WorldWideScience

Sample records for include greater coverage

  1. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  2. Including "evidentiary balance" in news media coverage of vaccine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christopher E; Dixon, Graham N; Holton, Avery; McKeever, Brooke Weberling

    2015-01-01

    Journalists communicating risk-related uncertainty must accurately convey scientific evidence supporting particular conclusions. Scholars have explored how "balanced" coverage of opposing risk claims shapes uncertainty judgments. In situations where a preponderance of evidence points to a particular conclusion, balanced coverage reduces confidence in such a consensus and heightens uncertainty about whether a risk exists. Using the autism-vaccine controversy as a case study, we describe how journalists can cover multiple sides of an issue and provide insight into where the strength of evidence lies by focusing on "evidentiary balance." Our results suggest that evidentiary balance shapes perceived certainty that vaccines are safe, effective, and not linked to autism through the mediating role of a perception that scientists are divided about whether a link exists. Deference toward science, moreover, moderates these relationships under certain conditions. We discuss implications for journalism practice and risk communication.

  3. Including limitations in news coverage of cancer research: effects of news hedging on fatalism, medical skepticism, patient trust, and backlash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D; Carcioppolo, Nick; King, Andy J; Bernat, Jennifer K; Davis, LaShara; Yale, Robert; Smith, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    Past research has demonstrated that news coverage of cancer research, and scientific research generally, rarely contains discourse-based hedging, including caveats, limitations, and uncertainties. In a multiple message experiment (k = 4 news stories, N = 1082), the authors examined whether hedging shaped the perceptions of news consumers. The results revealed that participants were significantly less fatalistic about cancer (p = .039) and marginally less prone to nutritional backlash (p = .056) after exposure to hedged articles. Participants exposed to articles mentioning a second researcher (unaffiliated with the present study) exhibited greater trust in medical professions (p = .001). The findings provide additional support for the inclusion of discourse-based hedging in cancer news coverage and suggest that news consumers will use scientific uncertainty in illness representations.

  4. Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R.; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    Background As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC

  5. Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Lorenzo Luis R. Guinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design: A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results: In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as

  6. Cost-Utility Analysis of Extending Public Health Insurance Coverage to Include Diabetic Retinopathy Screening by Optometrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwyk, Sasha; Jin, Ya-Ping; Trope, Graham E; Buys, Yvonne; Masucci, Lisa; Wedge, Richard; Flanagan, John; Brent, Michael H; El-Defrawy, Sherif; Tu, Hong Anh; Thavorn, Kednapa

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness in Canada. Eye examinations play an important role in early detection. However, DR screening by optometrists is not always universally covered by public or private health insurance plans. This study assessed whether expanding public health coverage to include diabetic eye examinations for retinopathy by optometrists is cost-effective from the perspective of the health care system. We conducted a cost-utility analysis of extended coverage for diabetic eye examinations in Prince Edward Island to include examinations by optometrists, not currently publicly covered. We used a Markov chain to simulate disease burden based on eye examination rates and DR progression over a 30-year time horizon. Results were presented as an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists was associated with higher costs ($9,908,543.32) and improved QALYs (156,862.44), over 30 years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1668.43/QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential determinants of the results were the cost of optometric screening and selected utility scores. At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that the new policy was cost-effective was 99.99%. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists is cost-effective based on a commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY. Findings from this study can inform the decision to expand public-insured optometric services for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Immunization coverage Fact sheet Reviewed January 2018 Key facts ... at least 90% coverage of DTP3 vaccine. Global immunization coverage 2016 A summary of global vaccination coverage ...

  8. Democratic candidates call for change in the health care system: wider use of home and community-based care, chronic disease management, universal coverage, and greater use of telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Aaron G

    2008-10-01

    Senator Barack Obama, the Democratic candidate for president, and Senator Joe Biden, the party's candidate for vice president, have made health care reform a central pillar of their campaign. The Democrats want to target the 12 percent of Americans who are responsible for 69 percent of health care costs. Such individuals generally have multiple and complex health care problems, which if left untreated, require them to seek care in hospital emergency rooms which are vastly overcrowded. In order to solve the problem, they believe first that universal coverage along the lines of the Federal Government Employees' health plan is necessary, followed by a shift away from institutionally-based care, making home and community-based care, which integrates telehealth and other technologies, the norm. The party's platform includes this committment to help solve the problem of long-term care, which affects not only the nation's 35 million elderly, but increasingly will affect the 78 million baby boomers who are entering their retirement years.

  9. Community participation and childhood immunization coverage: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immunization coverage rates in Nigeria have remained very poor, in spite of numerous programs and strategies, specifically designed to improve coverage. This study was to assess the possible effects of greater community participation on immunization coverage, by comparing the immunization coverage in a ...

  10. Percent Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Percent Coverage is a spreadsheet that keeps track of and compares the number of vessels that have departed with and without observers to the numbers of vessels...

  11. [Quantification of acetabular coverage in normal adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R M; Yang, C Y; Yu, C Y; Yang, C R; Chang, G L; Chou, Y L

    1991-03-01

    Quantification of acetabular coverage is important and can be expressed by superimposition of cartilage tracings on the maximum cross-sectional area of the femoral head. A practical Autolisp program on PC AutoCAD has been developed by us to quantify the acetabular coverage through numerical expression of the images of computed tomography. Thirty adults (60 hips) with normal center-edge angle and acetabular index in plain X ray were randomly selected for serial drops. These slices were prepared with a fixed coordination and in continuous sections of 5 mm in thickness. The contours of the cartilage of each section were digitized into a PC computer and processed by AutoCAD programs to quantify and characterize the acetabular coverage of normal and dysplastic adult hips. We found that a total coverage ratio of greater than 80%, an anterior coverage ratio of greater than 75% and a posterior coverage ratio of greater than 80% can be categorized in a normal group. Polar edge distance is a good indicator for the evaluation of preoperative and postoperative coverage conditions. For standardization and evaluation of acetabular coverage, the most suitable parameters are the total coverage ratio, anterior coverage ratio, posterior coverage ratio and polar edge distance. However, medial coverage and lateral coverage ratios are indispensable in cases of dysplastic hip because variations between them are so great that acetabuloplasty may be impossible. This program can also be used to classify precisely the type of dysplastic hip.

  12. Soils, County-wide soils cover - an aggregation of section-wide soil coverages with additional attributes. Primary attributes include mu symbol and ID, state symbol, name, category, percolation rate and passing percentage., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils dataset current as of 2008. County-wide soils cover - an aggregation of section-wide soil coverages with additional attributes. Primary attributes include mu...

  13. Government Districts, Other, Sedgwick County Board of County Commissioner district boundaries. Derived from countywide Elections coverage. Primary attributes include District number and respresentative name. Includes district number annotation. Published to scbocc_a.shp., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Government Districts, Other dataset current as of 2008. Sedgwick County Board of County Commissioner district boundaries. Derived from countywide Elections coverage....

  14. [Evaluation of dental care coverage in the State Military Police in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Sobrinho, Clóvis; Souza, Luís Eugênio Portela Fernandes de; Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima

    2008-02-01

    This study seeks to evaluate dental care coverage in the State Military Police in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, from 2002 to 2004, estimating potential and real coverage rates. A single descriptive study was performed. Calculations were made of potential coverage rates considering hourly workloads of staff dentists and the real rates resulting from actual outpatient treatment. Potential human resources coverage was adequate (1 dentist per 1,618 policemen), while the real coverage rate was considered below the standard proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (0.39 procedures per policeman per year). The low real coverage rate could be related to low productivity, the reasons for which should be investigated in greater depth in future studies, and might include organizational problems and lack of a management system to improve the quality of professional practice, with specifically defined targets.

  15. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  16. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and includes...

  17. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  18. Health insurance coverage among women in Indonesia's major cities: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2017-03-01

    We examined women's access to health insurance in Indonesia. We analyzed IFLS-4 data of 1,400 adult women residing in four major cities. Among this population, the health insurance coverage was 24%. Women who were older, involved in paid work, and with higher education had greater access to health insurance (p health insurance across community levels (Median Odds Ratios = 3.40). Given the importance of health insurance for women's health, strategies should be developed to expand health insurance coverage among women in Indonesia, including the disparities across community levels. Such problems might also be encountered in other developing countries with low health insurance coverage.

  19. Increasing immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    In 1977, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a statement calling for universal immunization of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. In 1995, the policy statement "Implementation of the Immunization Policy" was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, followed in 2003 with publication of the first version of this statement, "Increasing Immunization Coverage." Since 2003, there have continued to be improvements in immunization coverage, with progress toward meeting the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Data from the 2007 National Immunization Survey showed that 90% of children 19 to 35 months of age have received recommended doses of each of the following vaccines: inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella-zoster virus (VZB), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). For diphtheria and tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, 84.5% have received the recommended 4 doses by 35 months of age. Nevertheless, the Healthy People 2010 goal of at least 80% coverage for the full series (at least 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of IPV, 1 dose of MMR, 3 doses of Hib, 3 doses of HBV, and 1 dose of varicella-zoster virus vaccine) has not yet been met, and immunization coverage of adolescents continues to lag behind the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Despite these encouraging data, a vast number of new challenges that threaten continued success toward the goal of universal immunization coverage have emerged. These challenges include an increase in new vaccines and new vaccine combinations as well as a significant number of vaccines currently under development; a dramatic increase in the acquisition cost of vaccines, coupled with a lack of adequate payment to practitioners to buy and administer vaccines; unanticipated manufacturing and delivery problems that have caused significant shortages of various vaccine products; and the rise of a public antivaccination movement that uses the

  20. Change in Health Insurance Coverage After Liver Transplantation Can Be Associated with Worse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akateh, Clifford; Tumin, Dmitry; Beal, Eliza W; Mumtaz, Khalid; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don; Black, Sylvester M

    2018-03-24

    Health insurance coverage changes for many patients after liver transplantation, but the implications of this change on long-term outcomes are unclear. To assess post-transplant patient and graft survival according to change in insurance coverage within 1 year of transplantation. We queried the United Network for Organ Sharing for patients between ages 18-64 years undergoing liver transplantation in 2002-2016. Patients surviving > 1 year were categorized by insurance coverage at transplantation and the 1-year transplant anniversary. Multivariable Cox regression characterized the association between coverage pattern and long-term patient or graft survival. Among 34,487 patients in the analysis, insurance coverage patterns included continuous private coverage (58%), continuous public coverage (29%), private to public transition (8%) and public to private transition (4%). In multivariable analysis of patient survival, continuous public insurance (HR 1.29, CI 1.22, 1.37, p < 0.001), private to public transition (HR 1.17, CI 1.07, 1.28, p < 0.001), and public to private transition (HR 1.14, CI 1.00, 1.29, p = 0.044), were associated with greater mortality hazard, compared to continuous private coverage. After disaggregating public coverage by source, mortality hazard was highest for patients transitioning from private insurance to Medicaid (HR vs. continuous private coverage = 1.32; 95% CI 1.14, 1.52; p < 0.001). Similar differences by insurance category were found for death-censored graft failure. Post-transplant transition to public insurance coverage is associated with higher risk of adverse outcomes when compared to retaining private coverage.

