exclude health risks of long-term exposure to airborne particles, especially in case of individuals with genetic predisposition to certain diseases or already existing disease. This study emphasizes the in vitro assessment of complex effects of airborne particles in conditions similar to actual ones in an organism exposed to particle mixture present in the polluted air.

  12. Health risk behaviours among adolescent girls: A questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk behaviours among adolescent girls: A questionnaire versus the timeline follow-back procedure. ... E Africa, K van Deventer ... These risk behaviours include violence, cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use and abuse, irresponsible sexual behaviours, unhealthy eating habits and non-physical activity. The main ...

  13. Urban flooding and health risk analysis by use of quantitative microbial risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Tanja

    D thesis is to identify the limitations and possibilities for optimising microbial risk assessments of urban flooding through more evidence-based solutions, including quantitative microbial data and hydrodynamic water quality models. The focus falls especially on the problem of data needs and the causes......, but also when wading through a flooded area. The results in this thesis have brought microbial risk assessments one step closer to more uniform and repeatable risk analysis by using actual and relevant measured data and hydrodynamic water quality models to estimate the risk from flooding caused...... are expected to increase in the future. To ensure public health during extreme rainfall, solutions are needed, but limited knowledge on microbial water quality, and related health risks, makes it difficult to implement microbial risk analysis as a part of the basis for decision making. The main aim of this Ph...

  14. Environmental modeling and health risk analysis (ACTS/RISK)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aral, M. M

    2010-01-01

    ... presents a review of the topics of exposure and health risk analysis. The Analytical Contaminant Transport Analysis System (ACTS) and Health RISK Analysis (RISK) software tools are an integral part of the book and provide computational platforms for all the models discussed herein. The most recent versions of these two softwa...

  15. Risk - a symposium on the assessment and perception of risk to human health in Canada. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Bates, D.V.

    1983-04-01

    The central concern in this Symposium is with risk to human health and life. Health risk includes the possibility of deaths (mortality), either immediate or delayed, and less severe health effects due to injury and illness (morbidity). Risk is defined as the product of the magnitude and the probability so that where it may be expressed quantitatively it is stated in units of harm per unit time (e.g. deaths per year or deaths per year per million of population). The 15 papers presented at this conference discuss the measurement, analysis perception, and management of risk. Six papers judged to be in scope were indexed for INIS

  16. Biological Risks to Public Health: Lessons from an International Conference to Inform the Development of National Risk Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Bhatiasevi, Aphaluck; Chaib, Fadela; Baggio, Ombretta; Banluta, Christina; Hollenweger, Lilian; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    Biological risk management in public health focuses on the impact of outbreaks on health, the economy, and other systems and on ensuring biosafety and biosecurity. To address this broad range of risks, the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) request that all member states build defined core capacities, risk communication being one of them. While there is existing guidance on the communication process and on what health authorities need to consider to design risk communication strategies that meet the requirements on a governance level, little has been done on implementation because of a number of factors, including lack of resources (human, financial, and others) and systems to support effective and consistent capacity for risk communication. The international conference on "Risk communication strategies before, during and after public health emergencies" provided a platform to present current strategies, facilitate learning from recent outbreaks of infectious diseases, and discuss recommendations to inform risk communication strategy development. The discussion concluded with 4 key areas for improvement in risk communication: consider communication as a multidimensional process in risk communication, broaden the biomedical paradigm by integrating social science intelligence into epidemiologic risk assessments, strengthen multisectoral collaboration including with local organizations, and spearhead changes in organizations for better risk communication governance. National strategies should design risk communication to be proactive, participatory, and multisectoral, facilitating the connection between sectors and strengthening collaboration.

  17. Risks related to the use of eHealth technologies - an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossebaard, Hans Cornelis; de Bruijn, Adrie; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Geertsma, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    More awareness is needed about the risks of e-Health technology. While information regarding its potential is abundant, the risks associated with the use of information (including mobile) and communication technology in health care have scarcely been addressed. In order to implement e-Health

  18. Practical consequences of the assessment of different energy health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Public authorities must make decisions about energy, and the risks of alternative strategies need to be calculated including health and environmental costs. Information from various sources must be organized into a logical framework for comparing impacts. This must include the widest practicable range of health and environmental damage - public health impact of pollution, role of accidents, disease and hazardous materials in the workplace, and odds for catastrophes. It must put each part of the energy cycle into perspective - giving particular attention to uncertainties in knowledge - to convey what is known, what is uncertain, and the importance of each factor in the overall picture. This paper gives examples of the use of health-impact assessment by decision-makers: (1) comparative risk assessment of the health effects of coal and nuclear fuel cycles used in nuclear power plant siting and licensing hearings, and (2) health risks of acid deposition and other air-transported pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment for the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment. (author)

  19. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  20. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colkesen, Ersen B.; Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Peek, Niels; Vosbergen, Sandra; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; van Kalken, Coenraad K.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Peters, Ron J. G.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and

  2. Crime, violence, and behavioral health: collaborative community strategies for risk mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinals, Debra A

    2015-06-01

    Criminal conduct is not always violent, and violence does not always lead to criminal charges. Moreover, crime and violence have multifaceted etiologies. Most violence in society is not attributable to mental illness. Where there is a small relationship between violence and mental illness, the risk of violence increases for individuals with substance use histories. Underlying trauma can also play a role. Antisocial attitudes, behaviors, and peer groups further increase the risk that individuals, including those with mental illness, will find themselves at risk of criminal recidivism. Criminal histories among public mental health populations, and mental health and substance use disorders among criminal populations are each higher than general population comparisons. Care within behavioral health settings should therefore target decreased criminal recidivism and decreased violence as part of recovery for those individuals at risk, using trauma-informed approaches and peer supports. Interventions that show promise bring criminal justice and behavioral health systems together, and include police-based diversion, specialty courts, court-based alternatives to incarceration, and coordinated re-entry programs. This article reviews these options along with specific risk management strategies, such as using risk, needs, and responsivity factors as a means of improving overall outcomes for persons with mental illness, while minimizing their risk of further criminalization and victimization.

  3. Occupational health policies on risk assessment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Seichi

    2010-09-01

    Industrial Safety and Health Law (ISH Law) of Japan requires abnormalities identified in evaluations of worker health and working environments are reported to occupational physicians, and employers are advised of measures to ensure appropriate accommodations in working environments and work procedures. Since the 1980s, notions of a risk assessment and occupational safety and health management system were expected to further prevent industrial accidents. In 2005, ISH Law stipulated workplace risk assessment using the wording "employers shall endeavor." Following the amendment, multiple documents and guidelines for risk assessment for different work procedures were developed. They require ISH Laws to be implemented fully and workplaces to plan and execute measures to reduce risks, ranking them from those addressing potential hazards to those requiring workers to wear protective articles. A governmental survey in 2005 found the performance of risk assessment was 20.4% and common reasons for not implementing risk assessments were lack of adequate personnel or knowledge. ISH Law specifies criminal penalties for both individuals and organizations. Moreover, under the Labor Contract Law promulgated in 2007, employers are obliged to make reasonable efforts to ensure employee health for foreseeable and avoidable risks. Therefore, enterprises neglecting even the non-binding provisions of guidelines are likely to suffer significant business impact if judged to be responsible for industrial accidents or occupational disease. To promote risk assessment, we must strengthen technical, financial, and physical support from public-service organizations, encourage the dissemination of good practices to reduce risks, and consider additional employer incentives, including relaxed mandatory regulations.

  4. Occupational Health Policies on Risk Assessment in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seichi Horie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Safety and Health Law (ISH Law of Japan requires abnormalities identifi ed in evaluations of worker health and working environments are reported to occupational physicians, and employers are advised of measures to ensure appropriate accommodations in working environments and work procedures. Since the 1980s, notions of a risk assessment and occupational safety and health management system were expected to further prevent industrial accidents. In 2005, ISH Law stipulated workplace risk assessment using the wording “employers shall endeavor.” Following the amendment, multiple documents and guidelines for risk assessment for different work procedures were developed. They require ISH Laws to be implemented fully and workplaces to plan and execute measures to reduce risks, ranking them from those addressing potential hazards to those requiring workers to wear protective articles. A governmental survey in 2005 found the performance of risk assessment was 20.4% and common reasons for not implementing risk assessments were lack of adequate personnel or knowledge. ISH Law specifi es criminal penalties for both individuals and organizations. Moreover, under the Labor Contract Law promulgated in 2007, employers are obliged to make reasonable efforts to ensure employee health for foreseeable and avoidable risks. Therefore, enterprises neglecting even the non-binding provisions of guidelines are likely to suffer signifi cant business impact if judged to be responsible for industrial accidents or occupational disease. To promote risk assessment, we must strengthen technical, fi nancial, and physical support from public-service organizations, encourage the dissemination of good practices to reduce risks, and consider additional employer incentives, including relaxed mandatory regulations.

  5. Determinants of participation in a web-based health risk assessment and consequences for health promotion programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Laan, Eva L.; Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Peek, Niels; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; van Kalken, Coen K.; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The health risk assessment (HRA) is a type of health promotion program frequently offered at the workplace. Insight into the underlying determinants of participation is needed to evaluate and implement these interventions. To analyze whether individual characteristics including demographics, health

  6. [NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E

    2015-01-01

    There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.

  7. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 1. Estimating the burden of disease associated with pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Robin; Heimersson, Sara; Svanström, Magdalena; Peters, Gregory M

    2014-08-19

    The environmental performance of wastewater and sewage sludge management is commonly assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA), whereas pathogen risk is evaluated with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This study explored the application of QMRA methodology with intent to include pathogen risk in LCA and facilitate a comparison with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA. Pathogen risk was estimated for a model wastewater treatment system (WWTS) located in an industrialized country and consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary wastewater treatment, anaerobic sludge digestion, and land application of sewage sludge. The estimation was based on eight previous QMRA studies as well as parameter values taken from the literature. A total pathogen risk (expressed as burden of disease) on the order of 0.2-9 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year of operation was estimated for the model WWTS serving 28,600 persons and for the pathogens and exposure pathways included in this study. The comparison of pathogen risk with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA is detailed in part 2 of this article series.

  8. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnley, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  9. Do schools influence student risk-taking behaviors and emotional health symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Simon J; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa M; Grant, Sue; Milfont, Taciano L; Crengle, Sue; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Clark, Terryann

    2011-03-01

    Many schools engage in health promotion, health interventions, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being outcomes for students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of schools on student health risk-taking behaviors and depressive symptoms. A nationally representative sample (n = 9,056) of students from 96 secondary schools completed a health and well-being survey using Internet Tablets that included questions on school climate, health risk-taking behaviors, and mental health. Teachers (n = 2,901) and school administrators (n = 91) completed questionnaires on aspects of the school climate which included teacher well-being and burnout, the staff work environment, health and welfare services for students, and school organizational support for student health and well-being. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on the health risk-taking behaviors and depression symptoms among students. Schools where students reported a more positive school climate had fewer students with alcohol use problems, and fewer students engaging in violence and risky motor vehicle behaviors. Schools where teachers reported better health and welfare services for students had fewer students engaging in unsafe sexual health behaviors. Schools where teachers reported higher levels of well-being had fewer students reporting significant levels of depressive symptoms. More positive school climates and better school health and welfare services are associated with fewer health risk-taking behaviors among students. However, the overall school effects were modest, especially for cigarette use and suicidal behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Risks related to the use of eHealth technologies - an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Ossebaard, Hans Cornelis; de Bruijn, Adrie; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Geertsma, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    More awareness is needed about the risks of e-Health technology. While information regarding its potential is abundant, the risks associated with the use of information (including mobile) and communication technology in health care have scarcely been addressed. In order to implement e-Health technology successfully and safely, the evaluation of their benefits should be integrated into and complemented with systematic risk assessment. This is the main recommendation resulting from an explorato...

  11. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  12. Quantifying links between stroke and risk factors: a study on individual health risk appraisal of stroke in a community of Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhang, Ling; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yamin; Yi, Dong

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the risk factors of stroke in a community in Chongqing by setting quantitative criteria for determining the risk factors of stroke. Thus, high-risk individuals can be identified and laid a foundation for predicting individual risk of stroke. 1,034 cases with 1:2 matched controls (2,068) were chosen from five communities in Chongqing including Shapingba, Xiaolongkan, Tianxingqiao, Yubei Road and Ciqikou. Participants were interviewed with a uniform questionnaire. The risk factors of stroke and the odds ratios of risk factors were analyzed with a logistic regression model, and risk exposure factors of different levels were converted into risk scores using statistical models. For men, ten risk factors including hypertension (5.728), family history of stroke (4.599), and coronary heart disease (5.404), among others, were entered into the main effect model. For women, 11 risk factors included hypertension (5.270), family history of stroke (4.866), hyperlipidemia (4.346), among others. The related risk scores were added to obtain a combined risk score to predict the individual's risk of stoke in the future. An individual health risk appraisal model of stroke, which was applicable to individuals of different gender, age, health behavior, disease and family history, was established. In conclusion, personal diseases including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc., were very important to the prevalence of stoke. The prevalence of stroke can be effectively reduced by changing unhealthy lifestyles and curing the positive individual disease. The study lays a foundation for health education to persuade people to change their unhealthy lifestyles or behaviors, and could be used in community health services.

  13. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen L; Delamater, Paul L; Boules, Caroline R; Upperman, Crystal R; Mitchell, Clifford S

    2015-12-04

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change's health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change-due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards-already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents' climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages.

  14. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Akerlof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126. We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages.

  15. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen L.; Delamater, Paul L.; Boules, Caroline R.; Upperman, Crystal R.; Mitchell, Clifford S.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages. PMID:26690184

  16. RISK CORRIDORS AND REINSURANCE IN HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETPLACES: Insurance for Insurers

    OpenAIRE

    LAYTON, TIMOTHY J.; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.; SINAIKO, ANNA D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to encourage entry and lower prices, most regulated markets for health insurance include policies that seek to reduce the uncertainty faced by insurers. In addition to risk adjustment of premiums paid to plans, the Health Insurance Marketplaces established by the Affordable Care Act implement reinsurance and risk corridors. Reinsurance limits insurer costs associated with specific individuals, while risk corridors protect against aggregate losses. Both tighten the insurer's distribut...

  17. Occupational reproductive health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, K; Kerr, M J

    1993-01-01

    The potentially harmful effects on women of certain workplace exposures are widely appreciated, and steps to control these have included legislative efforts such as right-to-know laws of well as corporate policies mandating selective restriction of fertile women, which are illegal under federal civil rights laws. This chapter reviews the various occupational health risks reproductive women face in the workplace but also considers the effects of other genetic, medical, social, infectious, and environmental factors which may be of even greater concern than most occupational factors.

  18. Health risk communication--a view from within industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, G H

    1991-01-01

    Health risk communication is discussed in respect to four principles of biomedical ethics: (1) autonomy, the need to protect confidentiality and provide decision-making information; (2) beneficence, an obligation to inform and to develop trust; (3) non-maleficence, not covering up study findings, not over- or underinterpreting data; and (4) justice, helping place risk in proper perspective. The epidemiologist's role in risk communication includes responsible interpretation of data, balanced and non-judgemental risk communication and careful attention to the biologic and population significance of study findings. Potential problem areas for epidemiologists which are discussed include deciding when risk is significant, working for an agency which does not want a communication to take place and the occasional need to violate confidentiality for overriding societal goals. The paper concludes with an example risk communication which illustrates some of the principles covered in the paper.

  19. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies. Revision 5/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which man is routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies. This report is not a risk assessment; nor does it contain instructions on how to do a risk assessment. Rather, it provides background information on how most of us think about risks and why it is difficult to do it rationally, it provides a philosophy and data with which to do a better job of judging risks more rationally, and it provides an overview of where risks of energy technologies fit within the spectrum of all risks. Much of the quantitative information provided here is on relative risk of dying of various causes. This is not because risk of dying is seen as the most important kind of risk, but because the statistics on mortality rates by cause are the highest quality data available on health risks in the general population.

  20. Sources of uncertainty in characterizing health risks from flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudey, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of health risks associated with gas flaring was the focus of this paper. Health risk assessments for environmental decision-making includes the evaluation of scientific data to identify hazards and to determine dose-response assessments, exposure assessments and risk characterization. Gas flaring has been the cause for public health concerns in recent years, most notably since 1996 after a published report by the Alberta Research Council. Some of the major sources of uncertainty associated with identifying hazardous contaminants in flare emissions were discussed. Methods to predict human exposures to emitted contaminants were examined along with risk characterization of predicted exposures to several identified contaminants. One of the problems is that elemental uncertainties exist regarding flare emissions which places limitations of the degree of reassurance that risk assessment can provide, but risk assessment can nevertheless offer some guidance to those responsible for flare emissions

  1. Perceived risk of mental health problems in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  2. Perceived risk of mental health problems in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança ePaúl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the face of limited resources and an ageing population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalisation, hospitalisation and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care. We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders from 1 (mild to 3 (Severe. The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (sd=7.3 and 2645 (58.8% were female. According to the primary care team 1616 (35.9% were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4% were mild, 559 (34.6% were moderate and 210 (13% were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR=2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalisation; OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalisation; OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death. These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  3. Neonatal health including congenital malformation risk of 1072 children born after vitrified embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, F; Bonduelle, M; Roelants, M; Verheyen, G; Van Landuyt, L

    2016-07-01

    Does vitrification of Day 3 and Day 5 embryos adversely affect birth outcomes of singletons and twins in comparison with peers born after fresh embryo transfer? Neonatal health parameters, including the prevalence of congenital malformations, in singletons and twins born after embryo vitrification are similar to or slightly better than after fresh embryo transfer. Although vitrification, rather than slow-freezing, of embryos is routine practice nowadays, convincing evidence regarding the safety for the offspring is sparse. Literature data comprise results from mostly small-sized studies or studies including only Day 3 or only Day 5 vitrified embryo transfers. Overall, better or comparable perinatal outcomes, in terms of higher birthweight and lower risk for small-for-gestational age or for low birthweight, have been reported for singletons born after vitrified embryo transfer compared with fresh embryo transfer. According to the single available study with sufficient sample size, the congenital malformation rate was found to be comparable after vitrified and fresh embryo transfers. Data were collected from 960 cycles after transfer of embryos vitrified on Day 3 (n = 457) or Day 5 (n = 503) and from 1644 cycles after fresh embryo transfer on Day 3 (n = 853) or Day 5 (n = 791), performed between 2008 and 2013 at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the university hospital UZ Brussel. Outcome measures were neonatal health in terms of birthweight, small-for-gestational age, prematurity rate, perinatal death and major/minor/total malformation rate. Perinatal health parameters of 11 stillborns and 1061 live borns (827 singletons and 234 twins) in the vitrified group and of 28 stillborns and 1838 live borns (1374 singletons and 464 twins) in the fresh embryo group are reported. Within 3 months after birth, children in the two study groups were assessed clinically with special attention to congenital malformations by a paediatrician blinded to the type of embryo

  4. Development of a flood-induced health risk prediction model for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, many floods occur in developing or tropical regions where the impact on public health is substantial, including death and injury, drinking water, endemic disease, and so on. Although these flood impacts on public health have been investigated, integrated management of floods and flood-induced health risks is technically and institutionally limited. Specifically, while the use of climatic and hydrologic forecasts for disaster management has been highlighted, analogous predictions for forecasting the magnitude and impact of health risks are lacking, as is the infrastructure for health early warning systems, particularly in developing countries. In this study, we develop flood-induced health risk prediction model for African regions using season-ahead flood predictions with climate drivers and a variety of physical and socio-economic information, such as local hazard, exposure, resilience, and health vulnerability indicators. Skillful prediction of flood and flood-induced health risks can contribute to practical pre- and post-disaster responses in both local- and global-scales, and may eventually be integrated into multi-hazard early warning systems for informed advanced planning and management. This is especially attractive for areas with limited observations and/or little capacity to develop flood-induced health risk warning systems.

  5. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...... can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  6. Using "big data" to capture overall health status: properties and predictive value of a claims-based health risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Modrek, Sepideh; Kubo, Jessica; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Cullen, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Investigators across many fields often struggle with how best to capture an individual's overall health status, with options including both subjective and objective measures. With the increasing availability of "big data," researchers can now take advantage of novel metrics of health status. These predictive algorithms were initially developed to forecast and manage expenditures, yet they represent an underutilized tool that could contribute significantly to health research. In this paper, we describe the properties and possible applications of one such "health risk score," the DxCG Intelligence tool. We link claims and administrative datasets on a cohort of U.S. workers during the period 1996-2011 (N = 14,161). We examine the risk score's association with incident diagnoses of five disease conditions, and we link employee data with the National Death Index to characterize its relationship with mortality. We review prior studies documenting the risk score's association with other health and non-health outcomes, including healthcare utilization, early retirement, and occupational injury. We find that the risk score is associated with outcomes across a variety of health and non-health domains. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of this tool in multiple fields of research and illustrate its utility as a measure of overall health status for epidemiologists and other health researchers.

  7. Towards Improved Linkage of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in Health: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Nicola; Rutherford, Shannon; Mackey, Brendan; Chu, Cordia

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and climate-sensitive disasters significantly impact health. Linking Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) is essential for addressing these ever present, complex and increasing risks. Recent calls have been made to build these links in health. However, there is a need to clearly articulate why linking DRR and CCA is important in health. Furthermore, little is known about how DRR and CCA should be linked in health. By extensively examining relevant literature, this review presents the current state of knowledge of linking DRR and CCA in health. This includes the potential for maximising conceptual synergies such as building resilience, and reducing vulnerability and risk. Additionally, technical and operational synergies are identified to link DRR and CCA in health, including: policy, Early Warning Systems, vulnerability and risk assessment, health systems strengthening, infrastructure resilience, disaster preparedness and response, and health impact pathways. Public health actors have a central role in building these links due to their expertise, work functions, and experience in addressing complex health risks. The review concludes with recommendations for future research, including how to better link DRR and CCA in health; and the opportunities, challenges and enablers to build and sustain these links. PMID:29670057

  8. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Prochaska, John D.; Nolen, Alexandra B.; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are cu...

  9. Reproductive health education and sexual risk among high-risk female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.

  10. Pre-Feedback Risk Expectancies and Reception of Low-Risk Health Feedback: Absolute and Comparative Lack of Reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamp, Martina; Renner, Britta

    2016-11-01

    Personalised health-risk assessment is one of the most common components of health promotion programs. Previous research on responses to health risk feedback has commonly focused on the reception of bad news (high-risk feedback). The reception of low-risk feedback has been comparably neglected since it is assumed that good news is reassuring and readily received. However, field studies suggest mixed responses to low-risk health feedback. Accordingly, we examine whether pre-feedback risk expectancies can mitigate the reassuring effects of good news. In two studies (N = 187, N = 565), after assessing pre-feedback risk expectancies, participants received low-risk personalised feedback about their own risk of developing (the fictitious) Tucson Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (TCFS). Study 2 also included peer TCFS risk status feedback. Afterwards, self- and peer-related risk perception for TCFS was assessed. In both studies, participants who expected to be at high risk but received good news (unexpected low-risk feedback) showed absolute lack of reassurance. Specifically, they felt at significantly greater TCFS risk than participants who received expected good news. Moreover, the unexpected low-risk group even believed that their risk was as high as (Study 1) or higher (Study 2) than that of their peers (comparative lack of reassurance). Results support the notion that high pre-feedback risk expectancies can mitigate absolute and comparative reassuring effects of good news. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. Environmental Health Risk Assesement in Flood-prone Area in Tamangapa Sub-District Makassar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Ibrahim Abdul; Basir, Basir

    2018-05-01

    Environmental health in Indonesia is still caution to concern, poor sanitation in Indonesia is characterized by the high incidence of infectious diseases in society. The society in flood-prone area has a high-risk exposure on the disease based on the environment because they live in disaster-prone area. This research aimed to describe the condition of sanitary facilities and risky behavior on public health in flood-prone areas in Manggala district particularly in Tamangapa sub-district of Makassar. This reserach uses an observation method with a descriptive approach. The data is processed by using SPSS and Arc View GIS applications. Environmental risk category is determined by the approach of Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA). The results showed that the flood-prone area in RT 04 RW 06 was included in very high-risk category at 229 with an index value of environmental health risks 212-229. Meanwhile, RT 04 RW 05 was in the category of low risk in the amount of 155 with an index of 155-173. Environmental health hazards identified in Tamangapa flood-prone areas sub-district includes domestic sources of clean water, domestic wastewater, and household garbage.

  12. Critical review of methods for risk ranking of food related hazards, based on risks for human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; van Asselt, E. D.; Raley, M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to critically review methods for ranking risks related to food safety and dietary hazards on the basis of their anticipated human health impacts. A literature review was performed to identify and characterize methods for risk ranking from the fields of food, environmental science......, and the risk ranking method characterized. The methods were then clustered - based on their characteristics - into eleven method categories. These categories included: risk assessment, comparative risk assessment, risk ratio method, scoring method, cost of illness, health adjusted life years, multi......-criteria decision analysis, risk matrix, flow charts/decision trees, stated preference techniques and expert synthesis. Method categories were described by their characteristics, weaknesses and strengths, data resources, and fields of applications. It was concluded there is no single best method for risk ranking...

  13. Awareness of Measures for Reducing Health Risk of Using Low-Quality Irrigation Water in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayilla, Winfrida; Magayane, Flavianus; Konradsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the awareness of farmers, vegetable traders, and consumers on the health risk reduction measures when using low-quality water in irrigated agriculture, and identifies farmers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the health risk reduction measures. Data collection methods includ...... that health education targeting at specific exposed group and their social-demographic characteristics is the potential measure in raising awareness of the potential health risk reduction measures when using low-quality irrigation water in irrigated agriculture.......The study examined the awareness of farmers, vegetable traders, and consumers on the health risk reduction measures when using low-quality water in irrigated agriculture, and identifies farmers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the health risk reduction measures. Data collection methods included...... a questionnaire survey with 60 farmers, 60 vegetable traders, and 70 consumers and four focus group discussions. General results show a low level of awareness of the health risk reduction measures in using low-quality irrigation water in all respondents’ categories. However, health protection measures...

  14. Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

  15. Health shocks and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Simon; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We empirically assess whether a health shock influences individual risk aversion. We use grip strength data to obtain an objective health shock indicator. In order to account for the non-random nature of our data regression-adjusted matching is employed. Risk preferences are traditionally assumed to be constant. However, we find that a health shock increases individual risk aversion. The finding is robust to a series of sensitivity analyses and persists for at least four years after the shock. Income changes do not seem to be the driving mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  17. A computerized program to educate adults about environmental health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.; Dewey, J.; Schur, P.

    1993-01-01

    A computerized program called Environmental Risk Appraisal (ERA) has been developed to educate adults about environmental health risks and to motivate positive behavior change. A questionnaire addresses issues such as radon, environmental tobacco smoke, pesticides, lead, air and water pollution, and work-site risks. Responses are computer processed in seconds to produce an individualized computer printout containing a score, educational messages, and phone numbers to call for more information. A variety of audiences including environmental groups, worksites, women's organizations and health professionals were represented in this study of 269 participants. Many respondents indicated they were exposed to important environmental hazards and nearly 40 percent reported they had, or might have had, an environmental related illness at some time. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program is effective as an educational tool in raising awareness of environmental health risks

  18. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  19. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  20. Radiological health risks from accidents during transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    Potential radiological health risks from severe accident scenarios during the transportation of spent nuclear fuels are estimated. These extremely low probability, but potentially credible, scenarios are characterized by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Modal Study in terms of the maximum credible structural responses and/or the maximum credible cask temperature responses. In some accident scenarios, the spent nuclear fuel casks are assumed to be breached, resulting in the release of radioactivity to the atmosphere. Models have been developed to estimate radiological health consequences, including potential short-term exposures and health effects to individuals and potential long-term environmental dose commitments and health effects to the population. The population risks are calculated using state-level data, and the resulting overall health risks are compared for several levels of cleanup effort to determine the relative effects on long-term risks to the population in the event of an accident. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Environmental health risk assessment: Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Somers, E.; Winthrop, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Most industrialized nations have come to rely on a variety of systems for energy production, both of a conventional and non-conventional nature. In the paper, the spectrum of energy systems currently in use in Canada is outlined along with their potential health risks. Several examples of environmental health studies involving both outdoor and indoor air pollution related to energy production in Canada are reported. The limitations of current technologies for assessing health risks are discussed and possible approaches to managing energy related health risks are indicated. (author)

  2. Inherent health and environmental risk assessment of nanostructured metal oxide production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabifard, Mina; Arjmandi, Reza; Rashidi, Alimorad; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2018-01-10

    The health and environmental effects of chemical processes can be assessed during the initial stage of their production. In this paper, the Chemical Screening Tool for Exposure and Environmental Release (ChemSTEER) software was used to compare the health and environmental risks of spray pyrolysis and wet chemical techniques for the fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide on a semi-industrial scale with a capacity of 300 kg/day in Iran. The pollution sources identified in each production process were pairwise compared in Expert Choice software using indicators including respiratory damage, skin damage, and environmental damages including air, water, and soil pollution. The synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide using the wet chemical technique (with 0.523 wt%) leads to lower health and environmental risks compared to when spray pyrolysis is used (with 0.477 wt%). The health and environmental risk assessment of nanomaterial production processes can help select safer processes, modify the operation conditions, and select or modify raw materials that can help eliminate the risks.

  3. The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

  4. The correlates and course of multiple health risk behaviour in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Daniel R; Viner, Russell M

    2016-05-31

    Health risk behaviours often co-occur in adolescence. This may be partially explained by a set of common risk and protective factors. The current study examines the association between risk behaviours throughout adolescence and identifies common risk factors for multiple risk behaviour in late adolescence. We use data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We examined the association between risk behaviours at age 14 (n = 15,588), age 16 (n = 12,416) and age 19 (n = 9,548). The associations between age 19 risk behaviour and earlier risk behaviours and risk and protective factors were assessed longitudinally. Health risk behaviours included smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, delinquency and unsafe sexual behaviour. All risk behaviours were found to be associated with other risk behaviours with associations weakening through adolescence. A number of sociodemographic, interpersonal, school and family factors at age 14 predicted risk behaviour and multiple risk behaviour at 19, though predictors for heavy alcohol use often differed from other health risk behaviours. Past risk behaviour was a strong predictor of age 19 risk behaviour though many involved in only one form of risk behaviour in mid-adolescence do not progress to multiple risk behaviour. Our findings reaffirm the links between health risk behaviours, but these diminish throughout adolescence with multiple risk behaviour usually initiated in mid-adolescence. Multiple risk behaviour is initiated in early or mid adolescence with a number of common risk factors explaining the co-occurrence of risk behaviours.

  5. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  6. Health assessment of French university students and risk factors associated with mental health disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Tran

    Full Text Available The first year of university is a particularly stressful period and can impact academic performance and students' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health and lifestyle of undergraduates and assess risk factors associated with psychiatric symptoms.Between September 2012 and June 2013, we included all undergraduate students who underwent compulsory a medical visit at the university medical service in Nice (France during which they were screened for potential diseases during a diagnostic interview. Data were collected prospectively in the CALCIUM database (Consultations Assistés par Logiciel pour les Centres Inter-Universitaire de Médecine and included information about the students' lifestyle (living conditions, dietary behavior, physical activity, use of recreational drugs. The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms related to depression, anxiety and panic attacks was assessed and risk factors for these symptoms were analyzed using logistic regression.A total of 4,184 undergraduates were included. Prevalence for depression, anxiety and panic attacks were 12.6%, 7.6% and 1.0%, respectively. During the 30 days preceding the evaluation, 0.6% of the students regularly drank alcohol, 6.3% were frequent-to-heavy tobacco smokers, and 10.0% smoked marijuana. Dealing with financial difficulties and having learning disabilities were associated with psychiatric symptoms. Students who were dissatisfied with their living conditions and those with poor dietary behavior were at risk of depression. Being a woman and living alone were associated with anxiety. Students who screened positively for any psychiatric disorder assessed were at a higher risk of having another psychiatric disorder concomitantly.The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in undergraduate students is low but the rate of students at risk of developing chronic disease is far from being negligible. Understanding predictors for these symptoms may improve students' health by

  7. Health assessment of French university students and risk factors associated with mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Antoine; Tran, Laurie; Geghre, Nicolas; Darmon, David; Rampal, Marion; Brandone, Diane; Gozzo, Jean-Michel; Haas, Hervé; Rebouillat-Savy, Karine; Caci, Hervé; Avillach, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The first year of university is a particularly stressful period and can impact academic performance and students' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health and lifestyle of undergraduates and assess risk factors associated with psychiatric symptoms. Between September 2012 and June 2013, we included all undergraduate students who underwent compulsory a medical visit at the university medical service in Nice (France) during which they were screened for potential diseases during a diagnostic interview. Data were collected prospectively in the CALCIUM database (Consultations Assistés par Logiciel pour les Centres Inter-Universitaire de Médecine) and included information about the students' lifestyle (living conditions, dietary behavior, physical activity, use of recreational drugs). The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms related to depression, anxiety and panic attacks was assessed and risk factors for these symptoms were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 4,184 undergraduates were included. Prevalence for depression, anxiety and panic attacks were 12.6%, 7.6% and 1.0%, respectively. During the 30 days preceding the evaluation, 0.6% of the students regularly drank alcohol, 6.3% were frequent-to-heavy tobacco smokers, and 10.0% smoked marijuana. Dealing with financial difficulties and having learning disabilities were associated with psychiatric symptoms. Students who were dissatisfied with their living conditions and those with poor dietary behavior were at risk of depression. Being a woman and living alone were associated with anxiety. Students who screened positively for any psychiatric disorder assessed were at a higher risk of having another psychiatric disorder concomitantly. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in undergraduate students is low but the rate of students at risk of developing chronic disease is far from being negligible. Understanding predictors for these symptoms may improve students' health by implementing targeted

  8. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  9. Age and gender differences in health risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungHo; Park, InKyoung; Kang, SooJin

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated how adolescents perceive their own health risks and compare their own likelihood of health risks with that of others of the same age. Moreover, the study identified the differences in health risk perceptions between males and females. A total of 625 adolescents (314 males and 311 females) from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul, voluntarily participated. In order to measure health risk perceptions a Korean version of self-other risk judgments profile was used. The findings indicated that study participants, regardless of gender and age, tend to underestimate their vulnerability to majority of health risk events. Furthermore, there were significant gender and age differences in health risk perception and perception bias in all health risk domains. The present study suggests that further research is needed to identify realistic and unrealistic perception mechanism for a large number of people from different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2018.

  10. Assessing Heat Health Risk for Sustainability in Beijing’s Urban Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this paper, we propose an improved approach to quantitatively assess Beijing’s heat health risk based on three factors from hazard, vulnerability and especially environment which is considered as an independent factor because different land use/cover types have different influence on ambient air temperatures under the Urban Heat Island effect. The results show that the heat health risk of Beijing demonstrates a spatial-temporal pattern with higher risk in the urban area, lower risk in the borderland between urban and rural area, and lowest risk in the rural area, and the total risk fluctuated dramatically during 2008–2011. To be more specific, the heat health risk was clearly higher in 2009 and 2010 than in 2008 and 2011. Further analysis with the urban area at sub-district level signifies that the impervious surface (urban area such as buildings, roads, et al. ratio is of high correlation with the heat health risk. The validation results show that the proposed method improved the accuracy of heat health risk assessment. We recommend that policy makers should develop efficient urban planning to accomplish Beijing’s sustainable development.

  11. Health risk assessment standards of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Stankiewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Threat for human health appears during a massive cyanobacteria bloom in potable water used for human consumption or in basins used for recreational purposes. General health risk assessment standards and preventive measures to be taken by sanitation service were presented in scope of: – evaluation of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites / water bodies, – procedures in case of cyanobacteria bloom, including health risk assessment and decision making process to protect users’ health at bathing sites, – preventive measures, to be taken in case of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites and basins, where bathing sites are located.

  12. Ecological and human health sediment risk assessment for a hydrocarbon-impacted site in Lake Athabasca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, B.; Wagenaar, A.; LaPorte, J.; Misfeldt, G.; Chatwell, I.

    2009-01-01

    The operation of a public port facility near Uranium City, Saskatchewan has resulted in elevated levels of hydrocarbons in soil, groundwater and sediment. Remedial action in the uplands portion of the site was successful and a risk management approach was initiated for the aquatic portion of the site in order to resolve human health and ecological issues. Ecological risks were assessed using a sediment weight-of-evidence approach involving chemistry, toxicity, bioaccumulation and benthic community structure. Human health risks were assessed via fish consumption, water ingestion and direct contact according to Health Canada guidance. This presentation included an overview of the general risk assessment approach as well as site-specific data and findings. The primary focus was on the challenges confronted during the risk assessment process, such as the need to include alkylated PAHs as a COPC in the human health risk assessment and to evaluate ongoing propeller wash and sediment resuspension for sediment risk management, even though the facility is no longer operational.