  1. Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage Among Adult Populations - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kim, David K; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Pilishvili, Tamara; Skoff, Tami H; Nelson, Noele P; Harpaz, Rafael; Markowitz, Lauri E; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Bridges, Carolyn B

    2016-02-05

    Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. August 2013-June 2014 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2014 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Compared with data from the 2013 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for Tdap vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 20.1%) and herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged ≥60 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 27.9%). Aside from these modest improvements, vaccination coverage among adults in 2014 was similar to estimates from 2013 (for influenza coverage, similar to the 2012-13 season). Influenza vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years was 43.2%. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage among high-risk persons aged 19-64 years was 20.3% and among adults aged ≥65 years was 61.3%. Td vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years was 62.2%. Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among adults

  2. District heating in greater Stockholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Greater Stockholm more than ten municipalities operate more or less extensive district heating networks, whereas a couple of municipalities have still not decided in principle what form of heating will be employed in the future. About 1,2 million people live and work in these municipalities, which together occupy an area of about 1500 km 2 . In this general survey the planning of the extensive work in the municipalities and the alternatives of heat systems in Greater Stockholm, including large integrated district heating systems based on nuclear dual-purpose plants as well as systems based on fossil fuels and several combined plants are discussed. (M.S.)

  3. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the

  4. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... income below 250% FPL can purchase coverage that limits cost-sharing requirements. The ACA set new standards ... Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau . ← Return to text Ibid. ← Return to text Ibid. ← Return to text ...

  5. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, H.; Ulrich, S.; Bangert, M.

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities q(\\hat{d}, \\hat{v}) of covering a specific target volume fraction \\hat{v} with a certain dose \\hat{d} . Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target volume objectives.

  6. Transcribing for Greater Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Bob

    1995-01-01

    States that transcribing is notating the performance of a musical composition or improvisation as the music is grasped aurally. Maintains that transcribing is effective for high school and college students who want to understand jazz techniques. Includes eight suggestions for teaching transcribing. (CFR)

  7. Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage among Adult Populations - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kim, David K; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Pilishvili, Tamara; Skoff, Tami H; Nelson, Noele P; Harpaz, Rafael; Markowitz, Lauri E; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker

    2017-05-05

    Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. August 2014-June 2015 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2015 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Compared with data from the 2014 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for influenza vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years (a 1.6 percentage point increase compared with the 2013-14 season to 44.8%), pneumococcal vaccine among adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk for pneumococcal disease (a 2.8 percentage point increase to 23.0%), Tdap vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years and adults aged 19-64 years (a 3.1 percentage point and 3.3 percentage point increase to 23.1% and to 24.7%, respectively), herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged ≥60 years and adults aged ≥65 years (a 2.7 percentage point and 3.2 percentage point increase to 30.6% and to 34.2%, respectively), and hepatitis B vaccine among health care personnel (HCP) aged

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Square-mile, section-wide, property ownerhip parcel and lot-block boundaries. Includes original platted lot lines. These coverages are maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include Parcel IDS (Control, Key, and PIN), platted lot and, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2008. Square-mile, section-wide, property ownerhip parcel and lot-block boundaries. Includes original platted lot...

  9. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section 457.475 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... purchase of health benefits coverage that includes coverage of abortion services unless the abortion...

  10. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  11. Increasing Coverage of Appropriate Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Hopkins, David P.; Morgan, Jennifer Murphy; Pitan, Adesola A.; Clymer, John

    2016-01-01

    Context Population-level coverage for immunization against many vaccine-preventable diseases remains below optimal rates in the U.S. The Community Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended several interventions to increase vaccination coverage based on systematic reviews of the evaluation literature. The present study provides the economic results from those reviews. Evidence acquisition A systematic review was conducted (search period, January 1980 through February 2012) to identify economic evaluations of 12 interventions recommended by the Task Force. Evidence was drawn from included studies; estimates were constructed for the population reach of each strategy, cost of implementation, and cost per additional vaccinated person because of the intervention. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Evidence synthesis Reminder systems, whether for clients or providers, were among the lowest-cost strategies to implement and the most cost effective in terms of additional people vaccinated. Strategies involving home visits and combination strategies in community settings were both costly and less cost effective. Strategies based in settings such as schools and managed care organizations that reached the target population achieved additional vaccinations in the middle range of cost effectiveness. Conclusions The interventions recommended by the Task Force differed in reach, cost, and cost effectiveness. This systematic review presents the economic information for 12 effective strategies to increase vaccination coverage that can guide implementers in their choice of interventions to fit their local needs, available resources, and budget. PMID:26847663

  12. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hresko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related and pharmacogenetic (PGx tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  13. Medicaid Coverage Expansions and Cigarette Smoking Cessation Among Low-income Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Jonathan W; Donohue, Julie M; Barry, Colleen L; Huskamp, Haiden A; Jarlenski, Marian

    2017-12-01

    Expanding Medicaid coverage to low-income adults may have increased smoking cessation through improved access to evidence-based treatments. Our study sought to determine if states' decisions to expand Medicaid increased recent smoking cessation. Using pooled cross-sectional data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for the years 2011-2015, we examined the association between state Medicaid coverage and the probability of recent smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children who were current or former smokers (n=36,083). We used difference-in-differences estimation to examine the effects of Medicaid coverage on smoking cessation, comparing low-income adult smokers in states with Medicaid coverage to comparable adults in states without Medicaid coverage, with ages 18-64 years to those ages 65 years and above. Analyses were conducted for the full sample and stratified by sex. Residence in a state with Medicaid coverage among low-income adult smokers ages 18-64 years was associated with an increase in recent smoking cessation of 2.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.9). In the comparison group of individuals ages 65 years and above, residence in a state with Medicaid coverage expansion was not associated with a change in recent smoking cessation (-0.1 percentage point, 95% confidence interval, -2.1 to 1.8). Similar increases in smoking cessation among those ages 18-64 years were estimated for females and males (1.9 and 2.2 percentage point, respectively). Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Medicaid coverage expansions may have increased smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children via greater access to preventive health care services, including evidence-based smoking cessation services.

  14. Universal prescription drug coverage in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Canada’s universal public healthcare system is unique among developed countries insofar as it does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. Universal, public coverage of prescription drugs has been recommended by major national commissions in Canada dating back to the 1960s. It has not, however, been implemented. In this article, we extend research on the failure of early proposals for universal drug coverage in Canada to explain failures of calls for reform over the past 20 years. We describe the confluence of barriers to reform stemming from Canadian policy institutions, ideas held by federal policy-makers, and electoral incentives for necessary reforms. Though universal “pharmacare” is once again on the policy agenda in Canada, arguably at higher levels of policy discourse than ever before, the frequently recommended option of universal, public coverage of prescription drugs remains unlikely to be implemented without political leadership necessary to overcome these policy barriers. PMID:27744279

  15. Discontinuous insurance coverage predicts prolonged hospital stay after pediatric adenotonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Dmitry; King, Adele; Walia, Hina; Tobias, Joseph D; Raman, Vidya T

    2017-10-01

    Changes in health insurance coverage have been implicated in limiting access to care and increasing morbidity risk. The consequences of insurance discontinuity for surgical outcomes are unclear. In this study, we explored whether recent insurance discontinuity was associated with prolonged inpatient hospitalization after adenotonsillectomy in children. We retrospectively evaluated single-center data on children aged 2-18 y undergoing adenotonsillectomy with overnight stay in 2009-2014. Insurance coverage at surgery and over the preceding year was categorized as (1) continuous private, (2) continuous Medicaid, or (3) discontinuous (changes or gaps in coverage). The association between insurance discontinuity and prolonged hospitalization (≥2 d) was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. The study included 1013 girls and 983 boys (aged 4.5 ± 2.9 y), of whom 205 (10%) required prolonged hospitalization. Insurance was continuous private for 749 patients (38%), continuous Medicaid for 1121 patients (56%), and discontinuous for 126 patients (6%). Prolonged stay was most common with discontinuous insurance (23/126, 18%), followed by continuous Medicaid (117/1,121, 10%), and continuous private insurance (65/749, 9%; P = 0.004). In multivariable analysis, discontinuous insurance remained associated with prolonged hospital stay, compared with continuous private insurance (odds ratio = 1.88; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.33; P = 0.031), and compared with continuous Medicaid (odds ratio = 1.86; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-3.19; P = 0.023). This study demonstrates greater odds of prolonged hospitalization after adenotonsillectomy among children with recent gaps or changes in insurance coverage and illustrates the feasibility of studying influences of health insurance change on surgical outcomes using existing data in hospital electronic records. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neighborhood Deprivation and Childhood Asthma Outcomes, Accounting for Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkoy, Flory L; Stone, Bryan L; Knighton, Andrew J; Fassl, Bernhard A; Johnson, Joseph M; Maloney, Christopher G; Savitz, Lucy A

    2018-01-09

    Collecting social determinants data is challenging. We assigned patients a neighborhood-level social determinant measure, the area of deprivation index (ADI), by using census data. We then assessed the association between neighborhood deprivation and asthma hospitalization outcomes and tested the influence of insurance coverage. A retrospective cohort study of children 2 to 17 years old admitted for asthma at 8 hospitals. An administrative database was used to collect patient data, including hospitalization outcomes and neighborhood deprivation status (ADI scores), which were grouped into quintiles (ADI 1, the least deprived neighborhoods; ADI 5, the most deprived neighborhoods). We used multivariable models, adjusting for covariates, to assess the associations and added a neighborhood deprivation status and insurance coverage interaction term. A total of 2270 children (median age 5 years; 40.6% girls) were admitted for asthma. We noted that higher ADI quintiles were associated with greater length of stay, higher cost, and more asthma readmissions ( P < .05 for most quintiles). Having public insurance was independently associated with greater length of stay (β: 1.171; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-1.228; P < .001), higher cost (β: 1.147; 95% CI: 1.093-1.203; P < .001), and higher readmission odds (odds ratio: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.46-2.24; P < .001). There was a significant deprivation-insurance effect modification, with public insurance associated with worse outcomes and private insurance with better outcomes across ADI quintiles ( P < .05 for most combinations). Neighborhood-level ADI measure is associated with asthma hospitalization outcomes. However, insurance coverage modifies this relationship and needs to be considered when using the ADI to identify and address health care disparities. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Coverage Probability of Random Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinjia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a general theory on the coverage probability of random intervals defined in terms of discrete random variables with continuous parameter spaces. The theory shows that the minimum coverage probabilities of random intervals with respect to corresponding parameters are achieved at discrete finite sets and that the coverage probabilities are continuous and unimodal when parameters are varying in between interval endpoints. The theory applies to common important discrete ...

  19. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preference for rewards that follow greater effort and greater delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-11-01

    Humans prefer (conditioned) rewards that follow greater effort (Aronson & Mills, 1959). This phenomenon can be interpreted as evidence for cognitive dissonance (or as justification of effort) but may also result from (1) the contrast between the relatively greater effort and the signal for reinforcement or (2) the delay reduction signaled by the conditioned reinforcer. In the present study, we examined the effect of prior force and prior time to produce stimuli associated with equal reinforcement. As expected, pressing with greater force or for a longer time was less preferred than pressing with less force or for a shorter time. However, participants preferred the conditioned reinforcer that followed greater force and more time. Furthermore, participants preferred a long duration with no force requirement over a shorter duration with a high force requirement and, consistent with the contrast account but not with the delay reduction account, they preferred the conditioned stimulus that followed the less preferred, shorter duration, high-force event. Within-trial contrast provides a more parsimonious account than justification of effort, and a more complete account than delay reduction.

  1. [Food assistance programs in Mexico, coverage and targeting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ruán, Ma del Carmen; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Villalpando, Salvador; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel

    2013-01-01

    To describe the distribution of social food assistance programs in Mexico. Information about 36 150 households from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012) was included. The distribution of the social assistance food programs by characteristics as rural/urban locality, country region, ethnicity, socioeconomic level and nutritional status was observed. At the national level, food assistance programs with the greater coverage are Oportunidades (reaching 18.8% of the population), Liconsa (milk distribution, 9.7%) and School Breakfasts (12.2%). The program that assists in the best way the target population is Oportunidades, where 75% of its beneficiaries belong to the "low" and "lower" socioeconomic levels, in contrast to Liconsa and School Breakfasts programs, where only 42% and 55% of the beneficiaries are in such levels, respectively. Current focus and application of the food assistance programs must be adjusted under the perspective of wellness, health and nutrition of the children population.

  2. Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kang, Yoonjae

    2017-11-03

    Vaccination is the most effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases in young children (1). Data from the 2016 National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) were used to assess coverage with recommended vaccines (2) among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. Coverage remained ≥90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (91.9%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.1%), ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (90.6%), and ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (90.5%). Coverage in 2016 was approximately 1-2 percentage points lower than in 2015 for ≥3 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, the primary Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) series, ≥3 HepB doses, and ≥3 and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), with no changes for other vaccines. More direct evaluation of trends by month and year of birth (3) found no change in coverage by age 2 years among children included in combined data from the 2015 and 2016 NIS-Child (born January 2012 through January 2015). The observed decreases in annual estimates might result from random differences in vaccination coverage by age 19 months between children sampled in 2016 and those sampled in 2015, among those birth cohorts eligible to be sampled in both survey years. For most vaccines, 2016 coverage was lower among non-Hispanic black* (black) children than among non-Hispanic white (white) children, and for children living below the federal poverty level † compared with those living at or above the poverty level. Vaccination coverage was generally lower among children insured by Medicaid (2.5-12.0 percentage points), and was much lower among uninsured children (12.4-24.9 percentage points), than among children with private insurance. The Vaccines for Children § (VFC) program was designed to increase access to vaccines among children who might not otherwise

  3. Impact of subsidies and socioeconomic status on varicella vaccination in Greater Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eNagaoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers’ socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included as routine immunization program.Methods: Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378 undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N=315 undergoing a health check-up in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city.Results: Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 (95% CI (confidence interval: 1.65-10.7 and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6 compared to low household income, respectively. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. Conclusions: While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization.Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization program, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine

  4. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  5. Awareness and Coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub- national levels possess a high degree of autonomy in a number of sectors including health. It is important to assess the level of coverage of the scheme among the formal sector workers in Nigeria as a proxy to gauge the extent of coverage of the scheme and derive suitable lessons that could be used in its expansion.

  6. 42 CFR 486.108 - Condition for coverage: Safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indication of the production of X-rays whenever the X-ray tube is energized. The control panel includes... BY SUPPLIERS Conditions for Coverage: Portable X-Ray Services § 486.108 Condition for coverage: Safety standards. X-ray examinations are conducted through the use of equipment which is free of...

  7. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…

  8. original article assessment of effective coverage of voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that effective coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing service was very low based on the providers ... questionnaire was developed and used in this study. Training topics included: discussion on ... measurement of HIV/AIDS intervention would be by use of coverage indicators ...

  9. Health coverage in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolone, Giovanni; Lattuada, Luca

    2003-01-01

    Italy, as other developed European countries, has a national health service (NHS) that, in principle, offers universal health care and coverage to Italians and other legal (non-Italian) residents who have full access to health care. Although Italy has always spent less for health care than other European countries (Italy, in 2002, spent about 8% of its gross national product for health care, which is approximately half the level of spending in the U.S.), the government's lack of control over spending remained the most relevant problem. To enhance the capability to control and monitor the system, mainly in terms of expenditures and costs, from the late 1990s to the present, new health reforms were introduced. These reforms were in the context of a wider change involving other politics and administrative aspects, with a strong push to decentralize the decisions and the accountability at the regional level. Now, each region has an individual Health Regional Fund allocated for health care, along with the subsequent need to implement regional and individualized strategies to assure the governance of the cost and quality of care. The National Department of Health now is solely responsible to control and monitor the delivery of the essential level of care at the regional level, and they have maintained the governance of the drug policy. Although the changes synthesized above will require a long period to be fully implemented, a few negative effects have already occurred. Nevertheless, all citizens in Italy will have full access to any level of care, without any restrictions, for complex and costly procedures (as no explicit selection/adverse criteria were implemented), and the current policy on drugs does not imply any barriers for people (as essential drugs are directly and fully reimbursed by the NHS, with a small copayment being the only intervention that may be occasionally implemented when considered necessary).

  10. Reinterpreting New Source Review: greater clarity or greater confusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Aimed at improving the effectiveness of environmental regulation by providing clearer definitions and greater operating flexibility to electric generators, on Nov. 22, 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced changes to its New Source Review (NSR) program. A major objective was to help generators modernize power plant facilities in ways that will reduce energy use and air emissions, provide incentives to install modern emission-control equipment, and more accurately report air emissions. Coming after considerable internal study and public comment, the release of these changes was delayed by more than one year. The paper analyses the good and down side of the New Source Review. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost ter...

  12. Greater Huachuca Mountains Fire Management Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke S. Gebow; Carol Lambert

    2005-01-01

    The Greater Huachuca Mountains Fire Management Group is developing a fire management plan for 500,000 acres in southeast Arizona. Partner land managers include Arizona State Parks, Arizona State Lands, Audubon Research Ranch, Coronado National Forest, Coronado National Memorial, Fort Huachuca, The Nature Conservancy, San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, and...

  13. Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurice Francois P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership. The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12–23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG, three doses of oral polio (OPV, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT, three doses of hepatitis B (HB and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12–23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1% had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria. Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0% had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it

  14. Ethnoracial inequality and insurance coverage among Latino young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terriquez, Veronica; Joseph, Tiffany D

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that Latino young adults are uninsured at higher rates relative to other ethnoracial groups. Recent implementation of the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased access to health insurance for young adults, in part by maintaining health coverage through their parents until age 26. This paper examines patterns of Latino young adults' insurance coverage during early ACA implementation by addressing three questions: 1) To what extent do Latino young adults remain uninsured relative to their peers of other ethnoracial groups? 2) How do young adults' family socioeconomic background, immigrant characteristics, college enrollment, and employment status mediate their coverage? And, 3) do patterns of insurance coverage differ for employer-provided coverage versus other sources of coverage (including parents' health insurance)? Using a 2011 representative sample of U.S.-born and 1.5-generation immigrant young adults in California, we find that Latinos are more likely than other ethnoracial groups to remain uninsured. While they are as likely as similar peers to obtain employer-provided health insurance, they are less likely to possess insurance through other sources (including their parents). This study contributes to our understanding of the limits of the ACA in reducing disparities in insurance coverage for Latinos by highlighting the importance of family socioeconomic background, immigrant characteristics, college enrollment, and employment in shaping coverage among this age group. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  16. Monitoring equity in immunization coverage.

    OpenAIRE

    Delamonica, Enrique; Minujin, Alberto; Gulaid, Jama

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses trends in coverage of three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT3) by wealth groups in selected countries. It discusses the depth of disparities in coverage by wealth and changes during the 1990s. Complete assessment of equity in income and its trends have been discussed in other papers, however issues related to children's well-being have often been brushed aside because the comparable data needed to fully understand and rectify inequalities is lacking. A fo...

  17. Coverage: An Ethical Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Brenda J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how a high school journalism advisor dealt with ethical issues (including source attribution) surrounding the publication of a story about violation of school board policies by representatives of a nationally recognized ring company. (RS)

  18. Proton Therapy Coverage for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos; Wagner, Marcus; Mahajan, Chaitali; Indelicato, Daniel; Fryer, Amber; Falchook, Aaron; Horne, David C.; Chellini, Angela; McKenzie, Craig C.; Lawlor, Paula C.; Li Zuofeng; Lin Liyong; Keole, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of prostate motion on dose coverage in proton therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 prostate positions were analyzed on 10 treatment plans for 10 prostate patients treated using our low-risk proton therapy prostate protocol (University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute 001). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging T 2 -weighted turbo spin-echo scans were registered for all cases. The planning target volume included the prostate with a 5-mm axial and 8-mm superoinferior expansion. The prostate was repositioned using 5- and 10-mm one-dimensional vectors and 10-mm multidimensional vectors (Points A-D). The beam was realigned for the 5- and 10-mm displacements. The prescription dose was 78 Gy equivalent (GE). Results: The mean percentage of rectum receiving 70 Gy (V 70 ) was 7.9%, the bladder V 70 was 14.0%, and the femoral head/neck V 50 was 0.1%, and the mean pelvic dose was 4.6 GE. The percentage of prostate receiving 78 Gy (V 78 ) with the 5-mm movements changed by -0.2% (range, 0.006-0.5%, p > 0.7). However, the prostate V 78 after a 10-mm displacement changed significantly (p 78 coverage had a large and significant reduction of 17.4% (range, 13.5-17.4%, p 78 coverage of the clinical target volume. The minimal prostate dose was reduced 33% (25.8 GE), on average, for Points A-D. The prostate minimal dose improved from 69.3 GE to 78.2 GE (p < 0.001) with realignment for 10-mm movements. Conclusion: The good dose coverage and low normal doses achieved for the initial plan was maintained with movements of ≤5 mm. Beam realignment improved coverage for 10-mm displacements

  19. Media and the Coverage of Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, Neel; Niazi, A.; Ahmed, Z.; Casey, Patricia R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim: Psychiatric issues have often been a focus for the media. Studies have differed in their findings about how the subject matter is portrayed in newspapers.We compared tone and content of Irish print with the British, broadsheets and tabloids, and the coverage of physical and mental illness. Methods: A selection of Irish and British broadsheet and tabloid newspapers were examined page by page by researchers for period of 6 months. Various parameters investigated including wh...