  13. Critical review of methods for risk ranking of food-related hazards, based on risks for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Van Asselt, E D; Raley, M; Poulsen, M; Korsgaard, H; Bredsdorff, L; Nauta, M; D'agostino, M; Coles, D; Marvin, H J P; Frewer, L J

    2018-01-22

    This study aimed to critically review methods for ranking risks related to food safety and dietary hazards on the basis of their anticipated human health impacts. A literature review was performed to identify and characterize methods for risk ranking from the fields of food, environmental science and socio-economic sciences. The review used a predefined search protocol, and covered the bibliographic databases Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Web of Sciences, and PubMed over the period 1993-2013. All references deemed relevant, on the basis of predefined evaluation criteria, were included in the review, and the risk ranking method characterized. The methods were then clustered-based on their characteristics-into eleven method categories. These categories included: risk assessment, comparative risk assessment, risk ratio method, scoring method, cost of illness, health adjusted life years (HALY), multi-criteria decision analysis, risk matrix, flow charts/decision trees, stated preference techniques and expert synthesis. Method categories were described by their characteristics, weaknesses and strengths, data resources, and fields of applications. It was concluded there is no single best method for risk ranking. The method to be used should be selected on the basis of risk manager/assessor requirements, data availability, and the characteristics of the method. Recommendations for future use and application are provided.

  14. Exploring sexual risks in a forensic mental health hospital: perspectives from patients and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Chris; Happell, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Patients utilising forensic mental health inpatient services experience a range of sexual risks, including vulnerability to sexual exploitation and exposure to sexually transmissible infections. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the issue of sexual risks from the standpoint of patients and the nurses who work closely with them in inpatient secure settings. This article presents findings from a qualitative exploratory study, which investigated the views of patients and nurses about sexual relationships in forensic mental health settings. Risk was a major theme arising from the data and is the focus of this article. Subthemes from nurse participants included sexual safety, sexual vulnerability, unplanned pregnancies, and male sexuality issues. Subthemes from patients included risks associated with sexual activity, access to information and sexual health care, unplanned pregnancies, vulnerability, and male sexuality issues. Knowledge about these sexual risks by patients and nurses were well articulated, however information and assistance were considered by patients to be less than satisfactory in improving their knowledge or in providing the support they considered important to reduce sexual risks. The issue of risk needs to be addressed, and nurses would be well placed to contribute; however they require education to improve their ability to provide sexual health education to patients along with strategies to ensure patients receive the support and services they require to reduce their exposure to sexual risks.

  15. Sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandor, Abdullah; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Higgins, Agnes; Lorimer, Karen; Smith, Shubulade; Wylie, Kevan; Wong, Ruth

    2015-02-12

    Despite variability in sexual activity among people with severe mental illness, high-risk sexual behavior (e.g. unprotected intercourse, multiple partners, sex trade and illicit drug use) is common. Sexual health risk reduction interventions (such as educational and behavioral interventions, motivational exercises, counselling and service delivery), developed and implemented for people with severe mental illness, may improve participants' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs behaviors or practices (including assertiveness skills) and could lead to a reduction in risky sexual behavior. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness. Thirteen electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO) were searched to August 2014, and supplemented by hand-searching relevant articles and contacting experts. All controlled trials (randomized or non-randomized) comparing the effectiveness of sexual health risk reduction interventions with usual care for individuals living in the community with severe mental illness were included. Outcomes included a range of biological, behavioral and proxy endpoints. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence. Thirteen controlled trials (all from the USA) were included. Although there was no clear and consistent evidence that interventions reduce the total number of sex partners or improved behavioral intentions in sexual risk behavior, positive effects were generally observed in condom use, condom protected intercourse and on measures of HIV knowledge, attitudes to condom use and sexual behaviors and practices. However, the robustness of these findings is low due to the large between study variability, small sample sizes and low-to-moderate quality of included studies. There is insufficient evidence at present to fully support or reject the identified sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness. Given the

  16. Nanomedicine and epigenome. Possible health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkova, Bozena; Dusinska, Maria; Gabelova, Alena

    2017-11-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that combines knowledge of nanotechnology and material science with pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences, aiming to develop nanodrugs with increased efficacy and safety. Compared to conventional therapeutics, nanodrugs manifest higher stability and circulation time, reduced toxicity and improved targeted delivery. Despite the obvious benefit, the accumulation of imaging agents and nanocarriers in the body following their therapeutic or diagnostic application generates concerns about their safety for human health. Numerous toxicology studies have demonstrated that exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) might pose serious risks to humans. Epigenetic modifications, representing a non-genotoxic mechanism of toxicant-induced health effects, are becoming recognized as playing a potential causative role in the aetiology of many diseases including cancer. This review i) provides an overview of recent advances in medical applications of NMs and ii) summarizes current evidence on their possible epigenetic toxicity. To discern potential health risks of NMs, since current data are mostly based upon in vitro and animal models, a better understanding of functional relationships between NM exposure, epigenetic deregulation and phenotype is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elements of a Workplace Culture of Health, Perceived Organizational Support for Health, and Lifestyle Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Julianne; Cluff, Laurie; Lang, Jason; Matson-Koffman, Dyann; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the impact of elements of a workplace culture of health (COH) on employees' perceptions of employer support for health and lifestyle risk. We used 2013 and 2015 survey data from the National Healthy Worksite Program, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led initiative to help workplaces implement health-promoting interventions. Forty-one employers completed the CDC Worksite Health Scorecard to document organizational changes. Eight hundred twenty-five employees provided data to evaluate changes in their health and attitudes. We defined elements of a COH as environmental, policy, and programmatic supports; leadership and coworker support; employee engagement (motivational interventions); and strategic communication. Outcomes included scores of employees' perceptions of employer support for health and lifestyle risk derived from self-reported physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco use. We estimated effects using multilevel regression models. At the employee level and across time, regression coefficients show positive associations between leadership support, coworker support, employee engagement, and perceived support for health ( P leadership support in 2015 only ( P leadership and coworker support) tend to be associated with perceived support for health, while workplace elements (environmental and policy supports) are more associated with lifestyle risk. Employers need to confront relational and workplace elements together to build a COH.

  18. A Score for Risk of Thrombolysis-Associated Hemorrhage Including Pretreatment with Statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebun Erdur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH after intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke is associated with a poor functional outcome. We aimed to develop a score assessing risk of sICH including novel putative predictors—namely, pretreatment with statins and severe renal impairment.MethodsWe analyzed our local cohort (Berlin of patients receiving rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke between 2006 and 2016. Outcome was sICH according to ECASS-III criteria. A multiple regression model identified variables associated with sICH and receiver operating characteristics were calculated for the best discriminatory model for sICH. The model was validated in an independent thrombolysis cohort (Basel.ResultssICH occurred in 53 (4.0% of 1,336 patients in the derivation cohort. Age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, systolic blood pressure on admission, blood glucose on admission, and prior medication with medium- or high-dose statins were associated with sICH and included into the risk of intracranial hemorrhage score. The validation cohort included 983 patients of whom 33 (3.4% had a sICH. c-Statistics for sICH was 0.72 (95% CI 0.66–0.79 in the derivation cohort and 0.69 (95% CI 0.60–0.77 in the independent validation cohort. Inclusion of severe renal impairment did not improve the score.ConclusionWe developed a simple score with fair discriminating capability to predict rt-PA-related sICH by adding prior statin use to known prognostic factors of sICH. This score may help clinicians to identify patients with higher risk of sICH requiring intensive monitoring.

  19. Work stress and health risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Rödel, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    This contribution discusses current knowledge of associations between psychosocial stress at work and health risk behavior, in particular cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight, by reviewing findings from major studies in the field published between 1989 and 2006. Psychosocial stress at work is measured by the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. Health risk behavior was analyzed in the broader context of a health-related Western lifestyle with socially and economically patterned practices of consumption. Overall, the review, based on 46 studies, only modestly supports the hypothesis of a consistent association between work stress and health risk behavior. The relatively strongest relationships have been found with regard to heavy alcohol consumption among men, overweight, and the co-manifestation of several risks. Suggestions for further research are given, and the need to reduce stressful experience in the framework of worksite health promotion programs is emphasized.

  20. Health-Based Capitation Risk Adjustment in Minnesota Public Health Care Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Gregory A.; Edwards, Kevan R.; Knutson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This article documents the history and implementation of health-based capitation risk adjustment in Minnesota public health care programs, and identifies key implementation issues. Capitation payments in these programs are risk adjusted using an historical, health plan risk score, based on concurrent risk assessment. Phased implementation of capitation risk adjustment for these programs began January 1, 2000. Minnesota's experience with capitation risk adjustment suggests that: (1) implementation can accelerate encounter data submission, (2) administrative decisions made during implementation can create issues that impact payment model performance, and (3) changes in diagnosis data management during implementation may require changes to the payment model. PMID:25372356

  1. The health risk of the agricultural production in potentially contaminated sites: an environmental-health risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Russo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are often interested by pollution phenomena generated by agricultural activities with a high use of pesticides and/or by anthropic activities, such as industrial plants or illegal waste disposal sites, which may cause even long-range contamination. The risk for human health from the pollutants present in the environment can be quantitatively evaluated by the environmental health risk analysis set out in the Italian Legislative Decree no. 152/2006 (Italian Regulation, 2006. This analysis is the best technical-normative tool to estimate the health risks linked to the pollutants present in the environment but it does not consider the specificity of agricultural soils or the contamination of agricultural products. This study aims to provide this missing technical-normative data by identifying and applying a suitable methodology to evaluate the health risk caused by the ingestion of agricultural products grown in contaminated soils. The risk analysis was applied to two contaminated areas in southern Italy using an innovative methodology based on widely accepted parameters for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs soil-plant bio-transfer factor in the case of horticultural crops. In addition, some concentration limits of PAHs in agricultural soils are proposed that may be of help to the competent authorities (health agencies, local authorities in delineating the areas requiring strict health surveillance of the food products cultivated.

  2. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Perceptions of environmental health risks among residents in the "Toxic Doughnut": opportunities for risk screening and community mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brandi M; Hall, Eric S

    2015-12-10

    Surrounded by landfills, and toxic and hazardous facilities, Altgeld Gardens is located in a "toxic doughnut". With high rates of environmentally-related conditions, residents have called for a community-based environmental health assessment to improve overall health in their community. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes and beliefs of environmental health risks of Altgeld's residents which would assist community organizing efforts and provide the groundwork for a community-based environmental health assessment. A questionnaire was designed and administered to 42 Altgeld residents who also participated in focus groups to assess their perceptions of environmental health risks. All participants were Altgeld residents for at least two years and were fairly representative of the broader community. Physical and social hazards were primarily identified as posing risks to participants' family and the broader community. Physical hazards included the dumping of hazardous waste and landfills; social hazards were crime and drugs. These findings have been useful in community organizing efforts and in program planning for local community-based organizations and public health agencies. The results have also been used to prioritize health and environmental risk issues impacting the community.

  4. Research on Occupational Safety, Health Management and Risk Control Technology in Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu-Jie; Cao, Qing-Gui; Yu, Kai; Wang, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2018-04-26

    This paper studies the occupational safety and health management methods as well as risk control technology associated with the coal mining industry, including daily management of occupational safety and health, identification and assessment of risks, early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks, etc.; also, a B/S mode software (Geting Coal Mine, Jining, Shandong, China), i.e., Coal Mine Occupational Safety and Health Management and Risk Control System, is developed to attain the aforementioned objectives, namely promoting the coal mine occupational safety and health management based on early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks. Furthermore, the practical effectiveness and the associated pattern for applying this software package to coal mining is analyzed. The study indicates that the presently developed coal mine occupational safety and health management and risk control technology and the associated software can support the occupational safety and health management efforts in coal mines in a standardized and effective manner. It can also control the accident risks scientifically and effectively; its effective implementation can further improve the coal mine occupational safety and health management mechanism, and further enhance the risk management approaches. Besides, its implementation indicates that the occupational safety and health management and risk control technology has been established based on a benign cycle involving dynamic feedback and scientific development, which can provide a reliable assurance to the safe operation of coal mines.

  5. Health risks maps. Modelling of air quality as a tool to map health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Doorn, R.; Hegger, C.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental departments consider geographical maps with information on air quality as the final product of a complicated process of measuring, modelling and presentation. Municipal health departments consider such maps a useful starting point to solve the problem whether air pollution causes health risks for citizens. The answer to this question cannot be reduced to checking if threshold limit values are exceeded. Based on the results of measurements and modelling of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in air, the health significance of air pollution caused by nitrogen dioxide is illuminated. A proposal is presented to map health risks of air pollution by using the results of measurements and modelling of air pollution. 7 refs

  6. Financial and clinical risk in health care reform: a view from below.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pam; Mackintosh, Maureen; Ross, Fiona; Clayton, Julie; Price, Linnie; Christian, Sara; Byng, Richard; Allan, Helen

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines how the interaction between financial and clinical risk at two critical phases of health care reform in England has been experienced by frontline staff caring for vulnerable patients with long term conditions. The paper draws on contracting theory and two interdisciplinary and in-depth qualitative research studies undertaken in 1995 and 2007. Methods common to both studies included documentary analysis and interviews with managers and front line professionals. The 1995 study employed action-based research and included observation of community care; the 2007 study used realistic evaluation and included engagement with service user groups. In both reform processes, financial risk was increasingly devolved to frontline practitioners and smaller organizational units such as GP commissioning groups, with payment by unit of activity, aimed at changing professionals' behaviour. This financing increased perceived clinical risk and fragmented the delivery of health and social care services requiring staff efforts to improve collaboration and integration, and created some perverse incentives and staff demoralisation. Health services reform should only shift financial risk to frontline professionals to the extent that it can be efficiently borne. Where team work is required, contracts should reward collaborative multi-professional activity.

  7. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  8. Health-risk correlates of video-game playing among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James B; Mays, Darren; Sargent Weaver, Stephanie; Kannenberg, Wendi; Hopkins, Gary L; Eroğlu, Doğan; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2009-10-01

    Although considerable research suggests that health-risk factors vary as a function of video-game playing among young people, direct evidence of such linkages among adults is lacking. The goal of this study was to distinguish adult video-game players from nonplayers on the basis of personal and environmental factors. It was hypothesized that adults who play video games, compared to nonplayers, would evidence poorer perceptions of their health, greater reliance on Internet-facilitated social support, more extensive media use, and higher BMI. It was further hypothesized that different patterns of linkages between video-game playing and health-risk factors would emerge by gender. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey was conducted in 2006 with a sample of adults from the Seattle-Tacoma area (n=562), examining health risks; media use behaviors and perceptions, including those related to video-game playing; and demographics. Statistical analyses conducted in 2008 to compare video-game players and nonplayers included bivariate descriptive statistics, stepwise discriminant analysis, and ANOVA. A total of 45.1% of respondents reported playing video games. Female video-game players reported greater depression (M=1.57) and poorer health status (M=3.90) than female nonplayers (depression, M=1.13; health status, M=3.57). Male video-game players reported higher BMI (M=5.31) and more Internet use time (M=2.55) than male nonplayers (BMI, M=5.19; Internet use, M=2.36). The only determinant common to female and male video-game players was greater reliance on the Internet for social support. A number of determinants distinguished video-game players from nonplayers, and these factors differed substantially between men and women. The data illustrate the need for further research among adults to clarify how to use digital opportunities more effectively to promote health and prevent disease.

  9. New approaches in human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Khaled; Carlsen, Anders; Rautio, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009-2014; www.arcrisk.eu).

  10. Towards a framework for teaching about information technology risk in health care: Simulating threats to health data and patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Borycki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author describes work towards developing an integrative framework for educating health information technology professionals about technology risk. The framework considers multiple sources of risk to health data quality and integrity that can result from the use of health information technology (HIT and can be used to teach health professional students about these risks when using health technologies. This framework encompasses issues and problems that may arise from varied sources, including intentional alterations (e.g. resulting from hacking and security breaches as well as unintentional breaches and corruption of data (e.g. resulting from technical problems, or from technology-induced errors. The framework that is described has several levels: the level of human factors and usability of HIT, the level of monitoring of security and accuracy, the HIT architectural level, the level of operational and physical checks, the level of healthcare quality assurance policies and the data risk management strategies level. Approaches to monitoring and simulation of risk are also discussed, including a discussion of an innovative approach to monitoring potential quality issues. This is followed by a discussion of the application (using computer simulations to educate both students and health information technology professionals about the impact and spread of technology-induced and related types of data errors involving HIT.

  11. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  12. Managing the risks of on-site health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M

    2011-11-01

    This review sought to assess compliance concerns, determine risk management strategies, and identify opportunities for future research to contribute to employers' understanding of the laws and regulations that apply to on-site care. A comprehensive review of databases, professional organizations' websites, and journals resulted in 22 publications reporting on the consequences of noncompliance among on-site health centers accepted for inclusion. None of those studies reported a study design or quantifiable outcome data. Two noncompliance themes were repeated among the publications. First, direct penalties included fines, civil actions, loss of licensure, and, potentially, criminal charges. Second, noncompliance also resulted in indirect costs such as employee mistrust and lowered standards of care, which jeopardize on-site health centers' ability to demonstrate a return on investment. Further research with rigorous methodology is needed to inform employer decisions about on-site health services and associated risk management. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Health risks of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, C M; Stellman, S D

    1986-01-01

    Passive or involuntary smoking is the inhalation of smoke which escapes directly into the air from the lit end of a burning cigarette. This unfiltered smoke contains the same toxic components of the mainstream smoke inhaled directly by the smoker, including numerous carcinogens, many in greater concentrations. It has long been known that exposure to this type of smoke leads to increased respiratory and other adverse health conditions in non-smokers, especially children. During the past five years, evidence has been accumulating that risk of lung cancer is also higher, particularly in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Despite uncertainties and differences in interpretation of various cancer studies, there is ample justification for public health measures now in place or proposed, such as restriction or elimination of smoking in the workplace and in public places.

  14. Occupational risk involving students of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Oliveira Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social representations of occupational risks involving students in the area of health. Method: Exploratory research with 160 students from nursing, medicine and dentistry, through interviews. The data were processed in ALCESTE 4.8 and lexical analysis done by descending hierarchical classification. Results: In four semantic classes, namely: occupational risks involving students in the area of health, the work environment and occupational risks, exposure to accidents with sharps and adoption of standard precautions as biosecurity measures. Conclusion: Students healthcare represent occupational risks, such as a concern for the prevention of cross infection in the workplace, should both professionals and students of health, adopt standard precautions and biosecurity measures in the environment work.

  15. Residential building codes, affordability, and health protection: a risk-tradeoff approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitt, J K; Belsky, E S; Levy, J I; Graham, J D

    1999-12-01

    Residential building codes intended to promote health and safety may produce unintended countervailing risks by adding to the cost of construction. Higher construction costs increase the price of new homes and may increase health and safety risks through "income" and "stock" effects. The income effect arises because households that purchase a new home have less income remaining for spending on other goods that contribute to health and safety. The stock effect arises because suppression of new-home construction leads to slower replacement of less safe housing units. These countervailing risks are not presently considered in code debates. We demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the approximate magnitude of countervailing risks by combining the income effect with three relatively well understood and significant home-health risks. We estimate that a code change that increases the nationwide cost of constructing and maintaining homes by $150 (0.1% of the average cost to build a single-family home) would induce offsetting risks yielding between 2 and 60 premature fatalities or, including morbidity effects, between 20 and 800 lost quality-adjusted life years (both discounted at 3%) each year the code provision remains in effect. To provide a net health benefit, the code change would need to reduce risk by at least this amount. Future research should refine these estimates, incorporate quantitative uncertainty analysis, and apply a full risk-tradeoff approach to real-world case studies of proposed code changes.

  16. Threshold Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communication for Health Risks Related to Hazardous Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hoppe, Brenda O; Convertino, Matteo

    2018-04-10

    Emergency risk communication (ERC) programs that activate when the ambient temperature is expected to cross certain extreme thresholds are widely used to manage relevant public health risks. In practice, however, the effectiveness of these thresholds has rarely been examined. The goal of this study is to test if the activation criteria based on extreme temperature thresholds, both cold and heat, capture elevated health risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. A distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) combined with a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model is used to derive the exposure-response functions between daily maximum heat index and mortality (1998-2014) and morbidity (emergency department visits; 2007-2014). Specific causes considered include cardiovascular, respiratory, renal diseases, and diabetes. Six extreme temperature thresholds, corresponding to 1st-3rd and 97th-99th percentiles of local exposure history, are examined. All six extreme temperature thresholds capture significantly increased relative risks for all-cause mortality and morbidity. However, the cause-specific analyses reveal heterogeneity. Extreme cold thresholds capture increased mortality and morbidity risks for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and extreme heat thresholds for renal disease. Percentile-based extreme temperature thresholds are appropriate for initiating ERC targeting the general population. Tailoring ERC by specific causes may protect some but not all individuals with health conditions exacerbated by hazardous ambient temperature exposure. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer’s health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

  18. Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Steven; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Nguyen-Mai, Huong; Harper, Sherilee

    2015-10-15

    The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science) were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer's health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

  19. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongel, Aybike; Sezgin, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  20. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongel, Aybike, E-mail: aybike.ongel@eng.bahcesehir.edu.tr [Bahcesehir University, Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul 34353 (Turkey); Sezgin, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.sezgin@ibb.gov.tr [Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Environmental Protection Agency, Istanbul 34169 (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  1. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itismita Mohanty

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia's only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services.The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM, University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database.The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children's health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index.The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children's health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage.

  2. New approaches in human health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abass

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009–2014; www.arcrisk.eu.

  3. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrodin, Yves, E-mail: yves.perrodin@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, ENTPE, UMR CNRS 5023, Laboratoire LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Donguy, Gilles [Université de Lyon, ENTPE, UMR CNRS 5023, Laboratoire LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Emmanuel, Evens [Laboratoire de Qualité de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Université Quisqueya, BP 796 Port-au-Prince (Haiti); Winiarski, Thierry [Université de Lyon, ENTPE, UMR CNRS 5023, Laboratoire LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France)

    2014-07-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a “threshold effect” (risk quotient < 1), and an acceptable risk for substances having a “non-threshold effect”, with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10{sup −6}). - Highlights: • The release of polluted dredged seaport sediments into the sea must be avoided. • Their use after treatment for the filling-up of quarries is proposed by managers. • An original health risk assessment methodology was created to validate this option. • It includes the use of a lysimeter and a georadar for the exposure assessment stage. • The example studied concludes to a health risk linked to arsenic in the groundwater.

  4. Factors influencing workplace violence risk among correctional health workers: insights from an Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Aaron W; Indig, Devon; Hampton, Stephen E; Hegney, Desley G; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the environmental and organisational determinants of workplace violence in correctional health settings. This paper describes the views of health professionals working in these settings on the factors influencing workplace violence risk. All employees of a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia, were invited to complete an online survey. The survey included an open-ended question seeking the views of participants about the factors influencing workplace violence in correctional health settings. Responses to this question were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. Participants identified several factors that they felt reduced the risk of violence in their workplace, including: appropriate workplace health and safety policies and procedures; professionalism among health staff; the presence of prison guards and the quality of security provided; and physical barriers within clinics. Conversely, participants perceived workplace violence risk to be increased by: low health staff-to-patient and correctional officer-to-patient ratios; high workloads; insufficient or underperforming security staff; and poor management of violence, especially horizontal violence. The views of these participants should inform efforts to prevent workplace violence among correctional health professionals.

  5. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Comprehensive Health Risk Management after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on 11 March 2011. Countermeasures aimed at human protection during the emergency period, including evacuation, sheltering and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese Government. However, there is an apparent need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection, and also in the management of radiation health risk during and even after the accident. Continuous monitoring and characterisation of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are now essential for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the radio-contaminated areas and also on returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is allowed; it is also important to carry out a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. Until now, various types of radiation health risk management projects and research have been implemented in Fukushima, among which the Fukushima Health Management Survey is the largest health monitoring project. It includes the Basic Survey for the estimation of external radiation doses received during the first 4 months after the accident and four detailed surveys: thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and lifestyle survey, and survey on pregnant women and nursing mothers, with the aim to prospectively take care of the health of all the residents of Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. In particular, among evacuees of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, concern about radiation risk is associated with psychological stresses. Here, ongoing health risk management will be reviewed, focusing on the difficult challenge of post-disaster recovery and resilience in Fukushima. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A framework for including family health spillovers in economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health

  8. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a “threshold effect” (risk quotient −6 ). - Highlights: • The release of polluted dredged seaport sediments into the sea must be avoided. • Their use after treatment for the filling-up of quarries is proposed by managers. • An original health risk assessment methodology was created to validate this option. • It includes the use of a lysimeter and a georadar for the exposure assessment stage. • The example studied concludes to a health risk linked to arsenic in the groundwater

  9. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...

  10. Valuing health risk in agriculture: a choice experiment approach to pesticide use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianjun; Wang, Wenyu; He, Rui; Gong, Haozhou

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a choice experiment approach to investigate farmers' valuations for health risk changes associated with pesticide use in Anqiu County, China. An empirical comparison on the disparity between farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a health risk reduction and willingness to accept (WTA) for the same risk increase is also conducted. Respondents were randomly assigned into the WTP group or the WTA group. Four attributes (health consequence, baseline risk, risk change size, and price) were identified and included. The results show that cancer consequence due to pesticide use decreases the utility of the farmer. A higher baseline risk has a higher WTP to reduce the risk and a higher probability of receiving compensation. If the health risk change size is bigger, it will result in a higher WTP and higher compensation. Household income, education, and age have significant and positive impacts on farmers' WTP. Farmers who are more educated or female are more likely to accept the compensation scheme if health risks increase. The marginal WTA for the same risk change is about two times higher than the marginal WTP. The findings of this study can contribute to the literature comparing people's WTP and WTA in a discrete choice experiment on valuing health risk changes associated with pesticide use.

  11. Patterns of multiple health risk-behaviours in university students and their association with mental health: application of latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, M Y; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, K P; Duku, E; Faulkner, G

    2016-08-01

    University and college campuses may be the last setting where it is possible to comprehensively address the health of a large proportion of the young adult population. It is important that health promoters understand the collective challenges students are facing, and to better understand the broader lifestyle behavioural patterning evident during this life stage. The purpose of this study was to examine the clustering of modifiable health-risk behaviours and to explore the relationship between these identified clusters and mental health outcomes among a large Canadian university sample. Undergraduate students (n = 837; mean age = 21 years) from the University of Toronto completed the National College Health Assessment survey. The survey consists of approximately 300 items, including assessments of student health status, mental health and health-risk behaviours. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterning based on eight salient health-risk behaviours (marijuana use, other illicit drug use, risky sex, smoking, binge drinking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and insufficient sleep). A three-class model based on student behavioural patterns emerged: "typical," "high-risk" and "moderately healthy." Results also found high-risk students reporting significantly higher levels of stress than typical students (χ2(1671) = 7.26, p Students with the highest likelihood of engaging in multiple health-risk behaviours reported poorer mental health, particularly as it relates to stress. Although these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the 28% response rate, they do suggest that interventions targeting specific student groups with similar patterning of multiple health-risk behaviours may be needed.

  12. Patterns of multiple health risk-behaviours in university students and their association with mental health: application of latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Kwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available University and college campuses may be the last setting where it is possible to comprehensively address the health of a large proportion of the young adult population. It is important that health promoters understand the collective challenges students are facing, and to better understand the broader lifestyle behavioural patterning evident during this life stage. The purpose of this study was to examine the clustering of modifiable health-risk behaviours and to explore the relationship between these identified clusters and mental health outcomes among a large Canadian university sample. Methods: Undergraduate students (n = 837; mean age = 21 years from the University of Toronto completed the National College Health Assessment survey. The survey consists of approximately 300 items, including assessments of student health status, mental health and health-risk behaviours. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterning based on eight salient health-risk behaviours (marijuana use, other illicit drug use, risky sex, smoking, binge drinking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and insufficient sleep. Results: A three-class model based on student behavioural patterns emerged: "typical," "high-risk" and "moderately healthy." Results also found high-risk students reporting significantly higher levels of stress than typical students (χ2(1671 = 7.26, p < .01. Conclusion: Students with the highest likelihood of engaging in multiple health-risk behaviours reported poorer mental health, particularly as it relates to stress. Although these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the 28% response rate, they do suggest that interventions targeting specific student groups with similar patterning of multiple health-risk behaviours may be needed.

  13. An evaluation of the Well at Dell health management program: health risk change and financial return on investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musich, Shirley; McCalister, Tre'; Wang, Sara; Hawkins, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of the Well at Dell comprehensive health management program in delivering health care and productivity cost savings relative to program investment (i.e., return on investment). A quasi-experimental design was used to quantify the financial impact of the program and nonexperimental pre-post design to evaluate change in health risks. Ongoing worksite health management program implemented across multiple U.S. locations. Subjects were 24,651 employees with continuous medical enrollment in 2010-2011 who were eligible for 2011 health management programming. Incentive-driven, outcomes-based multicomponent corporate health management program including health risk appraisal (HRA)/wellness, lifestyle management, and disease management coaching programs. Medical, pharmacy, and short-term disability pre/post expenditure trends adjusted for demographics, health status, and baseline costs. Self-reported health risks from repeat HRA completers. Analysis: Propensity score-weighted and multivariate regression-adjusted comparison of baseline to post trends in health care expenditures and productivity costs for program participants and nonparticipants (i.e., difference in difference) relative to programmatic investment. The Well at Dell program achieved an overall return on investment of 2.48 in 2011. Most of the savings were realized from the HRA/wellness component of the program. Cost savings were supported with high participation and significant health risk improvement. An incentive-driven, well-managed comprehensive corporate health management program can continue to achieve significant health improvement while promoting health care and productivity cost savings in an employee population.

  14. Perception of Radiation Risk as a Predictor of Mid-Term Mental Health after a Nuclear Disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Itaru; Nagai, Masato; Maeda, Masaharu; Harigane, Mayumi; Fujii, Senta; Oe, Misari; Yabe, Hirooki; Suzuki, Yuriko; Takahashi, Hideto; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-09-15

    Predictive factors including risk perception for mid-term mental health after a nuclear disaster remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived radiation risk and other factors at baseline and mid-term mental health after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster of 2011 in Japan. A mail-based questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2012 and January 2013. Mental health status was assessed using the K6 scale. Psychological distress over the 2-year period was categorized into the following four groups: chronic, recovered, resistant, or worsened. Most participants (80.3%) were resistant to the disaster. A positive association was found between the radiation risk perception regarding immediate effects and the worsened group in women. Baseline post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or a history of psychiatric disease predicted being in the chronic or worsened group in mid-term course. These results suggest that evacuees who believed that their health was substantially affected by the nuclear disaster were at an increased risk of having poor mid-term mental health in women. Careful assessment of risk perception after a nuclear disaster, including the presence of PTSD or a history of psychiatric disease, is needed for appropriate interventions.

  15. A new methodology for modelling of health risk from urban flooding exemplified by cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Jørgensen, Claus; Hammond, Michael

    2016-01-01

    outlines a novel methodology for linking dynamic urban flood modelling with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This provides a unique possibility for understanding the interaction between urban flooding and health risk caused by direct human contact with the flood water and hence gives...... and mortality, especially during floods. At present, there are no software tools capable of combining hydrodynamic modelling and health risk analyses, and the links between urban flooding and the health risk for the population due to direct contact with the flood water are poorly understood. The present paper...... an option for reducing the burden of disease in the population by use of intelligent urban flood risk management. The model linking urban flooding and health risk is applied to Dhaka City in Bangladesh, where waterborne diseases including cholera are endemic. The application to Dhaka City is supported...

  16. How can health care organisations make and justify decisions about risk reduction? Lessons from a cross-industry review and a health care stakeholder consensus development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujan, Mark A.; Habli, Ibrahim; Kelly, Tim P.; Gühnemann, Astrid; Pozzi, Simone; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to reduce risk often have an associated cost. In UK industries decisions about risk reduction are made and justified within a shared regulatory framework that requires that risk be reduced as low as reasonably practicable. In health care no such regulatory framework exists, and the practice of making decisions about risk reduction is varied and lacks transparency. Can health care organisations learn from relevant industry experiences about making and justifying risk reduction decisions? This paper presents lessons from a qualitative study undertaken with 21 participants from five industries about how such decisions are made and justified in UK industry. Recommendations were developed based on a consensus development exercise undertaken with 20 health care stakeholders. The paper argues that there is a need in health care to develop a regulatory framework and an agreed process for managing explicitly the trade-off between risk reduction and cost. The framework should include guidance about a health care specific notion of acceptable levels of risk, guidance about standardised risk reduction interventions, it should include regulatory incentives for health care organisations to reduce risk, and it should encourage the adoption of an approach for documenting explicitly an organisation's risk position. - Highlights: • Empirical description of industry perceptions on making risk reduction decisions. • Health care consensus development identified five recommendations. • Risk concept should be better integrated into safety management. • Education and awareness about risk concept are required. • Health systems need to start a dialogue about acceptable levels of risk.

  17. Exploring Demographics and Health as Predictors of Risk-Taking in UK Help-Seeking Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ashwick

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk-taking amongst veterans has severe consequences, yet few studies have examined factors that may predict risk-taking in help-seeking veteran populations. This paper presents a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 667 UK help-seeking veterans, investigating the role of demographics, mental health and physical health presentations on the propensity for risk-taking. Out of 403 (73.4% veterans, 350 (86.8% reported risk-taking in the past month. We found that younger age, being in a relationship, probable PTSD, common mental health difficulties and traumatic brain injury were significantly associated with risk-taking. Additionally, a direct association was found between increased risk-taking and PTSD symptom clusters, including higher hyperarousal, elevated negative alterations in mood and cognition. Our findings provide initial evidence for demographic and mental health presentations as predictors of risk-taking in help-seeking veterans. Further research and longitudinal studies are needed to facilitate valid risk assessments, and early intervention for veteran services.

  18. Impact of the Prevention Plan on Employee Health Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Loeppke, Ronald; Edington, Dee W.; Bég, Sami

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coach...

  19. Occupational health risks associated with the use of germicides in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Consoli, Stephanie A; Rutala, William A

    2016-05-02

    Environmental surfaces have been clearly linked to transmission of key pathogens in health care facilities, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Clostridium difficile, norovirus, and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli. For this reason, routine disinfection of environmental surfaces in patient rooms is recommended. In addition, decontamination of shared medical devices between use by different patients is also recommended. Environmental surfaces and noncritical shared medical devices are decontaminated by low-level disinfectants, most commonly phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds, improved hydrogen peroxides, and hypochlorites. Concern has been raised that the use of germicides by health care personnel may increase the risk of these persons for developing respiratory illnesses (principally asthma) and contact dermatitis. Our data demonstrate that dermatitis and respiratory symptoms (eg, asthma) as a result of chemical exposures, including low-level disinfectants, are exceedingly rare. Unprotected exposures to high-level disinfectants may cause dermatitis and respiratory symptoms. Engineering controls (eg, closed containers, adequate ventilation) and the use of personal protective equipment (eg, gloves) should be used to minimize exposure to high-level disinfectants. The scientific evidence does not support that the use of low-level disinfectants by health care personnel is an important risk for the development of asthma or contact dermatitis. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. WHO's health risk assessment of extremely low frequency electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), WHOs scientific collaborating centres (including the UKs National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and over 50 participating Member States are participants of WHOs International EMF Project. As part of WHOs health risk assessment process for extremely low frequency fields (ELFs), this workshop was convened by NRPB to assist WHO in evaluating potential health impacts of electrical currents and fields induced by ELF in molecules, cells, tissues and organs of the body. This paper describes the process by which WHO will conduct its health risk assessment. WHO is also trying to provide information on why exposure to ELF magnetic fields seems to be associated with an increased incidence of childhood leukaemia. Are there mechanisms that could lead to this health outcome or does the epidemiological evidence incorporate biases or other factors that need to be further explored? (author)

  1. Health risk in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.

    1997-01-01

    Worked out are the health risk indices for NPP personnel that could be used in normal operation and in case of accident. These indices concern temporary incapacity for work, invalidity, lethality, cancer, etc. Risk estimation is based on produced energy in NPP or on the collective dose of personnel exposure. Assessed are the specific risk values for NPP ''Kozloduy'', which show that the risk in normal operation is significantly low (of the order of 2.3 ./. 7.2 x 10 -4 for invalidity, lethality and cancer). Health risk indices can be used when comparing various alternative energy sources, as well as for determination of the power strategy of a country. (author)

  2. Managing risk: clinical decision-making in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Debra; Barkway, Patricia; Curren, David; Oster, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is a major component of contemporary mental health practice. Risk assessment in health care exists within contemporary perspectives of management and risk aversive practices in health care. This has led to much discussion about the best approach to assessing possible risks posed by people with mental health problems. In addition, researchers and commentators have expressed concern that clinical practice is being dominated by managerial models of risk management at the expense of meeting the patient's health and social care needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the risk assessment practices of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Findings indicate that mental health professionals draw on both managerial and therapeutic approaches to risk management, integrating these approaches into their clinical practice. Rather than being dominated by managerial concerns regarding risk, the participants demonstrate professional autonomy and concern for the needs of their clients.