  20. Updated inventory for three glaciers coverage in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    The first systematic inventory of glacier coverage in Ecuador was performed in the early nineties. It is important to update the knowledge on the evolution and recent relationship with climatic conditions along the Tropical Andes and the risk associated with potential eruptions which will affect the ice covers. This study was conducted to update the information related to glacier coverage on three Ecuadorian volcanoes (Cotopaxi, Antisana, and Chimborazo). It was determined that the glacier coverage reduced by around 37% in average over 40 years. The Ecuadorean glacier coverage measured in 1997 corresponded to 60 km2. Using the data obtained for Cotopaxi, which has been studied in detail, a projection on the glacier coverage to the year 2010 was performed and a value of 48 Km2 was obtained. This evaluation should be confirmed with future studies which include other glaciers such as Cayambe and Altar. Actualy this work is in progress.

  1. Interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulian, Elizabeth A.; Mitchell, Krista R.; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We reviewed intervention studies designed to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage to further understand the impact interventions can have on HPV vaccination coverage. We searched 5 databases for intervention studies published from June 2006 to May 2015. Studies were included if they quantitatively measured HPV vaccination coverage as an outcome and were conducted in the United States. We abstracted outcomes, methods, and results from each study and classified by type of intervention conducted. Findings from 34 studies suggest many types of intervention strategies can increase HPV vaccination coverage in different settings, and with modest cost. Interventions were effective especially when implemented in combination at both provider and community levels. However, not all interventions showed significant effects on coverage. More research is needed to identify the best methods for widespread implementation of effective strategies. PMID:26838959

  2. Trends in Disparities in Low-Income Children's Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care by Family Immigration Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian; Baller, Julia; Borrero, Sonya; Bennett, Wendy L

    2016-03-01

    To examine time trends in disparities in low-income children's health insurance coverage and access to care by family immigration status. We used data from the National Survey of Children's Health in 2003 to 2011-2012, including 83,612 children aged 0 to 17 years with family incomes poverty level. We examined 3 immigration status categories: citizen children with nonimmigrant parents; citizen children with immigrant parents; and immigrant children. We used multivariable regression analyses to obtain adjusted trends in health insurance coverage and access to care. All low-income children experienced gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from 2003 to 2011-2012, regardless of family immigration status. Relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents, citizen children with immigrant parents had a 5 percentage point greater increase in health insurance coverage (P = .06), a 9 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P still exist. Policy efforts are needed to ensure that children of immigrant parents and immigrant children are able to access health insurance and health care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 14 CFR 440.13 - Standard conditions of insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... against that licensee, permittee or additional insured). (5) Each exclusion from coverage must be...; or (ii) Includes in each of its policies or insurance obtained under this part a contract clause in...

  4. Role of Newspaper Coverage and Political Ads in Local Elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttbeg, Norman R.

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the differences in the content of local newspaper's coverage (including political advertisements) of municipal and school board elections. Finds that local newspapers can raise consciousness of these elections and can increase voter turnout. (RS)

  5. US Media Coverage of Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Lown, E Anne; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    Media coverage of tobacco industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives represents a competitive field where tobacco control advocates and the tobacco industry vie to shape public and policymaker understandings about tobacco control and the industry. Through a content analysis of 649 US news items, we examined US media coverage of tobacco industry CSR and identified characteristics of media items associated with positive coverage. Most coverage appeared in local newspapers, and CSR initiatives unrelated to tobacco, with non-controversial beneficiaries, were most commonly mentioned. Coverage was largely positive. Tobacco control advocates were infrequently cited as sources and rarely authored opinion pieces; however, when their voices were included, coverage was less likely to have a positive slant. Media items published in the South, home to several tobacco company headquarters, were more likely than those published in the West to have a positive slant. The absence of tobacco control advocates from media coverage represents a missed opportunity to influence opinion regarding the negative public health implications of tobacco industry CSR. Countering the media narrative of virtuous companies doing good deeds could be particularly beneficial in the South, where the burdens of tobacco-caused disease are greatest, and coverage of tobacco companies more positive.

  6. Predicted strain coverage of a meningococcal multicomponent vaccine (4CMenB) in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Maria João; Bettencourt, Célia; De Paola, Rosita; Giuliani, Maria; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Moschioni, Monica; Machado, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Although the incidence of meningococcal disease has been declining over the past decade in Portugal MenB meningococci is still an important cause of meningitis and sepsis. The aim of this study was to estimate the strain coverage of the 4CMenB vaccine in Portugal in order to support health policies for prevention and control of meningococcal disease. Since 2002 the clinical and laboratory notification of meningococcal disease is mandatory in Portugal. National database includes since then all confirmed cases notified to the reference laboratory or to the Directorate of Health. Strains included in this study were all the invasive MenB isolated from the 1st July 2011 to the 30th June 2015, sent to the reference laboratory. To predict the vaccine strain coverage of the 4CMenB the expression and cross-reactivity of the surface antigens fHbp, NadA, NHBA were assessed by the Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) whereas PorA typing was performed by sequencing. The presence of at least one antigen with a Relative Potency (RP) greater than its MATS-positive bactericidal threshold RP value or the presence of PorA VR2 = 4 was considered to be predictive for a strain to be covered by the 4CMenB vaccine. The estimated 4CMenB strain coverage in Portugal was 67.9%. The percentage of strain coverage in each of the four epidemiological years ranged from 63.9% to 73.7%. Strains covered by one antigen represent 32.1% of the total of isolates, 29.2% of strains were covered by two antigens and 6.6% by three antigens. No strain had all the four antigens. Antigens that most contributed for coverage were NHBA and fHbp. Data from Portugal is in accordance with the MATS predicted strain coverage in five European countries (England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy and Norway) that pointed to 78% coverage for strains collected in the epidemiological year 2007-2008.

  7. Determinants of Vaccination Coverage and Consequences for Rabies Control in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, Riana A; Hampson, Katie; Jatikusumah, Andri; Widyastuti, Maria D W; Sunandar; Basri, Chaerul; Putra, Anak A G; Willyanto, Iwan; Estoepangestie, Agnes T S; Mardiana, I W; Kesuma, I K G N; Sumantra, I P; Doherty, Paul F; Salman, M D; Gilbert, Jeff; Unger, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining high vaccination coverage is key to successful rabies control, but mass dog vaccination can be challenging and population turnover erodes coverage. Declines in rabies incidence following successive island-wide vaccination campaigns in Bali suggest that prospects for controlling and ultimately eliminating rabies are good. Rabies, however, has continued to circulate at low levels. In the push to eliminate rabies from Bali, high coverage needs to be maintained across all areas of the island. We carried out door-to-door (DTD) questionnaire surveys ( n  = 10,352 dog-owning households) and photographic mark-recapture surveys (536 line transects, 2,597 observations of free-roaming dogs) in 2011-2012 to estimate dog population sizes and assess rabies vaccination coverage and dog demographic characteristics in Bali, Indonesia. The median number of dogs per subvillage unit ( banjar ) was 43 (range 0-307) for owned dogs estimated from the DTD survey and 17 (range 0-83) for unconfined dogs (including both owned and unowned) from transects. Vaccination coverage of owned dogs was significantly higher in adults (91.4%) compared to juveniles (vaccination campaigns. Juveniles had a 10-70 times greater risk of not being vaccinated in urban, suburban, and rural areas [combined odds ratios (ORs): 9.9-71.1, 95% CI: 8.6-96.0]. Free-roaming owned dogs were also 2-3 times more likely to be not vaccinated compared to those confined (combined Ors: 1.9-3.6, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4), with more dogs being confined in urban (71.2%) than in suburban (16.1%) and rural areas (8.0%). Vaccination coverage estimates from transects were also much lower (30.9%) than household surveys (83.6%), possibly due to loss of collars used to identify the vaccination status of free-roaming dogs, but these unconfined dogs may also include dogs that were unowned or more difficult to vaccinate. Overall, coverage levels were high in the owned dog population, but for future campaigns in Bali to have the

  8. Determinants of Vaccination Coverage and Consequences for Rabies Control in Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, Riana A.; Hampson, Katie; Jatikusumah, Andri; Widyastuti, Maria D. W.; Sunandar; Basri, Chaerul; Putra, Anak A. G.; Willyanto, Iwan; Estoepangestie, Agnes T. S.; Mardiana, I. W.; Kesuma, I. K. G. N.; Sumantra, I. P.; Doherty, Paul F.; Salman, M. D.; Gilbert, Jeff; Unger, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining high vaccination coverage is key to successful rabies control, but mass dog vaccination can be challenging and population turnover erodes coverage. Declines in rabies incidence following successive island-wide vaccination campaigns in Bali suggest that prospects for controlling and ultimately eliminating rabies are good. Rabies, however, has continued to circulate at low levels. In the push to eliminate rabies from Bali, high coverage needs to be maintained across all areas of the island. We carried out door-to-door (DTD) questionnaire surveys (n = 10,352 dog-owning households) and photographic mark–recapture surveys (536 line transects, 2,597 observations of free-roaming dogs) in 2011–2012 to estimate dog population sizes and assess rabies vaccination coverage and dog demographic characteristics in Bali, Indonesia. The median number of dogs per subvillage unit (banjar) was 43 (range 0–307) for owned dogs estimated from the DTD survey and 17 (range 0–83) for unconfined dogs (including both owned and unowned) from transects. Vaccination coverage of owned dogs was significantly higher in adults (91.4%) compared to juveniles (vaccination campaigns. Juveniles had a 10–70 times greater risk of not being vaccinated in urban, suburban, and rural areas [combined odds ratios (ORs): 9.9–71.1, 95% CI: 8.6–96.0]. Free-roaming owned dogs were also 2–3 times more likely to be not vaccinated compared to those confined (combined Ors: 1.9–3.6, 95% CI: 1.4–5.4), with more dogs being confined in urban (71.2%) than in suburban (16.1%) and rural areas (8.0%). Vaccination coverage estimates from transects were also much lower (30.9%) than household surveys (83.6%), possibly due to loss of collars used to identify the vaccination status of free-roaming dogs, but these unconfined dogs may also include dogs that were unowned or more difficult to vaccinate. Overall, coverage levels were high in the owned dog population, but for future campaigns in Bali to

  9. Newspaper Front Page Coverage of "the Korean Airliner Boeing 747 Massacre" in Six Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong Geun

    A study investigated three United States and three foreign newspapers to determine the direction or bias of coverage of the 1983 Korean Airline (KAL) incident and any differences in coverage. It was hypothesized (1) that the amount of space allotted to the story in U. S. newspapers would be greater than that in foreign newspapers; (2) that there…

  10. 78 FR 7314 - Shared Responsibility Payment for Not Maintaining Minimum Essential Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... coverage gap). The length of a gap in coverage is determined without regard to the calendar years in which months in the gap occur. If an individual has more than one short coverage gap in a calendar year, the... payment) with their Federal income tax return for the taxable year that includes such month. Under section...