  3. Risk concepts in various fields including radiation protection. A historical review and some recent topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki

    2000-01-01

    This is a review by the expert group concerning risks in radiation protection and in chemical management, recent state of protection and of health-risk assessment of low dose radiation, and risk concepts in other fields. Risk concepts in radiation protection are described mainly on ICRP: Its history leading to its Publication 1 (1958), Pub. 9 (1965), Pub. 26 (1977) and Pub. 60 (1990). In that recent publication, the term, risk, is used only for the established one like estimated risk or excess relative risk. Risk management of chemicals involves that against pollution from environmental and ecological aspects, and assessment of dioxin and chemicals from toxicology and carcinogenicity aspects. Recently, risks of low dose radiation have been actively discussed conceivably because of possible reduction of the exposure limit in ICRP Recommendation 1990, Chernobyl accident, advances of radiation biology and radiation protection problem in the radioactive waste disposition. Globally, many academic societies such as American Health-Physics Society published Position Statements and Reports and there are activities like the Research program plan for the risk and an international conference of bridging radiation policy and science. Risk concepts involve technological and ecological ones, insurance ones and health ones. Risk assessment or analysis is done through recognition, measurement and prediction, thus through the scientific process based on objective facts. (K.H.)

  4. Medication adherence, comorbidities, and health risk impacts on workforce absence and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppke, Ronald; Haufle, Vince; Jinnett, Kim; Parry, Thomas; Zhu, Jianping; Hymel, Pamela; Konicki, Doris

    2011-06-01

    To understand impacts of medication adherence, comorbidities, and health risks on workforce absence and job performance. Retrospective observational study using employees' medical/pharmacy claims and self-reported health risk appraisals. Statin medication adherence in individuals with Coronary Artery Disease was significant predictor (P absenteeism. Insulin, oral hypoglycemic, or metformin medication adherence in type 2 diabetics was significant (P performance. Number of comorbidities was found as significant (P absenteeism in five of nine subsamples. Significant links (P performance were found across all nine subsamples. Results suggest integrated health and productivity management strategies should include an emphasis on primary and secondary prevention to reduce health risks in addition to tertiary prevention efforts of disease management and medication management.

  5. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  6. An Integrated Simulation, Inference and Optimization Approach for Groundwater Remediation with Two-stage Health-Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated simulation, inference and optimization approach with two-stage health risk assessment (i.e., ISIO-THRA is developed for supporting groundwater remediation for a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Both environmental standards and health risk are considered as the constraints in the ISIO-THRA model. The health risk includes two parts: (1 the health risk during the remediation process and (2 the health risk in the natural attenuation period after remediation. In the ISIO-THRA framework, the relationship between contaminant concentrations and time is expressed through first-order decay models. The results demonstrate that: (1 stricter environmental standards and health risk would require larger pumping rates for the same remediation duration; (2 higher health risk may happen in the period of the remediation process; (3 for the same environmental standard and acceptable health-risk level, the remediation techniques that take the shortest time would be chosen. ISIO-THRA can help to systematically analyze interaction among contaminant transport, remediation duration, and environmental and health concerns, and further provide useful supportive information for decision makers.

  7. The Modified Risk Factors of Health Heads of the Medical Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study and evaluation of modifiable potential risk factors of health of heads of medical organizations in terms of structural and technological modernization of the health system, the growing need for highly qualified management personnel. Efficiency of activity of medical associations largely due to the level of health managers, allowing to solve problems of activities of medical organizations in the modern fastchanging environmental conditions. Based on international experience and our own research the authors identified features of the state of health of heads of medical organizations, and the degree of exposure to risk factors for no communicable diseases; considered approaches to assess motivation and psychological readiness to promote the health and potential of managerial personnel in the formation of health-saving behavior. Methods: in the present study, the following methods were used: systemic approach, content analysis, methods of social diagnosis (questionnaires, interviews, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, and method of statistical processing of information. Results: reviewed and proposed approaches to use preventive measures prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases healthcare leaders, forming health-preserving behavior. Conclusions and Relevance: in modern scientific studies on the health of medical workers, including heads of medical institutions, defined the modern methodological approaches to formation of health-saving behavior and maintaining healthy lifestyle health care workers. Despite the high awareness of heads of medical organizations in the area of influence of risk factors on health, accessibility of medical care for the diagnosis and correction of risk factors of chronic no communicable diseases, risk factors of health among healthcare leaders have sufficient prevalence. Health-promoting behavior model is not a conscious lifestyle leader and formed as a reaction if you have

  8. A model for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risikko, Tanja; Mäkinen, Tiina M; Påsche, Arvid; Toivonen, Liisa; Hassi, Juhani

    2003-05-01

    Cold conditions increase health and safety risks at work in several ways. The effects of cold have not been sufficiently taken into consideration in occupational safety and health practices. A systematic model and methods were developed for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces. The development work was performed, in a context-bound manner, in pilot industries and workplaces. The model can be integrated into the company's occupational health and safety management system, such as OHSAS 18001. The cold risks are identified and assessed by using a checklist. The preventive measures are systematically planned in a written form specifically produced for cold workplaces. It includes the organisational and technical preventive measures, protective clothing and personal protective equipment, as well as training and information of the personnel. According to the model, all the workers, foremen, occupational safety personnel and occupational health care personnel are trained to recognise the cold risks and to conduct preventive actions. The developed model was evaluated in the context of cold outdoor (construction) and indoor work (fish processing), and by occupational health and safety professionals. According to the feedback, the model and methods were easy to use after a one-day introduction session. The continuum between the cold risk assessment and management worked well, although there was some overlap in the documentation. The cold risk management model and its methods form an essential part of ISO CD 15743 Strategy for risk assessment, management and work practice in cold environments.

  9. Principles for decisions involving environmental and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, B.

    1989-01-01

    Decision making with respect to safety is becoming more and more complex. The risk involved must be taken into account together with numerous other factors such as the benefits, the uncertainties and the public perception. Can the decision maker be aided by some kind of system, general rules of thumb, or broader perspective on similar decisions? This question has been addressed in a joint Nordic project relating to nuclear power. Modern techniques for risk assessment and management have been studied and parallels drawn to such areas as offshore safety and management of genotoxic chemicals in the environment. The topics include synoptic vs. incrementalistic approaches to decision making, health hazards from radiation and genotoxic chemicals, value judgments in decision making, definitions of low risks, risk comparisons, and principles for decision making when risks are involved. (author) 47 refs

  10. Health Risk Behaviors With Synthetic Cannabinoids Versus Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Heather B; Lowry, Richard; Ashley, Carmen; Wolkin, Amy; Grant, Althea M

    2017-04-01

    Data are limited on the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use. The purpose of this study was to compare the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use with those among marijuana users. Data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12 ( N = 15 624), were used to examine the association between self-reported type of marijuana use (ie, never use of marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids, ever use of marijuana only, and ever use of synthetic cannabinoids) and self-report of 36 risk behaviors across 4 domains: substance use, injury/violence, mental health, and sexual health. Multivariable models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios. Students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids had a significantly greater likelihood of engaging in each of the behaviors in the substance use and sexual risk domains compared with students who ever used marijuana only. Students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids were more likely than students who ever used marijuana only to have used marijuana before age 13 years, to have used marijuana ≥1 times during the past 30 days, and to have used marijuana ≥20 times during the past 30 days. Several injury/violence behaviors were more prevalent among students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids compared with students who ever used marijuana only. Health professionals and school-based substance use prevention programs should include strategies focused on the prevention of both synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Health Risk Information Engagement and Amplification on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A

    2017-04-01

    Emerging pandemics call for unique health communication and education strategies in which public health agencies need to satisfy the public's information needs about possible risks while preventing risk exaggeration and dramatization. As a route to providing a framework for understanding public information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, this study examined the characteristics of communicative behaviors of social media audiences in response to Ebola outbreak news. Grounded in the social amplification of risks framework, this study adds to an understanding of information behaviors of online audiences by showing empirical differences in audience engagement with online health information. The data were collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Facebook channel. The final data set included 809 CDC posts and 35,916 audience comments. The analysis identified the differences in audience information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, Ebola, and health promotion posts. While the CDC had fewer posts on Ebola than health promotion topics, the former received more attention from active page users. Furthermore, audience members who actively engaged with Ebola news had a small overlap with those who engaged with non-Ebola information during the same period. Overall, this study demonstrated that information behavior and audience engagement is topic dependent. Furthermore, audiences who commented on news about an emerging pandemic were homogenous and varied in their degree of information amplification.

  12. Chronic diseases risk factors and access to health exams among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from the World Health Survey (WHS) carried out in South Africa in 2003, the aim of this study is to establish chronic diseases risk factors and access to preventive exams for cervical and breast cancer among South African women. The sample included in this analysis included 1236 women 18 years and above.

  13. Associations between multiple health risk behaviors and mental health among Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-ling; Wang, Pei-gang; Qu, Geng-cong; Yuan, Shuai; Phongsavan, Philayrath; He, Qi-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that health risk behaviors increase risks of premature morbidity and mortality, little is known about the multiple health risk behaviors in Chinese college students. Here, we investigated the prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors and its relation to mental health among Chinese college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China from May to June 2012. The students reported their health risk behaviors using self-administered questionnaires. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale, respectively. A total of 2422 college students (1433 males) aged 19.7 ± 1.2 years were participated in the study. The prevalence of physical inactivity, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), frequent alcohol use and current smoking was 62.0, 42.6, 29.8, 22.3, 11.6 and 9.3%, respectively. Significantly increased risks for depression and anxiety were found among students with frequent alcohol use, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior and IAD. Two-step cluster analysis identified two different clusters. Participants in the cluster with more unhealthy behaviors showed significantly increased risk for depression (odds ratio (OR): 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 2.67) and anxiety (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.85, 2.92). This study indicates that a relatively high prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors was found among Chinese college students. Furthermore, the clustering of health risk behaviors was significantly associated with increased risks for depression and anxiety.

  14. Health and environmental risks of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    The paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper-boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-fuel-based energy technologies in the United States of America. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO 4 , NO 2 , and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analysed. (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) 'Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants. (4) Health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7x10 -9 average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5x10 -4 for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be unrealistic. As a final example of risk analysis, the cost-effectiveness analysis for proposed EPA standards for radionuclides is shown to be deficient by an analysis concluding that the cost per potential cancer avoided could range from US $70 million to US $140 billion

  15. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    than assessing a present situation. As part of this process, however, methods applied in risk assessment are used. Risk assessment typically characterises relation of a well-defined risk factor to a well-defined health outcome. Within HIA usually several individual risk assessments are needed...... of the causal chain from the proposal through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The stepwise analysis, systematic prioritization and consideration of horizontal interactions between the causal pathways make it feasible to use widely recognized risk assessment methods in the HIA......The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used...

  16. Illness and risk behaviour in health care students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelin, Martin; Evengård, Birgitta; Palmgren, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The numbers of university students studying abroad increase every year. These students are not tourists as their studies require different types of travel that expose them to different risks. Moreover, health care students (HCSs) may be exposed to even greater risks according to their travel destinations and itineraries. Clearly, research-based pre-travel advice is needed. This study reports on a prospective survey conducted from April 2010 to January 2014 of health care and non-health care students from Swedish universities in Umeå, Stockholm and Gothenburg studying abroad. Of the 393 students included in the study, 85% responded. Over half (55%) were HCSs. Pre-travel health information was received by 79% and information on personal safety by 49% of HCSs. The rate of illness during travel was 52%. Health care students more often travelled to developing regions and were at increased risk for travellers' diarrhoea. One in 10 experienced theft and 3% were involved in traffic accidents. One in five met a new sexual partner during travel and 65% of these practised safe sex. Half of all participants increased their alcohol consumption while abroad; high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk for being a victim of theft, as well as for meeting a new sexual partner during travel. University authorities are responsible for the safety and well-being of students studying abroad. This study supplies organisers and students with epidemiological data that will help improve pre-travel preparation and increase student awareness of the potential risks associated with studying abroad. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: A systematic meta-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petticrew Mark

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Methods Systematic review (QUORUM of literature reviews (published in any language or country on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Results Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. Conclusion From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial

  18. Comparative Health Risk Assessment of CdTe Solar PV System and Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    In terms of national energy policy decision-making process, several key factors, including low production cost, negligible risk or impact to environment and population around the facility, must be considered. The purpose of this paper is to assess the public health risk in case of postulated nuclear power plant and CdTe solar PV system accident and compare the estimated public health risk. Both systems release toxic materials to the environment which adversely affect nearby population by exposure from the inhalation and ingestion of the toxic material transported via air. By simulating the airborne transport of released toxic material using Gaussian plume model and modeling exposure pathways to nearby population, average individual health risk is assessed and public health risk per power capacity of each system is compared. The result shows that the average public health risk per power capacity of NPP is less than the case of solar PV system. This implies that NPP has lower risk in terms of public health risk in case of severe accident while it can be used as more reliable energy source than renewable energy source so that NPP would take priority over other renewable energy sources in terms of national energy policy

  19. Health risk factors and mental health among US women with and without chronic physical disabilities by whether women are currently pregnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Yu, Jun; Wint, Amy J; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Ecker, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Growing numbers of reproductive-age US women with chronic physical disabilities (CPD) raise questions about their pregnancy experiences. Little is known about the health risks of women with versus without CPD by current pregnancy status. We analyzed cross-sectional, nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey data from 2006 to 2011, which includes 47,629 civilian, noninstitutionalized women ages 18-49. NHIS asks about specified movement difficulties, current pregnancy, and various health and health risk indicators, including tobacco use and body mass index (BMI). We used responses from eight movement difficulty and other questions to identify women with mobility difficulties caused by chronic physical health conditions. Across all women regardless of CPD, women reporting current pregnancy are significantly less likely to currently smoke tobacco and report certain mental health problems. Among currently pregnant women only, women with CPD are more likely to smoke cigarettes every day (12.2 %) versus 6.3 % for pregnant women without CPD (p ≤ 0.001). Among currently pregnant women, 17.7 % of women with CPD have BMIs in the non-overweight range, compared with 40.1 % of women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). Currently pregnant women with CPD are significantly more likely to report having any mental health problems, 66.6 % compared with 29.7 % among women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). For all women, currently pregnant women appear to have fewer health risks and mental health concerns than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, women with CPD have higher rates than other women of health risk factors that could affect maternal and infant outcomes.

  20. Health Risk Assessment of Harmful Chemicals: Case Study in a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motovagheh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims In the most chemical process industries, workers are exposed to various chemicals and working with these chemicals without considering safety and health considerations can lead to different harmful symptoms. For deciding about control measures and reducing risk to acceptable level , it is necessary to assess the health risk of exposing to harmful chemicals by aid of specific risk assessment techniques in the process industries. The purpose of this study was to assess the health risks arising from the exposures to chemicals in a petrochemical industry.  methods A simple and applied method was used for health risk assessment of chemicals in a petrochemical industry. Firstly job tasks and work process were determined and then different chemicals in each tasks identified and risk ranking was calculated in each job task by aid of hazard and exposure rate.   Results The result showed that workers are exposed to 10 chemicals including Methyl ethyl ketone, Epichlorohydrin, Sulfuric acid, Phenol, Chlorobenzene, Toluene, Isopropanol, Methylene chloride, Chlorideric Acid and Acetone during their work in plant. From these chemicals, the highest risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in the jobs of tank and utility operations and maintenance workers. The next high risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in technical inspecting and Methyl ethyl ketone in Tank and utility operations operator.     Conclusion Hazard information and monitoring data of chemical agents in the chemical industries can be used for assessing health risks from exposures to chemicals and ranking jobs by their risk level. These data can be used for resource allocation for control measures and reducing risk level to acceptable level.    

  1. Who comes to a workplace health risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, T A; Simpson, J M; Oldenburg, B; Owen, N; Harris, D

    1998-01-01

    Workplace health promotion initiatives have proliferated, but there are difficulties in recruiting employees of lower socioeconomic status and at higher risk of disease. A survey of health behaviors and attitudes was administered in 20 worksites and the opportunity to attend a health risk assessment promoted. Those more likely to attend were women, those of higher occupational prestige, and those from a non-English-speaking background. After adjustment for these variables, the only health behavior associated with attendance was smoking status. Perceived risk of lung cancer was significant, even after adjustment for smoking status. Stage of readiness to change health behaviors was associated with attendance, with those in the preparation stage being more likely to attend than those in the precontemplation stage. However, this association was statistically significant only for fruit and vegetable consumption. There was no relation between attendance and support for health promotion, perceived general health, or other perceived risk of disease. These findings suggest that additional risk communication strategies and environmental support are required to involve those with less prestigious occupations.

  2. [Health risks from pest control products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C; Holthenrich, D; Schneider, H

    2014-05-01

    According to European biocide legislation, pest control products require assessment and authorization by the responsible national or European authorities. Biocidal products can only be authorized if they have no unacceptable effects on human health. The health risk assessment performed for authorization comprises (a) the derivation of reference values for the active substances and substances of concern contained in the biocidal product and (b) an exposure assessment. These parameters are required for risk characterization. No unacceptable health risks are expected if the determined exposure is less than the relevant reference value. In addition, the toxicological information is used for classification of the biocidal product. The assessment may, where necessary, result in specific conditions for use or other restrictions aimed at minimizing risk. The risk to human health from pest control products is mainly based on the toxicological properties of their active substances. Commonly, the coformulants used in pest control products are of less concern than the active substances (e.g., food ingredients and animal feed products). For example, most rodenticides belong to the group of anticoagulants, which are also effective in humans. Regarding intoxications through insecticides, the group of pyrethroids is of particular importance. Fumigants containing metal phosphides, hydrogen cyanide, or sulfuryl difluoride are particularly toxic. This toxicity is linked to the high acute inhalation toxicity of the gaseous active substances themselves or, in the case of phosphides, of the released gas phosphane. The aim of health risk assessment for the authorization of biocidal products is to ensure their safe application for users and all other persons involved, assuming an adequate and label-compliant use.

  3. Climate change and health: global to local influences on disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, J A; Olson, S H

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization has concluded that the climatic changes that have occurred since the mid 1970s could already be causing annually over 150,000 deaths and five million disability-adjusted life-years (DALY), mainly in developing countries. The less developed countries are, ironically, those least responsible for causing global warming. Many health outcomes and diseases are sensitive to climate, including: heat-related mortality or morbidity; air pollution-related illnesses; infectious diseases, particularly those transmitted, indirectly, via water or by insect or rodent vectors; and refugee health issues linked to forced population migration. Yet, changing landscapes can significantly affect local weather more acutely than long-term climate change. Land-cover change can influence micro-climatic conditions, including temperature, evapo-transpiration and surface run-off, that are key determinants in the emergence of many infectious diseases. To improve risk assessment and risk management of these synergistic processes (climate and land-use change), more collaborative efforts in research, training and policy-decision support, across the fields of health, environment, sociology and economics, are required.

  4. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles

  5. TeamSTEPPS for health care risk managers: Improving teamwork and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Marcia

    2016-07-01

    Ineffective communication among the health care team is a leading cause of errors in the patient care setting. Studies assessing training related to communication and teamwork in the clinical team are prevalent, however, teamwork training at the administrative level is lacking. This includes individuals in leadership positions such as health care risk managers. The purpose was to determine the impact of an educational intervention on the knowledge and attitudes related to communication and teamwork in the health care risk management population. The educational intervention was an adaptation of a national teamwork training program and incorporated didactic content as well as video vignettes and small group activities. Measurement of knowledge and attitudes were used to determine the impact of the education program. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed pre- and postcourse. Findings indicate that teamwork education tailored to the needs of the specific audience resulted in knowledge gained and improved attitudes toward the components of teamwork. The attitudes that most significantly improved were related to team structure and situation monitoring. There was no improvement in participants' attitudes toward leadership, mutual support, and communication. Team training has been shown to improve safety culture, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. Including risk managers in training on teamwork, communication, and collaboration can serve to foster a common language among clinicians and management. In addition, a measurement related to implementation in the health care setting may yield insight into the impact of training. Qualitative measurement may allow the researcher to delve deeper into how these health care facilities are using team training interventions. © 2016 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  6. The relationship between modifiable health risks and group-level health care expenditures. Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Research Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D R; Whitmer, R W; Goetzel, R Z; Ozminkowski, R J; Dunn, R L; Wasserman, J; Serxner, S

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between modifiable health risks and total health care expenditures for a large employee group. Risk data were collected through voluntary participation in health risk assessment (HRA) and worksite biometric screenings and were linked at the individual level to health care plan enrollment and expenditure data from employers' fee-for-service plans over the 6-year study period. The setting was worksite health promotion programs sponsored by six large private-sector and public-sector employers. Of the 50% of employees who completed the HRA, 46,026 (74.7%) met all inclusion criteria for the analysis. Eleven risk factors (exercise, alcohol use, eating, current and former tobacco use, depression, stress, blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, and blood glucose) were dichotomized into high-risk and lower-risk levels. The association between risks and expenditures was estimated using a two-part regression model, controlling for demographics and other confounders. Risk prevalence data were used to estimate group-level impact of risks on expenditures. Risk factors were associated with 25% of total expenditures. Stress was the most costly factor, with tobacco use, overweight, and lack of exercise also being linked to substantial expenditures. Modifiable risk factors contribute substantially to overall health care expenditures. Health promotion programs that reduce these risks may be beneficial for employers in controlling health care costs.

  7. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  8. Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to

  9. Credit card debt, stress and key health risk behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2008-01-01

    To examine cross-sectional associations between credit card debt, stress, and health risk behaviors among college students, focusing particularly on weight-related behaviors. Random-sample, mailed survey. Undergraduate and graduate students (n = 3206) attending a large public university. Self-reported health indicators (e.g., weight, height, physical activity, diet, weight control, stress, credit card debt). More than 23% of students reported credit card debt > or = $1000. Using Poisson regression to predict relative risks (RR) of health behaviors, debt of at least $1000 was associated with nearly every risk indicator tested, including overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, excess television viewing, infrequent breakfast consumption, fast food consumption, unhealthy weight control, body dissatisfaction, binge drinking, substance use, and violence. For example, adjusted RR [ARR] ranged from 1.09 (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.17) for insufficient vigorous activity to 2.17 (CI: 0.68-2.82) for using drugs other than marijuana in the past 30 days. Poor stress management was also a robust indicator of health risk. University student lifestyles may be characterized by a variety of coexisting risk factors. These findings indicate that both debt and stress were associated with wide-ranging adverse health indicators. Intervention strategies targeting at-risk student populations need to be tailored to work within the context of the many challenges of college life, which may serve as barriers to healthy lifestyles. Increased health promotion efforts targeting stress, financial management, and weight-related health behaviors may be needed to enhance wellness among young adults.

  10. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in

  11. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraaijenhagen Roderik A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among 2289 employees who voluntarily participated in a HRA program at seven Dutch worksites between 2007 and 2009. The HRA included a web-based questionnaire, biometric measurements, laboratory evaluation, and tailored feedback. The survey questionnaire assessed initial self-reported health-behaviour change and satisfaction with the web-based HRA, and was e-mailed four weeks after employees completed the HRA. Results Response was received from 638 (28% employees. Of all, 86% rated the program as positive, 74% recommended it to others, and 58% reported to have initiated overall health-behaviour change. Compared with employees at low CVD risk, those at high risk more often reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.52-7.45. Obese employees more frequently reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.72-6.54 and improved diet (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.50-7.60. Being satisfied with the HRA program in general was associated with more frequent self-reported initiation of overall health-behaviour change (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.73-4.44, increased physical activity (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.06-3.39, and improved diet (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.61-5.17. Conclusions More than half of the employees who voluntarily participated in a web-based HRA with tailored feedback, reported to have initiated health-behaviour change. Self-reported initiation of health-behaviour change was more frequent among those at high CVD risk and BMI levels. In

  12. Impact of a health promotion program on employee health risks and work productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Peter R; Kessler, Ronald C; Cooper, John; Sullivan, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Evaluate the impact of a multicomponent workplace health promotion program on employee health risks and work productivity. Quasi-experimental 12-month before-after intervention-control study. A multinational corporation headquartered in the United Kingdom. Of 618 employees offered the program, 266 (43%) completed questionnaires before and after the program. A total of 1242 of 2500 (49.7%) of a control population also completed questionnaires 12 months apart. A multicomponent health promotion program incorporating a health risk appraisal questionnaire, access to a tailored health improvement web portal, wellness literature, and seminars and workshops focused upon identified wellness issues. Outcomes were (1) cumulative count of health risk factors and the World Health Organization health and work performance questionnaire measures of (2) workplace absenteeism and (3) work performance. After adjusting for baseline differences, improvements in all three outcomes were significantly greater in the intervention group compared with the control group. Mean excess reductions of 0.45 health risk factors and 0.36 monthly absenteeism days and a mean increase of 0.79 on the work performance scale were observed in the intervention group compared with the control group. The intervention yielded a positive return on investment, even using conservative assumptions about effect size estimation. The results suggest that a well-implemented multicomponent workplace health promotion program can produce sizeable changes in health risks and productivity.

  13. Uncharted Waters: Communicating Health Risks During the 2014 West Virginia Water Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tracey L; Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Spencer, S Melinda; Tanner, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    This study is among the first to examine how health risks are communicated through traditional and social media during a public health crisis. Using an innovative research approach, the study combined a content analysis with in-depth interviews to examine and understand how stakeholders involved in crisis response perceived media coverage after a chemical spill contaminated the drinking water of 300,000 West Virginia residents. A content analysis of print, television, and online media stories and tweets revealed that health risk information was largely absent from crisis coverage. Although traditional media stories were significantly more likely to include health information compared to tweets, public health sources were underutilized in traditional media coverage. Instead, traditional media favored the use of government sources outside the public health field, which stakeholders suggested was problematic because of a public distrust of officials and official information during the crisis. Results also indicated that Twitter was not a common or reliable source for health information but was important in the spread of other types of information. Ultimately, the study highlights a need for more deliberate media coverage of health risks and provides insight into how Twitter is used to spread crisis information.

  14. Melanoma risk prediction using a multilocus genetic risk score in the Women's Health Initiative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunje G; Ransohoff, Katherine J; Yang, Lingyao; Hedlin, Haley; Assimes, Themistocles; Han, Jiali; Stefanick, Marcia; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2018-07-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with melanoma have been identified though genome-wide association studies. However, the combined impact of these SNPs on melanoma development remains unclear, particularly in postmenopausal women who carry a lower melanoma risk. We examine the contribution of a combined polygenic risk score on melanoma development in postmenopausal women. Genetic risk scores were calculated using 21 genome-wide association study-significant SNPs. Their combined effect on melanoma development was evaluated in 19,102 postmenopausal white women in the clinical trial and observational study arms of the Women's Health Initiative dataset. Compared to the tertile of weighted genetic risk score with the lowest genetic risk, the women in the tertile with the highest genetic risk were 1.9 times more likely to develop melanoma (95% confidence interval 1.50-2.42). The incremental change in c-index from adding genetic risk scores to age were 0.075 (95% confidence interval 0.041-0.109) for incident melanoma. Limitations include a lack of information on nevi count, Fitzpatrick skin type, family history of melanoma, and potential reporting and selection bias in the Women's Health Initiative cohort. Higher genetic risk is associated with increased melanoma prevalence and incidence in postmenopausal women, but current genetic information may have a limited role in risk prediction when phenotypic information is available. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between health risks and health and productivity costs among employees at Pepsi Bottling Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Rachel M; Carls, Ginger S; Short, Meghan E; Pei, Xiaofei; Wang, Shaohung; Moley, Susan; Sullivan, Mark; Goetzel, Ron Z

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate relationships between modifiable health risks and costs and measure potential cost savings from risk reduction programs. Health risk information from active Pepsi Bottling Group employees who completed health risk assessments between 2004 and 2006 (N = 11,217) were linked to medical care, workers' compensation, and short-term disability cost data. Ten health risks were examined. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate costs associated with having high risk, holding demographics, and other risks constant. Potential savings from risk reduction were estimated. High risk for weight, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol had the greatest impact on total costs. A one-percentage point annual reduction in the health risks assessed would yield annual per capita savings of $83.02 to $103.39. Targeted programs that address modifiable health risks are expected to produce substantial cost reductions in multiple benefit categories.

  16. Associations of Health-Risk Behaviors and Health Cognition With Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939

  17. Risk assessment in support of plant health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeger, Michael; Schans, Jan; Lövei, Gabor L.

    2012-01-01

    environmental risk assessment and the evaluation of risk reducing options. Quantitative approaches have become increasingly important during this time. The Panel has developed such methods in climatic mapping (in association with the Joint Research Councils), application of spatial spread models, re......With the establishment of the Plant Health Panel in 2006, EFSA became the body responsible for risk assessment in the plant health area for the European Union (EU). Since then more than 70 outputs have been produced dealing with the full range of organisms harmful to plant health across all crop...... types and plants in the environment. There has been an increasing trend towards producing scientific opinions which are full pest risk assessments for the whole EU territory. In its work, and as a contribution to the wider development of risk assessment methodology, the Panel has developed a series...

  18. Acceptable risks: occupational health in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis examines the risk of working in the nuclear power industry. It reviews the history of the industry, government regulatory activities, and current scientific evidence of the health effects of radiation exposure. A discussion of current controversies over reduction in exposure limits is presented along with an analysis of the issues and problems associated with determinations of acceptable workplace risks. The thesis analyzes the controversy in terms of the acceptability of risk. The question of acceptability does not lend itself to technical evaluations of risks, costs, and benefits but is a social judgment of the necessity of a particular occupation or industry in society. At issue is the level of profits foregone by reductions in risk. This document concludes that the legitimacy of decisions about acceptable risks rests on the informed participation of all interested parties, including workers, in a process of defining socially necessary production. There must be opportunities to refuse higher risk jobs without losing a livelihood and adequate compensation for workers who accept hazardous jobs for the benefit of society

  19. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  20. The vocational education setting for health promotion: a survey of students' health risk behaviours and preferences for help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonevski, Billie; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Paul, Christine; Walsh, Raoul

    2013-12-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood is a time of risky health behaviour initiation and experimentation. Smoking, risky drinking, poor nutrition and physical activity, and a lack of sun protection behaviour, often become established in early adulthood. Levels of health risk behaviours occurring amongst tertiary education and training students and their preferences for types of on-campus health promotion programs were examined. A cross-sectional pen-and-paper classroom survey was conducted at one Sydney-based TAFE New South Wales Institute campus in May 2010. The survey assessed demographics, smoking, alcohol use, sun protection, nutrition, physical activity and health promotion program preferences. Two hundred and twenty-four students participated (97% consent); the majority were aged 16-24 years (59%) and female (51%). Current smoking (35%), risky drinking (49%) and inadequate physical activity (88%) rates were high. Adequate vegetable intake (3.6%) and sun protection behaviours (5.4%) were low and 33% of students were overweight or obese. Popular health promotion programs included food and activity subsidies, practical skills classes and social outings. Participation in health risk behaviours among this sample was high. The setting of tertiary education and workplace training represents an opportunity for early intervention into risky health behaviours among young people. SO WHAT?: This study is the first to provide information on the prevalence of health risk behaviours and preferences for types of health promoting programs among students of an Australian community college. The results show that young adults regularly participate in multiple health risk behaviours, such as smoking, drinking, poor nutrition, physical activity and lack of sun protection.

  1. Caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol for public health nurses in mother and child health centers, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natapov, Lena; Dekel-Markovich, Dan; Granit-Palmon, Hadas; Aflalo, Efrat; Zusman, Shlomo Paul

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease in children. Caries risk assessment tools enable the dentists, physicians, and nondental health care providers to assess the individual's risk. Intervention by nurses in primary care settings can contribute to the establishment of oral health habits and prevention of dental disease. In Israel, Mother and Child Health Centers provide free preventive services for pregnant women and children by public health nurses. A caries prevention program in health centers started in 2015. Nurses underwent special training regarding caries prevention. A customized Caries Risk Assessment tool and Prevention Protocol for nurses, based on the AAPD tool, was introduced. A two-step evaluation was conducted which included a questionnaire and in-depth phone interviews. Twenty-eight (out of 46) health centers returned a completed questionnaire. Most nurses believed that oral health preventive services should be incorporated into their daily work. In the in-depth phone interviews, nurses stated that the integration of the program into their busy daily schedule was realistic and appropriate. The lack of specific dental module for computer program was mentioned as an implementation difficulty. The wide use of our tool by nurses supports its simplicity and feasibility which enables quick calculation and informed decision making. The nurses readily embraced the tool and it became an integral part of their toolkit. We provide public health nurses with a caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol thus integrating oral health into general health of infants and toddlers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Health and environmental risks of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-based energy technologies in the United States. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO 4 , NO 2 , and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analyzed. Example results: domestic wood burning has substantial potential impact, with an upper boundary exceeding that of coal; upper-boundary air pollution impacts of gas can exceed those of oil, because of NO 2 . (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants - Implications for Public Policy. Three scenarios were examined, leading to estimates of 40,000 to 50,000 annual premature deaths, depending on year (1978 vs 2000) and scenario (holding total emissions constant vs 30% reduction). (4) health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7 x 10 -9 average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5 x 10 -4 for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be to be unrealistic. 39 references, 7 figures, 15 tables

  3. Multiple health risk perception and information processing among African Americans and whites living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R; Freimuth, Vicki S; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani; Chervin, Doryn D

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the risk-information-processing behaviors of people living at or near the poverty line. Because significant gaps in health and communication exist among high- and low-income groups, increasing the information seeking and knowledge of poor individuals may help them better understand risks to their health and increase their engagement in health-protective behaviors. Most earlier studies assessed only a single health risk selected by the researcher, whereas we listed 10 health risks and allowed the respondents to identify the one that they worried about most but took little action to prevent. Using this risk, we tested one pathway inspired by the risk information seeking and processing model to examine predictors of information insufficiency and of systematic processing and extended this pathway to include health-protective action. A phone survey was conducted of African Americans and whites living in the southern United States with an annual income of ≤$35,000 (N= 431). The results supported the model pathway: worry partially mediated the relationship between perceived risk and information insufficiency, which, in turn, increased systematic processing. In addition, systematic processing increased health-protective action. Compared with whites and better educated respondents, African Americans and respondents with little education had significantly higher levels of information insufficiency but higher levels of systematic processing and health-protective action. That systematic processing and knowledge influenced health behavior suggests a potential strategy for reducing health disparities. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of Limpopo students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pengpid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little attention has been paid to the role of poor mental health among young people with regard to HIV risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. Objective. To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in South Africa. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students who were recruited conveniently from public campus venues at the University of Limpopo Medical University of Southern Africa (Medunsa campus. The sample included 722 university students (57.6% men and 42.4% women with a mean age of 21.7 years (standard deviation ±8.8. Results. Of the 722 students, 39.5% reported depression, 23.4% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, 22% reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use, 33% reported ≥2 sexual partners in the past 12 months, 50% reported inconsistent condom use, 46% reported unknown HIV status of a sexual partner and 20% reported alcohol use in the context of sex in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and among women, being in the 4th or more year of study and current cannabis use. Conclusion. Poor mental health, including substance use, was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Co-ordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services that meet the needs of university students would be desirable.

  5. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal

  6. Stress and resource pathways connecting early socioeconomic adversity to young adults' physical health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

    2015-05-01

    Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth.

  7. Managing risk selection incentives in health sector reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, J

    1999-01-01

    The object of the paper is to review theoretical and empirical contributions to the optimal management of risk selection incentives ('cream skimming') in health sector reforms. The trade-off between efficiency and risk selection is fostered in health sector reforms by the introduction of competitive mechanisms such as price competition or prospective payment systems. The effects of two main forms of competition in health sector reforms are observed when health insurance is mandatory: competition in the market for health insurance, and in the market for health services. Market and government failures contribute to the assessment of the different forms of risk selection employed by insurers and providers, as the effects of selection incentives on efficiency and their proposed remedies to reduce the impact of these perverse incentives. Two European (Netherlands and Spain) and two Latin American (Chile and Colombia) case studies of health sector reforms are examined in order to observe selection incentives, their effects on efficiency and costs in the health system, and regulation policies implemented in each country to mitigate incentives to 'cream skim' good risks.

  8. Is oral health a risk factor for sexual health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Jane; Seymour, Robin

    2015-03-01

    New evidence suggests that the extent and severity of periodontal disease may be a significant risk factor for erectile dysfunction, sperm motility and time to conception. This paper reviews the evidence and informs members of the dental team when dealing with this sensitive issue. As more research is forthcoming the topic of oral and sexual health is likely to be part of regular routine medical screening. Any issue concerning oral health as a risk factor for sexual health is likely to be a sensitive subject, rarely discussed in the dental setting. However, as new evidence emerges, this topic is likely to get into the public domain. All members of the dental team should be aware of such an association. Clinical Relevance: Furthermore, the information in this paper may provide further incentive for certain patients to improve their oral health.

  9. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  10. How health risk from radiation is assessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm-Crites, L.

    1994-07-01

    The likelihood that a dose of radiation will result in death from cancer at some future time can be estimated by multiplying the dose equivalent by a risk factor, or dose-to-risk conversion factor. Conversion factors, which are based on studies of atomic bomb survivors and others, provide approximate predictions of the health effects to be expected from a given radiological exposure. Following recommendations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy currently uses risk conversion factors of 4 x 10 -4 (0.0004 LCFs) per person-rem for workers and 5 x 10 -4 (0.0005 LCFs) per person-rem for the general public (NRC 1991; DOE 1993). The conversion factor for general public is slightly higher than that for workers because the general public includes infants and children, who are more susceptible to cancer. The current overall death rate from cancer in the United States is between 20 and 25 percent, in other words, cancer accounts for one out of nearly every four deaths. An action affecting a population of 20,000 people, with the estimated potential to induce one latent cancer fatality, should therefore be understood as adding one death from cancer to a normally expected total of 4500. Studies dedicated to improving their ability to predict radiation health effects are constantly in progress, nationally and internationally, and risk conversion factors are periodically revised to incorporate new experimental and epidemiological information

  11. Health risk assessment of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in California ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; Wright, K.; McKone, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to dichloromethane (DCM) dissolved in California drinking water, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential cancer risk that may be associated with such exposures to DCM. This assessment is being provided to the California Environmental Protection Agency for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of DCM exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with DCM. The primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate scientifically plausible dose-response relationships for observed and potential DCM-induced cancer in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that win protect members of the general public from this chronic toxicity endpoint resulting solely from groundwater-based exposures to DCM, based on information obtained from the scientific literature. The document consists of seven sections, plus one supporting appendix. Each section provides information that can be used to develop DCM drinking-water standards that will safeguard human health. Evaluation of this information in support of specific groundwater safety standards for DCM was not conducted in this report; rather, the basis for selection of alternative standards, along with a narrative description of certain key sources of underlying uncertainty, are presented for evaluation through the regulatory risk-management process

  12. Health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R J

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin. Clinical records of all 150 new prostitutes who attended a drop-in clinic for prostitutes in Dublin city during the period 1991-1997 were reviewed. Variables examined included: age, use of injectable drugs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, hepatitis B and C status, presence of sexually transmitted disease (STD), cervical cytology. Results showed the mean age of the women was 32 years. Among those tested, 2.5% were HIV positive, 5% were hepatitis B positive, 8% were hepatitis C positive and 25% had an STD. Almost 8% were injecting drug users (IDU) with higher prevalences of HIV, hepatitis B and C compared with non-IDU (P < 0.001). The clinic has been successful in providing a health-care facility for the specific health needs of this patient cohort.

  13. A Study of the Perception of Health Risks among College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenggang; Fan, Jingbo

    2013-01-01

    The present survey was designed to investigate the perception of health risks among college students in China. The data are the responses of a sample of 3,069 college students at one university to surveys that include measures of several dimensions of public judgments about fifteen specific hazards. Chinese college students conveyed their concerns as falling into three broad categories: Environmental (e.g., global warming, natural catastrophes, the ozone hole, air pollution, chemical pollution, pesticides in food), Technological (e.g., nuclear power stations, thermal power, genetically modified food, medical X-rays), and Social (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, overtime study or work, mental stress, motor vehicle accidents). The data were collected with a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the levels of perceived risk according to the percent of “high risk” responses as well as the mean response values. Generally, the hazards that were perceived as posing the greatest health risk were those belonging to the social health risks; items related to technology risks received the lowest percentage of “high health risk” rankings. Traditional environmental risks such as natural catastrophes, pollution issues (chemical pollution, air pollution), and pesticides in food were ranked as being relatively high risks. The respondents were less concerned about new emerging issues and long-term environmental risks (global warming). In this survey, motor vehicle accidents were considered to be a “high health risk” by the greatest percentage of respondents. Generally speaking, the female respondents’ degree of recognition of health risks is higher than that of male respondents. Only for the item of smoking was the male respondents’ degree higher than that of females. There is also a geographic imbalance in the health risk perceptions. The degree of recognition of health risks from respondents in municipalities is generally

  14. Parent-child communication processes: preventing children's health-risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Susan K; Anderson, Lori S; Krueger, Heather A

    2006-01-01

    Review individual, family, and environmental factors that predict health-risk behavior among children and to propose parent-child communication processes as a mechanism to mediate them. Improving parent-child communication processes may: reduce individual risk factors, such as poor academic achievement or self-esteem; modify parenting practices such as providing regulation and structure and acting as models of health behavior; and facilitate discussion about factors that lead to involvement in health-risk behaviors. Assessment strategies to identify youth at risk for health-risk behavior are recommended and community-based strategies to improve communication among parents and children need development.

  15. Health risks, travel preparation, and illness among public health professionals during international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Victor; Warnock, Eli; Ramana Dhara, V; Jean-Louis, Lee Ann; Sotir, Mark J; Kozarsky, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Few data currently exist on health risks faced by public health professionals (PHP) during international travel. We conducted pre- and post-travel health surveys to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and illnesses among PHP international travelers. Anonymous surveys were completed by PHP from a large American public health agency who sought a pre-travel medical consult from September 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010. Surveys were completed by 122 participants; travelers went to 163 countries. Of the 122 respondents, 97 (80%) reported at least one planned health risk activity (visiting rural areas, handling animals, contact with blood or body fluids, visiting malarious areas), and 50 (41%) reported exposure to unanticipated health risks. Of the 62 travelers who visited malarious areas, 14 (23%) reported inconsistent or no use of malaria prophylaxis. Illness during travel was reported by 33 (27%) respondents. Most of the PHP travelers in our study reported at least one planned health risk activity, and almost half reported exposure to unanticipated health risks, and one-quarter of travelers to malarious areas reported inconsistent or no use of malaria chemoprophylaxis. Our findings highlight that communication and education outreach for PHP to prevent travel-associated illnesses can be improved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Ordinary risks and accepted fictions: how contrasting and competing priorities work in risk assessment and mental health care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Michael; Cohen, Rachel; Faulkner, Alison; Hannigan, Ben; Simpson, Alan; Barlow, Sally

    2017-06-01

    Communication and information sharing are considered crucial to recovery-focused mental health services. Effective mental health care planning and coordination includes assessment and management of risk and safety. Using data from our cross-national mixed-method study of care planning and coordination, we examined what patients, family members and workers say about risk assessment and management and explored the contents of care plans. Thematic analysis of qualitative research interviews (n = 117) with patients, family members and workers, across four English and two Welsh National Health Service sites. Care plans were reviewed (n = 33) using a structured template. Participants have contrasting priorities in relation to risk. Patients see benefit in discussions about risk, but cast the process as a worker priority that may lead to loss of liberty. Relationships with workers are key to family members and patients; however, worker claims of involving people in the care planning process do not extend to risk assessment and management procedures for fear of causing upset. Workers locate risk as coming from the person rather than social or environmental factors, are risk averse and appear to prioritize the procedural aspects of assessment. Despite limitations, risk assessment is treated as legitimate work by professionals. Risk assessment practice operates as a type of fiction in which poor predictive ability and fear of consequences are accepted in the interests of normative certainty by all parties. As a consequence, risk adverse options are encouraged by workers and patients steered away from opportunities for ordinary risks thereby hindering the mobilization of their strengths and abilities. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a "threshold effect" (risk quotient risk for substances having a "non-threshold effect", with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10(-6)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary health care reform, dilemmatic space and risk of burnout among health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Labonté, Ronald; Javanparast, Sara; Lawless, Angela

    2018-05-01

    Health system changes may increase primary health care workers' dilemmatic space, created when reforms contravene professional values. Dilemmatic space may be a risk factor for burnout. This study partnered with six Australian primary health care services (in South Australia: four state government-managed services including one Aboriginal health team and one non-government organisation and in Northern Territory: one Aboriginal community-controlled service) during a period of change and examined workers' dilemmatic space and incidence of burnout. Dilemmatic space and burnout were assessed in a survey of 130 staff across the six services (58% response rate). Additionally, 63 interviews were conducted with practitioners, managers, regional executives and health department staff. Dilemmatic space occurred across all services and was associated with higher rates of self-reported burnout. Three conditions associated with dilemmatic space were (1) conditions inherent in comprehensive primary health care, (2) stemming from service provision for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and (3) changes wrought by reorientation to selective primary health care in South Australia. Responses to dilemmatic space included ignoring directives or doing work 'under the radar', undertaking alternative work congruent with primary health care values outside of hours, or leaving the organisation. The findings show that comprehensive primary health care was contested and political. Future health reform processes would benefit from considering alignment of changes with staff values to reduce negative effects of the reform and safeguard worker wellbeing.

  19. Communication about environmental health risks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna; Krishnaratne, Shari

    2010-11-01

    Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references.Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective than just a single type, such

  20. Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciliska Donna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies, participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations, interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof, and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change. Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and

  1. [Improving Mental Health Care in People at Risk for Getting Homeless].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Arnold, Maja; Uber, Elisa; Hoell, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Overall aim was to reduce the untreated prevalence in persons with untreated mental disorders and at risk for loosing accommodation and descending into homelessness. Primary aim was treatment initiation and treatment adherence by motivational interviewing. Secondary aims were to reduce social or financial problems. Methods: Persons at risk were identified in social welfare services or labour agencies, diagnosed and motivated to initiate treatment in a community mental health service. Results: 58 persons were included, 24 were referred to regular mental health care, 8 were stabilized enough after the initial motivational to refrain from acute treatment, 26 dropped out. During a 6-month follow-up quality of life and social support was improved (partly statistically significant) and psycho-social needs for care decreased. Conclusion: Motivational interviewing is likely to increase insight into illness and acceptance of mental health care in untreated persons with mental disorders at risk for social decline. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. A Real-World Community Health Worker Care Coordination Model for High-Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A; Perry-Bell, Kenita; Minier, Mark; Glassgow, Anne Elizabeth; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2018-04-01

    Health care systems across the United States are considering community health worker (CHW) services for high-risk patients, despite limited data on how to build and sustain effective CHW programs. We describe the process of providing CHW services to 5,289 at-risk patients within a state-run health system. The program includes 30 CHWs, six care coordinators, the Director of Care Coordination, the Medical Director, a registered nurse, mental health specialists, and legal specialists. CHWs are organized into geographic and specialized teams. All CHWs receive basic training that includes oral and mental health; some receive additional disease-specific training. CHWs develop individualized care coordination plans with patients. The implementation of these plans involves delivery of a wide range of social service and coordination support. The number of CHW contacts is determined by patient risk. CHWs spend about 60% of their time in an office setting. To deliver the program optimally, we had to develop multiple CHW job categories that allow for CHW specialization. We created new technology systems to manage operations. Field issues resulted in program changes to improve service delivery and ensure safety. Our experience serves as a model for how to integrate CHWs into clinical and community systems.

  3. Risk Factors, Processes and Risk Management within a Public Health Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Szentes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides clinical medicine, which is in the process of constant and fast development, the focus is increasingly on public health services, which should be well prepared for reducing or keeping under control the dangers induced by the growing social burden of disease. Continuous risk management is represented by these services that are specially designed to prevent diseases and health damages. The grounds for the planning and implementation of public health services are constituted by risk factor management and assessment by means of adopting a unified approach.

  4. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  5. Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) for Environmental Development and Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita, Alejandro; Backhaus, Thomas; Borriello, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K.; Collignon, Peter; Coors, Anja; Finley, Rita; Gaze, William H.; Heberer, Thomas; Lawrence, John R.; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; McEwen, Scott A.; Ryan, James J.; Schönfeld, Jens; Silley, Peter; Snape, Jason R.; Van den Eede, Christel; Topp, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: Only recently has the environment been clearly implicated in the risk of antibiotic resistance to clinical outcome, but to date there have been few documented approaches to formally assess these risks. Objective: We examined possible approaches and sought to identify research needs to enable human health risk assessments (HHRA) that focus on the role of the environment in the failure of antibiotic treatment caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop held 4–8 March 2012 in Québec, Canada, to define the scope and objectives of an environmental assessment of antibiotic-resistance risks to human health. We focused on key elements of environmental-resistance-development “hot spots,” exposure assessment (unrelated to food), and dose response to characterize risks that may improve antibiotic-resistance management options. Discussion: Various novel aspects to traditional risk assessments were identified to enable an assessment of environmental antibiotic resistance. These include a) accounting for an added selective pressure on the environmental resistome that, over time, allows for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB); b) identifying and describing rates of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the relevant environmental “hot spot” compartments; and c) modifying traditional dose–response approaches to address doses of ARB for various health outcomes and pathways. Conclusions: We propose that environmental aspects of antibiotic-resistance development be included in the processes of any HHRA addressing ARB. Because of limited available data, a multicriteria decision analysis approach would be a useful way to undertake an HHRA of environmental antibiotic resistance that informs risk managers. Citation: Ashbolt NJ, Amézquita A, Backhaus T, Borriello P, Brandt KK, Collignon P, Coors A, Finley R, Gaze WH, Heberer T, Lawrence JR, Larsson DG, McEwen SA, Ryan JJ, Schönfeld J, Silley P, Snape JR

  6. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  7. Cardiometabolic risk factors and health behaviors in family caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Ross

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare components of cardiometabolic risk and health behaviors of 20 family caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients to those of age, gender, and race/ethnicity-matched controls. A prospective, repeated measures design was used to compare cardiometabolic risk and health behaviors in caregivers and controls at three time-points: pre-transplantation, discharge, and six weeks post-discharge. Measures included components of metabolic syndrome, Reynolds Risk Score, NMR serum lipoprotein particle analyses, and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II. Mixed-model repeated measure analyses were used. There were no between or within group differences in LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. There was a significant interaction effect between time and role in large VLDL concentration (VLDL-P (F (2, 76 = 4.36, p = .016, with the trajectory of large VLDL-P increasing over time in caregivers while remaining stable in controls. Within caregivers, VLDL particle size (VLDL-Z was significantly larger at time-point three compared to time-points one (p = .015 and two (p = .048, and VLDL-Z was significantly larger in caregivers than in controls at time point three (p = .012. HPLP-II scores were lower in caregivers than controls at all time-points (p < .01. These findings suggest that caregiving may have a bigger impact on triglycerides than on other lipids, and it is through this pathway that caregivers may be at increased cardiometabolic risk. More sensitive measurement methods, such as NMR lipoprotein particle analyses, may be able to detect early changes in cardiometabolic risk.

  8. Concurrent multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents in Luangnamtha province, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple health risk behaviors (HRBs among adolescents pose a threat to their health, including HIV/AIDS. Health risk behaviors such as alcohol use, smoking, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors among youth have been shown to co-occur with each others. The objectives of this study was to estimate the prevalence of single and concurrent health risk behaviors and to explore how health risk behavior is associated with socio-demographic factors and peers' behaviors. Methods A cross sectional design was used to examine health risk behaviors of adolescents between the age 14 and 19 years living in the Luangnamtha province, Lao PDR. The study was conducted between June and August, 2008. An ordinal logistic regression model that simultaneously explored demographic factors and the influence of the behavior of peers on three categories of multiple HRBs (no risk, one risk, and two or more health risk behaviors was performed. Results A total of 1360 respondents, 669 (49.1% boys with mean age 16.7 ± 1.6 and 699 (50.9% girls aged 16.1 ± 1.5 were recruited into the study. The majority reported two or fewer risk behaviors. However, multiple risk behaviors increased with age for both sexes. About 46.8% (n = 637 reported no risk, 39.3 percent (n = 535 reported one risk, 8.1 percent (n = 110 reported two risks, and 5.8 percent reported more than two health risk behaviors. The protective factors among boys were school attendance (OR = .53, CI = .33-.86, being Hmong and Yao ethnicity (OR = .48, CI-.26-.90, while being above the age of 15 (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.33-3.60, Akha ethnicity (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.04-4.61, peer's smoking (OR = 3.11, 95% CI = 2.1-4.6, and peer's drinking alcohol (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.1-3.21 were significantly associated with the presence of multiple risk behaviors among boys. Having some education (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.06-0.45, and being of Hmong and Yao ethnicity (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.18-0.80 were factors that

  9. Reducing the health risks from radon in the UK overground workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the potential health risk from radon in workplaces in the United Kingdom (UK), the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 include the protection of workers from excessive radon levels. Under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, employers are required to make risk assessments for potential hazards in the workplace. This is taken to apply to the risk from radon in premises in areas where over 1% of domestic housing properties have average annual radon levels over the Action Level. Whilst the UK Action Level in domestic housing has been set at 200 Bq·m -3 , the workplace limit is 400 Bq·m -3 . The Regulations require that this limit be compared to a 24-hour winter maximum, while in domestic properties the annual average radon level is compared to the Action Level. This paper discusses the application of the Regulations in the UK to ensure compliance and reduce risk from radon in the workplace, include use of short-term measurements, and the consideration of seasonal variation. Reduction of radon levels can be achieved by methods similar to those in domestic properties, but, in large buildings, several sump/pump systems may be required. Case studies have shown that the sump/pump system preferentially reduces radon levels at night, when workers are not usually present. Thus to achieve a significant health benefit the average radon level should be reduced below 325 Bq·m -3 . (author)

  10. Health risk behavior of youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie B; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Many adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore, identification of risk behavior is critical. Data from a larger study were analyzed to investigate the health risk behavior of 56 youth in foster care using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition. Data indicated that youth in foster care had some increased risk behavior when compared with a normative adolescent population. Younger adolescents and those in relative placement had less risky behavior. Risk behavior was increased for youth in foster care when they were in group homes, had experienced a parental death, or had a history of physical or emotional abuse or attempted suicide. These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability for youth in foster care and suggest areas for clinicians and caregivers of these adolescents to focus interventions towards harm reduction and enhancement of resiliency.

  11. Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1993-09-01

    Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk reduction; analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Database on food and nutrient intakes; investigations on effects of food processing on contaminant levels; background food and environmental concentrations of contaminants; method for handling exposures to groundwater plumes, methods for analyzing less than lifetime exposure to carcinogens; and improvement of bioaccumulation factors

  12. The association of health risks with on-the-job productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Conti, Daniel J; Schultz, Alyssa B; Pransky, Glenn; Edington, Dee W

    2005-08-01

    Decreased on-the-job productivity represents a large yet poorly characterized indirect cost to employers. We studied the impact of employee health risk factors on self-reported worker productivity (presenteeism). Using a brief version of the Work Limitation Questionnaire incorporated into a Health Risk Appraisal, 28,375 employees of a national company responded to the survey. The association between health risks and work limitation and each of the four domains was examined. Percentage of lost productivity also was estimated. Ten of 12 health risk factors studied were significantly associated with self-reported work limitations. The strength of the associations varied between risks and the four domains of work limitation. Perception-related risk factors such as life dissatisfaction, job dissatisfaction, poor health, and stress showed the greatest association with presenteeism. As the number of self-reported health risk factors increased, so did the percentage of employees reporting work limitations. Each additional risk factor was associated with 2.4% excess productivity reduction. Medium and high-risk individuals were 6.2% and 12.2% less productive than low-risk individuals, respectively. The annual cost of lost productivity in this corporation was estimated at between 99Mdollars and 185Mdollars or between 1392dollars and 2592dollars per employee. Health risk factors represent additional causes of lost productivity.

  13. Risk factors associated with mental health issues in adolescents: a integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risk factors associated with mental health issues in adolescents. Method: An integrative review was conducted in four databases with publications from 2007 to 2013. The terms Adolescent and Mental Health were used to search adequate articles as DeCs/MeSH bases. Results: Publications were found in different journals in different fields of knowledge and the quantitative research was the most frequent. The mental health issues were categorized as individual factors; drug related factors, school factors, family factors, social factors and STDs/Aids related factors. The most addressed category was individual factors, with 23 publications. Conclusion: The integrative review allowed to point important questions to be addressed in preventive actions by the health professional, including the nurse, to create a space that works with risk conditioning factors in adolescents for mental health aggravation.

  14. A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Goh, Yang Miang

    2012-01-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: ► A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. ► An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. ► An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. ► An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. ► The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

  15. An integrated framework for health and ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Glenn W.; Vermeire, Theo; Munns, Wayne R.; Sekizawa, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The worldHealth Organization's (WHO's) International Program for Chemical Safety has developed a framework for performing risk assessments that integrate the assessment of risks to human health and risks to nonhuman organisms and ecosystems. The WHO's framework recognizes that stakeholders and risk managers have their own processes that are parallel to the scientific process of risk assessment and may interact with the risk assessment at various points, depending on the context. Integration of health and ecology provides consistent expressions of assessment results, incorporates the interdependence of humans and the environment, uses sentinel organisms, and improves the efficiency and quality of assessments relative to independent human health and ecological risk assessments. The advantage of the framework to toxicologists lies in the opportunity to use understanding of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics to inform the integrated assessment of all exposed species

  16. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Nolen, Alexandra B; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are currently available for this assessment, clarifying data needs, identifying data gaps, and considering how those gaps could be filled. Analyses suggested that the traditionally defined EJ community in Port Arthur may have a lower environmental risk from air toxics than the rest of the City of Port Arthur (although the entire city has a higher risk than the average for the state), but may have a larger burden from social determinants of health. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the availability of data, the definitions of community boundaries, and the areal unit utilized. Continued focus on environmental justice communities and the cumulative risks faced by their residents is critical to protecting these residents and, ultimately, moving towards a more equitable distribution and acceptable level of risk throughout society.

  17. The development and implementation of stroke risk prediction model in National Health Insurance Service's personal health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Lim, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Shin, Soon-Ae; Kim, Jinkwon; Yoo, Bora; Cho, Kyung-Hee

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build a 10-year stroke prediction model and categorize a probability of stroke using the Korean national health examination data. Then it intended to develop the algorithm to provide a personalized warning on the basis of each user's level of stroke risk and a lifestyle correction message about the stroke risk factors. Subject to national health examinees in 2002-2003, the stroke prediction model identified when stroke was first diagnosed by following-up the cohort until 2013 and estimated a 10-year probability of stroke. It sorted the user's individual probability of stroke into five categories - normal, slightly high, high, risky, very risky, according to the five ranges of average probability of stroke in comparison to total population - less than 50 percentile, 50-70, 70-90, 90-99.9, more than 99.9 percentile, and constructed the personalized warning and lifestyle correction messages by each category. Risk factors in stroke risk model include the age, BMI, cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and intensity, physical activity, alcohol drinking, past history (hypertension, coronary heart disease) and family history (stroke, coronary heart disease). The AUC values of stroke risk prediction model from the external validation data set were 0.83 in men and 0.82 in women, which showed a high predictive power. The probability of stroke within 10 years for men in normal group (less than 50 percentile) was less than 3.92% and those in very risky group (top 0.01 percentile) was 66.2% and over. The women's probability of stroke within 10 years was less than 3.77% in normal group (less than 50 percentile) and 55.24% and over in very risky group. This study developed the stroke risk prediction model and the personalized warning and the lifestyle correction message based on the national health examination data and uploaded them to the personal health record service called My Health Bank in the health information website - Health

  18. School-based mental health services, suicide risk and substance use among at-risk adolescents in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Mallie J; Bersamin, Melina

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether an increase in the availability of mental health services at school-based health centers (SBHCs) in Oregon public schools was associated with the likelihood of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and substance use behaviors among adolescents who experienced a depressive episode in the past year. The study sample included 168 Oregon public middle and high schools and 9073 students who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey (OHT) in 2013 and 2015. Twenty-five schools had an SBHC, and 14 of those schools increased availability of mental health services from 2013 to 2015. The OHT included questions about having a depressive episode, suicidal ideation, attempting suicide in the past year, and substance use behaviors in the past 30days. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted in 2017 to examine associations between increasing mental health services and the likelihood of these outcomes. Analysis results indicated that students at SBHC schools that increased mental health services were less likely to report any suicidal ideation [odds ratio (OR) (95% C.I.)=0.66 (0.55, 0.81)], suicide attempts [OR (95% C.I.)=0.71 (0.56, 0.89)] and cigarette smoking [OR (95% C.I.)=0.77 (0.63, 0.94)] from 2013 to 2015 compared to students in all other schools. Lower frequencies of cigarette, marijuana and unauthorized prescription drug use were also observed in SBHC schools that increased mental health services relative to other schools with SBHCs. This study suggests that mental health services provided by SBHCs may help reduce suicide risk and substance use behaviors among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A probabilistic assessment of health risks associated with short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R.G; Biller, W.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Keisler, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The work described in this report is part of a larger risk assessment sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Earlier efforts developed exposure-response relationships for acute health effects among populations engaged in heavy exertion. Those efforts also developed a probabilistic national ambient air quality standards exposure model and a general methodology for integrating probabilistic exposure-response relation- ships and exposure estimates to calculate overall risk results. Recently published data make it possible to model additional health endpoints (for exposure at moderate exertion), including hospital admissions. New air quality and exposure estimates for alternative national ambient air quality standards for ozone are combined with exposure-response models to produce the risk results for hospital admissions and acute health effects. Sample results explain the methodology and introduce risk output formats.

  20. Concurrent and Subsequent Associations between Daily Digital Technology Use and High-Risk Adolescents' Mental Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Madeleine J.; Russell, Michael A.; Piontak, Joy R.; Odgers, Candice L.

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents are spending an unprecedented amount of time using digital technologies (especially mobile technologies), and there are concerns that adolescents' constant connectivity is associated with poor mental health, particularly among at-risk adolescents. Participants included 151 adolescents at risk for mental health problems (M[subscript…

  1. Health behaviour among adolescents in Denmark: influence of school class and individual risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2006-01-01

    the mother's socioeconomic status and the included health behaviour measurements; however, adolescents from the lower socioeconomic groups had a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits and adolescents whose mothers were unemployed had a significantly lower risk of drinking alcohol weekly versus all other...... adolescents. Not living with both biological parents, focusing on friends, and not being very academically proficient were associated with an increased risk of harmful health behaviour. Health behaviour varied substantially between school classes, especially for daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption......AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes...

  2. Environmental injustice and sexual minority health disparities: A national study of inequitable health risks from air pollution among same-sex partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Morales, Danielle X

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution is deleterious to human health, and numerous studies have documented racial and socioeconomic inequities in air pollution exposures. Despite the marginalized status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, no national studies have examined if they experience inequitable exposures to air pollution. This cross-sectional study investigated inequities in the exposure of same-sex partner households to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. We examined cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs across 71,207 census tracts using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data. We calculated population-weighted mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex male, same-sex female and heterosexual partner households. We used generalized estimating equations (GEEs) to examine multivariate associations between sociodemographics and health risks from HAPs, while focusing on inequities based on the tract composition of same-sex, same-sex male and same-sex female partners. We found that mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex partners are 12.3% and 23.8% greater, respectively, than for heterosexual partners. GEEs adjusting for racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status, population density, urban location, and geographic clustering show that living in census tracts with high (vs. low) proportions of same-sex partners is associated with significantly greater cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs, and that living in same-sex male partner enclaves is associated with greater risks than living in same-sex female partner enclaves. Results suggest that some health disparities experienced by LGBT populations (e.g. cancer, asthma) may be compounded by environmental exposures. Findings highlight the need to extend the conceptual framework for explaining LGBT health disparities beyond psycho-behavioral mechanisms translating social stress into illness to include environmental mechanisms. Because psycho-behavioral and environmental

  3. Clustering of risk factors for non-communicable disease and healthcare expenditure in employees with private health insurance presenting for health risk appraisal: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Conradie, Jaco; Lambert, Estelle V

    2013-12-21

    The global increase in the prevalence of NCD's is accompanied by an increase in risk factors for these diseases such as insufficient physical activity and poor nutritional habits. The main aims of this research study were to determine the extent to which insufficient physical activity (PA) clustered with other risk factors for non-communicable disease (NCD) in employed persons undergoing health risk assessment, and whether these risk factors were associated with higher healthcare costs. Employees from 68 companies voluntarily participated in worksite wellness days, that included an assessment of self-reported health behaviors and clinical measures, such as: blood pressure (BP), Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as total cholesterol concentrations from capillary blood samples. A risk-related age, 'Vitality Risk Age' was calculated for each participant using an algorithm that incorporated multiplicative pooled relative risks for all cause mortality associated with smoking, PA, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI, BP and cholesterol concentration. Healthcare cost data were obtained for employees (n = 2 789). Participants were 36±10 years old and the most prevalent risk factors were insufficient PA (67%) and BMI ≥ 25 (62%). Employees who were insufficiently active also had a greater number of other NCD risk factors, compared to those meeting PA recommendations (chi2 = 43.55; p employees meeting PA guidelines had significantly fewer visits to their family doctor (GP) (2.5 versus 3.11; p Physical inactivity was associated with clustering of risk factors for NCD in SA employees. Employees with lower BMI, better self-reported health status and readiness to change were more likely to meet the PA guidelines. These employees might therefore benefit from physical activity intervention programs that could result in improved risk profile and reduced healthcare expenditure.

  4. Prospective weight change and colon cancer risk in male US health professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies are remarkably consistent, especially among men, in showing that overweight and obesity [body mass index (BMI) >25] are associated with increased risk of colon cancer. However, no prospective studies address the influence of weight change in adulthood on subsequent colon...... cancer risk. In this study, we investigated whether weight change influences colon cancer risk utilizing prospectively collected weight data. We included 46,349 men aged 40-75 participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Questionnaires including items on weight were completed every second......-year period, we documented 765 cases of colon cancer. Cumulative mean BMI >22.5 was associated with significantly increased risk of colon cancer. The short-term weight change in the prior 2 to 4 years was positively and significantly associated with risk [HR = 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1...

  5. [Communication on health and safety risk control in contemporary society: an interdisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-S, Maria Ligia

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses communication as a technology for risk control with health and safety protection and promotion, within the context of a "risk society". As a component of Risk Analysis, risk communication is a technology that appears in risk literature, with well defined objectives, principles and models. These aspects are described and the difficulties are stressed, taking into consideration the multiple rationales related to risks in the culture and the many different aspects of risk regulation and control in the so-called "late modernity". Consideration is also given to the complexity of the communications process, guided by theoretical and methodological discussions in the field. In order to understand the true value of the communications field for risk control with health and safety protection and promotion, this paper also offers an overview of communication theories that support discussions of this matter, proposing a critical approach to models that include the dimensions of power and culture in the context of a capitalist society.

  6. Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Calgary, Alberta: Sources and screening health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to ambient volatile organic compound (VOCs) in urban areas is of interest because of their potential chronic and acute adverse effects to public health. Limited information is available about VOC sources in urban areas in Canada. An investigation of ambient VOCs levels, their potential sources and associated risks to public health was undertaken for the urban core of Alberta's largest city (downtown Calgary) for the period 2010-2015. Twenty-four hour arithmetic and geometric mean concentrations of total VOCs were 42μg/m 3 and 39μg/m 3 , respectively and ranged from 16 to 160μg/m 3 , with winter levels about two-fold higher than summer. Alkanes (58%) were the most dominant compounds followed by halogenated VOCs (22%) and aromatics (11%). Mean and maximum 24h ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the United States regulatory agencies and a cancer screening benchmark used in Alberta equivalent to 1 in 100,000 lifetime risk. The Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed nine VOC sources at downtown Calgary, where oil/natural gas extraction/combustion (26%), fuel combustion (20%), traffic sources including gasoline exhaust, diesel exhaust, mixed fugitive emissions (10-15%), and industrial coatings/solvents (12%) were predominant. Other sources included dry cleaning (3.3%), biogenic (3.5%) and a background source (18%). Source-specific health risk values were also estimated. Estimated cancer risks for all sources were below the Alberta cancer screening benchmark, and estimated non-cancer risks for all sources were well below a safe level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The need to include obstetric nurses in prenatal care visits in the public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aparecida Lagrosa Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate, with a qualitative approach, the role of Obstetric Nurses at the primary level of care given to women’s health as a vital component of the multidisciplinary team, which today is fundamental for providing care, prevention as well as health education and promotion, especially in programs whose activities are geared towards primary care of pregnant, parturient, and puerpera women. Methods: Brazilian laws and the determinations of Nursing Councils in reference to the activities of the obstetric nurse were researched, including the nurse’s responsibilities and limits. The bibliographic search was conducted in health-related journals, lay publications, and the Internet. Results: The conflicts between professional physicians and nurses were discussed. Conclusions: It was concluded that the activities of the nurse, conducting low-risk prenatal clinical visits in the basic healthcare network, has legal and ethical support and provides true benefit to the clients.

  8. Patents, Drug Delivery and Public Health Protection: Health Risk Management for Nanopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo da Silva Sant`Anna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the general risks associated with nanotechnology applications and the defcits of the risk management of engineered nanopharmaceutical particles. An evaluation of the possible health or environmental risks of nanoparticles must systematically be carried out and it is important to ensure that particle size and chemistry are taken into account when investigating possible adverse effects. It has been a goal subsidizes the policy-makers to adapt and modernize the regulatory framework on nanotechnology and risks involving health as a strategic area in the politics of Science. It is essential that health and environment be always directly or indirectly involved in various researches to understand the causes of affections and to develop control procedures in order to avoid them, providing results achievable, reliable and secure.

  9. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  10. Mental Health Professionals' Suicide Risk Assessment and Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Mitchell, Sean M; Taylor, Nathanael J; Quinnett, Paul; Ries, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 20% of suicide decedents have had contact with a mental health professional within 1 month prior to their death, and the majority of mental health professionals have treated suicidal individuals. Despite limited evidence-based training, mental health professionals make important clinical decisions related to suicide risk assessment and management. The current study aimed to determine the frequency of suicide risk assessment and management practices and the association between fear of suicide-related outcomes or comfort working with suicidal individuals and adequacy of suicide risk management decisions among mental health professionals. Mental health professionals completed self-report assessments of fear, comfort, and suicide risk assessment and management practices. Approximately one third of mental health professionals did not ask every patient about current or previous suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Further, comfort, but not fear, was positively associated with greater odds of conducting evidence-based suicide risk assessments at first appointments and adequacy of suicide risk management practices with patients reporting suicide ideation and a recent suicide attempt. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the majority of mental health professionals report using evidenced-based practices, there appears to be variability in utilization of evidence-based practices.