  11. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...... crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust....

  12. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  13. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  14. Crime News Coverage in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    According to one sociological model, news is a product of socially determined notions of who and what is important and the organizational structures that result for routinizing news collection; events that deviate from these notions are ignored. This report describes a study of crime news coverage in the media that used this model to examine the…

  15. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.; Brown, O. F.; Vanden Borre, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  16. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    Act 2000, with the aim to modify some extreme effects of the initial deregulations. The second component includes reforms of how central government governs transport performance at the local level more generally through systems of Management by Objectives, performance control and economic incentives...... and an association of operators (three persons). A workshop was held in November 2007 in Manchester, where the authors discussed preliminary results from the analysis with representatives of GMPTE, GMPTA, bus operators and British research colleagues. Conclusions The following conclusions still are tentative...... motivator for partnering, and potentially for promoting more sustainable transport solutions All in all, New Public Management in the UK (outside of London) has so far been mostly negative for the implementation of sustainable transport....

  17. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-01-01

    was observed within most of the countries, although lower income countries showed greater levels of relative inequality than higher income countries. Overall, lowest coverage and highest relative inequality were found in the low-income countries. The findings of this study may inform policies for oral health......The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage...

  18. Survey of in-house coverage by pediatric intensivists: characterization of 24/7 in-hospital pediatric critical care faculty coverage*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Kyle J; Cheifetz, Ira M; Markovitz, Barry P; Turner, David A

    2014-02-01

    To characterize the current state of 24/7 in-hospital pediatric intensivist coverage in academic PICUs, including perceptions of faculty and trainees regarding the advantages and disadvantages of in-hospital coverage. Cross-sectional observational study via web-based survey. PICUs at North American academic institutions. Pediatric intensivists, pediatric critical care fellows, and pediatric residents. None. A total of 1,323 responses were received representing a center response rate of 74% (147 of 200). Ninety percent of respondents stated that in-hospital coverage is good for patient care, and 85% stated that in-hospital coverage provides safer care. Sixty-three percent of intensivists stated that working in in-hospital models limits academic productivity, and 65% stated that in-hospital models interfere with nonclinical responsibilities. When compared with intensivists in home coverage models, intensivists working in in-hospital models generally had more favorable perceptions of the effects of in-hospital on patient care (p working in in-hospital models increases burnout risk, burnout scores were not different between coverage models. Seventy-nine percent of intensivists currently working at institutions with in-hospital coverage stated that they would prefer to work in an in-hospital coverage model, compared with 31% of those working in a home coverage model (p work at an institution with in-hospital coverage. Further research is needed to objectively delineate the effects of in-hospital coverage on both patients and faculty.

  19. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  20. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  1. Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act and Insurance Coverage in Rural and Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Aparna; Hendryx, Michael; Simon, Kosali

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the differential rural-urban impacts of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion on low-income childless adults' health insurance coverage. Using data from the American Community Survey years 2011-2015, we conducted a difference-in-differences regression analysis to test for changes in the probability of low-income childless adults having insurance in states that expanded Medicaid versus states that did not expand, in rural versus urban areas. Analyses employed survey weights, adjusted for covariates, and included a set of falsification tests as well as sensitivity analyses. Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act increased the probability of Medicaid coverage for targeted populations in rural and urban areas, with a significantly greater increase in rural areas (P rural populations (P urban and rural low-income populations, and it specifically increased Medicaid coverage more in rural versus urban populations. There was some evidence that the expansion was accompanied by some shifting from individual purchased insurance to Medicaid in rural areas, and there is a need for future work to understand the implications of this shift on expenditures, access to care and utilization. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  2. The challenges of social marketing of organ donation: news and entertainment coverage of donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V

    2008-01-01

    While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors.

  3. Children with developmental dyslexia showed greater sleep disturbances than controls, including problems initiating and maintaining sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, M; Esposito, M; Cortese, S; Laino, D; Verrotti, A

    2016-09-01

    Although there have been frequent clinical reports about sleep disturbances in children with learning disabilities, no data are available about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with developmental dyslexia (DD). This study evaluated sleep disturbances in children with DD referred to a hospital clinic and compared their scores with healthy controls. We consecutively enrolled 147 children (66% male) aged 10.26 ± 2.63 years who were referred by clinical paediatricians to the Clinic for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry at the Second University of Naples with DD and 766 children without DD (60% male) aged 10.49 ± 2.39 years recruited from schools in the same urban area. Sleep disturbances were assessed with the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), which was filled out by the children's main carers. Compared with the controls, the children with DD showed significantly higher rates of above threshold scores on the total SDSC score (p sleep (p sleep breathing disorders (p Sleep disorders were significantly more frequent in children with DD than in healthy controls. A possible relationship between dyslexia and sleep disorders may have relevant clinical implications. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Danish Media coverage of 22/7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter; Boisen, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    ’s Danish connections through an analysis of the first 100 days of Danish media coverage. We scrutinised 188 articles in the largest daily newspapers to find out how Danish actors related to ABB’s ideas. The key argument is that the discourses and opinions reflect pre-existing opinions and entrenched......When the two terrorist attacks in Norway took place and the identity of terrorist, Anders Behring Breivik (ABB) was revealed, attention turned to his network relations and shared ideas with Danish radical right wing communities, including the Danish People’s Party. In this article, we focus on ABB...

  5. Root coverage with bridge flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession in anterior teeth is a common concern due to esthetic reasons or root sensitivity. Gingival recession, especially in multiple anterior teeth, is of huge concern due to esthetic reasons. Various mucogingival surgeries are available for root coverage. This case report presents a new bridge flap technique, which allows the dentist not only to cover the previously denuded root surfaces but also to increase the zone of attached gingiva at a single step. In this case, a coronally advanced flap along with vestibular deepening technique was used as root coverage procedure for the treatment of multiple recession-type defect. Here, vestibular deepening technique is used to increase the width of the attached gingiva. The predictability of this procedure results in an esthetically healthy periodontium, along with gain in keratinized tissue and good patient′s acceptance.

  6. A 15-year review of ABC, CBS, and NBC news coverage of organ donation: implications for organ donation campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; Kim, Do Kyun; Meyer, Kevin

    2009-03-01

    This content analysis represents news coverage of organ donation from January 1990 to December 2005. Specifically, ABC, CBS, and NBC news broadcasts were examined to gain a greater understanding of organ donation coverage on TV. Overall this investigation revealed that organ donation received modest coverage (N = 1,507). Although the majority of coverage was positive, attention to the need for organs and the process of becoming a potential organ donor received modest exposure. In addition, non-living donor and living-donor donations received approximately equal coverage. Results are discussed with a focus on message design for practitioners and advocates of organ donation.

  7. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  8. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yukyung

    2017-04-01

    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  9. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  10. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  11. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  12. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  13. 77 FR 16453 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... emergency services. Therefore, the final rule does not modify the proposed rule to grant student health... excluded coverage for contraceptive methods. Subsequent to the NPRM on student health insurance coverage... coverage provided in connection with those group health plans) from any requirement to cover contraceptives...

  14. Of Horse Race and Policy Issues: A Study of Gender in Coverage of a Gubernatorial Election by Two Major Metropolitan Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serini, Shirley A.; Powers, Angela A.; Johnson, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Examines media coverage of a gubernatorial election, suggesting that: (1) gender may be a larger factor in selecting policy stories over "horse race" stories; (2) coverage of the horse race has greater impact on election outcome than coverage of policy issues; and (3) a woman will be more successful in an election if she presents herself…

  15. Monitoring equity in immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamonica, Enrique; Minujin, Alberto; Gulaid, Jama

    2005-05-01

    This paper analyses trends in coverage of three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT3) by wealth groups in selected countries. It discusses the depth of disparities in coverage by wealth and changes during the 1990s. Complete assessment of equity in income and its trends have been discussed in other papers, however issues related to children's well-being have often been brushed aside because the comparable data needed to fully understand and rectify inequalities is lacking. A focal point of this paper pertains to gathering any and all information recorded about the immunization of children and then transcribing these data so that it is applicable to all countries. We analyse the technical difficulties and methodological solutions that would enable comparisons to be made between various measures of inequity taken from different surveys at two or three points in time among a variety of subpopulations in order to obtain disaggregated data. This paper argues for a simultaneous analysis of changes in averages and disparities in immunization coverage along variables of interest, such as wealth, gender and place of residence in order to achieve a better understanding of trends. We also focus on measurement issues and describe trends in immunization by wealth. We conclude with a brief discussion of issues related to monitoring equitable outcomes and offer suggestions for further research. In addition, the paper presents some lessons that can be drawn about monitoring and policies. We hope that this analysis of patterns of disparities will help policy-makers in devising, proposing and executing efficient policies and interventions.

  16. Who and where are the uncounted children? Inequalities in birth certificate coverage among children under five years in 94 countries using nationally representative household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Amiya; Ferreira, Leonardo Zanini; Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2017-08-18

    Birth registration, and the possession of a birth certificate as proof of registration, has long been recognized as a fundamental human right. Data from a functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system allows governments to benefit from accurate and universal data on birth and death rates. However, access to birth certificates remains challenging and unequal in many low and middle-income countries. This paper examines wealth, urban/rural and gender inequalities in birth certificate coverage. We analyzed nationally representative household surveys from 94 countries between 2000 and 2014 using Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Birth certificate coverage among children under five was examined at the national and regional level. Absolute measures of inequality were used to measure inequalities in birth certificate coverage by wealth quintile, urban/rural residence and sex of the child. Over four million children were included in the analysis. Birth certificate coverage was over 90% in 29 countries and below 50% in 36 countries, indicating that more than half the children under five surveyed in these countries did not have a birth certificate. Eastern & Southern Africa had the lowest average birth certificate coverage (26.9%) with important variability among countries. Significant wealth inequalities in birth certificate coverage were observed in 74 countries and in most UNICEF regions, and urban/rural inequalities were present in 60 countries. Differences in birth certificate coverage between girls and boys tended to be small. We show that wealth and urban/rural inequalities in birth certificate coverage persist in most low and middle income countries, including countries where national birth certificate coverage is between 60 and 80%. Weak CRVS systems, particularly in South Asia and Africa lead rural and poor children to be systematically excluded from the benefits tied to a birth certificate, and prevent these

  17. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  18. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  19. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  20. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  1. Coverage Assessment and Target Tracking in 3D Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitharama Iyengar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in integrated electronic devices motivated the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs in many applications including domain surveillance and mobile target tracking, where a number of sensors are scattered within a sensitive region to detect the presence of intruders and forward related events to some analysis center(s. Obviously, sensor deployment should guarantee an optimal event detection rate and should reduce coverage holes. Most of the coverage control approaches proposed in the literature deal with two-dimensional zones and do not develop strategies to handle coverage in three-dimensional domains, which is becoming a requirement for many applications including water monitoring, indoor surveillance, and projectile tracking. This paper proposes efficient techniques to detect coverage holes in a 3D domain using a finite set of sensors, repair the holes, and track hostile targets. To this end, we use the concepts of Voronoi tessellation, Vietoris complex, and retract by deformation. We show in particular that, through a set of iterative transformations of the Vietoris complex corresponding to the deployed sensors, the number of coverage holes can be computed with a low complexity. Mobility strategies are also proposed to repair holes by moving appropriately sensors towards the uncovered zones. The tracking objective is to set a non-uniform WSN coverage within the monitored domain to allow detecting the target(s by the set of sensors. We show, in particular, how the proposed algorithms adapt to cope with obstacles. Simulation experiments are carried out to analyze the efficiency of the proposed models. To our knowledge, repairing and tracking is addressed for the first time in 3D spaces with different sensor coverage schemes.

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage achievements in low and middle-income countries 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Katherine E; Howard, Natasha; Kabakama, Severin; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Burchett, Helen E D; LaMontagne, D Scott; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    Since 2007, HPV vaccine has been available to low and middle income countries (LAMIC) for small-scale 'demonstration projects', or national programmes. We analysed coverage achieved in HPV vaccine demonstration projects and national programmes that had completed at least 6 months of implementation between January 2007-2016. A mapping exercise identified 45 LAMICs with HPV vaccine delivery experience. Estimates of coverage and factors influencing coverage were obtained from 56 key informant interviews, a systematic published literature search of 5 databases that identified 61 relevant full texts and 188 solicited unpublished documents, including coverage surveys. Coverage achievements were analysed descriptively against country or project/programme characteristics. Heterogeneity in data, funder requirements, and project/programme design precluded multivariate analysis. Estimates of uptake, schedule completion rates and/or final dose coverage were available from 41 of 45 LAMICs included in the study. Only 17 estimates from 13 countries were from coverage surveys, most were administrative data. Final dose coverage estimates were all over 50% with most between 70% and 90%, and showed no trend over time. The majority of delivery strategies included schools as a vaccination venue. In countries with school enrolment rates below 90%, inclusion of strategies to reach out-of-school girls contributed to obtaining high coverage compared to school-only strategies. There was no correlation between final dose coverage and estimated recurrent financial costs of delivery from cost analyses. Coverage achieved during joint delivery of HPV vaccine combined with another intervention was variable with little/no evaluation of the correlates of success. This is the most comprehensive descriptive analysis of HPV vaccine coverage in LAMICs to date. It is possible to deliver HPV vaccine with excellent coverage in LAMICs. Further good quality data are needed from health facility based

  3. Media coverage and public reaction to a celebrity cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, D; Price, C; Powell, J

    2011-03-01

    Celebrity diagnoses can have important effects on public behaviour. UK television celebrity Jade Goody died from cervical cancer in 2009. We investigated the impact of her illness on media coverage of cervical cancer prevention, health information seeking behaviour and cervical screening coverage. National UK newspaper articles containing the words 'Jade Goody' and 'cancer' were examined for public health messages. Google Insights for Search was used to quantify Internet searches as a measure of public health information seeking. Cervical screening coverage data were examined for temporal associations with this story. Of 1203 articles, 116 (9.6%) included a clear public health message. The majority highlighted screening (8.2%). Fewer articles provided advice about vaccination (3.0%), number of sexual partners (1.4%), smoking (0.6%) and condom use (0.4%). Key events were associated with increased Internet searches for 'cervical cancer' and 'smear test', although only weakly with searches for 'HPV'. Cervical screening coverage increased during this period. Increased public interest in disease prevention can follow a celebrity diagnosis. Although media coverage sometimes included public health information, articles typically focused on secondary instead of primary prevention. There is further potential to maximize the public health benefit of future celebrity diagnoses.

  4. Do Patients With Borderline Dysplasia Have Inferior Outcomes After Hip Arthroscopic Surgery for Femoroacetabular Impingement Compared With Patients With Normal Acetabular Coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Levy, David M; Weber, Alexander E; Kuhns, Benjamin D; Mather, Richard C; Salata, Michael J; Nho, Shane J

    2017-07-01

    The literature contains conflicting reports regarding whether outcomes of hip arthroscopic surgery for patients with borderline dysplasia are inferior to outcomes in patients with normal acetabular coverage. To assess differences in the outcomes of hip arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in groups of patients with borderline dysplasia and normal coverage. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A registry of consecutive patients who had undergone primary hip arthroscopic surgery with capsular plication for FAI between January 2012 and January 2014 were divided based on the preoperative lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) into 2 distinct groups: (1) borderline dysplasia (LCEA 18°-25°) and (2) normal acetabular coverage (LCEA 25.1°-40°). There were 36 patients in the borderline dysplastic group and 312 patients in the normal coverage group. The primary outcome measure was the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures included the HOS-Sports and modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS). The mean preoperative LCEA differed significantly between groups (23.4° ± 1.5° for borderline dysplastic, 32.5° ± 3.8° for normal coverage; P borderline dysplastic group had a higher percentage of female patients than the normal coverage group (27/36 [75%] vs 177/312 [57%], respectively; P = .048). There were no differences in other preoperative demographics and radiographic parameters. At a minimum 2 years after hip arthroscopic surgery (mean follow-up, 2.6 ± 0.6 years), both groups demonstrated significant improvements in all patient-reported outcome scores ( P borderline dysplastic and normal coverage groups in final outcome scores, score improvements, or percentage of patients experiencing clinically significant improvements. One patient in the borderline dysplastic group (3%) underwent revision hip arthroscopic surgery, and none underwent total hip arthroplasty during the follow

  5. Agency Conflicts and Accounting Conservatism: Evidence from Exogenous Shocks to Analyst Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wei; You, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    We examine how companies voluntarily change their financial reporting conservatism in response to an exogenous decrease in analyst coverage. We hypothesize that more severe information asymmetry and weaker external monitoring associated with such a decrease in analyst coverage exacerbate agency conflicts between contracting parties, which in turn creates a greater demand for conservative accounting. Consistent with this prediction, we document a significant increase in accounti...

  6. Health Insurance Coverage among Young Adult Survivors of Pediatric Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Dmitry; Li, Susan S; Nandi, Deipanjan; Gajarski, Robert J; McKee, Christopher; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don

    2017-09-01

    To describe the change in health insurance after heart transplantation among adolescents, and characterize the implications of this change for long-term transplant outcomes. Patients age 15-18 years receiving first-time heart transplantation between 1999 and 2011 were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing registry and included in the analysis if they survived at least 5 years. The primary exposure was change or continuity of health insurance coverage between the time of transplant and the 5-year follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between insurance status change and long-term (>5 years) patient and graft survival. The analysis included 366 patients (age 16 ± 1 years at transplant), of whom 205 (56%) had continuous private insurance; 96 (26%) had continuous public insurance; and 65 (18%) had a change in insurance status. In stepwise multivariable Cox regression, change in insurance status was associated with greater mortality hazard, compared with continuous private insurance (hazard ratio = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.2; P = .016), whereas long-term patient and graft survival did not differ between patients with continuous public and continuous private insurance. Continuity of insurance coverage is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes among adolescent heart transplant recipients who survive into adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing Political Will for Universal Health Coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregbeshola, Bolaji S

    2017-01-01

    Universal health coverage aims to increase equity in access to quality health care services and to reduce financial risk due to health care costs. It is a key component of international health agenda and has been a subject of worldwide debate. Despite differing views on its scope and pathways to reach it, there is a global consensus that all countries should work toward universal health coverage. The goal remains distant for many African countries, including Nigeria. This is mostly due to lack of political will and commitment among political actors and policymakers. Evidence from countries such as Ghana, Chile, Mexico, China, Thailand, Turkey, Rwanda, Vietnam and Indonesia, which have introduced at least some form of universal health coverage scheme, shows that political will and commitment are key to the adoption of new laws and regulations for reforming coverage. For Nigeria to improve people's health, reduce poverty and achieve prosperity, universal health coverage must be vigorously pursued at all levels. Political will and commitment to these goals must be expressed in legal mandates and be translated into policies that ensure increased public health care financing for the benefit of all Nigerians. Nigeria, as part of a global system, cannot afford to lag behind in striving for this overarching health goal.

  8. School Entry Requirements and Coverage of Nontargeted Adolescent Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; Reiter, Paul L; Truong, Young K; Rimer, Barbara K; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-01

    Low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is an urgent public health problem requiring action. To identify policy remedies to suboptimal HPV vaccination, we assessed the relationship between states' school entry requirements and adolescent vaccination. We gathered data on states' school entry requirements for adolescent vaccination (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis [Tdap] booster; meningococcal; and HPV) from 2007 to 2012 from Immunization Action Coalition. The National Immunization Survey-Teen provided medical record-verified vaccination data for 99 921 adolescents. We calculated coverage (among 13- to 17-year-olds) for individual vaccinations and concomitant vaccination. HPV vaccination outcomes were among female adolescents. Analyses used weighted longitudinal multivariable models. States with requirements for Tdap booster and meningococcal vaccination had 22 and 24 percentage point increases in coverage for these vaccines, respectively, compared with other states (both P vaccination requirements had vaccine (P vaccination requirements, respectively, were associated with 8 and 4 percentage point spillover increases for HPV vaccination coverage (both P vaccination (all P vaccination requirements could improve the nation's HPV vaccination coverage, given that many states already require Tdap booster but not meningococcal vaccination for school entry. Vaccination programs and clinicians should capitalize on changes in adolescent vaccination, including concomitant vaccination, that may arise after states adopt vaccination requirements. Additional studies are needed on the effects of HPV vaccination requirements and opt-out provisions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....