  11. Core state preconception health indicators - pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system and behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cheryl L; Zapata, Lauren B; Farr, Sherry L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Morrow, Brian; Ahluwalia, Indu; D'Angelo, Denise V; Barradas, Danielle; Cox, Shanna; Goodman, David; Williams, Letitia; Grigorescu, Violanda; Barfield, Wanda D

    2014-04-25

    Promoting preconception health can potentially improve women's health and pregnancy outcomes. Evidence-based interventions exist to reduce many maternal behaviors and chronic conditions that are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate folic acid intake, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The 2006 national recommendations to improve preconception health included monitoring improvements in preconception health by maximizing public health surveillance (CDC. Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care-United States: a report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-6]). 2009 for 38 indicators; 2008 for one indicator. DESCRIPTION OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS: The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected self-reported maternal behaviors, conditions, and experiences that occur shortly before, during, and after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing state-based telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the United States that collects state-level data on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and preventive health services. This surveillance summary includes PRAMS data from 29 reporting areas (n = 40,388 respondents) and BRFSS data from 51 reporting areas (n = 62,875 respondents) for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (aged 18-44 years). To establish a comprehensive, nationally recognized set of indicators to be used for monitoring, evaluation, and response, a volunteer group of policy and program leaders and epidemiologists identified 45 core state preconception health indicators, of which 41 rely on PRAMS or BRFSS as data sources. This report includes 39 of the 41 core state preconception health indicators for which

  12. Comparison of models used for ecological risk assessment and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryti, R.T.; Gallegos, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Models are used to derive action levels for site screening, or to estimate potential ecological or human health risks posed by potentially hazardous sites. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is RCRA-regulated, the human-health screening action levels are based on hazardous constituents described in RCRA Subpart S and RESRAD-derived soil guidelines (based on 10 mRem/year) for radiological constituents. Also, an ecological risk screening model was developed for a former firing site, where the primary constituents include depleted uranium, beryllium and lead. Sites that fail the screening models are evaluated with site-specific human risk assessment (using RESRAD and other approaches) and a detailed ecological effect model (ECOTRAN). ECOTRAN is based on pharmacokinetics transport modeling within a multitrophic-level biological-growth dynamics model. ECOTRAN provides detailed temporal records of contaminant concentrations in biota, and annual averages of these body burdens are compared to equivalent site-specific runs of the RESRAD model. The results show that thoughtful interpretation of the results of these models must be applied before they can be used for evaluation of current risk posed by sites and the benefits of various remedial options. This presentation compares the concentrations of biological media in the RESRAD screening runs to the concentrations in ecological endpoints predicted by the ecological screening model. The assumptions and limitations of these screening models and the decision process where these are screening models are applied are discussed

  13. Evaluating a Health Risk Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelberg, Daniel B.

    1981-01-01

    A health risk reduction program at Bowling Green State University (Ohio) tested the efficacy of peer education against the efficacy of returning (by mail) health questionnaire results. A peer health education program did not appear to be effective in changing student attitudes or lifestyles; however, the research methodology may not have been…

  14. Calculation of health risks from spent-nuclear-fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    Models developed to analyze potential radiological health risks from various accident scenarios during transportation of spent nuclear fuels are described. The models are designed both for detailed route-specific risk analyses and for use in conducting overall risk analyses for route selection and related decision-making activities. The radiological risks calculated include individual dose commitments, collective dose commitments, and long-term (100-year) environmental dose commitments to a population following release of radioactivity. To facilitate route-specific analysis, a state-level database was developed and incorporated into the model. Route-specific analysis is demonstrated by the calculation of radiological risks resulting from various accident scenarios, as postulated by the recent US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Modal Study, for four representative states selected from various regions of the United States. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Subject-enabled analytics model on measurement statistics in health risk expert system for public health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Kuo, Yu-Chen; Hsieh, Yun-Yu; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Liang, Wen-Miin; Liao, Li-Na; Li, Chia-Ing; Lin, Hsueh-Chun

    2017-11-01

    This study applied open source technology to establish a subject-enabled analytics model that can enhance measurement statistics of case studies with the public health data in cloud computing. The infrastructure of the proposed model comprises three domains: 1) the health measurement data warehouse (HMDW) for the case study repository, 2) the self-developed modules of online health risk information statistics (HRIStat) for cloud computing, and 3) the prototype of a Web-based process automation system in statistics (PASIS) for the health risk assessment of case studies with subject-enabled evaluation. The system design employed freeware including Java applications, MySQL, and R packages to drive a health risk expert system (HRES). In the design, the HRIStat modules enforce the typical analytics methods for biomedical statistics, and the PASIS interfaces enable process automation of the HRES for cloud computing. The Web-based model supports both modes, step-by-step analysis and auto-computing process, respectively for preliminary evaluation and real time computation. The proposed model was evaluated by computing prior researches in relation to the epidemiological measurement of diseases that were caused by either heavy metal exposures in the environment or clinical complications in hospital. The simulation validity was approved by the commercial statistics software. The model was installed in a stand-alone computer and in a cloud-server workstation to verify computing performance for a data amount of more than 230K sets. Both setups reached efficiency of about 10 5 sets per second. The Web-based PASIS interface can be used for cloud computing, and the HRIStat module can be flexibly expanded with advanced subjects for measurement statistics. The analytics procedure of the HRES prototype is capable of providing assessment criteria prior to estimating the potential risk to public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid development in the assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation has produced an impressive array of risk differentials of presumed biologic significance. In the human data these differentials involve: (1) the variety of cancer, especially its size; (2) host factors, especially age; (3) time following exposure; (4) magnitude of dose; and (5) type of radiation. From experimental work we may presume that dose-rate also plays a role, especially for sparsely ionizing radiation. Current research is extending the scope of differentials with respect to these and other variables, including cell type and concomitant environmental risk factors, and testing dose-response models suggested by experimental and theoretical work. As facts to be explained, differentials in risk may lead to hypotheses to be explored experimentally and improve our understanding of how ionizing radiation causes cancer. 74 references

  17. HIV/AIDS knowledge and occupational risk in primary care health workers from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Baltica Cabieses; Lagunas, Lilian Ferrer; Villarroel, Luis Antonio; Acosta, Rosina Cianelli; Miner, Sarah; Silva, Margarita Bernales

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between knowledge level and occupational risk exposure to HIV/AIDS in primary care health workers. Methodology Analytical cross-sectional study. 720 health workers from Santiago answered a survey about HIV/AIDS that included: knowledge level (appropriate, inappropriate), occupational risk (with or without risk), and control variables (age, gender, health center, education and marital status). Descriptive and association analysis were performed. Odds Ratio (OR) was estimated through simple and multiple regressions logistics. Results 58.7% of the participants reported HIV occupational risk. 63.8% of the participants from the exposed group reported an appropriate level of knowledge, versus 36.1% of the non-exposed group (Adjusted OR of 3.1, IC95%OR: 2.0-4.8, p<0.0001). Technicians and cleaning staff reported a lower proportion of appropriate level of knowledge compared to the employees with college education (p<0.0001). Conclusion The level of HIV/AID occupational risk is directly associated with the level of knowledge of the disease. PMID:25284913

  18. A Risk Assessment Matrix for Public Health Principles: The Case for E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Daniela; Chowdhury, Azim; Ferro, Giancarlo Antonio; Nalis, Federico Giuseppe; Polosa, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Besides nicotine replacement therapies, a realistic alternative for smoking cessation or for smoking substitution may come from electronic cigarettes (ECs), whose popularity has been steadily growing. As for any emerging behaviour associated with exposure to inhalational agents, there is legitimate cause for concern and many health organizations and policy makers have pushed for restrictive policy measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products. Nonetheless, it is important to reframe these concerns in context of the well-known harm caused by cigarette smoking. In this article, we discuss key public health principles that should be considered when regulating ECs. These include the concept of tobacco harm reduction, importance of relative risk and risk continuum, renormalization of smoking, availability of low-risk product, proportionate taxation, and reassessment of the role of non-tobacco flavours. These public health principles may be systematically scrutinized using a risk assessment matrix that allows: (1) to determine the measure of certainty that a risk will occur; and (2) to estimate the impact of such a risk on public health. Consequently, the ultimate goal of responsible ECs regulation should be that of maximizing the favourable impact of these reduced-risk products whilst minimizing further any potential risks. Consumer perspectives, sound EC research, continuous post-marketing surveillance and reasonable safety and quality product standards should be at the very heart of future regulatory schemes that will address concerns while minimizing unintended consequences of ill-informed regulation. PMID:28362360

  19. A Risk Assessment Matrix for Public Health Principles: The Case for E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Daniela; Chowdhury, Azim; Ferro, Giancarlo Antonio; Nalis, Federico Giuseppe; Polosa, Riccardo

    2017-03-31

    Besides nicotine replacement therapies, a realistic alternative for smoking cessation or for smoking substitution may come from electronic cigarettes (ECs), whose popularity has been steadily growing. As for any emerging behaviour associated with exposure to inhalational agents, there is legitimate cause for concern and many health organizations and policy makers have pushed for restrictive policy measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products. Nonetheless, it is important to reframe these concerns in context of the well-known harm caused by cigarette smoking. In this article, we discuss key public health principles that should be considered when regulating ECs. These include the concept of tobacco harm reduction, importance of relative risk and risk continuum, renormalization of smoking, availability of low-risk product, proportionate taxation, and reassessment of the role of non-tobacco flavours. These public health principles may be systematically scrutinized using a risk assessment matrix that allows: (1) to determine the measure of certainty that a risk will occur; and (2) to estimate the impact of such a risk on public health. Consequently, the ultimate goal of responsible ECs regulation should be that of maximizing the favourable impact of these reduced-risk products whilst minimizing further any potential risks. Consumer perspectives, sound EC research, continuous post-marketing surveillance and reasonable safety and quality product standards should be at the very heart of future regulatory schemes that will address concerns while minimizing unintended consequences of ill-informed regulation.

  20. Health risk reduction programs in employer-sponsored health plans: Part II-law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L

    2009-08-01

    We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests.

  1. Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part II—Law and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. Methods We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. Results A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Conclusion Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests. PMID:19625971

  2. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents' perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents' risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and noncomparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities.

  3. Health risk assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential process for evaluating the human health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and for determining acceptable levels of exposure. There are two major components of radiation risk assessment: a measure of exposure level and a measure of disease occurrence. For quantitative estimation of health risks, it is important to evaluate the association between exposure and disease occurrence using epidemiological or experimental data. In these approaches, statistical risk models are used particularly for estimating cancer risks related to exposure to low levels of radiation. This paper presents a summary of basic models and methods of risk assessment for studying exposure-risk relationships. Moreover, quantitative risk estimates are subject to several sources of uncertainty due to inherent limitations in risk assessment studies. This paper also discusses the limitations of radiation risk assessment. (author)

  4. Health behaviors and quality of life predictors for risk of hospitalization in an electronic health record-linked biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi,1,2 Euijung Ryu,3 Janet E Olson,3 Erin M Winkler,4 Matthew A Hathcock,3 Ruchi Gupta,3 Jeff A Sloan,3 Jyotishman Pathak,3 Suzette J Bielinski,3 James R Cerhan3 1Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Health Sciences Research, 4Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Background: Hospital risk stratification models using electronic health records (EHRs often use age and comorbid health burden. Our primary aim was to determine if quality of life or health behaviors captured in an EHR-linked biobank can predict future risk of hospitalization. Methods: Participants in the Mayo Clinic Biobank completed self-administered questionnaires at enrollment that included quality of life and health behaviors. Participants enrolled as of December 31, 2010 were followed for one year to ascertain hospitalization. Data on comorbidities and hospitalization were derived from the Mayo Clinic EHR. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI were used, adjusted for age and sex. We used gradient boosting machines models to integrate multiple factors. Different models were compared using C-statistic. Results: Of the 8,927 eligible Mayo Clinic Biobank participants, 834 (9.3% were hospitalized. Self-perceived health status and alcohol use had the strongest associations with risk of hospitalization. Compared to participants with excellent self-perceived health, those reporting poor/fair health had higher risk of hospitalization (HR =3.66, 95% CI 2.74–4.88. Alcohol use was inversely associated with hospitalization (HR =0.57 95% CI 0.45–0.72. The gradient boosting machines model estimated self-perceived health as the most influential factor (relative influence =16%. The predictive ability of the model based on comorbidities was slightly higher than the one based on the self-perceived health (C-statistic =0.67 vs 0.65. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that self

  5. Holistic Health: Does It Really Include Mental Health?

    OpenAIRE

    McClanahan, Kimberly K.; Huff, Marlene B.; Omar, Hatim A.

    2006-01-01

    Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate publi...

  6. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K T

    2005-01-01

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage

  7. Holistic Health: Does It Really Include Mental Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly K. McClanahan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S. over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.

  8. Holistic health: does it really include mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Kimberly K; Huff, Marlene B; Omar, Hatim A

    2006-03-14

    Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.

  9. Proximity systems: Analysis of health risks; Varchi magneticianalysis of health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, V.; Bartolini, P.; Donato, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Ingegneria Biomedica; Militello, C.; Polichetti, A.; Vecchia, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-03-01

    The results of a study on the magnetic fields generated by proximity systems for the controlled access of personnel are reported. Besides data from experimental measurements, the results are presented of theoretical calculations of induced currents inside the body. Health risks are also evaluated based on a comparison with the most advanced international standards. Finally, possible effects of interference with implanted pacemakers are analyzed in detail.

  10. Heavy Internet use and its associations with health risk and health-promoting behaviours among Thai university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Apidechkul, Tawatchai

    2014-01-01

    The Internet provides significant benefits for learning about the world, but excessive Internet use can lead to negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between heavy Internet use and health-promoting behaviour, health risk behaviour and health outcomes among university students. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students chosen at random from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand. Of the participants, 27.3% were male and and 72.7% were female in the age range of 18-25 years (M age=20.1 years, SD=1.3). Overall, students spent on average 5.3 h (SD=2.6) per day on the internet, and 35.3% engaged in heavy internet use (6 or more hours per day). In multivariate logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographics, lack of dental check-ups, three health risk behaviours (sedentary lifestyle, illicit drug use and gambling) and three health outcomes [being underweight, overweight or obese and having screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] were found to be associated with heavy Internet use. The results from this study may support the importance of developing early protective and preventive actions against problematic Internet use to promote university student health.

  11. Human health risk assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Amézquita, Alejandro; Backhaus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    to enable human health risk assessments (HHRA) that focus on the role of the environment in the failure of antibiotic treatment caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop held 4-8 March 2012 in Québec, Canada, to define the scope and objectives...... of an environmental assessment of antibiotic-resistance risks to human health. We focused on key elements of environmental-resistance-development "hot spots," exposure assessment (unrelated to food), and dose response to characterize risks that may improve antibiotic-resistance management options. Discussion: Various...... novel aspects to traditional risk assessments were identified to enable an assessment of environmental antibiotic resistance. These include a) accounting for an added selective pressure on the environmental resistome that, over time, allows for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB); b...

  12. Health risk behaviours among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwick Shamin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to review and summarize research on prevalence of health risk behaviours, their outcomes as well as risk and protective factors among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean. Methods Searching of online databases and the World Wide Web as well as hand searching of the West Indian Medical Journal were conducted. Papers on research done on adolescents aged 10 – 19 years old and published during the period 1980 – 2005 were included. Results Ninety-five relevant papers were located. Five papers were published in the 1980s, 47 in the 1990s, and from 2000–2005, 43 papers. Health risk behaviours and outcomes were divided into seven themes. Prevalence data obtained for these, included lifetime prevalence of substance use: cigarettes-24% and marijuana-17%; high risk sexual behaviour: initiation of sexual activity ≤ 10 years old-19% and those having more than six partners-19%; teenage pregnancy: teens account for 15–20% of all pregnancies and one-fifth of these teens were in their second pregnancy; Sexually-Transmitted Infections (STIs: population prevalence of gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia in 18–21 year-olds was 26%; mental health: severe depression in the adolescent age group was 9%, and attempted suicide-12%; violence and juvenile delinquency: carrying a weapon to school in the last 30 days-10% and almost always wanting to kill or injure someone-5%; eating disorders and obesity: overweight-11%, and obesity-7%. Many of the risk behaviours in adolescents were shown to be related to the adolescent's family of origin, home environment and parent-child relationships. Also, the protective effects of family and school connectedness as well as increased religiosity noted in studies from the United States were also applicable in the Caribbean. Conclusion There is a substantial body of literature on Caribbean adolescents documenting prevalence and correlates of health risk behaviours. Future research

  13. Methodology for the assessment of human health risks associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that the aquatic environment can be polluted by contaminates that are accumulated by freshwater fish and this may pose a health risk to the ... bioaccumulation potential and health risks of analytes, sound sampling design, risk assessment procedures and performing monitoring at different scales and ...

  14. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  15. Chronic disease health risk behaviours amongst people with a mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlem, Kate M; Bowman, Jennifer A; Bailey, Jacqueline M; Freund, Megan; Wye, Paula M; Lecathelinais, Christophe; McElwaine, Kathleen M; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Gillham, Karen E; Wiggers, John H

    2015-08-01

    Amongst people with a mental illness, modifiable health risk behaviours contribute substantially to increased chronic disease morbidity and mortality. This study examined the prevalence of and interest in changing such behaviours amongst community mental health service clients in Australia. A telephone interview was undertaken with Australian community mental health service clients. Participants reported engagement in four health risk behaviours: tobacco smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Participants were classified as at risk based upon Australian national guidelines. At-risk participants were asked whether they were considering improving their health risk behaviour within the next month. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and risk, and interest in improving health risk behaviours was examined. Risk prevalence was highest for inadequate vegetable consumption (78.3%), followed by inadequate fruit consumption (60%), smoking (50.7%), physical inactivity (46.8%), short-term alcohol risk (40.3%) and chronic alcohol risk (35.3%). A majority of at-risk participants were considering improving their health risk behaviour for smoking, physical inactivity and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption (65.1%, 71.1%, and 53.3%, respectively). After adjusting for demographic factors, no diagnostic categories were associated with risk for any behaviour. Those with a diagnosis of depression were more likely to be interested in quitting smoking and increasing physical activity. Regardless of diagnosis, a high prevalence of chronic disease health risk behaviours was identified, with many participants expressing an interest in improving these behaviours. Such findings reinforce recommendations that preventive care addressing the chronic disease risks of clients be provided routinely by mental health clinicians. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12613000693729. URL: www.anzctr.org.au/. © The

  16. Temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in the judiciary staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Orlak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper was to examine how temperament might moderate the health impact of psychosocial hazards at work and thus to attempt to identify the temperament risk factor in the judiciary staff. Material and Methods: The data were collected from 355 court employees, including judges, judicial assistants, court clerks and service workers from criminal, civil, commercial as well as from labor and social insurance divisions. The psychosocial work environment was measured with the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire by Cieślak and Widerszal-Bazyl, temperament with Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory adopted by Hornowska and employee health status was screened with Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire- 28 (GHQ-28 adopted by Makowska and Merecz. The health impact of job strain with moderating effects of temperament traits was estimated with logistic regression (forward stepwise selection based on the likelihood ratio for the model. Results: The analyses confirmed the moderating role of temperament in the health consequences of work-related stress. High score in novelty seeking was identified as independent temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in judiciary staff facing at least medium job demands. The job control was a protective factor while relative risk of negative health outcomes was also elevated due to female gender. Conclusions: Temperament may control sensitivity to the environmental exposure to psychosocial hazards at work and its health consequences. Further research is needed to explore and understand better the moderating role of temperament in the relation between job stress (strain and health in different vocational groups and workplaces. Med Pr 2017;68(3:375–390

  17. [Temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in the judiciary staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlak, Katarzyna; Tylka, Jan

    2017-05-16

    The aim of this paper was to examine how temperament might moderate the health impact of psychosocial hazards at work and thus to attempt to identify the temperament risk factor in the judiciary staff. The data were collected from 355 court employees, including judges, judicial assistants, court clerks and service workers from criminal, civil, commercial as well as from labor and social insurance divisions. The psychosocial work environment was measured with the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire by Cieślak and Widerszal-Bazyl, temperament with Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory adopted by Hornowska and employee health status was screened with Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire- 28 (GHQ-28) adopted by Makowska and Merecz. The health impact of job strain with moderating effects of temperament traits was estimated with logistic regression (forward stepwise selection based on the likelihood ratio for the model). The analyses confirmed the moderating role of temperament in the health consequences of work-related stress. High score in novelty seeking was identified as independent temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in judiciary staff facing at least medium job demands. The job control was a protective factor while relative risk of negative health outcomes was also elevated due to female gender. Temperament may control sensitivity to the environmental exposure to psychosocial hazards at work and its health consequences. Further research is needed to explore and understand better the moderating role of temperament in the relation between job stress (strain) and health in different vocational groups and workplaces. Med Pr 2017;68(3):375-390. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. Associations between perceived stress, socioeconomic status, and health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods in Denmark: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algren, Maria Holst; Ekholm, Ola; Nielsen, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2018-02-13

    Previous studies have found that residents of deprived neighbourhoods have an increased risk of perceived stress compared to residents with similar sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics in non-deprived neighbourhoods. While stress may provide an explanatory pathway linking neighbourhood deprivation to health-risk behaviour, only limited research has been undertaken on whether perceived stress influences health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods. Moreover, it is uncertain whether perceived stress has a negative effect on the associations between socioeconomic status and health-risk behaviours in deprived neighbourhoods. The overall aim of this study was to compare perceived stress in deprived neighbourhood with that in the general population, and to examine whether perceived stress was associated with health-risk behaviours (including their co-occurrence) in deprived neighbourhoods. A further aim was to examine whether perceived stress modified the associations between socioeconomic status and health-risk behaviours. Four questions from the Perceived Stress Scale were used as indicators of perceived stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to cross-sectional data from 5113 adults living in 12 deprived neighbourhoods in Denmark. Data from 14,868 individuals from the nationally representative Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010 were used as a comparison group with regard to perceived stress. Residents of deprived neighbourhoods had higher odds of perceived stress than the general population. Associations between disposable income, economic deprivation, strain, and perceived stress were found in deprived neighbourhoods. Perceived stress was significantly associated with higher odds of health-risk behaviour, including a low intake of fruit or vegetables, daily smoking, physical inactivity, and the co-occurrence of health-risk behaviours, even after adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Perceived stress

  19. Applying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits relative to other personal health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefkens, Christine; Valli, Veronica; Mazzocchi, Mario; Traill, W Bruce; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Poor eating habits are a key priority on the European public health agenda due to their large health and economic implications. Healthy eating interventions may be more effective if consumers perceive their eating habits as a more serious personal health risk. This study investigates European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits, its determinants and relative importance among other potential personal health risks including weight, stress and pollution. A quantitative survey was conducted during Spring 2011 among samples representative for age, gender and region in five European countries (n=3003). Participants were neutral towards the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. Eating habits were ranked third after stress and weight. Gender, age, country, health motive, body mass index, and subjective health status were important determinants of the perceived seriousness of their eating habits, whereas perceived financial condition, smoking and education were insignificant. Eating habits were perceived more seriously by women, Italians, obese, and younger individuals with stronger health motives and fair subjective health status. Nevertheless, other health risks were often considered more important than eating habits. More or specific efforts are required to increase Europeans' awareness of the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. © 2013.

  1. Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ... sharing of personal effects, malnourishment and sexual harassment. ... Development of risk reduction and appropriate sexual health interventions targeted at prevention ...

  2. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  3. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D.; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls, short message service (SMS) or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and grey literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). IVR and SMS interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. IVR and SMS-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multi-modal interventions including web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in more than 30 LMICs, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients’ unique and changing needs. PMID:26596977

  4. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2015-11-24

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including interactive voice response calls, short message service, or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and gray literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Interactive voice response and short message service interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. Interactive voice response and short message service-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multimodal interventions including Web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in >30 low- and middle-income countries, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next-generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients' unique and changing needs

  5. Effectiveness of a national cardiovascular disease risk assessment program (NHS Health Check): results after one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artac, Macide; Dalton, Andrew R H; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Millett, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to assess whether the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check, a systematic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and management program, was associated with reduction in CVD risk in attendees after one year. We extracted data from patients aged 40-74 years, with high estimated CVD risk, who were registered with general practices in a deprived, culturally diverse setting in England. We included 4748 patients at baseline (July 2008-November 2009), with 3712 at follow-up (December 2009-March 2011). We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in global CVD risk, individual CVD risk factors and statin prescription in patients with a complete and partial Health Check. There were significant reductions in mean CVD risk score (28.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI)=27.3-29.1 to 26.2%; 95% CI, 25.4-27.1), diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol levels and lipid ratios after one year in patients with a complete Health Check. Statin prescription increased from 14.0% (95% CI=11.9-16.0) to 60.6% (95% CI=57.7-63.5). The introduction of NHS Health Check was associated with significant but modest reductions in CVD risk among screened high-risk individuals. Further cost-effectiveness analysis and work accounting for uptake is required to assess whether the program can make significant changes to population health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Health Security and Risk Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Health security has become a popular way of justifying efforts to control catastrophic threats to public health. Unfortunately, there has been little analysis of the concept of health security, nor the relationship between health security and other potential aims of public health policy. In this paper I develop an account of health security as an aversion to risky policy options. I explore three reasons for thinking risk avoidance is a distinctly worthwhile aim of public health policy: (i) that security is intrinsically valuable, (ii) that it is necessary for social planning and (iii) that it is an appropriate response to decision-making in contexts of very limited information. Striking the right balance between securing and maximizing population health thus requires a substantive, and hitherto unrecognized, value judgment. Finally, I critically evaluate the current health security agenda in light of this new account of the concept and its relationship to the other aims of public health policy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Oral health status of women with high-risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merglova, Vlasta; Hecova, Hana; Stehlikova, Jaroslava; Chaloupka, Pavel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status of women with high-risk pregnancies. A case-control study of 142 pregnant women was conducted. The case group included 81 pregnant women with high-risk pregnancies, while 61 women with normal pregnancies served as controls. The following variables were recorded for each woman: age, general health status, DMF, CPITN, and PBI index, amounts of Streptococcus mutans in the saliva and dental treatment needs. The Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and chi-squared test were used for statistical analyses. Statistically significant differences were detected between the PBI indices and dental treatment needs of the two groups. Out of the entire study cohort, 77% of the women in the case group and 52% of the women in the control group required dental treatment. In this study, women with complications during pregnancy had severe gingivitis and needed more frequent dental treatment than those in the control group.

  8. Examining unpriced risk heterogeneity in the Dutch health insurance market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen-Koster, A.A. (A. A.); R.C. van Kleef (Richard); F. Eijkenaar (Frank)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractA major challenge in regulated health insurance markets is to mitigate risk selection potential. Risk selection can occur in the presence of unpriced risk heterogeneity, which refers to predictable variation in health care spending not reflected in either premiums by insurers or risk

  9. Risky music-listening behaviors and associated health-risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Burdorf, Alex; de Waart, Frouwkje

    2012-06-01

    To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, and hard drugs) and unsafe sexual intercourse. A total of 944 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Risky MP3-player listeners used cannabis more often during the past 4 weeks. Students exposed to risky sound levels during discotheque and pop concert attendance used cannabis less often during the past 4 weeks, were more often binge drinkers, and reported inconsistent condom use during sexual intercourse. The coexistence of risky music-listening behaviors with other health-risk behaviors provides evidence in support of the integration of risky music-listening behaviors within research on and programs aimed at reducing more traditional health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and unsafe sexual intercourse.

  10. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management

  11. Environmental health research in Japan - management of environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masahisa [Lake Biwa Research Institute (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Briefly discussed the topics on emerging environmental health risks, their assessment and management, with special emphasis on groundwater management , environmental contamination, source protection, new drinking water and ambient water quality standards; and sophistication in instrumentation in environmental quality measurements, hazards and risk assessment and control, technology development in environmental health risk management.

  12. Environmental health research in Japan - management of environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masahisa Nakamura

    1996-01-01

    Briefly discussed the topics on emerging environmental health risks, their assessment and management, with special emphasis on groundwater management , environmental contamination, source protection, new drinking water and ambient water quality standards; and sophistication in instrumentation in environmental quality measurements, hazards and risk assessment and control, technology development in environmental health risk management

  13. From Risk factors to health resources in medical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Hanne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2000-01-01

    autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis......autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis...

  14. Approach to the health-risk management on municipal reclaimed water reused in landscape water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Li, J.; Liu, W.

    2008-12-01

    Water pollution and water heavily shortage are both main environmental conflicts in China. Reclaimed water reuse is an important approach to lessen water pollution and solve the water shortage crisis in the city. The heath risk of reclaimed water has become the focus of the public. It is impending to evaluate the health risk of reclaimed water with risk assessment technique. Considering the ways of the reclaimed water reused, it is studied that health risk produced by toxic pollutants and pathogenic microbes in the processes of reclaimed water reused in landscape water system. The pathogenic microbes monitoring techniques in wastewater and reclaimed water are discussed and the hygienic indicators, risk assessment methods, concentration limitations of pathogenic microbes for various reclaimed water uses are studied. The principle of health risk assessment is used to research the exposure level and the health risk of concerned people in a wastewater reuse project where the reclaimed water is applied for green area irrigation in a public park in Beijing. The exposure assessment method and model of various reclaimed water uses are built combining with Beijing reclaimed water project. Firstly the daily ingesting dose and lifetime average daily dose(LADD) of exposure people are provided via field work and monitoring analysis, which could be used in health risk assessment as quantitative reference. The result shows that the main risk comes from the pathology pollutants, the toxic pollutants, the eutrophication pollutants, pathogenic microbes and the secondary pollutants when municipal wastewater is reclaimed for landscape water. The major water quality limited should include pathogenic microbes, toxic pollutants, and heavy metals. Keywords: municipal wastewater, reclaimed water, landscape water, health risk

  15. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  16. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  17. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258 completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction.

  18. Prediction of health risks from accidents: A comprehensive assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two computer programs to predict radiation risks to individuals and/or the collective population from exposures to accidental releases of radioactive materials. When used together, these two codes provide a consistent, comprehensive tool to estimate not only the risks to specific individuals but also the distribution of risks in the exposed population and the total number of individuals within a specific level of risk. Prompt and latent fatalities are estimated for the exposed population, and from these, the risk to an average individual can be derived. Uncertainty in weather conditions is considered by estimating both the ''median'' and the ''maximum'' population doses based on the frequency distribution of wind speeds and stabilities for a given site. The importance of including all dispersible particles (particles smaller than about 100 μm) for dose and health risk analyses from nonfiltered releases for receptor locations within about 10 km from a release has been investigated. The dose contribution of the large particles (> 10 μm) has been shown to be substantially greater than those from the small particles for the dose receptors in various release and exposure conditions. These conditions include, particularly, elevated releases, strong wind weather, and exposure pathways associated with ground-deposited material over extended periods of time

  19. The Risks Of Using Workplace Wellness Programs To Foster A Culture Of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Kristin M

    2016-11-01

    In many respects, employers are well positioned to take a leading role in helping create a culture of health. Employers have access to many programs that could be beneficial to their employees' health. The potential for financial gains related to health improvement may motivate employers to offer these programs, and if the gains are realized, they may help finance the programs. At the same time, employers' involvement in such programs may create substantial risks. Enthusiasm about the financial and health gains that wellness programs might yield coexists with concerns about health costs shouldered by employees, the possibility of employment discrimination, and the potential for employers' invasion of employees' privacy. A fragmented regulatory regime, including a recently issued final rule under the Americans with Disabilities Act, has been created to address these concerns. Whether the regime strikes the right balance between wellness program benefits and risks remains to be determined. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Public Health and Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Including Fracking: Global Lessons from a Scottish Government Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2018-04-04

    Unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOGE) including fracking for shale gas is underway in North America on a large scale, and in Australia and some other countries. It is viewed as a major source of global energy needs by proponents. Critics consider fracking and UOGE an immediate and long-term threat to global, national, and regional public health and climate. Rarely have governments brought together relatively detailed assessments of direct and indirect public health risks associated with fracking and weighed these against potential benefits to inform a national debate on whether to pursue this energy route. The Scottish government has now done so in a wide-ranging consultation underpinned by a variety of reports on unconventional gas extraction including fracking. This paper analyses the Scottish government approach from inception to conclusion, and from procedures to outcomes. The reports commissioned by the Scottish government include a comprehensive review dedicated specifically to public health as well as reports on climate change, economic impacts, transport, geology, and decommissioning. All these reports are relevant to public health, and taken together offer a comprehensive review of existing evidence. The approach is unique globally when compared with UOGE assessments conducted in the USA, Australia, Canada, and England. The review process builds a useful evidence base although it is not without flaws. The process approach, if not the content, offers a framework that may have merits globally.

  1. Snapshot from Superstorm Sandy: American Red Cross mental health risk surveillance in lower New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Merritt D; Yin, Rob; Omaish, Mostafa; Broderick, Joan E

    2014-07-01

    Disasters often cause psychological injury, as well as dramatic physical damage. Epidemiologic research has identified a set of disaster experiences and predisposing characteristics that place survivors at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Rapid triage of at-risk survivors could have benefits for individual and population-level outcomes. We examine American Red Cross mental health risk surveillance data collected from October 29 to November 20, 2012, immediately after Hurricane Sandy in 8 lower New York State counties to evaluate the feasibility and utility of collecting these data. PsySTART, an evidence-based disaster mental health triage tool, was used to record survivor-reported risk factors after each survivor contact. Red Cross disaster mental health volunteers interfaced with survivors at disaster operation sites, including shelters, emergency aid stations, and mobile feeding and community outreach centers. Risk data were called into the operations center each day and reported by county. PsySTART risk surveillance data for 18,823 disaster mental health contacts are presented for adults and children. A total of 17,979 risk factors were reported. Overall levels of risk per contact were statistically different (χ(2)(1, N=6,045)=248.1; PSuperstorm Sandy indicate substantial population-level impact suggestive of risk for disorders that may persist chronically without treatment. Mental health triage has the potential to improve care of individual disaster survivors, as well as inform disaster management, local health providers, and public health officials. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [The operational role of the occupational health physician in the assessment and management of health risks related to night risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Gonnelli, Irene Margherita; Garbarino, Sergio; Cupelli, Vincenzo; Arcangelil, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The operational role of the occupational health physician in the assessment and management of health risks related to night work. Night work, in the last 30-40 years, has been extended to almost all areas of employment. The potential effects on workers' health--related to the disruption of circadian rhythms--are now well defined and studied in the Literature. All issues about the protection of safety and health for night workers are governed by the Italian Legislative Decree no. 66/2003 and subsequent amendments. The management of night work hasn't been included into the main Law on Occupational Safety and Health (Italian Legislative Decree no. 81/2008 and subsequent amendments) and a coordination between the two disciplines is desirable. The occupational health physician, as a global consultant for the protection of all health issues into a company, has to evaluate the potential effects of night work on health, both individually and as a group of workers. In this way, the physician may use either traditional tools (history, physical examination, blood tests) or innovative tools (questionnaires, health promotion programs, interventions on shift schedules). In the management of night work is useful to employ schedules that respect both psychophysical integrity and social welfare of workers and the needs of the production. The occupational health physician plays a significant role in information and training of workers, both individually and as a group of workers, and in the organization of health promotion programs (whit a voluntary participation by the workers).

  3. Turbulent times: effects of turbulence and violence exposure in adolescence on high school completion, health risk behavior, and mental health in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Hair, Elizabeth; Zuckerman, Barry

    2013-10-01

    Turbulent social environments are associated with health and developmental risk, yet mechanisms have been understudied. Guided by a life course framework and stress theory, this study examined the association between turbulent life transitions (including frequent residential mobility, school transitions, family structure disruptions, and homelessness) and exposure to violence during adolescence and high school completion, mental health, and health risk behaviors in young adulthood. Participants (n = 4834) from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort were followed prospectively from age 12-14 years for 10 years. We used structural equation models to investigate pathways between turbulence and cumulative exposure to violence (CEV), and high school completion, mental health, and health risk behaviors, while accounting for early life socio-demographics, family processes, and individual characteristics. Results indicated that turbulence index was associated with cumulative exposure to violence in adolescence. Both turbulence index and cumulative exposure to violence were positively associated with higher health risk behavior, poorer mental health, and inversely associated with high school completion. These findings highlight the importance of considering the cumulative impact of turbulent and adverse social environments when developing interventions to optimize health and developmental trajectory for adolescents transitioning into adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and Associated Risk Factors among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Jiali; You, Liming

    2017-11-14

    Rural-to-urban migration, which has achieved a huge scale during China's economic reform, is a potential risk factor for the mental health of migrant children. To test this hypothesis, this study assessed the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant children. Guided by Andersen's behavioral model, the study explored the risk factors associated with mental health. The study recruited 1182 fifth/sixth-grade children from four private and four public primary schools in Guangzhou in 2014 in a descriptive cross-sectional design. Mental health status was measured by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Predisposing characteristics including demographics (e.g., age, gender), social structure (e.g., education, occupation) and health beliefs (health attitude) were recorded. Enabling characteristics including family and community resources and the need for health services were analyzed to explore the risk factors. The results indicate that more rural-to-urban migrant children were classified in the abnormal (21.0%) or borderline (18.8%) categories based on the total difficulties scores, the proportions of which were much higher than those of local children (9.8% abnormal, 13.8% borderline). Factors associated with a greater likelihood of mental health problems included single-parent families, seeking health information actively, family income cannot meet basic needs and poor perceived health status. Compared with the local children, the rural-to-urban migrant children had relatively poor mental health, hence monitoring and supporting mental health for rural-urban migrant children is critical.

  5. Critical elements for human health risk assessment of less than lifetime exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Nijkamp, Monique M; Ter Burg, Wouter

    2016-11-01

    Less than lifetime exposure has confronted risk assessors as to how to interpret the risks for human health in case a chronic health-based limit is exceeded. Intermittent, fluctuating and peak exposures do not match with the basis of the chronic limit values possibly leading to conservative outcomes. This paper presents guidance on how to deal with human risk assessment of less than lifetime exposure. Important steps to be considered are characterization of the human exposure situation, evaluation whether the human less than lifetime exposure scenario corresponds to a non-chronic internal exposure: toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic considerations, and, finally, re-evaluation of the risk assessment. Critical elements for these steps are the mode of action, Haber's rule, and toxicokinetics (ADME) amongst others. Previous work for the endpoints non-genotoxic carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity is included in the guidance. The guidance provides a way to consider the critical elements, without setting default factors to correct for the less than lifetime exposure in risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed.

  7. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed

  8. Chemical cycles and health risks of some crustal nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation describes and utilizes an approach for assessing long term health risks due to dispersion of naturally occurring radionuclide series and chemical toxins by normal and altered landscape chemical cycles. In particular, the health risks resulting from geochemical mobilizations of arsenic, lead, uranium and radium are considered. Based on a review of toxic waste hazard-measures and risk assessment studies, a general expression is developed for quantifying health risks imposed by the introduction of toxic materials to components of the total environment. This general measure deals with long term interactions within and between the internal human environment and the external biogeochemical environment. Health hazards are expressed as dose factors which convert environmental concentrations into a corresponding dose field (organ doses in rad for radionuclides; daily intake for toxic elements). The dose field is translated into population health risk expressed as lifetime cancer risk for carcinogens and average blood levels for other toxins. The landscape cell (or prism) is presented as a tool for visualizing and mapping toxic material cycles near the crustal surface. The overall process is incorporated in the GEOTOX code which is a geochemical systems model for describing the dynamics of crustal toxins within a landscape and the resulting health risks. GEOTOX is used to investigate the response of regional landscapes to increased soil and rock inventories of 238 U, 226 Ra, arsenic and lead. It is found that each decay series of element imposes a hazard by its behavior in the total environment that can not be quantified by a similar measure of toxicity

  9. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    OpenAIRE

    Grudzen, Corita R.; Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male pe...

  10. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  11. Caregiving for ill dependents and its association with employee health risks and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Conti, Daniel J; Pransky, Glenn; Edington, Dee W

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the loss of productivity and health risk status associated with employees who provide care for an ill dependent. A total of 16,651 employees (23% response rate) of a major financial services company completed a confidential Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) that included an eight-item version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire and a self-report of time missed from work during the previous 2 weeks to care for an ill dependent. A total of 10.6% of the respondents reported an average of 7.7 hours absent from work during the previous 2-week period to provide care for an ill dependent. Caregiving also was associated with a significant increase in the number of health risks for the employee. As the demand for caregiving time increased, caregivers reported a significant increase in work limitations. Caregiving for an ill dependent is associated with increased absenteeism and significant work limitations while on the job. Programs and work organization that helps employees balance their caregiving responsibilities for ill dependents may have a positive effect on health and productivity.

  12. Women at risk: Gender inequality and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Pamela C; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Ntoimo, Lorretta F C; Muchiri, Evans

    2017-04-01

    Gender inequality has been documented as a key driver of negative health outcomes, especially among women. However, studies have not clearly examined the role of gender inequality in maternal health in an African setting. Therefore, the authors of this study examined the role of gender inequality, indicated by lack of female autonomy, in exposing women to maternal health risk. Data were obtained from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey on a weighted sample of 3,906 married or partnered women aged 15-49 years. Multivariable analyses revealed that low autonomy in household decision power was associated with maternal health risk (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.52, p < .001). Autonomy interacted with household wealth showed that respondents who were in the wealthier households and had low autonomy in household decision power (OR = 2.03, p < .05) were more likely to be exposed to maternal health risk than their counterparts who had more autonomy. Efforts to lower women's exposure to maternal mortality and morbidity in Zambia should involve interventions to alter prevailing gender norms that limit women's active participation in decisions about their own health during pregnancy and delivery.

  13. Risk distribution across multiple health insurance funds in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health...... services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. METHODS: Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests...... were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. RESULTS: There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status...

  14. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants: Concepts, Methods, Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks from multic...

  15. Including health insurance in poverty measurement: The impact of Massachusetts health reform on poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K

    2016-12-01

    We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing remediation criteria on the basis of health and ecological risks at a former sour gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G. L.; Wilson, R. M.; Clyde, G. A.; Chollak, D. F.

    1997-01-01

    A human health and ecological risk assessment was completed for the Okotoks sour gas processing gas plant, based on the existing environmental sampling and toxicity testing that has been collected at the site since 1987. For the human health risk assessment, two potential scenarios were considered, including industrial use and parkland use. The ecological risk assessment involved synthesis of existing sampling and toxicity testing results as well as the assessment of potential risk to ecological receptors such as the meadow vole, red-tailed hawk and cattle. The assessment included chemical screening, receptor and exposure pathway selection, toxicity assessment of chemicals of concern, estimation of exposures, risk characterization and generation of soil and groundwater remediation criteria. Results of the assessments to date indicate that limited subsurface remediation is required for the protection of human health under industrial/parkland use. In contrast, ecological considerations will require remediation or reclamation of surface soil and the imposition of certain risk management controls, such as e. g. encumbrances on land title. 2 figs

  17. Linking High Risk Postpartum Women with a Technology Enabled Health Coaching Program to Reduce Diabetes Risk and Improve Wellbeing: Program Description, Case Studies, and Recommendations for Community Health Coaching Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athavale, Priyanka; Thomas, Melanie; Delgadillo-Duenas, Adriana T; Leong, Karen; Najmabadi, Adriana; Harleman, Elizabeth; Rios, Christina; Quan, Judy; Soria, Catalina; Handley, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Background . Low-income minority women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) or high BMIs have increased risk for chronic illnesses postpartum. Although the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) provides an evidence-based model for reducing diabetes risk, few community-based interventions have adapted this program for pGDM women. Methods . STAR MAMA is an ongoing randomized control trial (RCT) evaluating a hybrid HIT/Health Coaching DPP-based 20-week postpartum program for diabetes prevention compared with education from written materials at baseline. Eligibility includes women 18-39 years old, ≥32 weeks pregnant, and GDM or BMI > 25. Clinic- and community-based recruitment in San Francisco and Sonoma Counties targets 180 women. Sociodemographic and health coaching data from a preliminary sample are presented. Results . Most of the 86 women included to date (88%) have GDM, 80% were identified as Hispanic/Latina, 78% have migrant status, and most are Spanish-speaking. Women receiving the intervention indicate high engagement, with 86% answering 1+ calls. Health coaching callbacks last an average of 9 minutes with range of topics discussed. Case studies presented convey a range of emotional, instrumental, and health literacy-related supports offered by health coaches. Discussion . The DPP-adapted HIT/health coaching model highlights the possibility and challenge of delivering DPP content to postpartum women in community settings. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02240420.

  18. Including threat actor capability and motivation in risk assessment for Smart GRIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossebo, J.E.Y.; Fransen, F.; Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The SEGRID (Security for Smart Electricity GRIDs) collaboration project, funded by the EU under the FP7 program investigates risk assessment methodologies and their possible need for enhancement. In this paper we discuss the need to include threat actor analysis in threat, vulnerability and risk

  19. Reliability, resilience and vulnerability criteria for the evaluation of time-dependent health risks: A hypothetical case study of wellhead protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.; Bolster, D.

    2012-12-01

    A hypothetical case study of groundwater contaminant protection was carried out using time-dependent health risk calculations. The case study focuses on a hypothetical zoning project for parcels of land around a well field in northern Indiana, where the control of cancer risk relative to a mandated cancer risk threshold is of concern in the management strategy. Within our analysis, we include both uncertainty in the subsurface transport and variability in population behavior in the calculation of time-dependent health risks. From these results we introduce risk maps, a visual representation of the probability of an unacceptable health risk as a function of population behavior and the time at which exposure to the contaminant begins. We also evaluate the time-dependent risks with three criteria from water resource literature: reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (RRV). With respect to health risk from a groundwater well, the three criteria determine: the probability that a well produces safe water (reliability), the probability that a contaminated well returns to an uncontaminated state within a specified time interval (resilience), and the overall severity in terms of health impact of the contamination at a well head (vulnerability). The results demonstrate that the distributions of RRV values for each parcel of land are linked to the time-dependent concentration profile of the contaminant at the well, and the toxicological characteristics of the contaminant. The proposed time-dependent risk calculation expands on current techniques to include a continuous exposure start time, capable of reproducing the maximum risk while providing information on the severity and duration of health risks. Overall this study suggests that, especially in light of the inherent complexity of health-groundwater systems, RRV are viable criteria for relatively simple and effective evaluation of time-dependent health risk. It is argued that the RRV approach, as applied to

  20. The risks of innovation in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2015-04-01

    Innovation in health care creates risks that are unevenly distributed. An evolutionary analogy using species to represent business models helps categorize innovation experiments and their risks. This classification reveals two qualitative categories: early and late diversification experiments. Early diversification has prolific innovations with high risk because they encounter a "decimation" stage, during which most experiments disappear. Participants face high risk. The few decimation survivors can be sustaining or disruptive according to Christensen's criteria. Survivors enter late diversification, during which they again expand, but within a design range limited to variations of the previous surviving designs. Late diversifications carry lower risk. The exception is when disruptive survivors "diversify," which amplifies their disruption. Health care and radiology will experience both early and late diversifications, often simultaneously. Although oversimplifying Christensen's concepts, early diversifications are likely to deliver disruptive innovation, whereas late diversifications tend to produce sustaining innovations. Current health care consolidation is a manifestation of late diversification. Early diversifications will appear outside traditional care models and physical health care sites, as well as with new science such as molecular diagnostics. They warrant attention because decimation survivors will present both disruptive and sustaining opportunities to radiology. Radiology must participate in late diversification by incorporating sustaining innovations to its value chain. Given the likelihood of disruptive survivors, radiology should seriously consider disrupting itself rather than waiting for others to do so. Disruption entails significant modifications of its value chain, hence, its business model, for which lessons may become available from the pharmaceutical industry's current simultaneous experience with early and late diversifications. Copyright

  1. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Skinner

    1992-01-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  2. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Roger

    1992-07-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential.

  3. Organochlorines in urban soils from Central India: probabilistic health hazard and risk implications to human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhupander; Mishra, Meenu; Verma, V K; Rai, Premanjali; Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-04-21

    This study presents distribution of organochlorines (OCs) including HCH, DDT and PCBs in urban soils, and their environmental and human health risk. Forty-eight soil samples were extracted using ultrasonication, cleaned with modified silica gel chromatography and analyzed by GC-ECD. The observed concentrations of ∑HCH, ∑DDT and ∑PCBs in soils ranged between < 0.01-2.54, 1.30-27.41 and < 0.01-62.8 µg kg -1 , respectively, which were lower than the recommended soil quality guidelines. Human health risk was estimated following recommended guidelines. Lifetime average daily dose (LADD), non-cancer risk or hazard quotient (HQ) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for humans due to individual and total OCs were estimated and presented. Estimated LADD were lower than acceptable daily intake and reference dose. Human health risk estimates were lower than safe limit of non-cancer risk (HQ < 1.0) and the acceptable distribution range of ILCR (10 -6 -10 -4 ). Therefore, this study concluded that present levels of OCs (HCH, DDT and PCBs) in studied soils were low, and subsequently posed low health risk to human population in the study area.

  4. [The methods of assessment of health risk from exposure to radon and radon daughters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V F; Zhukovskiy, M V; Kiselev, S M

    2014-01-01

    The critical analysis of existing models of the relationship dose-effect (RDE) for radon exposure on human health has been performed. Conclusion about the necessity and possibility of improving these models has been made. A new improved version ofthe RDE has been developed. A technique for assessing the human health risk of exposure to radon, including the method for estimating of exposure doses of radon, an improved model of RDE, proper methodology risk assessment has been described. Methodology is proposed for the use in the territory of Russia.

  5. Comparison of the health benefits and health risks of energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Gentner, N.E.; Werner, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health risks associated with the production of energy from various sources tend towards 1-10 potential premature deaths per GW.a. Technological development has increased average life expectancy by about 35 years. Cheap and safe supplies of energy support the social infrastructure and prosperity that make this possible. About 3.5 years increased life expectancy may be attributed to energy development. In contrast, for a societal risk of one premature death/GW.a and utilization of 10 GW.a per million persons, the average loss of life expectancy is 0.02 years. Under these conditions, the average health benefit would thus exceed the average health cost by at least two orders of magnitude. The risk, however, is disproportionately borne by relatively small, occupational sub-groups in the population, e.g. uranium and coal miners. The expected average loss of life expectancy in 50 years at work in one of these occupations in North America is currently about 1-2 years. Occupational hazards in most other portions of the energy supply industries are closer to those anticipated in a safe industry, where average loss of life expectancy due to occupational hazards would not exceed 0.15 years. The shared societal health benefit of increased life span associated with technological development outweighs average health hazards associated with occupation in both the more hazardous and the safer stages of energy production. (author)

  6. Criteria for risk acceptance: a health physicist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    While energy need (or demand) and the risks of energy production and use may be objectively quantified, risk acceptance embodies a subjective element of preferences and values. Yet, as demonstrated by the nuclear controversy in the United States, public acceptance is essential to the beneficial uses of radiation. The statement of the objectives and purposes of the Health Physics Society and our application of it are proposed as offering useful criteria for risk acceptance. The principle of comparing risk with a number of those regularly accepted in everyday life is emphasized. On this basis, it is concluded that the expenditures to attain currently applicable or proposed 'as low as practicable' (or 'as low as readily achievable') levels for the nuclear fuel cycle are disproportionate to those addressed to other sources of general public exposure to radiation. They are also disproportionate compared to those addressed to a variety of public health risks. It is suggested that sensible priorities for radiation and public health protection might be achieved by the application of a de minimus negligible (but nonzero) level of probable risk. (Research supported by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration.)

  7. Education-based disparities in knowledge of novel health risks: The case of knowledge gaps in HIV risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Orom, Heather; Waters, Erika A; McKillip, Megan; Hay, Jennifer L

    2018-05-01

    Risk perception is a key determinant of preventive health behaviour, but when asked, some individuals indicate they do not know their health risk. Low education is associated with both lack of knowledge about health risk and with the persistence and exacerbation of gaps in knowledge about health issues. This study uses the context of an emerging infectious disease threat to explore the hypothesis that the education-don't know risk relation results from differences in knowledge about the health issue of interest. Specifically, we examine whether patterns of change over time follow theoretical predictions that disparities in risk knowledge would increase over time in less educated sectors of the population (knowledge gap hypothesis). Secondary analysis of population-representative behavioural surveillance survey. We analysed data from the 1993 to 2000 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys, which measured education and perceived HIV/AIDS risk in a population sample collected separately in each survey year; don't know responses were coded. In each year, individuals with higher education were less likely to respond don't know. The absolute prevalence of don't know responding dropped over time; nonetheless, there was an increase over time in the magnitude of the pattern of lower education being associated with greater don't know responding. We found support for the knowledge gap hypothesis. Over time, populations with greater education gained more knowledge about their HIV risk than populations with lower education. Results highlight the need to carefully consider health communication strategies to reach and address those individuals with low education and health knowledge. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? A meaningful potion of the population answers 'don't know' when asked to report their risk for health problems, indicating a lack of risk perception in the domain. Previous studies have shown that level of education is

  8. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within...

  9. Sorting Out the Health Risk in California's State-Based Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindman, Andrew B; Hulett, Denis; Gilmer, Todd P; Bertko, John

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the health risk of enrollees in California's state-based insurance marketplace (Covered California) by metal tier, region, month of enrollment, and plan. 2014 Open-enrollment data from Covered California linked with 2012 hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visit records from statewide all-payer administrative databases. Chronic Illness and Disability Payment System (CDPS) health risk scores derived from an individual's age and sex from the enrollment file and the diagnoses captured in the hospitalization and ED records. CDPS scores were standardized by setting the average to 1.00. Among the 1,286,089 enrollees, 120,573 (9.4 percent) had at least one ED visit and/or a hospitalization in 2012. Higher risk enrollees chose plans with greater actuarial value. The standardized CDPS health risk score was 11 percent higher in the first month of enrollment (1.08; 99 percent CI: 1.07-1.09) than the last month (0.97; 99 percent CI: 0.97-0.97). Four of the 12 plans enrolled 91 percent of individuals; their average health risk scores were each within 3 percent of the marketplace's statewide average. Providing health plans with a means to assess the health risk of their year 1 enrollees allowed them to anticipate whether they would receive or contribute payments to a risk-adjustment pool. After receiving these findings as a part of their negotiations with Covered California, health plans covering the majority of enrollees decreased their initially proposed 2015 rates, saving consumers tens of millions of dollars in potential premiums. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. [Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Tianjin Based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Feng, Bao-jia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Hou, Chang-chun

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to assess the potential health hazards of drinking water quality and explore the application of geographic information system( GIS) in drinking water safety in Tianjin. Eight hundred and fifty water samples from 401 sampling points in Tianjin were measured according to the national drinking water standards. The risk assessment was conducted using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by US EAP, and GIS was combined to explore the information visualization and risk factors simultaneously. The results showed that the health risks of carcinogens, non-carcinogens were 3.83 x 10⁻⁵, 5.62 x 10⁻⁹ and 3.83 x 10⁻⁵ for total health risk respectively. The rank of health risk was carcinogen > non-carcinogen. The rank of carcinogens health risk was urban > new area > rural area, chromium (VI) > cadmium > arsenic > trichlormethane > carbon tetrachloride. The rank of non-carcinogens health risk was rural area > new area > urban, fluoride > cyanide > lead > nitrate. The total health risk level of drinking water in Tianjin was lower than that of ICRP recommended level (5.0 x 10⁻⁵), while was between US EPA recommended level (1.0 x 10⁻⁴-1.0 x 10⁻⁶). It was at an acceptable level and would not cause obvious health hazards. The main health risks of drinking water came from carcinogens. More attentions should be paid to chromium (VI) for carcinogens and fluoride for non-carcinogens. GIS can accomplish information visualization of drinking water risk assessment and further explore of risk factors.

  11. An Investigation into the Lifestyle, Health Habits and Risk Factors of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Al-Nakeeb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI and physical activity (PA amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18–25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students’ lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student’s health.

  12. Exploring perceptions of HIV risk and health service access among Zimbabwean migrant women in Johannesburg: a gap in health policy in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyewende, Pascalia; Rispel, Laetitia C; Harris, Bronwyn; Chersich, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    We present qualitative data from a 2005 exploratory study, recently published studies, and an analysis of the Department of Health's strategic plan to highlight the need for a broader policy debate on health-care access for migrants in South Africa. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 Zimbabwean women living in inner-city Johannesburg to document the special characteristics of this group of migrants, enquiring about their perceptions of HIV risk, and experiences of health services in South Africa. We identified access barriers, namely perceptions of relatively low HIV risk, severely constrained financial circumstances, uncertain legal status, and experiences of unresponsive health workers. We recommend that migrant-health rights be placed on South Africa's policy agenda, migrants be included in HIV prevention programs and that health workers be sensitized to the needs of migrants.

  13. Risk of mental health problems in adolescents skipping meals: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Hyunju

    Adolescents frequently skip meals, doing so even more than once per day. This is associated with more mental health problems. This study identified mental health problems' associations with skipping meals and the frequency thereof among adolescents. This cross-sectional population-based study used a data set of 1,413 adolescents from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the risk of mental health problems, including stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation in relation to skipping meals and the frequency thereof per day. Breakfast skipping significantly increased the risks of stress and depressive mood. Stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly prevalent as the daily frequency of skipping meals increased. Specific strategies should be developed at government or school level to decrease the frequency of skipping meals per day, associated with serious mental health problems in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a risk factor for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Gary; Rozmovits, Linda; Giambrone, Broden

    2011-06-29

    Poverty is widely recognized as a major determinant of poor health, and this link has been extensively studied and verified. Despite the strong evidentiary link, little work has been done to determine what primary care health providers can do to address their patients' income as a risk to their health. This qualitative study explores the barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a health issue in a well-resourced jurisdiction with near-universal health care insurance coverage. One to one interviews were conducted with twelve experts on poverty and health in primary care in Ontario, Canada. Participants included family physicians, specialist physicians, nurse practitioners, community workers, advocates, policy experts and researchers. The interviews were analysed for anticipated and emergent themes. This study reveals provider- and patient-centred structural, attitudinal, and knowledge-based barriers to addressing poverty as a risk to health. While many of its findings reinforce previous work in this area, this study's findings point to a number of areas front line primary care providers could target to address their patients' poverty. These include a lack of provider understanding of the lived reality of poverty, leading to a failure to collect adequate data about patients' social circumstances, and to the development of inappropriate care plans. Participants also pointed to prejudicial attitudes among providers, a failure of primary care disciplines to incorporate approaches to poverty as a standard of care, and a lack of knowledge of concrete steps providers can take to address patients' poverty. While this study reinforces, in a well-resourced jurisdiction such as Ontario, the previously reported existence of significant barriers to addressing income as a health issue within primary care, the findings point to the possibility of front line primary care providers taking direct steps to address the health risks posed by poverty. The consistent

  15. The Association of Employee Engagement at Work With Health Risks and Presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Schultz, Alyssa B

    2017-10-01

    Employee engagement is a key factor in work performance and employee retention. The current study seeks to examine the relationship between employee engagement and health risks and productivity. In 2012, employees of a global financial services corporation participated in a health risk appraisal (HRA) which measured employee engagement, health risks, and on-the-job productivity loss (presenteeism). Three engagement categories were created. The highest engaged employees had significantly fewer health risk factors (69.7% overall low-risk status; 1.91 average health risks) and significantly less presenteeism (7.7%) than the mid engagement (67.9% low-risk, 1.98 risks, 9.2% presenteeism) and worst engagement (55.0% low-risk, 2.53 risks, 14.0% presenteeism) groups. Work engagement appears to be good for both the organization and the individual. Organizations may wish to make use of strategies which increase employee engagement.

  16. Determinants of Mental Health Care Utilization in a Suicide High-risk Group With Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Soo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Methods: Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. Results: The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. Conclusions: It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation.

  17. Determinants of Mental Health Care Utilization in a Suicide High-risk Group With Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Moo-Sik; Hong, Jee-Young

    2016-01-01

    The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation.

  18. Financial risk protection from social health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kayleigh; Mukherji, Arnab; Mullen, Patrick; Sood, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    This paper estimates the impact of social health insurance on financial risk by utilizing data from a natural experiment created by the phased roll-out of a social health insurance program for the poor in India. We estimate the distributional impact of insurance on of out-of-pocket costs and incorporate these results with a stylized expected utility model to compute associated welfare effects. We adjust the standard model, accounting for conditions of developing countries by incorporating consumption floors, informal borrowing, and asset selling which allow us to separate the value of financial risk reduction from consumption smoothing and asset protection. Results show that insurance reduces out-of-pocket costs, particularly in higher quantiles of the distribution. We find reductions in the frequency and amount of money borrowed for health reasons. Finally, we find that the value of financial risk reduction outweighs total per household costs of the insurance program by two to five times. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilu Tong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA, there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  20. On the use of risk-informed regulation including organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, S.M.O.; Alvarenga, M.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk-Informed Regulation (RIR) can be applied by using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a basic tool. Traditionally, PSA methodology encompasses the calculation of failure probabilities of Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) and direct associated human errors. However, there are indirect causes related to human failures, associated with Organizational Factors, which are normally not included in fault trees, that may influence plant risk evaluation. This paper discusses on possible applications of RIR and on Organizational Factors. It also presents a classification of Angra-1 NPP unresolved issues, aiming a future inclusion of these factors into a PSA calculation. (author)

  1. Psychological distress and the perception of radiation risks: the Fukushima health management survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Findings Out of the 180 604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59 807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32–1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94–2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Conclusion Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress. PMID:26478623

  2. The family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk of families expecting a baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Sari; Ellonen, Noora; Helminen, Mika; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-08-01

    To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognised and helped before actual violent behaviour. A follow-up case-control study, with a supportive intervention in the case group (families with a heightened risk) in maternity and child welfare clinics. The baseline results of families are described here. Child maltreatment risk in families expecting a baby was measured by Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The health and functioning was measured by Family Health, Functioning and Social Support Scale. Data included 380 families. A total of 78 families had increased risk for child maltreatment. Heightened risk was associated with partners' age, mothers' education, partners' father's mental health problems, mothers' worry about partners' drinking and mothers' difficulties in talking about the family's problems. Risk was associated with family functioning and health. Families with risk received a less support from maternity clinics. Families with child maltreatment risk and related factors were found. This knowledge can be applied for supporting families both during pregnancy and after the baby is born. Professionals working with families in maternity clinics need tools to recognise families with risk and aid a discussion with them about the family life situation. The Child Abuse Potential, as a part of evaluating the family life situation, seems to prove a useful tool in identifying families at risk. The results offer a valid and useful tool for recognising families with risk and provide knowledge about high-risk family situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Health insurance in South Africa: an empirical analysis of trends in risk-pooling and efficiency following deregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, N; Hansl, B

    2000-12-01

    This paper reports an empirical investigation into the pattern of private health insurance coverage in South Africa before and after deregulation of the health insurance industry. More specifically, we sought to measure trends in risk-pooling over the period 1985-95, and to assess the impact of risk pooling on the costs of health insurance cover over this period. South African mutual health insurers (Medical Schemes) have existed for over 100 years, and have been regulated under a specific Act since 1967. Up until 1989, health insurers were required by law to community rate their premiums, and were not allowed to exclude high-risk enrolees from cover. In 1989 these regulations were removed, effectively allowing health insurers to risk-rate the cover which they provided, and exclude 'medically uninsurables'. Data were obtained from the office of the health insurance regulator (the Registrar of Medical Schemes) for the period 1985-95, and consisted of the statutory returns from all registered medical schemes for each year during the study period. Multiple regression methods were used to assess the determinants of changes in the risk pools of insurers, and their costs. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal models were estimated. Unadjusted data suggest changes in risk-pooling since the deregulation period after 1985. Health insurers with open enrolment had worse than average risk profiles in the 1980s, but this reversed by the early 1990s, leaving them with significantly better risk profiles by 1995. Worsening risk profiles were associated with decreasing fund size, higher loss-ratios and past premium increases. Most models showed that risk rating of premiums was consistently associated with higher premiums, after adjustment for risk, quality, scale and other environmental differences between insurers. Likely explanations include the additional costs required for marketing and underwriting risk-rated policies, insufficient incentives to use cost-control techniques

  4. Health effects of an increased protein intake on kidney function and colorectal cancer risk factors, including the role of animal and plant protein sources – the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith

    intake, including the role of animal and plant protein in pre-diabetic, overweight or obese individuals on health outcomes: markers of kidney function and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer as well as insulin sensitivity and kidney function in healthy individuals. The thesis is based on PREVIEW......, especially plant protein, on insulin sensitivity and kidney function. In paper II, the aim of the study was to assess the effect after one year of a higher protein intake on kidney function, measured by in creatinine clearance. This was investigated in pre-diabetic older adults based on a sub-group of 310...... pre-diabetic individuals included in the PREVIEW RCT. We found that a higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in urea to creatinine ratio and serum urea after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular...

  5. Occupational Risks of Health Professionals in Turkey as an Emerging Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutasdemir, Nilgun; Cirpan, Metin; Copur, Ebru Ozturk; Tanir, Ferdi

    2015-01-01

    Health services are one of the work areas that contain important risks in terms of the occupational health and safety of the laborer. Professionals in various areas of health services encounter biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic, and psychosocial risks, particularly in hospitals. This study has been performed to evaluate the impacts of the occupational risks on health of health professionals in Turkey. In Turkey, as an emerging economy, the history of studies on health professionals is not longstanding. There have been various regulations intended for the occupational health and safety of health professionals in line with the Regulation of the Provision on Patient and Staff Safety prepared in 2012. However, applications can differ from region to region, institution to institution, and person to person. We believe that this review will lead health professionals to be aware of occupational risks and contribute to planning health services for health professionals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hazarding health: experiences of body, work, and risk among factory women in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Robin

    2009-10-01

    In the 1970s, Malaysia launched an export-oriented development strategy as a means of financing the nation's modernization. The success of the strategy hinged significantly on intensive recruitment of women for factory employment. I draw on descriptive qualitative research, including interviews (51), surveys (106), and ethnography in Malaysia to investigate factory women's experiences of work and work-related health risks. Discourse analysis surfaced a latent consciousness of bodily changes in relation to work. A grounded theory analysis showed a compromised access to occupational risk knowledge that may bear negatively on women's well-being and the role women's new labor identities played in mediating the meanings of work and risks. Given the predominance of women workers in low-end manufacturing globally, I aimed to contribute to theoretical and applied understandings of gender, globalization, and health.

  7. [Application of occupational hazard risk index model in occupational health risk assessment in a decorative coating manufacturing enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, P L; Zhao, C X; Dong, Q Y; Hao, S B; Xu, P; Zhang, J; Li, J G

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To evaluate the occupational health risk of decorative coating manufacturing enterprises and to explore the applicability of occupational hazard risk index model in the health risk assessment, so as to provide basis for the health management of enterprises. Methods: A decorative coating manufacturing enterprise in Hebei Province was chosen as research object, following the types of occupational hazards and contact patterns, the occupational hazard risk index model was used to evaluate occupational health risk factors of occupational hazards in the key positions of the decorative coating manufacturing enterprise, and measured with workplace test results and occupational health examination. Results: The positions of oily painters, water-borne painters, filling workers and packers who contacted noise were moderate harm. And positions of color workers who contacted chromic acid salts, oily painters who contacted butyl acetate were mild harm. Other positions were harmless. The abnormal rate of contacting noise in physical examination results was 6.25%, and the abnormality was not checked by other risk factors. Conclusion: The occupational hazard risk index model can be used in the occupational health risk assessment of decorative coating manufacturing enterprises, and noise was the key harzard among occupational harzards in this enterprise.

  8. County-level job automation risk and health: Evidence from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pankaj C; Devaraj, Srikant; Hicks, Michael J; Wornell, Emily J

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have observed a positive association between automation risk and employment loss. Based on the job insecurity-health risk hypothesis, greater exposure to automation risk could also be negatively associated with health outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the county-level association between prevalence of workers in jobs exposed to automation risk and general, physical, and mental health outcomes. As a preliminary assessment of the job insecurity-health risk hypothesis (automation risk → job insecurity → poorer health), a structural equation model was used based on individual-level data in the two cross-sectional waves (2012 and 2014) of General Social Survey (GSS). Next, using county-level data from County Health Rankings 2017, American Community Survey (ACS) 2015, and Statistics of US Businesses 2014, Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS) regression models were fitted to predict county-level health outcomes. Using the 2012 and 2014 waves of the GSS, employees in occupational classes at higher risk of automation reported more job insecurity, that, in turn, was associated with poorer health. The 2SLS estimates show that a 10% increase in automation risk at county-level is associated with 2.38, 0.8, and 0.6 percentage point lower general, physical, and mental health, respectively. Evidence suggests that exposure to automation risk may be negatively associated with health outcomes, plausibly through perceptions of poorer job security. More research is needed on interventions aimed at mitigating negative influence of automation risk on health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational safety and health management and risk governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, A.; Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in new technologies, substances and new ways of working make it necessary to look beyond traditional methods of risk management. General drivers to emerging occupational safety and health (OSH) risks are: globalisation; demographic changes; technical innovations; changes in risk

  10. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  11. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerking, S.D.; Khaddaria, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14–22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk,

  12. Effectiveness of personalized and interactive health risk calculators: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Christopher A; Downs, Julie S; Padman, Rema

    2012-01-01

    Risk calculators are popular websites that provide individualized disease risk assessments to the public. Little is known about their effect on risk perceptions and health behavior. This study sought to test whether risk calculator features-namely, personalized estimates of one's disease risk and feedback about the effects of risk-mitigating behaviors-improve risk perceptions and motivate healthy behavior. A web-based experimental study using simple randomization was conducted to compare the effects of 3 prediabetes risk communication websites. Setting The study was conducted in the context of ongoing health promotion activities sponsored by a university's human resources office. Patients Participants were adult university employees. Intervention The control website presented nonindividualized risk information. The personalized noninteractive website presented individualized risk calculations. The personalized interactive website presented individualized risk calculations and feedback about the effects of hypothetical risk-mitigating behaviors. Measurements Pre- and postintervention risk perceptions were measured in absolute and relative terms. Health behavior was measured by assessing participant interest in follow-up preventive health services. On average, risk perceptions decreased by 2%. There was no general effect of personalization or interactivity in aligning subjective risk perceptions with objective risk calculations or in increasing healthy behaviors. However, participants who previously overestimated their risk reduced their perceptions by 16%. This was a significantly larger change than the 2% increase by participants who underestimated their risk. Limitations Results may not generalize to different populations, different diseases, or longer-term outcomes. Compared to nonpersonalized information, individualized risk calculators had little positive effect on prediabetes risk perception accuracy or health behavior. Risk perception accuracy was improved in

  13. Current drinking and health-risk behaviors among male high school students in central Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichainarong Natchaporn

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol drinking is frequently related to behavioral problems, which lead to a number of negative consequences. This study was to evaluate the characteristics of male high school students who drink, the drinking patterns among them, and the associations between current drinking and other health risk behaviors which focused on personal safety, violence-related behaviors, suicide and sexual behaviors. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore current alcohol drinking and health-risk behaviors among male high school students in central Thailand. Five thousand one hundred and eighty four male students were classified into 2 groups according to drinking in the previous 30 days (yes = 631, no = 4,553. Data were collected by self-administered, anonymous questionnaire which consisted of 3 parts: socio-demographic factors, health-risk behaviors and alcohol drinking behavior during the past year from December 2007 to February 2008. Results The results showed that the percent of current drinking was 12.17. Most of them were 15-17 years (50.21%. Socio-demographic factors such as age, educational level, residence, cohabitants, grade point average (GPA, having a part time job and having family members with alcohol/drug problems were significantly associated with alcohol drinking (p Conclusions An increased risk of health-risk behaviors, including driving vehicles after drinking, violence-related behaviors, sad feelings and attempted suicide, and sexual behaviors was higher among drinking students that led to significant health problems. Effective intervention strategies (such as a campaign mentioning the adverse health effects and social consequences to the risk groups, and encouraging parental and community efforts to prevent drinking among adolescents should be implemented to prevent underage drinking and adverse consequences.

  14. Public Health and Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Including Fracking: Global Lessons from a Scottish Government Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watterson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOGE including fracking for shale gas is underway in North America on a large scale, and in Australia and some other countries. It is viewed as a major source of global energy needs by proponents. Critics consider fracking and UOGE an immediate and long-term threat to global, national, and regional public health and climate. Rarely have governments brought together relatively detailed assessments of direct and indirect public health risks associated with fracking and weighed these against potential benefits to inform a national debate on whether to pursue this energy route. The Scottish government has now done so in a wide-ranging consultation underpinned by a variety of reports on unconventional gas extraction including fracking. This paper analyses the Scottish government approach from inception to conclusion, and from procedures to outcomes. The reports commissioned by the Scottish government include a comprehensive review dedicated specifically to public health as well as reports on climate change, economic impacts, transport, geology, and decommissioning. All these reports are relevant to public health, and taken together offer a comprehensive review of existing evidence. The approach is unique globally when compared with UOGE assessments conducted in the USA, Australia, Canada, and England. The review process builds a useful evidence base although it is not without flaws. The process approach, if not the content, offers a framework that may have merits globally.

  15. Public Health and Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Including Fracking: Global Lessons from a Scottish Government Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOGE) including fracking for shale gas is underway in North America on a large scale, and in Australia and some other countries. It is viewed as a major source of global energy needs by proponents. Critics consider fracking and UOGE an immediate and long-term threat to global, national, and regional public health and climate. Rarely have governments brought together relatively detailed assessments of direct and indirect public health risks associated with fracking and weighed these against potential benefits to inform a national debate on whether to pursue this energy route. The Scottish government has now done so in a wide-ranging consultation underpinned by a variety of reports on unconventional gas extraction including fracking. This paper analyses the Scottish government approach from inception to conclusion, and from procedures to outcomes. The reports commissioned by the Scottish government include a comprehensive review dedicated specifically to public health as well as reports on climate change, economic impacts, transport, geology, and decommissioning. All these reports are relevant to public health, and taken together offer a comprehensive review of existing evidence. The approach is unique globally when compared with UOGE assessments conducted in the USA, Australia, Canada, and England. The review process builds a useful evidence base although it is not without flaws. The process approach, if not the content, offers a framework that may have merits globally. PMID:29617318

  16. Low-frequency fields - health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, J.

    1993-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the biological actions and effects of low-frequency fields, epidemiological studies and discusses health risks in detail. He describes the assessment principles of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), medical principles for risk assessment, determination of limits and thesholds, and aspects of prevention. This is supplemented to by several fables and literature list. (Uhe) [de

  17. Prevalence and risk of violence and the mental, physical and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: an updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottisova, L; Hemmings, S; Howard, L M; Zimmerman, C; Oram, S

    2016-08-01

    To update and expand on a 2012 systematic review of the prevalence and risk of violence and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental and sexual health problems among trafficked people. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of 15 electronic databases of peer-reviewed articles and doctoral theses were supplemented by reference screening, citation tracking of included articles and expert recommendations. Studies were included if they reported on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked, or the prevalence or risk of physical, mental or sexual health outcomes among people who have been trafficked. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. Thirty-seven papers reporting on 31 studies were identified. The majority of studies were conducted in low and middle-income countries with women and girls trafficked into the sex industry. There is limited but emerging evidence on the health of trafficked men and the health consequences of trafficking into different forms of exploitation. Studies indicate that trafficked women, men and children experience high levels of violence and report significant levels of physical health symptoms, including headaches, stomach pain and back pain. Most commonly reported mental health problems include depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although serological data on sexually transmitted infections are limited, women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation self-report symptoms suggestive of a high prevalence of infections. Limitations of the review include methodological weaknesses of primary studies and some differences in definition and operationalisation of trafficking, which hinder comparability and generalisability of the results. There is increasing evidence human trafficking is associated with high prevalence and increased risk of violence and a range of physical and mental health problems. Although more studies have emerged in

  18. Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via consumption of some leafy vegetables obtained from four market in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... This result reflected the risk associated with exposure for the period of life expectancy considered, and the inhabitants are highly exposed to health risks ...