  10. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Insurance Coverage: Dynamics of Gaining and Losing Coverage over the Life-Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Heeju

    2017-04-01

    Health insurance coverage varies substantially between racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans and people of Hispanic origin had persistently lower insurance coverage rates at all ages. This article describes age- and group-specific dynamics of insurance gain and loss that contribute to inequalities found in traditional cross-sectional studies. It uses the longitudinal 2008 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (N=114,345) to describe age-specific patterns of disparity prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA). A formal decomposition on increment-decrement life-tables of insurance gain and loss shows that coverage disparities are predominately driven by minority groups' greater propensity to lose the insurance that they already have. Uninsured African Americans were faster to gain insurance than non-Hispanic whites but their high rates of insurance loss more than negated this advantage. Disparities from greater rates of loss among minority groups emerge rapidly at the end of childhood and persist throughout adulthood. This is especially true for African Americans and Hispanics and their relative disadvantages again heighten in their 40s and 50s.

  11. Coverage of the Nineteenth Amendment in Rural Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lucinda D.

    A study was conducted to find out how the topics of the Nineteenth Amendment and women's suffrage were handled at the time by news publications in rural areas. Several components were used to carry out the objective: one was to investigate newspaper coverage of the amendment and in addition broaden that search to include women's suffrage; another…

  12. EDITORIAL Universal health coverage: A re-emerging paradigm?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    strategy (5) which is a basis for different reforms that include community based health insurance. (CBHI) and social ... pocket payments (11). Historically, universal health coverage is a re- emerging concept ... mechanisms in some cases such as: vouchers and community based health insurance schemes. Some combination ...

  13. Age-Appropriate Immunization Coverage in a Rural Community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary data was collected as a population based immunization coverage assessment using standardized methods. There were 229 children in the original survey. Only children (n=110) whose vaccination cards had information on date of birth and date of vaccination were included in the secondary analysis. This was ...

  14. Clinical Paresthesia Atlas Illustrates Likelihood of Coverage Based on Spinal Cord Stimulator Electrode Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghva, Alexander; Karst, Edward; Underwood, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Concordant paresthesia coverage is an independent predictor of pain relief following spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Using aggregate data, our objective is to produce a map of paresthesia coverage as a function of electrode location in SCS. This retrospective analysis used x-rays, SCS programming data, and paresthesia coverage maps from the EMPOWER registry of SCS implants for chronic neuropathic pain. Spinal level of dorsal column stimulation was determined by x-ray adjudication and active cathodes in patient programs. Likelihood of paresthesia coverage was determined as a function of stimulating electrode location. Segments of paresthesia coverage were grouped anatomically. Fisher's exact test was used to identify significant differences in likelihood of paresthesia coverage as a function of spinal stimulation level. In the 178 patients analyzed, the most prevalent areas of paresthesia coverage were buttocks, anterior and posterior thigh (each 98%), and low back (94%). Unwanted paresthesia at the ribs occurred in 8% of patients. There were significant differences in the likelihood of achieving paresthesia, with higher thoracic levels (T5, T6, and T7) more likely to achieve low back coverage but also more likely to introduce paresthesia felt at the ribs. Higher levels in the thoracic spine were associated with greater coverage of the buttocks, back, and thigh, and with lesser coverage of the leg and foot. This paresthesia atlas uses real-world, aggregate data to determine likelihood of paresthesia coverage as a function of stimulating electrode location. It represents an application of "big data" techniques, and a step toward achieving personalized SCS therapy tailored to the individual's chronic pain. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. Whole brain CT perfusion in acute anterior circulation ischemia: coverage size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmer, B.J. [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Postbus 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijkee, M.; Walderveen, M.A.A. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Niesten, J.M.; Velthuis, B.K. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wermer, M.J.H. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Our aim was to compare infarct core volume on whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) with several limited coverage sizes (i.e., 3, 4, 6, and 8 cm), as currently used in routine clinical practice. In total, 40 acute ischemic stroke patients with non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTP imaging of anterior circulation ischemia were included. Imaging was performed using a 320-multislice CT. Average volumes of infarct core of all simulated partial coverage sizes were calculated. Infarct core volume of each partial brain coverage was compared with infarct core volume of whole brain coverage and expressed using a percentage. To determine the optimal starting position for each simulated CTP coverage, the percentage of infarct coverage was calculated for every possible starting position of the simulated partial coverage in relation to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage (ASPECTS 1) level. Whole brain CTP coverage further increased the percentage of infarct core volume depicted by 10 % as compared to the 8-cm coverage when the bottom slice was positioned at the ASPECTS 1 level. Optimization of the position of the region of interest (ROI) in 3 cm, 4 cm, and 8 cm improved the percentage of infarct depicted by 4 % for the 8-cm, 7 % for the 4-cm, and 13 % for the 3-cm coverage size. This study shows that whole brain CTP is the optimal coverage for CTP with a substantial improvement in accuracy in quantifying infarct core size. In addition, our results suggest that the optimal position of the ROI in limited coverage depends on the size of the coverage. (orig.)

  16. DNA barcoding in the media: does coverage of cool science reflect its social context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Janis; Camicioli, Emma; Bubela, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Paul Hebert and colleagues first described DNA barcoding in 2003, which led to international efforts to promote and coordinate its use. Since its inception, DNA barcoding has generated considerable media coverage. We analysed whether this coverage reflected both the scientific and social mandates of international barcoding organizations. We searched newspaper databases to identify 900 English-language articles from 2003 to 2013. Coverage of the science of DNA barcoding was highly positive but lacked context for key topics. Coverage omissions pose challenges for public understanding of the science and applications of DNA barcoding; these included coverage of governance structures and issues related to the sharing of genetic resources across national borders. Our analysis provided insight into how barcoding communication efforts have translated into media coverage; more targeted communication efforts may focus media attention on previously omitted, but important topics. Our analysis is timely as the DNA barcoding community works to establish the International Society for the Barcode of Life.

  17. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on

  18. Factors associated with photoprotection by body clothing coverage, particularly in non-summer months, among a New Zealand community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew R; Liley, J Ben; Scragg, Robert K R; McKenzie, Richard L; Stewart, Alistair W

    2016-03-01

    Clothing coverage is important for reducing skin cancer risk, but may also influence vitamin D sufficiency, so associated plausible predictors require investigation. Volunteers (18 to 85 years), with approximately equal numbers by sex and four ethnicity groups, were recruited in cities from two latitude bands: Auckland (36.9°S) and Dunedin (45.9°S). Baseline questionnaire, anthropometric and spectrophotometer skin colour data were collected and weather data obtained. Percent body coverage was calculated from eight week diary records. Potential independent predictors (unadjusted p clothing coverage of 81.6% (IQR 9.3%). Dunedin was cooler, less windy and had lower UVI levels than Auckland. From the fully adjusted model, increased coverage occurred in non-summer months (despite adjusting for weather), among Dunedin residents and Asians (compared to Europeans), during the middle of the day, with a dose response effect observed for greater age. Reduced coverage was associated with Pacific ethnicity and greater time spent outdoors. Additionally, higher temperatures were associated with reduced coverage, whereas increased cloud cover and wind speed were associated with increased coverage. Although the only potentially modifiable factors associated with clothing coverage were the time period and time spent outdoors, knowledge of these and other associated factors is useful for the framing and targeting of health promotion messages to potentially influence clothing coverage, facilitate erythema avoidance and maintain vitamin D sufficiency.

  19. Viewing injustice: greater emotion heterogeneity with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Susan Turk

    2005-03-01

    The present study examined age differences in emotion heterogeneity, defined as the experience of co-occurring negative emotions. Younger and older European American and Mexican American participants (N=183) viewed film clips depicting scenes of injustice. Younger adults were more likely to report a single primary negative emotion, whereas older adults reported greater emotion heterogeneity, a finding consistent across gender and ethnicity. In addition, greater emotion heterogeneity was related to a greater number of life experiences. Future directions concerning the meaning of and possible implications for this age difference are discussed.

  20. 5 CFR 9901.302 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9901.302 Section 9901.302 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT... (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration General § 9901.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to eligible DoD...

  1. Media Coverage of the "Political Correctness" Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, D. Charles; Wartella, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Points out that (1) there is no reason to believe that media coverage of the "political correctness" issue is firmly anchored in social reality; (2) the news media's approach reflects and reinforces a longer-term shift in the ways journalists cover the university; and (3) if coverage of political correctness has been misinformed and…

  2. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided for property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  3. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  4. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with NHPRC funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  5. Newspaper coverage of agricultural information in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S.Sife

    Newspaper coverage of agricultural information in Tanzania. Catherine M. Ogessa camaongo@yahoo.ca. &. Alfred S. Sife asife@suanet.ac.tz. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. Abstract. This study examined the coverage of agricultural information in Tanzania's newspapers published between 2009 and 2013.

  6. Coverage matters: insurance and health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Health Care Services Staff; Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    2001-01-01

    ...? How does the system of insurance coverage in the U.S. operate, and where does it fail? The first of six Institute of Medicine reports that will examine in detail the consequences of having a large uninsured population, Coverage Matters...

  7. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  9. [Skin defect coverage with micro skin graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Nazim; Kaya, Yalçin; Karakaya, Sadik; Camci, Cemalettin

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study is to coverage of the large skin defect with microskin graft. The wound coverage of the large skin defect may be difficult with auto skin graft. In these patients, split thickness skin graft may be used in a bloc shape or expanded skin graft shape and a stamp skin graft shape or expanded stamp skin graft shape. On the other hand, split thickness skin graft may be used as a micrograft shape after the mincing process, which reduces of the graft size in a few millimeters. In this study, 6 patients with skin defect was admitted in our clinic, and their skin defect was treated with micro skin graft. Expansion ratio was 1:15. Epithelialization on the wound surface was completed in 4 to 6 weeks and cobblestone appearance was observed after the wound coverage. Skin defect coverage with micrograft is an effective technique like the other skin graft coverage methods.

  10. Determining immunisation coverage rates in primary health care practices: a simple goal but a complex task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Grant, Cameron; York, Deon; Kenealy, Tim; Copp, Jackie; Petousis-Harris, Helen; Turner, Nikki; Kerse, Ngaire

    2008-07-01

    To explore the quality of data recording by practices and identify issues to be considered and addressed before such data can be used as a continuous measure of immunisation delivery. One hundred and twenty-four randomly selected general practices visited to measure immunisation coverage using the various practice management systems (PMS) in use. To capture all target children it was necessary to build two queries: one generated a list of all children aged between 6 weeks and 2 years who had been to the practice, regardless of enrollment status; the other asked dates and nature of all immunisations given. Each different PMS required a unique query to extract the necessary information. Variability encountered included different types and versions of PMS and operating systems; variable degree of staff technical competence with their PMS; proportion of enrolled children ranging from nearly 0 to 100%; lack of consistency of the nature and location of data entry and coding; and unreliability of dates relating to some vaccination events. To improve recording of immunisation coverage we recommend a standard early age of registration and enrollment; standard definitions of the denominator and of immunisation delay; greater uniformity of PMS; improved staff training; intrinsic data quality checks; integration of PMS with changes in the immunisation schedule; incentives and interval electronic checks to improve data quality.