  19. The impact of health claims and food deprivation levels on health risk perceptions of fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadario, Romain

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of health claims and food deprivation levels on the health risk perceptions of fast-food restaurants. Consistent with previous research, we used a within-subjects experimental design to manipulate the health claims of fast-food restaurants using real brands: Subway, expressing strong health claims vs. McDonald's, expressing weak health claims. Participants who did not have access to nutrition information were asked to estimate the health risk associated with food items that were slightly more caloric for Subway than McDonald's (640 kcal vs. 600 kcal). We collected data through a web survey with a sample consisting of 414 American adults. Based on the USDA Food Insufficiency Indicator, participants were classified into two categorical food deprivation levels: food sufficiency and food insufficiency. We find that risk perceptions for obesity, diabetes and cardiac illnesses are lower (higher) for the restaurant with stronger (lower) health claims, i.e., Subway (McDonald's). Moreover, we also find that food deprivation levels moderate this effect, such that health risk underestimation is aggravated for individuals who suffer from food insufficiency. More precisely, we find that food insufficient individuals are more responsive to health claims, such that they perceive less health risk than food sufficient individuals for the restaurant with stronger health claims (Subway). Exploring the underlying mechanism of the latter effect, we found that dietary involvement mediates the relationship between food deprivation levels and health risk perceptions for the restaurant with stronger health claims (Subway). These results provide an interdisciplinary contribution in consumer psychology and public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human health risk assessment database, "the NHSRC toxicity value database": supporting the risk assessment process at US EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudgal, Chandrika J; Garrahan, Kevin; Brady-Roberts, Eletha; Gavrelis, Naida; Arbogast, Michelle; Dun, Sarah

    2008-11-15

    The toxicity value database of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center has been in development since 2004. The toxicity value database includes a compilation of agent property, toxicity, dose-response, and health effects data for 96 agents: 84 chemical and radiological agents and 12 biotoxins. The database is populated with multiple toxicity benchmark values and agent property information from secondary sources, with web links to the secondary sources, where available. A selected set of primary literature citations and associated dose-response data are also included. The toxicity value database offers a powerful means to quickly and efficiently gather pertinent toxicity and dose-response data for a number of agents that are of concern to the nation's security. This database, in conjunction with other tools, will play an important role in understanding human health risks, and will provide a means for risk assessors and managers to make quick and informed decisions on the potential health risks and determine appropriate responses (e.g., cleanup) to agent release. A final, stand alone MS ACESSS working version of the toxicity value database was completed in November, 2007.

  1. Human health risk assessment database, 'the NHSRC toxicity value database': Supporting the risk assessment process at US EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudgal, Chandrika J.; Garrahan, Kevin; Brady-Roberts, Eletha; Gavrelis, Naida; Arbogast, Michelle; Dun, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity value database of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center has been in development since 2004. The toxicity value database includes a compilation of agent property, toxicity, dose-response, and health effects data for 96 agents: 84 chemical and radiological agents and 12 biotoxins. The database is populated with multiple toxicity benchmark values and agent property information from secondary sources, with web links to the secondary sources, where available. A selected set of primary literature citations and associated dose-response data are also included. The toxicity value database offers a powerful means to quickly and efficiently gather pertinent toxicity and dose-response data for a number of agents that are of concern to the nation's security. This database, in conjunction with other tools, will play an important role in understanding human health risks, and will provide a means for risk assessors and managers to make quick and informed decisions on the potential health risks and determine appropriate responses (e.g., cleanup) to agent release. A final, stand alone MS ACESSS working version of the toxicity value database was completed in November, 2007

  2. F167. ACCESS, UNDERSTAND, APPRAISE AND APPLY TO / OF HEALTH INFORMATION AND HEALTH LITERACY IN INDIVIDUALS AT-RISK FOR PSYCHOSIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seves, Mauro; Haidl, Theresa; Eggers, Susanne; Rostamzadeh, Ayda; Genske, Anna; Jünger, Saskia; Woopen, Christiane; Jessen, Frank; Ruhrmann, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous studies suggest that health literacy (HL) plays a crucial role in maintaining and improving individual health. Furthermore, empirical findings highlight the relation between levels of a person’s HL and clinical outcomes. So far, there are no reviews, which investigate HL in individuals at-risk for psychosis. The aim of the current review is to assess how individuals at risk of developing a first episode of psychosis gain access to, understand, evaluate and apply risk-related health information. Methods A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize a variety of study types including qualitative and quantitative studies. Search strategy, screening and data selection have been carried out according to the PRISMA criteria. The systematic search was applied on peer-reviewed literature in PUBMED, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies were included if participants met clinical high risk criteria (CHR), including the basic symptom criterion (BS) and the ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria. The UHR criteria comprise the attenuated psychotic symptom criterion (APS), the brief limited psychotic symptom criterion (BLIPS) and the genetic risk and functional decline criterion (GRDP) Furthermore, studies must have used validated HL measures or any operationalization of the HL’s subdimensions (access, understanding, appraisal, decision-making or action) as a primary outcome. A third inclusion criterion comprised that the concept of HL or one of the four dimensions was mentioned in title or abstract. Data extraction and synthesis was implemented according to existing recommendations for appraising evidence from different study types. The quality of the included studies was evaluated and related to the study results. Results The search string returned 10587 papers. After data extraction 15 quantitative as well as 4 qualitative studies and 3 reviews were included. The Quality assessment evaluated 12 publications as

  3. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease according to self-rated health, pregnancy course, and pregnancy complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis......, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD....

  4. Health risk from radioactive and chemical environmental contamination: common basis for assessment and safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.

    2004-01-01

    To meet the growing practical need in risk analysis in Russia health risk assessment tools and regulations have been developed in the frame of few federal research programs. RRC Kurchatov Institute is involved in R and D on risk analysis activity in these programs. One of the objectives of this development is to produce a common, unified basis of health risk analysis for different sources of risk. Current specific and different approaches in risk assessment and establishing safety standards developed for chemicals and ionising radiation are analysed. Some recommendations are given to produce the common approach. A specific risk index R has been proposed for safety decision-making (establishing safety standards and other levels of protective actions, comparison of various sources of risk, etc.). The index R is defined as the partial mathematical expectation of lost years of healthy life (LLE) due to exposure during a year to a risk source considered. The more concrete determinations of this index for different risk sources derived from the common definition of R are given. Generic safety standards (GSS) for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index. Secondary specific safety standards have been derived from GSS for ionizing radiation and a number of other risk sources including environmental chemical pollutants. Other general and derived levels for decision-making have also been proposed including the e-minimum level. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data is shortly considered. Recommendations are given on methods and criteria for comparison of various sources of risk. Some examples of risk comparison are demonstrated in the frame of different comparison tasks. The paper has been prepared on the basis of the research work supported by International Science and Technology Centre, Moscow (project no. 2558). (author)

  5. Families at financial risk due to high ratio of out-of-pocket health care expenditures to total income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kevin J; Dismuke, Clara E

    2010-05-01

    High out-of-pocket expenditures for health care can put individuals and families at financial risk. Several groups, including racial/ethnic minority groups, the uninsured, rural residents, and those in poorer health are at risk for this increased burden. The analysis utilized 2004-2005 MEPS data. The dependent variables were the out-of-pocket health care spending to total income ratios for total spending, office-based visits, and prescription drugs. Multivariate analyses with instrumental variables controlled for respondent characteristics. Gender, age, rurality, insurance coverage, health status, and health care utilization were all associated with higher out-of-pocket to income ratios. Certain groups, such as women, the elderly, those in poor health, and rural residents, are at a greater financial risk due to their higher out-of-pocket to total income spending ratios. Policymakers must be aware of these increased risks in order to provide adequate resources and targeted interventions to alleviate some of this burden.

  6. Role of the Occupational Physician in Corporate Management of Health Risks: An Important Aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    There are various risks involved in corporate activities conducted both within and outside the corporation. Among these, health risks are very important and should be managed effectively as an integral part of corporate social responsibility (CSR). A corporation is responsible for health impairments caused by its activities and suffers great moral and economic loss when they occur. It is essential that corporate management takes proper preventive measures against such risks. Occupational physicians possess substantial knowledge of health risks in corporations. In this study, we examine the role of occupational physicians in the management of corporate health risks. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet. Health risks due to corporate activities involve not only the employees of the corporation but also individuals outside the corporation. Each corporation should effectively use available resources to manage health risks. Occupational physicians are one such valuable resource. However, many corporations do not actively involve occupational physicians in health risk management. According to a current Japanese law, health risks for employees in corporations are managed by occupational physicians, but in general, health risks outside corporations are not. The 1984 Bhopal Disaster in India is an example in which physicians of the corporation were only minimally, if at all, involved in assessing and treating impaired health outside the corporation. The role of occupational physicians should be expanded to include management of health risks outside the corporation. This places a greater burden on the physicians and they must make the effort to train in many academic fields in order to better understand the entire context of health risks due to corporate activities. Some occupational physicians may be hesitant to take on such added responsibilities. Some corporations may not recognize the overall health risks due to its activities and do not

  7. Application of epigenetic data in human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Ila L; McCullough, Shaun D; Hines, Ronald N; Vandenberg, John J

    2017-11-06

    Despite the many recent advances in the field of epigenetics, application of this knowledge in environmental health risk assessment has been limited. In this paper, we identify opportunities for application of epigenetic data to support health risk assessment. We consider current applications and present a vision for the future.

  8. Energy drink consumption among New Zealand adolescents: Associations with mental health, health risk behaviours and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Teevale, Tasileta; Sheridan, Janie

    2018-03-01

    With the increase in popularity of energy drinks come multiple concerns about the associated health indicators of young people. The current study aims to describe the frequency of consumption of energy drinks in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and health risk behaviours, body size and mental health. Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative survey of high school students in New Zealand (2012). In total, 8500 students answered a comprehensive questionnaire about their health and well-being, including multiple measures of mental well-being, and were weighed and measured for height. More than one-third (35%) of young people consumed energy drinks in the past week, and 12% consumed energy drinks four or more times in the past week. Energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, greater emotional difficulties and lower general subjective well-being. Frequent energy drink consumption was also associated with binge drinking, smoking, engagement in unsafe sex, violent behaviours, risky motor vehicle use and disordered eating behaviours. There was no association between consumption of energy drinks and student body size. Consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of health risk behaviours for young people. Strategies to limit consumption of energy drinks by young people are warranted. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Multi-risk infants: predicting attachment security from sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health risk among African-American preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M; Black, Maureen M

    2011-08-01

    Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads participated. Psychosocial (maternal depression, stress and self-efficacy) and sociodemographic risk (poverty, maternal education, marital status) were maternal self-report (0-4 months). Infant health risk was obtained from hospital charts. Infant-mother attachment (12 months) and maternal sensitivity (4 months) were assessed with Q-sort measures. Psychosocial and sociodemographic risk, but not infant health risk, negatively related to attachment. Both were mediated by maternal sensitivity. The impact of risk domains on attachment security was mediated by maternal sensitivity. Results emphasize the need for early intervention programs targeting premature infants to identify and address environmental and personal factors that place parenting at risk. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Risk Assessment for Public Health from Transportation Noise (on the example of the city of Belgorod)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeykin, A. Yu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an assessment, modelling and calculation of risks for the health of the population of the Southern district of Belgorod was carried out. The study included acoustic calculations carried out on the territory of the assessment within the boundaries of the settlement area of the rectangle with the square 6.72 km2, where about 80000 residents live. As a result of computational and instrumental data 4 zones with different levels of potential chronic acoustic impact on the population were allocated. With the use of mathematical models of risk the trend of the formation of moderate and high risk was determined in certain areas within the boundaries of the territory. It is shown that 65% of the residents of the district live in conditions of moderate health risks and about 9% - in conditions of a high risk of developing health disorders from the effects of noise (disorders of the nervous system, hearing and the cardiovascular system).

  11. An Important Psychosocial Risk in Occupational Health: Mobbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Gul

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobbing, a rising issue in the occupational health area, has recently been paid attention more and more in the academic and business settings. Mobbing is a series of action having multidimensional features socially and psychologically, and it is frequent in occupational environment. Mobbing may present itself as behaviors, words, acts, gestures, or writings that affect personality, dignity, physical, and psychological integrity. Early 1990’s were the time studies about mobbing started to be done, indicating its negative effects on both individual and the working place. These extend from stress and depression to psychosomatic disorders, and even chronicle diseases and cardiovascular problems. Workplace mobbing is repetitive, unreasonable malicious behavior directed toward an employee or a group of employees, that creates risk to health and safety. It may manifest as intimidation, physical violence, discrimination, threats, social isolation, and destabilization. The most prominent result is lack of continuity. Organizational problems, time pressure, lack of leadership and task definition etc. are defined to be potential risk factors. For prevention, there must be an organized intervention including a strategically approach towards mobbing and a positive environment at workplace. There is a need for standardization, and studies to define and evaluate mobbing behavior in order to make a comparison between different cultures and occupations. In this review article mobbing was examined with the view of public health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 515-520

  12. Developing rural community health risk assessments for climate change: a Tasmanian pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erica J; Turner, Paul; Meinke, Holger; Holbrook, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    - based on an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change style of assessment. Consensus statements from stakeholders also suggested concern with health sector adaptation capacity and community resilience, and what community stakeholders defined as 'last straw' climate effects in already stressed communities. Preventative action and community engagement were also seen as important, especially with regard to managing the ways that climate change can multiply socioeconomic and health outcome inequality. Above all, stakeholder responses emphasised the importance of an applied, complexity-oriented understanding of how climate and climate change impacts affect local communities and local services to compromise the overall quality of human health in these communities. Complex community-level assessments about climate change and related health risks and responses can be captured electronically in ways that offer potentially actionable information about priorities for health sector adaptation, as a first step in planning. What is valuable about these community judgements is the creation of shared values and commitments. Future iteration of the IT tool could include decision-support modules to support best practice health sector adaptation scenarios, providing participants with opportunities to develop their know-how about health sector adaptation to climate change. If managed carefully, such tools could work within a balanced portfolio of measures to help reduce the rising health burden from climate change.

  13. Estimating the incremental net health benefit of requirements for cardiovascular risk evaluation for diabetes therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Anita J; Mytelka, Daniel S; McBride, Stephan D; Nellesen, Dave; Elkins, Benjamin R; Ball, Daniel E; Kalsekar, Anupama; Towse, Adrian; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of pre-approval requirements for safety data to detect cardiovascular (CV) risk contained in the December 2008 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance for developing type 2 diabetes drugs compared with the February 2008 FDA draft guidance from the perspective of diabetes population health. We applied the incremental net health benefit (INHB) framework to quantify the benefits and risks of investigational diabetes drugs using a common survival metric (life-years [LYs]). We constructed a decision analytic model for clinical program development consistent with the requirements of each guidance and simulated diabetes drugs, some of which had elevated CV risk. Assuming constant research budgets, we estimate the impact of increased trial size on drugs investigated. We aggregate treatment benefit and CV risks for each approved drug over a 35-year horizon under each guidance. The quantitative analysis suggests that the December 2008 guidance adversely impacts diabetes population health. INHB was -1.80 million LYs, attributable to delayed access to diabetes therapies (-0 .18 million LYs) and fewer drugs (-1.64 million LYs), but partially offset by reduced CV risk exposure (0.02 million LYs). Results were robust in sensitivity analyses. The health outcomes impact of all potential benefits and risks should be evaluated in a common survival measure, including health gain from avoided adverse events, lost health benefits from delayed or for gone efficacious products, and impact of alternative policy approaches. Quantitative analysis of the December 2008 FDA guidance for diabetes therapies indicates that negative impact on patient health will result. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Aggregate Risk Index: An intuitive tool providing the health risks of air pollution to health care community and public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Talbot, Charles; Lesne, Olivia; Mangin, Antoine; Alexandre, Nicolas; Collomp, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the European project PASODOBLE (FP7), we set up downstream information services by combining environmental and health data with a view to support the health care community and to improve vulnerable people welfare. Indeed there is a profound relationship between human health, well-being and air pollution levels. The main objectives are to establish correlations between air quality, exposure of populations and their reactivity, to develop and validate air quality indexes and to construct a prediction model of this sanitary index. This index will be implemented on 3 European sites: Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki), the Netherlands and "Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur" (South East of France). The selected region and cities are among the most affected by the atmospheric pollution in Europe and leads to serious sanitary concerns. The service aims to provide up-to-date, detailed information on air quality discomfort. The Aggregate Risk Index is based on the Cairncross's concept, obtained from the Relative Risk associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants and takes into account the possible effects of a mixture of pollutants. This communication tool, easy to use and intuitive, about the levels of air pollution and the associated health risks, will be used to communicate information to the general population, authorities and to the health care community and will provide advanced warning of potentially health-damaging air pollution events.

  15. Global health risks and cosmopolitisation: from emergence to interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuié, Muriel

    2013-02-01

    According to Beck's 'World at Risk' theory, global risks push nations towards a cosmopolitisation of their health policy and open opportunities for a democratic turn. This article provides an empirical analysis of Beck's theory, based on the experience of Vietnamese authorities from 2003 to 2007 in managing the emerging avian flu virus. It shows how Vietnam's framing of avian flu has shifted, under the pressure from international organisations and the US administration, from an epizootic and zoonotic risk (or a classic risk) to a pandemic threat (or a late modern risk). Vietnam's response was part of its overall strategy to join the World Trade Organization and it was limited by Vietnam's defence of its sovereignty. This strategy has been successful for Vietnam but has limited the possibility of cosmopolitan and democratic transformations. The case study highlights the constructed dimension of risks of late modernity and their possible instrumentalisation: it minimises the role of a community of fear relative to a community of trade. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  17. Monitoring modifiable risk factors for breast cancer: an obligation for health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guerra Guerrero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common disease in women and constitutes the second leading cause of cancer death in this population. The factors that contribute to the risk of occurrence are divided into nonmodifiable and modifiable factors. Although there are interventions in primary care to prevent the disease, these measures have not produced the desired changes in women’s health. This article reviews the major modifiable risk factors for breast cancer and describes how these factors can affect the incidence of cancer in women. This information shows that modifiable risk factors (such as physical activity, diet, obesity, and use of alcohol and tobacco can influence the occurrence of breast cancer, in part depending on the life stage of a woman, including menopausal status. Timely prevention at the primary care level is one of the most important areas on which health professionals need to focus in order to help reduce the incidence of breast cancer.

  18. Intraoperative radiotherapy for early breast cancer: do health professionals choose convenience or risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corica, Tammy; Joseph, David; Saunders, Christobel; Bulsara, Max; Nowak, Anna K

    2014-01-01

    The randomized TARGIT trial comparing experimental intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) to up to 7 weeks of daily conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) recruited participants in Western Australia between 2003 and 2012. We aimed to understand preferences for this evolving radiotherapy treatment for early breast cancer (EBC) in health professionals, and how they changed over time and in response to emerging data. Preferences for single dose IORT or EBRT for EBC were elicited in 2004 and 2011, together with factors that may be associated with these preferences. Western Australian health professionals working with breast cancer patients were invited to complete a validated, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire used hypothetical scenarios and trade-off methodology to determine the maximum increase in risk of local recurrence health professionals were willing to accept in order to have a single dose of IORT in the place of EBRT if they were faced with this decision themselves. Health professional characteristics were similar across the two time points although 2011 included a higher number of nurse (49% vs. 36%) and allied health (10% vs. 4%) participants and a lower number of radiation therapists (17% vs. 32%) compared to 2004. Health professional preferences varied, with 7.5% and 3% judging IORT unacceptable at any risk, 18% and 21% judging IORT acceptable only if offering an equivalent risk, 56% and 59% judging IORT acceptable with a low maximum increase in risk (1-3%) and 19% and 17% judging a high maximum increase in risk acceptable (4-5%), in 2004 and 2011 respectively. A significantly greater number of nurses accepted IORT as a treatment option in 2011. Most Western Australian health professionals working with breast cancer patients are willing to accept an increase in risk of local recurrence in order to replace EBRT with IORT in a hypothetical setting. This finding was consistent over two time points spanning 7 years despite the duration of

  19. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-21

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with \\'greenspace\\' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from \\'grow-your-own\\' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating \\'scares\\' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of \\'obesity and sloth\\' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of \\'grow-your-own\\' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide

  20. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Jonathan R; Adam-Bradford, Andrew; Rigby, Janette E

    2009-12-21

    Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating 'scares' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of 'obesity and sloth' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of 'grow-your-own' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide risk management in our

  1. Proposals for enhanced health risk assessment and stratification in an integrated care scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-Espín, Ivan; Vela, Emili; Pauws, Steffen; Bescos, Cristina; Cano, Isaac; Cleries, Montserrat; Contel, Joan Carles; de Manuel Keenoy, Esteban; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Kaye, Rachelle; Lahr, Maarten M H; Lluch-Ariet, Magí; Moharra, Montserrat; Monterde, David; Mora, Joana; Nalin, Marco; Pavlickova, Andrea; Piera, Jordi; Ponce, Sara; Santaeugenia, Sebastià; Schonenberg, Helen; Störk, Stefan; Tegner, Jesper; Velickovski, Filip; Westerteicher, Christoph; Roca, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based health risk assessment and stratification are considered highly relevant for large-scale implementation of integrated care by facilitating services design and case identification. The principal objective of the study was to analyse five health-risk assessment strategies and health indicators used in the five regions participating in the Advancing Care Coordination and Telehealth Deployment (ACT) programme (http://www.act-programme.eu). The second purpose was to elaborate on strategies toward enhanced health risk predictive modelling in the clinical scenario. Settings The five ACT regions: Scotland (UK), Basque Country (ES), Catalonia (ES), Lombardy (I) and Groningen (NL). Participants Responsible teams for regional data management in the five ACT regions. Primary and secondary outcome measures We characterised and compared risk assessment strategies among ACT regions by analysing operational health risk predictive modelling tools for population-based stratification, as well as available health indicators at regional level. The analysis of the risk assessment tool deployed in Catalonia in 2015 (GMAs, Adjusted Morbidity Groups) was used as a basis to propose how population-based analytics could contribute to clinical risk prediction. Results There was consensus on the need for a population health approach to generate health risk predictive modelling. However, this strategy was fully in place only in two ACT regions: Basque Country and Catalonia. We found marked differences among regions in health risk predictive modelling tools and health indicators, and identified key factors constraining their comparability. The research proposes means to overcome current limitations and the use of population-based health risk prediction for enhanced clinical risk assessment. Conclusions The results indicate the need for further efforts to improve both comparability and flexibility of current population-based health risk predictive modelling approaches

  2. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants: Concepts, Methods, And Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks from multic...

  3. Mental health variables and sexual risk behaviour among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk ...

  4. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.

  5. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  6. Television viewing, psychological positive health, health complaints and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.

  7. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  8. Scripts, animal health and biosecurity : The moral accountability of farmers' talk about animal health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enticott, Gareth; Vanclay, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of script theory to understandings of animal health risks. Script theory has long played an important role in studies of health and risk, yet the application of script theories is often vague and confused. Theories from different ontological perspectives are

  9. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman

    2012-07-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Failing States as Epidemiologic Risk Zones: Implications for Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Katherine

    Failed states commonly experience health and mortality crises that include outbreaks of infectious disease, violent conflict, reductions in life expectancy, and increased infant and maternal mortality. This article draws from recent research in political science, security studies, and international relations to explore how the process of state failure generates health declines and outbreaks of infectious disease. The key innovation of this model is a revised definition of "the state" as a geographically dynamic rather than static political space. This makes it easier to understand how phases of territorial contraction, collapse, and regeneration interrupt public health programs, destabilize the natural environment, reduce human security, and increase risks of epidemic infectious disease and other humanitarian crises. Better understanding of these dynamics will help international health agencies predict and prepare for future health and mortality crises created by failing states.

  11. Consideration on the health risk reduction related to attainment of the new particulate matter standards in Poland: A top-down policy risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Joanna; Pastuszka, Józef S; Gulis, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Policies can influence health of a population in various ways. Numerous epidemiological studies supported by toxicological investigations demonstrate a positive association between ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter and increased adverse cardio-respiratory events, including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper was to present the concept of the top-down health policy risk assessment approach model developed to estimate the expected health risk reduction associated with policy aiming at attaining the new particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10) standards in Poland. The top-down approach guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy to health outcomes. In this case study we tried to estimate the predicted health effects of the policy change over the past 20 years. Since Polish annual standard for PM10 changed from 50 μg/m³ in 1990 to 40 μg/m³ in 2010, we calculated the relative risk associated with decreasing PM10 in diameter to 10 μg/m3 in the annual level of PM10 for 6 adverse health effects. The relative risk slightly decreased for almost all adverse health effects, which means that the relative decrease in the incidence of health effects from the baseline incidence should range from about 0.5-0.6% for heart disease admissions to > 1% for respiratory admissions. The obtained results indicate that implementation of the new ambient air standards could influence improvement of the health status of Polish population. A top-down policy health risk assessment model can be one of the main tools in this process, providing harmonized guidance how to seek evidence-based information, which could serve policy-makers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Lifetime health risks from internally deposited beta-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Nikula, K.J.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Much of our knowledge on the lifetime health risks resulting from internal depositions of beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides has come from studies in laboratory animals conducted to provide information not available from human epidemiological studies. This paper is focused primarily on results of experiments in which laboratory animals (dogs and rodents) were exposed once, briefly, by inhalation or intravenous injection to an individual fission-product radionuclide and were studied for radionuclide metabolism, dosimetry, and lifetime health effects. The relative importance of many dose- and effect-modifying factors was studied. The main long-term biological effects were cancers in the organs and tissues receiving the highest doses. Results for three different patterns of irradiation (skeleton, lung, and whole-body) are presented. The risks of bone cancers produced by 90 Sr are compared with those from 238 Pu in dogs. Lung cancer risks for several beta emitters inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by dogs are compared with results for 144 CeO 2 inhaled by rats. Late-occurring biological effects from the relatively uniform whole-body irradiation from intravenously injected 137 Cs are also presented. In addition to radionuclide-specific results, cross-cutting analyses of these studies provide valuable information on broader issues such as dose protraction, relative biological effectiveness, threshold considerations, and inter-species comparisons including extrapolation to human exposure situations. (authors)

  13. Travel risk behaviours and uptake of pre-travel health preventions by university students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Anita E; Zhang, Meng; MacIntyre, C Raina; Seale, Holly

    2012-02-17

    Forward planning and preventative measures before travelling can significantly reduce the risk of many vaccine preventable travel-related infectious diseases. Higher education students may be at an increased risk of importing infectious disease as many undertake multiple visits to regions with higher infectious disease endemicity. Little is known about the health behaviours of domestic or international university students, particularly students from low resource countries who travel to high-resource countries for education. This study aimed to assess travel-associated health risks and preventative behaviours in a sample of both domestic and international university students in Australia. In 2010, a 28 item self-administered online survey was distributed to students enrolled at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Multiple methods of distributing links to the online survey were utilised. The survey examined the international travel history, travel intentions, infection control behaviours and self-reported vaccination history. A total of 1663 respondents completed the online survey, 22.1% were international students and 83.9% were enrolled at an undergraduate level. Half had travelled internationally in the previous 12 months, with 69% of those travelling only once during that time with no difference in travel from Australia between domestic and international students (p = 0.8). Uptake of pre-travel health advice was low overall with 68% of respondents reporting they had not sought any advice from a health professional prior to their last international trip. Domestic students were more likely to report uptake of a range of preventative travel health measures compared to international students, including diarrhoeal medication, insect repellent, food avoidance and condoms (P students reported low risk perception of travel threats and a low corresponding concern for these threats. Our study highlights the need to educate students about the risk

  14. Health Risk Behaviour among In-School Adolescents in the Philippines: Trends between 2003, 2007 and 2011, A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent monitoring of health risk behaviours at the population level is important for the planning and evaluation of national health promotion intervention programmes. The study aimed to provide trend estimates on the prevalence of various health risk behaviours assessed in the Global School-based Health Survey in 2003, 2007 and 2011 in the Philippines. Three waves of cross-sectional data included 18,285 school-going adolescents, 47.4% male and 52.6% female, aged between 11 years or younger and 16 years or older, with a mean age of about 14.7 years (SD = 1.2, and mainly in second to fourth year study Grade. Significant improvements in health risk and risk behaviours (overweight or obese and smokeless tobacco use among boys, being in a physical fight, troubles from alcohol drinking, mental health, oral and hand hygiene among both boys and girls but also increases in health risk behaviour (bullying victimization, injury and loneliness among both boys and girls were found in this large study over a period of eight years in the Philippines. High prevalences of health risk behaviours and increases in some of them should call for intensified school health promotion programmes to reduce such risk behaviours.

  15. Challenges to mapping the health risk of hepatitis A virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiersma Steven T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background World maps are among the most effective ways to convey public health messages such as recommended vaccinations, but creating a useful and valid map requires careful deliberation. The changing epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV in many world regions heightens the need for up-to-date risk maps. HAV infection is usually asymptomatic in children, so low-income areas with high incidence rates usually have a low burden of disease. In higher-income areas, many adults remain susceptible to the virus and, if infected, often experience severe disease. Results Several challenges associated with presenting hepatitis A risk using maps were identified, including the need to decide whether prior infection or continued susceptibility more aptly indicates risk, whether to display incidence or prevalence, how to distinguish between different levels of risk, how to display changes in risk over time, how to present complex information to target audiences, and how to handle missing or obsolete data. Conclusion For future maps to be comparable across place and time, we propose the use of the age at midpoint of population susceptibility as a standard indicator for the level of hepatitis A endemicity within a world region. We also call for the creation of an accessible active database for population-based age-specific HAV seroprevalence and incidence studies. Health risk maps for other conditions with rapidly changing epidemiology would benefit from similar strategies.

  16. Risks and health effects in operating room personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg-Dijkmeijer, Marleen L.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to find the factors that pose a possible health risk to OR personnel. Work-related health problems of operating room (OR) personnel were signalled by an occupational physician and preparations for the development of new Worker's Health Surveillance (WHS) were started with a

  17. Health in police officers: Role of risk factor clusters and police divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersaat, Stephanie A; Geiger, Ashley M; Abdellaoui, Sid; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-10-01

    Law enforcement is a stressful occupation associated with significant health problems. To date, most studies have focused on one specific factor or one domain of risk factors (e.g., organizational, personal). However, it is more likely that specific combinations of risk factors are differentially health relevant and further, depend on the area of police work. A self-selected group of officers from the criminal, community, and emergency division (N = 84) of a Swiss state police department answered questionnaires assessing personal and organizational risk factors as well as mental and physical health indicators. In general, few differences were observed across divisions in terms of risk factors or health indicators. Cluster analysis of all risk factors established a high-risk and a low-risk cluster with significant links to all mental health outcomes. Risk cluster-by-division interactions revealed that, in the high-risk cluster, Emergency officers reported fewer physical symptoms, while community officers reported more posttraumatic stress symptoms. Criminal officers in the high-risk cluster tended to perceived more stress. Finally, perceived stress did not mediate the relationship between risk clusters and posttraumatic stress symptoms. In summary, our results support the notion that police officers are a heterogeneous population in terms of processes linking risk factors and health indicators. This heterogeneity thereby appeared to be more dependent on personal factors and individuals' perception of their own work conditions than division-specific work environments. Our findings further suggest that stress-reduction interventions that do not target job-relevant sources of stress may only show limited effectiveness in reducing health risks associated with police work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamieson Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.

  19. Assessment of Health, Safety and Environmental Risks of Zahedan City Gasoline Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Far

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk and determine the health, safety and environmental status of fuel stations in Zahedan. In this study, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA method was used for risk assessment in accordance with the HSE guidelines, national and international standards and laws. In this cross-sectional study, 2 governmental stations and 6 active private stations were evaluated after the necessary coordination with the relevant units. As a result of risk assessment, 27 health risks, 55 safety risks and 22 environmental risks were identified. From among all the identified risks, 67 risks had a Risk Priority Number (RPN of less than 91, 31 risks had an RPN ranging between 91 and 201, and 6 risks had an RPN of over 201. The findings of the study indicated that compliance with the HSE requirements was 51.85%, in the area of health, 47.57% in the area of safety and 27.45% in the environmental area. Overall compliance with the HSE requirements was 42.54%. In order to distribute fuel considering health, reducing risk and increasing compliance with the requirements for safety improvement, health and environmental conditions of fuel supplies are essential.

  20. Vibrio bacteria in raw oysters: managing risks to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2016-03-05

    The human-pathogenic marine bacteria Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are strongly correlated with water temperature, with concentrations increasing as waters warm seasonally. Both of these bacteria can be concentrated in filter-feeding shellfish, especially oysters. Because oysters are often consumed raw, this exposes people to large doses of potentially harmful bacteria. Various models are used to predict the abundance of these bacteria in oysters, which guide shellfish harvest policy meant to reduce human health risk. Vibrio abundance and behaviour varies from site to site, suggesting that location-specific studies are needed to establish targeted risk reduction strategies. Moreover, virulence potential, rather than simple abundance, should be also be included in future modeling efforts. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Health risks of energy drinks: what nurses and consumers need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbeau, Janis R

    2012-01-01

    Energy drinks have become very popular, yet they present health concerns and workplace safety issues related to mental and physical effects of the drinks, which are mainly related to the central nervous system and include heightened alertness, altered sleep patterns, arrhythmias and, rarely, seizures. In the workplace, any pharmacologic agent or substance, such as energy drinks, may present a risk to the delivery of health care, and the use energy drinks during pregnancy and lactation are a concern and patient education is warranted. © 2012 AWHONN.

  2. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral health and oral health risk behaviour in children with and without externalising behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staberg, M; Norén, J G; Gahnberg, L; Ghaderi, A; Kadesjö, C; Robertson, A

    2018-05-15

    This was to study children with early detected externalising behaviour problems compared to matched controls regarding oral health, oral health risk behaviour and the parental evaluation of the child's oral health and dental care. Children aged 10-13 years and with externalising behaviour problems, were compared to matched controls. Behavioural characteristics were based on the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The children and their parents completed questionnaires regarding dental fear, tooth brushing, dietary habits and evaluation of oral health and dental care. Data on dental caries risk assessments, caries, behaviour management problems and dental trauma were obtained from dental files. There were no differences in caries prevalence in children with early detected externalising behaviour problems, compared to controls. However, the former group consumed more sweet drinks when thirsty and brushed their teeth fewer than twice daily; they also had more dental trauma in both dentitions and a higher risk range for dental fear, compared to controls. This study points out potential oral health risk factors in children with early-detected externalising behaviour problems. Although no difference in caries prevalence was observed, externalising behaviour may affect oral health. Therefore, dental professionals should support the families and the children to preserve dental health by offering increased prophylactic measures. There were no differences between children with externalising behaviour problems, compared with controls, regarding the parent evaluation of their child's dental health. However, more parents in the study group evaluated the dental care as poor or not functioning.

  4. Disclosing Genetic Risk for Coronary Heart Disease: Attitudes Toward Personal Information in Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sherry-Ann; Jouni, Hayan; Marroush, Tariq S; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2017-04-01

    Incorporating genetic risk information in electronic health records (EHRs) will facilitate implementation of genomic medicine in clinical practice. However, little is known about patients' attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information as a component of personal health information in EHRs. This study investigated whether disclosure of a genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease influences attitudes toward incorporation of personal health information including genetic risk in EHRs. Participants aged 45-65 years with intermediate 10-year coronary heart disease risk were randomized to receive a conventional risk score (CRS) alone or with a GRS from a genetic counselor, followed by shared decision making with a physician using the same standard presentation and information templates for all study participants. The CRS and GRS were then incorporated into the EHR and made accessible to both patients and physicians. Baseline and post-disclosure surveys were completed to assess whether attitudes differed by GRS disclosure. Data were collected from 2013 to 2015 and analyzed in 2015-2016. GRS and CRS participants reported similar positive attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information in the EHR. Compared with CRS participants, participants with high GRS were more concerned about the confidentiality of genetic risk information (OR=3.67, 95% CI=1.29, 12.32, p=0.01). Post-disclosure, frequency of patient portal access was associated with positive attitudes. Participants in this study of coronary heart disease risk disclosure overall had positive attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information in EHRs, although those who received genetic risk information had concerns about confidentiality. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Correlation of resistance to peer pressure and risky decision-making with adolescent health risk behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xi; Zu, Ping; Mai, Jin-cheng; Liang, Jian-ping; Xu, Zhi-yong; Man, Xue-jun; Mao, Yan; Tao, Fang-biao

    2013-03-01

    To explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer pressure, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. Based on the cluster sampling method, the participants who were recruited from 5 junior middle schools in Guangzhou and 3 junior middle schools in Shenyang city on October, 2010, were administered to complete the questionnaire concerned with their experiences with drinking and smoking during the past 30 days preceding the survey, and the hours using computer daily both in weekdays and in weekend. The level of resistance to peer influence and risky decision-making were assessed by Resistance to peer influence scale (RPIS) and Youth decision-making questionnaire (YDMQ). Logistic regression was used to explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer influence, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. A total of 1985 questionnaires were valid, including 1001(50.4%) boys and 984 (49.6%) girls. About 27.1% (537/1985) junior middle school students reported having health risk behaviors, boys' (30.7%, 307/1001) was higher than girls' (23.4%, 230/984) with significant gender difference (P peer influence (low and middle level vs high level, had odds ratios of 2.97 (1.96 - 4.50) and 1.51 (1.05 - 2.16)), and also the middle and high level of risky decision-making (middle and high level vs low level, had odds ratios of 1.62 (1.19 - 2.22) and 3.43 (2.39 - 4.90)) were all the risk factors of adolescent health risk behaviors. Adolescents with poor ability of resistance to peer pressure and high risky decision-making were both the risk factors of adolescent health risk behaviors.

  6. Proposals for enhanced health risk assessment and stratification in an integrated care scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-Espín, Ivan; Vela, Emili; Pauws, Steffen; Bescos, Cristina; Cano, Isaac; Cleries, Montserrat; Contel, Joan Carles; de Manuel Keenoy, Esteban; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Kaye, Rachelle; Lahr, Maarten M H; Lluch-Ariet, Magí; Moharra, Montserrat; Monterde, David; Mora, Joana; Nalin, Marco; Pavlickova, Andrea; Piera, Jordi; Ponce, Sara; Santaeugenia, Sebastià; Schonenberg, Helen; Störk, Stefan; Tegner, Jesper; Velickovski, Filip; Westerteicher, Christoph; Roca, Josep

    2016-04-15

    Population-based health risk assessment and stratification are considered highly relevant for large-scale implementation of integrated care by facilitating services design and case identification. The principal objective of the study was to analyse five health-risk assessment strategies and health indicators used in the five regions participating in the Advancing Care Coordination and Telehealth Deployment (ACT) programme (http://www.act-programme.eu). The second purpose was to elaborate on strategies toward enhanced health risk predictive modelling in the clinical scenario. The five ACT regions: Scotland (UK), Basque Country (ES), Catalonia (ES), Lombardy (I) and Groningen (NL). Responsible teams for regional data management in the five ACT regions. We characterised and compared risk assessment strategies among ACT regions by analysing operational health risk predictive modelling tools for population-based stratification, as well as available health indicators at regional level. The analysis of the risk assessment tool deployed in Catalonia in 2015 (GMAs, Adjusted Morbidity Groups) was used as a basis to propose how population-based analytics could contribute to clinical risk prediction. There was consensus on the need for a population health approach to generate health risk predictive modelling. However, this strategy was fully in place only in two ACT regions: Basque Country and Catalonia. We found marked differences among regions in health risk predictive modelling tools and health indicators, and identified key factors constraining their comparability. The research proposes means to overcome current limitations and the use of population-based health risk prediction for enhanced clinical risk assessment. The results indicate the need for further efforts to improve both comparability and flexibility of current population-based health risk predictive modelling approaches. Applicability and impact of the proposals for enhanced clinical risk assessment require

  7. Methodology for measuring environmental health within Europe. Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems (HEREPLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Zscheppang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Commission funds a European research project titled “Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems” (HEREPLUS that focuses on environmental health within Europe. The HEREPLUS project was presented at the 16th EUPHA conference in Lisbon in November 2008 within a workshop named “The assessment of the effect of air pollution on population and environmental health: the integration of epidemiology and geographical information system (GIS”.

    Methods: The HEREPLUS project aims to measure the correlation between air pollution (especially ozone and particulate matter, meteorology, vegetation and human health in four European cities (Rome, Madrid, Athens and Dresden by using a Geoinformation System to develop risk maps and subsequently guidelines to reduce air pollution and number of diseases.

    Results: The project started in September 2008 and a large, structured, relational database has been developed and completed. A literature review including national as well as international scientific literature goes on and will be completed in April 2009. Final results will be presented and published in 2011.

    Conclusions: Detailed scientific knowledge is important and needed to implement environmental programmes with the overall aim to protect human population against environmental related diseases.

  8. Mental health, stress and risk perception: insights from psychological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    1997-01-01

    Risk perceptions are only slightly correlated with the expected values of a probability distribution for negative health impacts. Psychometric studies have documented that context variables such as dread or personal control are important predictors for the perceived seriousness of risk. Studies about cultural patterns of risk perceptions emphasize different response set to risk information, depending on cultural priorities such as social justice versus personal freedom. This chapter reports the major psychological research pertaining to the factors that govern individual risk perception and discusses the psychometric effects due to people's risk perception and the experience of severe stress. The relative importance of the psychometric content variables, the signals pertaining to each health risks and symbolic beliefs are explained. (Author)

  9. Measuring compliance of conducting an occupational health risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... health risk assessment in the occupational health nurse's practice. ... A quantitative, descriptive design was used in this study. ... A self-developed questionnaire was distributed by mail and e-mail, and authors sent respondents reminders.

  10. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  11. Proband Mental Health Difficulties and Parental Stress Predict Mental Health in Toddlers at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle

    2016-10-01

    Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were assessed for ASD at 3-years. Parent stress and proband mental health difficulties predicted concurrent toddler mental health difficulties at 2-years, but only baseline proband internalising problems continued to predict toddler internalising problems at 3-years; high-risk status did not confer additional risk. Baseline toddler mental health difficulties robustly predicted later difficulties, while high-risk status and diagnostic outcome conferred no additional risk. A family systems perspective may be useful for understanding toddler mental health difficulties.

  12. Risk factors for not completing health interventions and the potential impact on health inequalities between educational groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kure-Biegel, Nanna; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individual-based interventions aim to improve patient self-management of chronic disease and to improve lifestyle among people at high risk, to reduce the prevalence of diseases contributing to health inequality. The present study investigates risk factors for uncompleted health...... interventions, via a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. METHODS: From a health centre in Copenhagen, questionnaire data on educational level, gender, age, and cohabitation status from 104 participants in health interventions were used to examine risks for dropout. Qualitative telephone...... with low socioeconomic status will most likely have reduced opportunities for making healthy choices, in this case, completing the intervention, and this may increase health inequality....

  13. Social responses to wind energy development in Ontario: The influence of health risk perceptions and associated concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study documents and analyzes the role of health risk perceptions and other associated concerns of wind energy development (henceforth WED) in Ontario. Drawing on the risk society framework, we conduct a longitudinal media content analysis to document and analyze perceptions of and responses to WED over a nine year period. Attention is paid to temporal variations in responses relative to Ontario's Green Energy Act (2009) (henceforth GEA); legislation aimed at the rapid expansion of renewable energy. The study reveals that the most radical forms of resistance to WED on health grounds are driven by perceived injustices in the treatment of potential at-risk citizens and citizens with health concerns. The GEA is fuelling these perceptions of injustices in subtle and nuanced ways, particularly by acting as a major confounder to health risk concerns. Contrary to several existing studies, we problematize the use of financial incentives to foster the development of wind energy. We also provide policy recommendations which include the need for increased public engagement in the WED process, the importance of using third party health and environmental assessments to inform developments as well as the need for post-development strategies to address ongoing community concerns. - Highlights: • We analyze health risk perception-based responses to wind energy development. • Health risks concerns are a major driver of public resistance to wind energy. • Perceptions of injustices strongly fuel resistance to wind energy on health grounds. • Acceptance of turbines does not imply successful coexistence with turbines. • Using financial benefits to promote social acceptance could be problematic

  14. Stochastic goal programming based groundwater remediation management under human-health-risk uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Fan, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an integrated optimal groundwater remediation design approach. • The approach can address stochasticity in carcinogenic risks. • Goal programming is used to make the system approaching to ideal operation and remediation effects. • The uncertainty in slope factor is evaluated under different confidence levels. • Optimal strategies are obtained to support remediation design under uncertainty. - Abstract: An optimal design approach for groundwater remediation is developed through incorporating numerical simulation, health risk assessment, uncertainty analysis and nonlinear optimization within a general framework. Stochastic analysis and goal programming are introduced into the framework to handle uncertainties in real-world groundwater remediation systems. Carcinogenic risks associated with remediation actions are further evaluated at four confidence levels. The differences between ideal and predicted constraints are minimized by goal programming. The approach is then applied to a contaminated site in western Canada for creating a set of optimal remediation strategies. Results from the case study indicate that factors including environmental standards, health risks and technical requirements mutually affected and restricted themselves. Stochastic uncertainty existed in the entire process of remediation optimization, which should to be taken into consideration in groundwater remediation design

  15. Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    , authorities and the general public, especially if they had some incentives. These findings demonstrate the need to involve farmers as early as possible in intervention projects especially in informal farming practices, like urban agriculture, where restrictions are difficult to implement. This will ensure......Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk...

  16. Characterizing health risks associated with recreational swimming at Taiwanese beaches by using quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Liang, Ching-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Taiwan is surrounded by oceans, and therefore numerous pleasure beaches attract millions of tourists annually to participate in recreational swimming activities. However, impaired water quality because of fecal pollution poses a potential threat to the tourists' health. This study probabilistically characterized the health risks associated with recreational swimming engendered by waterborne enterococci at 13 Taiwanese beaches by using quantitative microbial risk assessment. First, data on enterococci concentrations at coastal beaches monitored by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration were reproduced using nonparametric Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The ingestion volumes of recreational swimming based on uniform and gamma distributions were subsequently determined using MCS. Finally, after the distribution combination of the two parameters, the beta-Poisson dose-response function was employed to quantitatively estimate health risks to recreational swimmers. Moreover, various levels of risk to recreational swimmers were classified and spatially mapped to explore feasible recreational and environmental management strategies at the beaches. The study results revealed that although the health risks associated with recreational swimming did not exceed an acceptable benchmark of 0.019 illnesses daily at all beaches, they approached to this benchmark at certain beaches. Beaches with relatively high risks are located in Northwestern Taiwan owing to the current movements.

  17. Communicating health risks to the public: a global perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillier, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    ... under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Communicating health risks to the public : a global perspective 1. Health risk communication I. Hillier, Dawn, 1950- 614.4'4 ISBN-13: 978-0-566-08672-4 ISBN-10: 0 566 08672 7 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publ...

  18. Occupational risk of overweight and obesity: an analysis of the Australian Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults spend about one third of their day at work and occupation may be a risk factor for obesity because of associated socioeconomic and behavioral factors such as physical activity and sedentary time. The aim of this study was to examine body mass index (BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity by occupation and explore the contributions of socioeconomic factors and lifestyle behaviors (including leisure time and commuting physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol to occupational risk. Methods Secondary analyses of the National Health Survey in Australia (2005 were conducted for working age adults (20 to 64 years. Linear and logistic regression models using BMI as either dichotomous or continuous response were computed for occupation type. Model 1 was age-adjusted, Model 2 adjusted for age and socioeconomic variables and Model 3 adjusted for age, socioeconomic variables and lifestyle behaviours. All models were stratified by gender. Results Age-adjusted data indicated that men in associate professional (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63 and intermediate production and transport (OR 1.24 95% CI 1.03-1.50 occupations had a higher risk of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 than those without occupation, and women in professional (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61-0.82, management (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.92 and advanced clerical and service occupations (OR 0.73 95% CI 0.58-0.93 had a lower risk. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors no occupational group had an increased risk but for males, professionals, tradesmen, laborers and elementary clerical workers had a lower risk as did female associate professionals and intermediate clerical workers. Adjustment for lifestyle factors explained the lower risk in the female professional and associate professionals but failed to account for the lower odds ratios in the other occupations. Conclusions The pattern of overweight and obesity among occupations differs by gender. Healthy lifestyle behaviors appear to

  19. Barriers in using cardiometabolic risk information among consumers with low health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Olga C; Bogaerts, Nina M M; van Dongen, Diana; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2016-02-01

    To identify the barriers from the perspective of consumers with low health literacy in using risk information as provided in cardiometabolic risk assessments. A qualitative thematic approach using cognitive interviews was employed. We performed interviews with 23 people with low health literacy/health numeracy, who were recruited through (1) several organisations and snowball sampling and (2) an online access panel. Participants completed the risk test of the Dutch national cardiometabolic risk assessment and viewed the personalized information about their risk. They were asked to answer probing questions about different parts of the information. The qualitative data were analysed by identifying main themes related to barriers in using the information, using a descriptive thematic approach. The four main themes identified were as follows: (1) People did not fully accept the risk message, partly because numerical information had ambiguous meaning; (2) people lacked an adequate framework for understanding their risk; (3) the purpose and setting of the risk assessment was unclear; and (4) current information tells nothing new: A need for more specific risk information. The main barriers were that the current presentation seemed to provoke undervaluation of the risk number and that texts throughout the test, for example about cardiometabolic diseases, did not match people's existing knowledge, failing to provide an adequate framework for understanding cardiometabolic risk. Our findings have implications for the design of disease risk information, for example that alternative forms of communication should be explored that provide more intuitive meaning of the risk in terms of good versus bad. What is already known on this subject? Online disease risk assessments have become widely available internationally. People with low SES and health literacy tend to participate less in health screening. Risk information is difficult to understand, yet little research has been

  20. The Use of Student Self-Report Screening Data for Mental Health Risk Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, B. V.; Raines, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Child and adolescent mental health disorders are known to increase the risk for numerous poor school and life outcomes for children and adolescents including suicidal ideation and attempts, academic underachievement and school dropout, substance use and disorders, and physical fighting or victimization by a weapon (Bradley, Doolittle, &…

  1. The role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin M

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors in a sample of 365 undergraduate students. Regression analyses were used to test the influence of narcissism on health behaviors. Narcissism was positively predictive of alcohol use, marijuana use, and risky driving behaviors, and it was associated with an increased likelihood of consistently having a healthy eating pattern. Narcissism was also positively predictive of physical activity. Results are discussed with reference to the potential short-term and long-term health implications and the need for future research on the factors involved in the relationship between narcissism and health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Reporting risk, producing prejudice: how news reporting on obesity shapes attitudes about health risk, policy, and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C; Frederick, David; Gruys, Kjerstin

    2014-06-01

    News reporting on research studies may influence attitudes about health risk, support for public health policies, or attitudes towards people labeled as unhealthy or at risk for disease. Across five experiments (N = 2123) we examined how different news framings of obesity research influence these attitudes. We exposed participants to either a control condition, a news report on a study portraying obesity as a public health crisis, a news report on a study suggesting that obesity may not be as much of a problem as previously thought, or an article discussing weight-based discrimination. Compared to controls, exposure to the public health crisis article did not increase perception of obesity-related health risks but did significantly increase the expression of antifat prejudice in four out of seven comparisons. Across studies, compared to controls, participants who read an article about weight-based discrimination were less likely to agree that overweight constitutes a public health crisis or to support various obesity policies. Effects of exposure to an article questioning the health risks associated with overweight and obesity were mixed. These findings suggest that news reports on the "obesity epidemic" - and, by extension, on public health crises commonly blamed on personal behavior - may unintentionally activate prejudice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  4. Exploring the Life Course Perspective in Maternal and Child Health through Community-Based Participatory Focus Groups: Social Risks Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; King, Lindsey M; Salihu, Hamisu M; Berry, Estrellita; Austin, Deborah; Nash, Susan; Scarborough, Kenneth; Best, Evangeline; Cox, Lillian; King, Georgette; Hepburn, Carrie; Burpee, Conchita; Richardson, Eugene; Ducket, Marlo; Briscoe, Richard; Baldwin, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the patterns of risk factors experienced by communities of color and how diverse community contexts shape the health trajectory of women from the early childhood period to the time of their pregnancies. Thus, we conducted a focus group study to identify social risks over the life course that contribute to maternal and child health from the perspective of community members residing in low income urban areas. Ten community-based participatory focus groups were conducted with residents from selected communities in Tampa, Florida, from September to November 2013. We used the life course perspective to illuminate and explain the experiences reported by the interviewees. A total of 78 residents participated in the focus groups. Children and adolescents' health risks were childhood obesity, lack of physical activity, and low self-esteem. Women's health risks were low self-esteem, low educational level, low health literacy, inadequate parenting skills, and financial problems. Risks during pregnancy included stress, low self-esteem, inadequate eating patterns, lack of physical activity, healthcare issues, lack of social support, and lack of father involvement during pregnancy. Multiple risk factors contribute to maternal and child health in low income communities in Tampa Bay. The intersection of risk factors in different life periods suggest possible pathways, cumulative, and latent effects, which must be considered in future longitudinal studies and when developing effective maternal and child health programs and policies.

  5. Health risk behaviors of black male college students: seat belt use, smoking, and obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Phoebe Butler

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.

  6. Methodology of nanotechnogy's risks analysis for health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulova, I.P.

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment is a multidisciplinary field, and an important tool for understanding and managing the potential risks from nanotechnologies. As new technologies develop, a crucial task is to understand the health and environmental impacts and to identify potential risks. (authors)

  7. Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Nicola; Rutherford, Shannon; Mackey, Brendan; Street, Roger; Chu, Cordia

    2018-03-16

    Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks. Therefore, this article discusses the common aspects of direct and indirect health risks of climate change and climate-sensitive disasters. Based on this discussion a theoretical framework is presented for understanding these commonalities. As such, this article hopes to extend the current health impact frameworks and provide a platform for further research exploring opportunities for linked adaptation and risk reduction strategies.

  8. Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Nicola; Rutherford, Shannon; Mackey, Brendan; Street, Roger; Chu, Cordia

    2018-01-01

    Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks. Therefore, this article discusses the common aspects of direct and indirect health risks of climate change and climate-sensitive disasters. Based on this discussion a theoretical framework is presented for understanding these commonalities. As such, this article hopes to extend the current health impact frameworks and provide a platform for further research exploring opportunities for linked adaptation and risk reduction strategies. PMID:29547592

  9. Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Banwell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks. Therefore, this article discusses the common aspects of direct and indirect health risks of climate change and climate-sensitive disasters. Based on this discussion a theoretical framework is presented for understanding these commonalities. As such, this article hopes to extend the current health impact frameworks and provide a platform for further research exploring opportunities for linked adaptation and risk reduction strategies.

  10. Radiation risks : the ethics of health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Since the inception of commercial uses of nuclear technology, radiation protection standards established by regulatory agencies have reflected moral concerns based on two assumptions: (1) that the linear, zero-threshold hypothesis derives from scientific data in radiobiology which are virtually conclusive; (2) it is morally better for public health protection to assume that any radiation exposure, no matter how small, has some harmful effect which can and ought to be prevented. In the past few years these beliefs and related assumptions have received closer scrutiny, revealing hidden reasons for regulatory selection of radiation risks as objects of paramount ethical concern, with the result that greater risks to health have escaped comparison and mitigation. Based on this scrutiny this brief paper explores two questions: Are presupposed assumptions ethically justified on grounds of scientific evidence and ethical consistency? and should moral objections claiming to invalidate comparative risk assessments be accepted or rejected?

  11. Risk assessment of integrated electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Bjarni Thor; Sigurdardottir, Gudlaug; Stefansson, Stefan Orri

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the security concerns related to Electronic Health Records (EHR) both in registration of data and integration of systems. A description of the current state of EHR systems in Iceland is provided, along with the Ministry of Health's future vision and plans. New legislation provides the opportunity for increased integration of EHRs and further collaboration between institutions. Integration of systems, along with greater availability and access to EHR data, requires increased security awareness since additional risks are introduced. The paper describes the core principles of information security as it applies to EHR systems and data. The concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and traceability are introduced and described. The paper discusses the legal requirements and importance of performing risk assessment for EHR data. Risk assessment methodology according to the ISO/IEC 27001 information security standard is described with examples on how it is applied to EHR systems.

  12. The case for risk-based premiums in public health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Peter; Breuer, Michael

    2006-04-01

    Uniform, risk-independent insurance premiums are accepted as part of 'managed competition' in health care. However, they are not compatible with optimality of health insurance contracts in the presence of both ex ante and ex post moral hazard. They have adverse effects on insurer behaviour even if risk adjustment is taken into account. Risk-based premiums combined with means-tested, tax-financed transfers are advocated as an alternative.

  13. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  14. Sexual Minority Health and Health Risk Factors: Intersection Effects of Gender, Race, and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and risk of violence and the physical, mental, and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân Oram

    Full Text Available There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people.We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%-42.4% in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I² = 83.7%. Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability.Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches.

  16. Prevalence and risk of violence and the physical, mental, and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Stöckl, Heidi; Busza, Joanna; Howard, Louise M; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people. We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%-42.4%) in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I² = 83.7%). Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability. Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches.

  17. Online reporting and assessing new occupational health risks in SIGNAAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderink, A F; Keirsbilck, S; van der Molen, H F; Godderis, L

    2015-11-01

    Changes in work and working conditions continuously give rise to new work-related health risks. Without sufficient knowledge of these, opportunities for prevention and intervention may be missed. To develop, implement and evaluate an online tool called SIGNAAL for reporting and assessment of new work-related health risks by occupational health physicians and experts in the Netherlands and Belgium. Development and implementation of SIGNAAL to allow both easy and sufficient detailed reporting by occupational health physicians and structured and transparent assessment by occupational health experts. A new work-related health risk is defined as a work-related disease due to specific exposure in a specific work setting not described in the literature before. The online reporting and assessment tool proved to be a feasible means of reporting possible new combinations of health problems and exposures in the work situation. Eleven of the 15 cases reported until October 2014 were fully assessed: one was an entirely new work-related disease, four were known but uncommon work-related diseases, five were known but new in the reported work situation and one was a well-known work-related disease. An online reporting system used in an occupational health setting can provide insight into new work-related health risks by creating a structured way to gather, report and assess new combinations of health problems and exposure in the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Health risk behaviours of high school learners and their perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adolescence spans nearly a decade in which young people may initiate health risk behaviours such as unsafe sexual practices and the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD use). Most adolescent mortality and morbidity, attributable to such health risk behaviours, are preventable. Managing the ...

  19. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  20. The physical and mental health of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults: the role of key health indicators and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Emlet, Charles A; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Erosheva, Elena A; Goldsen, Jayn; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P

    2013-08-01

    Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGB older adults, aged 50 and older (N = 2,439). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the contributions of key health indicators (access to health care and health behaviors), risk factors (lifetime victimization, internalized stigma, and sexual identity concealment), and protective factors (social support and social network size) to health outcomes, when controlling for background characteristics. The findings revealed that lifetime victimization, financial barriers to health care, obesity, and limited physical activity independently and significantly accounted for poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults. Internalized stigma was also a significant predictor of disability and depression. Social support and social network size served as protective factors, decreasing the odds of poor general health, disability, and depression. Some distinct differences by gender and sexual orientation were also observed. High levels of poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults are of major concern. These findings highlight the important role of key risk and protective factors, which significantly influences health outcomes among LGB older adults. Tailored interventions must be developed to address the distinct health issues facing this historically disadvantaged population.

  1. Air pollution and public health: a guidance document for risk managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Lorraine; Brook, Jeffrey R; Chiotti, Quentin; Croes, Bart; Gower, Stephanie; Hedley, Anthony; Krewski, Daniel; Krupnick, Alan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Moran, Michael D; Pennell, William; Samet, Jonathan M; Schneider, Jurgen; Shortreed, John; Williams, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This guidance document is a reference for air quality policymakers and managers providing state-of-the-art, evidence-based information on key determinants of air quality management decisions. The document reflects the findings of five annual meetings of the NERAM (Network for Environmental Risk Assessment and Management) International Colloquium Series on Air Quality Management (2001-2006), as well as the results of supporting international research. The topics covered in the guidance document reflect critical science and policy aspects of air quality risk management including i) health effects, ii) air quality emissions, measurement and modeling, iii) air quality management interventions, and iv) clean air policy challenges and opportunities.

  2. Can an Internet-based health risk assessment highlight problems of heart disease risk factor awareness? A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Justin B; McNeal, Catherine J; Tsai, Ginger; Rivera, Cathleen M; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Ory, Marcia G

    2014-04-18

    Health risk assessments are becoming more popular as a tool to conveniently and effectively reach community-dwelling adults who may be at risk for serious chronic conditions such as coronary heart disease (CHD). The use of such instruments to improve adults' risk factor awareness and concordance with clinically measured risk factor values could be an opportunity to advance public health knowledge and build effective interventions. The objective of this study was to determine if an Internet-based health risk assessment can highlight important aspects of agreement between respondents' self-reported and clinically measured CHD risk factors for community-dwelling adults who may be at risk for CHD. Data from an Internet-based cardiovascular health risk assessment (Heart Aware) administered to community-dwelling adults at 127 clinical sites were analyzed. Respondents were recruited through individual hospital marketing campaigns, such as media advertising and print media, found throughout inpatient and outpatient facilities. CHD risk factors from the Framingham Heart Study were examined. Weighted kappa statistics were calculated to measure interrater agreement between respondents' self-reported and clinically measured CHD risk factors. Weighted kappa statistics were then calculated for each sample by strata of overall 10-year CHD risk. Three samples were drawn based on strategies for treating missing data: a listwise deleted sample, a pairwise deleted sample, and a multiple imputation (MI) sample. The MI sample (n=16,879) was most appropriate for addressing missing data. No CHD risk factor had better than marginal interrater agreement (κ>.60). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) exhibited suboptimal interrater agreement that deteriorated (eg, κInternet-based health risk assessments such as Heart Aware may contribute to public health surveillance, but they must address selection bias of Internet-based recruitment methods.

  3. Strategies for Worksite Health Interventions to Employees with Elevated Risk of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Meng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic disease rates have become more prevalent in the modern American workforce, which has negative implications for workplace productivity and healthcare costs. Offering workplace health interventions is recognized as an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease progression, absenteeism, and healthcare costs as well as improve population health. This review documents intervention and evaluation strategies used for health promotion programs delivered in workplaces. Using predetermined search terms in five online databases, we identified 1,131 published items from 1995 to 2014. Of these items, 27 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria; reporting data from completed United States-based workplace interventions that recruited at-risk employees based on their disease or disease-related risk factors. A content rubric was developed and used to catalogue these 27 published field studies. Selected workplace interventions targeted obesity (n = 13, cardiovascular diseases (n = 8, and diabetes (n = 6. Intervention strategies included instructional education/counseling (n = 20, workplace environmental change (n = 6, physical activity (n = 10, use of technology (n = 10, and incentives (n = 13. Self-reported data (n = 21, anthropometric measurements (n = 17, and laboratory tests (n = 14 were used most often in studies with outcome evaluation. This is the first literature review to focus on interventions for employees with elevated risk for chronic diseases. The review has the potential to inform future workplace health interventions by presenting strategies related to implementation and evaluation strategies in workplace settings. These strategies can help determine optimal worksite health programs based on the unique characteristics of work settings and the health risk factors of their employee populations.

  4. Strategies for Worksite Health Interventions to Employees with Elevated Risk of Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lu; Wolff, Marilyn B; Mattick, Kelly A; DeJoy, David M; Wilson, Mark G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-06-01

    Chronic disease rates have become more prevalent in the modern American workforce, which has negative implications for workplace productivity and healthcare costs. Offering workplace health interventions is recognized as an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease progression, absenteeism, and healthcare costs as well as improve population health. This review documents intervention and evaluation strategies used for health promotion programs delivered in workplaces. Using predetermined search terms in five online databases, we identified 1,131 published items from 1995 to 2014. Of these items, 27 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria; reporting data from completed United States-based workplace interventions that recruited at-risk employees based on their disease or disease-related risk factors. A content rubric was developed and used to catalogue these 27 published field studies. Selected workplace interventions targeted obesity ( n   =  13), cardiovascular diseases ( n   =  8), and diabetes ( n   =  6). Intervention strategies included instructional education/counseling ( n   =  20), workplace environmental change ( n   =  6), physical activity ( n   =  10), use of technology ( n   =  10), and incentives ( n   =  13). Self-reported data ( n   =  21), anthropometric measurements ( n   =  17), and laboratory tests ( n   =  14) were used most often in studies with outcome evaluation. This is the first literature review to focus on interventions for employees with elevated risk for chronic diseases. The review has the potential to inform future workplace health interventions by presenting strategies related to implementation and evaluation strategies in workplace settings. These strategies can help determine optimal worksite health programs based on the unique characteristics of work settings and the health risk factors of their employee populations.

  5. Withholding differential risk information on legal consumer nicotine/tobacco products: The public health ethics of health information quarantines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T; Sweanor, David

    2016-06-01

    The United States provides an example of a country with (a) legal tobacco/nicotine products (e.g., snus, other smokeless tobacco, cigarettes) differing greatly in risks to health and (b) respected health information websites that continue to omit or provide incorrect differential risk information. Concern for the principles of individual rights, health literacy, and personal autonomy (making decisions for oneself), which are key principles of public health ethics, has been countered by utilitarian arguments for the use of misleading or limited information to protect public health overall. We argue that omitting key health relevant information for current or prospective consumers represents a kind of quarantine of health-relevant information. As with disease quarantines, the coercive effects of quarantining information on differential risks need to be justified, not merely by fears of net negative public health effects, but by convincing evidence that such measures are actually warranted, that public health overall is in imminent danger and that the danger is sufficient to override principles of individual autonomy. Omitting such health-relevant information for consumers of such products effectively blindfolds them and impairs their making informed personal choices. Moral psychological issues that treat all tobacco/nicotine products similarly may also be influencing the reluctance to inform on differential risks. In countries where tobacco/nicotine products are legally sold and also differ greatly in disease risks compared to cigarettes (e.g., smokeless tobacco and vape), science-based, comprehensible, and actionable health information (consistent with health literacy principles) on differential risks should be available and only reconsidered if it is established that this information is causing losses to population health overall. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcoholic beverage intake and risk of lung cancer: the California Men's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun; Slezak, Jeff M; Caan, Bette J; Quinn, Virginia P

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the effect of alcoholic beverage consumption on the risk of lung cancer using the California Men's Health Study. The California Men's Health Study is a multiethnic cohort of 84,170 men ages 45 to 69 years who are members of the Kaiser Permanente California health plans. Demographics and detailed lifestyle characteristics were collected from surveys mailed between 2000 and 2003. Incident lung cancer cases were identified by health plan cancer registries through December 2006 (n=210). Multivariable Cox's regression was used to examine the effects of beer, red wine, white wine (including rosé), and liquor consumption on risk of lung cancer adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, body mass index, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema, and smoking history. There was a significant linear decrease in risk of lung cancer associated with consumption of red wine among ever-smokers: hazard ratio (HR), 0.98; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.96-1.00 for increase of 1 drink per month. This relationship was slightly stronger among heavy smokers (>or=20 pack-years): HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00. When alcoholic beverage consumption was examined by frequency of intake, consumption of >or=1 drink of red wine per day was associated with an approximately 60% reduced lung cancer risk in ever-smokers: HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.14-1.08. No clear associations with lung cancer were seen for intake of white wine, beer, or liquor. Moderate red wine consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk after adjusting for confounders. Our results should not be extrapolated to heavy alcohol consumption.

  7. U.S. Department of energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C.; Scofield, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments

  8. U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

  9. Using Statistical and Probabilistic Methods to Evaluate Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic chemical and heavy metals within wastewater can cause serious adverse impacts on human health. Health risk assessment (HRA is an effective tool for supporting decision-making and corrective actions in water quality management. HRA can also help people understand the water quality and quantify the adverse effects of pollutants on human health. Due to the imprecision of data, measurement error and limited available information, uncertainty is inevitable in the HRA process. The purpose of this study is to integrate statistical and probabilistic methods to deal with censored and limited numbers of input data to improve the reliability of the non-cancer HRA of dermal contact exposure to contaminated river water by considering uncertainty. A case study in the Kelligrews River in St. John’s, Canada, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and capacity of the proposed approach. Five heavy metals were selected to evaluate the risk level, including arsenic, molybdenum, zinc, uranium and manganese. The results showed that the probability of the total hazard index of dermal exposure exceeding 1 is very low, and there is no obvious evidence of risk in the study area.

  10. Deprivation and health risk indicators in full-time permanent workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusto, Gaëlle; Vol, Sylviane; Lasfargues, Gérard; Guillaud, Christian; Lantieri, Olivier; Tichet, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Association between deprivation and health is well established, particularly among unemployed or fixed-term contract or temporary contract subjects. This study aimed to assess if this relationship existed as well in full-time permanent workers. Biometrical, biological, behavioural and psychosocial health risk indicators and an individual deprivation score, the Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centres score, were recorded from January 2007 to June 2008, in 34 905 full-time permanent workers aged 18-70 years, all volunteers for a free health examination. Comparisons of the behavioural, metabolic, cardiovascular and health risk indicators between quintiles of the deprivation score with adjustments on age and socioeconomic categories were made by covariance analysis or logistic regression. For both genders, degradation of nutritional behaviours, metabolic and cardiovascular indicators and health appeared gradually with deprivation, even for deprivation score usually considered as an insignificant value. The absence of only one social support or one social network was associated with a degradation of health. Full-time permanent workers with the poorest health risk indicators had more frequent social exclusion signs. These results were independent of socioeconomic categories and age. Understanding how deprivation influences health status may lead to more effective interventions to reduce social inequalities in health. The deprivation Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centres score is a relevant tool to detect subjects who could benefit from preventive interventions. Our findings suggest that this deprivation score should be used as a health risk indicator even in full-time permanent workers. Assessing deprivation is useful to design and evaluate specific intervention programmes. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Health-based risk neutralization in private disability insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnvoord, Elisabeth C.; Buitenhuis, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusions are used by insurers to neutralize higher than average risks of sickness absence (SA). However, differentiating risk groups according to one's medical situation can be seen as discrimination against people with health problems in violation of a 2006 United Nations convention.

  12. Health-based risk neutralization in private disability insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnvoord, Elisabeth C; Buitenhuis, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exclusions are used by insurers to neutralize higher than average risks of sickness absence (SA). However, differentiating risk groups according to one's medical situation can be seen as discrimination against people with health problems in violation of a 2006 United Nations convention.

  13. HIV risk and sexual health among female migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Dong, Yanyan; Chen, Lin; Song, Dandan; Wang, Jun; Tao, Haidong; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don

    2016-09-01

    Sexual behavior is the dominant mode of HIV transmission in China, and young female migrants are among the populations at highest risk. This article examines how HIV-related risk behaviors among female migrants might vary according to workplace settings. Participants were young female migrants recruited from three workplace settings-factories, restaurants and entertainment venues. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed 457 participants' sociodemographic characteristics, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, condom use knowledge, sexual behaviors, condom use behavior and reproductive health factors. Participants working in entertainment venues were significantly more likely than those working in factories and restaurants to report sexual behavior, unprotected sex, multiple pregnancy terminations and sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, participants working in factories and restaurants reported significantly lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom use knowledge, condom use self-efficacy and history of HIV/AIDS counseling and testing. Independent correlates of unprotected sex included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history and sexual self-efficacy. Independent correlates of STI or genitourinary tract infection included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history, recent migration and recent unprotected sex. These findings indicate a need for sexual and reproductive health interventions prioritizing young female migrants, and call for programs that can be incorporated into different workplace settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect Of Ventilation On Chronic Health Risks In Schools And Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-04

    This study provides a risk assessment for chronic health risks from inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants in offices and schools with a focus how ventilation impacts exposures to, and risks from, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM2.5). We estimate how much health risks could change with varying ventilation rates under two scenarios: (i) halving the measured ventilation rates and (ii) doubling the measured ventilation rates. For the hazard characterization we draw upon prior papers that identified pollutants potentially affecting health with indoor air concentrations responsive to changes in ventilation rates. For exposure assessment we determine representative concentrations of pollutants using data available in current literature and model changes in exposures with changes in ventilation rates. As a metric of disease burden, we use disability adjusted life years (DALYs) to address both cancer and non-cancer effects. We also compare exposures to guidelines published by regulatory agencies to assess chronic health risks. Chronic health risks are driven primarily by particulate matter exposure, with an estimated baseline disease burden of 150 DALYs per 100,000 people in offices and 140 DALYs per 100,000 people in schools. Study results show that PM2.5-related DALYs are not very sensitive to changes in ventilation rates. Filtration is more effective at controlling PM2.5 concentrations and health effects. Non-cancer health effects contribute only a small fraction of the overall chronic health burden of populations in offices and schools (<1 DALY per 100,000 people). Cancer health effects dominate the disease burden in schools (3 DALYs per 100,000) and offices (5 DALYs per 100,000), with formaldehyde being the primary risk driver. In spite of large uncertainties in toxicological data and dose-response modeling, our results support the finding that ventilation rate changes do not have significant impacts on estimated chronic disease

  15. Extensions of the Rosner-Colditz breast cancer prediction model to include older women and type-specific predicted risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Robert J; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chen, Wendy Y; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter W; Rosner, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    A breast cancer <