  11. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  12. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...... megakaryocytopoesis, wide, pericyte-coated and morphologically aberrant vessels were detected. MVD was significantly greater in bone marrow and spleen samples from animals with myelofibrosis than in wild-type mice. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that angiogenesis is similarly abnormal in human and murine...... myelofibrosis with intense pericyte coating, presumably related to abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis....

  13. BRICS countries and the global movement for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Finch, Aureliano; Procacci, Christina; Marten, Robert; Missoni, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    This article explores BRICS' engagement in the global movement for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the implications for global health governance. It is based on primary data collected from 43 key informant interviews, complemented by a review of BRICS' global commitments supporting UHC. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire that included both closed- and open-ended questions. Question development was informed by insights from the literature on UHC, Cox's framework for action, and Kingdon's multiple-stream theory of policy formation. The closed questions were analysed with simple descriptive statistics and the open-ended questions using grounded theory approach. The analysis demonstrates that most BRICS countries implicitly supported the global movement for UHC, and that they share an active engagement in promoting UHC. However, only Brazil, China and to some extent South Africa, were recognized as proactively pushing UHC in the global agenda. In addition, despite some concerted actions, BRICS countries seem to act more as individual countries rather that as an allied group. These findings suggest that BRICS are unlikely to be a unified political block that will transform global health governance. Yet the documented involvement of BRICS in the global movement supporting UHC, and their focus on domestic challenges, shows that BRICS individually are increasingly influential players in global health. So if BRICS countries should probably not be portrayed as the centre of future political community that will transform global health governance, their individual involvement in global health, and their documented concerted actions, may give greater voice to low- and middle-income countries supporting the emergence of multiple centres of powers in global health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Improvement of pneumococcal immunization coverage in older patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krypciak, S; Liuu, E; Vincenot, M; Landelle, C; Lesprit, P; Cariot, M-A; Mézière, A; Taillandier-Hériche, E; Leroux, J-L; Canoui-Poitrine, F; Paillaud, E

    2015-04-01

    To study pneumococcal immunization coverage in older patients in hospital, and the impact of two actions aiming at improving this coverage. We reported a prospective and descriptive study conducted from November 2009 to August 2010, including all new patients ≥75 years old received in a geriatric short-stay department and residing in Val-de-Marne, France. This study was performed in three successive three-month periods, to assess the vaccination coverage in the months following hospital release. Period I was the reference; Period II included an awareness campaign of general practitioners relying on the hospitalization discharge report, containing an indication for the vaccination; Period III consisted in a systematic proposal of vaccination by the geriatric hospital department. Indication for pneumococcal vaccination has been given to 139 patients (61.2%) in 227 processed questionnaires. The main indication was heart failure for 105 patients (75.5%). Twenty-four patients were already vaccinated (17.2%). No vaccination was reported in the three months following period I in 33 included patients. The awareness campaign targeting regular doctors resulted in only one vaccination out of 37 patients. Immunization coverage in the department had reached 84.5% of inoculation (38 of 45 patients). Pneumococcal vaccination is often prescribed in elderly patients but generally not executed. The awareness campaign did not result in a big enough immunization coverage improvement, compared to a codified proposal of vaccination during hospital stay. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Disparities in Private Health Insurance Coverage of Skilled Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Tovino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares and contrasts public and private health insurance coverage of skilled medical rehabilitation, including cognitive rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and skilled nursing services (collectively, skilled care. As background, prior scholars writing in this area have focused on Medicare coverage of skilled care and have challenged coverage determinations limiting Medicare coverage to beneficiaries who are able to demonstrate improvement in their conditions within a specific period of time (the Improvement Standard. By and large, these scholars have applauded the settlement agreement approved on 24 January 2013, by the U.S. District Court for the District of Vermont in Jimmo v. Sebelius (Jimmo, as well as related motions, rulings, orders, government fact sheets, and Medicare program manual statements clarifying that Medicare covers skilled care that is necessary to prevent or slow a beneficiary’s deterioration or to maintain a beneficiary at his or her maximum practicable level of function even though no further improvement in the beneficiary’s condition is expected. Scholars who have focused on beneficiaries who have suffered severe brain injuries, in particular, have framed public insurance coverage of skilled brain rehabilitation as an important civil, disability, and educational right. Given that approximately two-thirds of Americans with health insurance are covered by private health insurance and that many private health plans continue to require their insureds to demonstrate improvement within a short period of time to obtain coverage of skilled care, scholarship assessing private health insurance coverage of skilled care is important but noticeably absent from the literature. This article responds to this gap by highlighting state benchmark plans’ and other private health plans’ continued use of the Improvement Standard in skilled care coverage decisions and

  16. Impact of state Medicaid coverage on utilization of inpatient rehabilitation facilities among patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Burke, James F; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Meurer, William J; Adelman, Eric E; Kerber, Kevin A; Callaghan, Brian C; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2014-08-01

    Poststroke rehabilitation is associated with improved outcomes. Medicaid coverage of inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) admissions varies by state. We explored the role of state Medicaid IRF coverage on IRF utilization among patients with stroke. Working age ischemic stroke patients with Medicaid were identified from the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Medicaid coverage of IRFs (yes versus no) was ascertained. Primary outcome was discharge to IRF (versus other discharge destinations). We fit a logistic regression model that included patient demographics, Medicaid coverage, comorbidities, length of stay, tissue-type plasminogen activator use, state Medicaid IRF coverage, and the interaction between patient Medicaid status and state Medicaid IRF coverage while accounting for hospital clustering. Medicaid did not cover IRFs in 4 (TN, TX, SC, WV) of 42 states. The impact of State Medicaid IRF coverage was limited to Medicaid stroke patients (P for interaction stroke patients in states with Medicaid IRF coverage, Medicaid stroke patients hospitalized in states without Medicaid IRF coverage were less likely to be discharged to an IRF of 11.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.5%-14.7%) versus 19.5% (95% confidence interval, 18.3%-20.8%), Pstroke patients with Medicaid. Given the increasing stroke incidence among the working age and Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, careful attention to state Medicaid policy for poststroke rehabilitation and analysis of its effects on stroke outcome disparities are warranted. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Network television news coverage of environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, M.R.; Sandman, P.M.; Sachsman, D.V.; Salomone, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Despite the criticisms that surround television coverage of environmental risk, there have been relatively few attempts to measure what and whom television shows. Most research has focused analysis on a few weeks of coverage of major stories like the gas leak at Bhopal, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, or the Mount St. Helen's eruption. To advance the research into television coverage of environmental risk, an analysis has been made of all environmental risk coverage by the network nightly news broadcasts for a period of more than two years. Researchers have analyzed all environmental risk coverage-564 stories in 26 months-presented on ABC, CBS, and NBC's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986. The quantitative information from the 564 stories was balanced by a more qualitative analysis of the television coverage of two case studies-the dioxin contamination in Times Beach, Missouri, and the suspected methyl isocyanate emissions from the Union Carbide plant in Institute, West Virginia. Both qualitative and quantitative data contributed to the analysis of the role played by experts and environmental advocacy sources in coverage of environmental risk and to the suggestions for increasing that role

  18. Method for determining bovine brucellosis vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of recent efforts in Brazil to increase B19 strain vaccine coverage of heifers, this study proposes a standardized methodology for the calculation of vaccination coverage among the Federal Units. To illustrate its use, the method was applied to data from the state of Mato Grosso to calculate vaccination coverage from 2006 to 2010. The results provide the best estimate based on data currently available in most states and can be easily adapted to situations in which the cattle registries use different age categories from those used in the state of Mato Grosso.

  19. Media coverage of climate change in Russia: governmental bias and climate silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskaya, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores which actors and factors influence media coverage of climate change in Russia. It does this by analysing the coverage of three events by five Russian national newspapers (Komsomol'skaya pravda, Rossiyskaya gazeta, Izvestiya, Kommersant and Sovetskaya Rossiya). The three events are the Kyoto Conference in 1997, the Copenhagen Conference in 2009 and the Russian heat-wave of 2010. This paper concludes that regardless of the ownership structure of the newspapers or their dependence on advertising, there is little difference in quantity and quality of overall coverage on climate change. With most newspapers relying on Russian officials as information sources, almost none criticise or question Russian climate policy. Furthermore, the article concludes that, in Russia, the omission of climate change issues from discussion in national newspapers becomes a greater problem than biased coverage, as the lack of commentary decidedly prevents these issues from entering the public debate. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. HPV Serology Testing Confirms High HPV Immunisation Coverage in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesher, David; Stanford, Elaine; White, Joanne; Findlow, Jamie; Warrington, Rosalind; Das, Sukamal; Pebody, Richard; Borrow, Ray; Soldan, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Reported human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage in England is high, particularly in girls offered routine immunisation at age 12 years. Serological surveillance can be used to validate reported coverage and explore variations within it and changes in serological markers over time. Residual serum specimens collected from females aged 15-19 years in 2010-2011 were tested for anti-HPV16 and HPV18 IgG by ELISA. Based on these results, females were classified as follows: seronegative, probable natural infection, probable vaccine-induced seropositivity, or possible natural infection/possible vaccine-induced seropositivity. The proportion of females with vaccine-induced seropositivity was compared to the reported vaccination coverage. Of 2146 specimens tested, 1380 (64%) were seropositive for both types HPV16 and HPV18 and 159 (7.4%) positive for only one HPV type. The IgG concentrations were far higher for those positive for both HPV types than those positive for only one HPV type. 1320 (62%) females were considered to have probable vaccine-induced seropositivity. Among vaccine-induced seropositives, antibody concentrations declined with increasing age at vaccination and increasing time since vaccination. The proportion of females with vaccine-induced seropositivity was closest to the reported 3-dose coverage in those offered the vaccination at younger ages, with a greater discrepancy in the older females. This suggests either some under-reporting of immunisations of older females and/or that partial vaccination (i.e. one- or two-doses) has provided high antibody responses in 13-17 year olds.

  1. HPV Serology Testing Confirms High HPV Immunisation Coverage in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mesher

    Full Text Available Reported human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination coverage in England is high, particularly in girls offered routine immunisation at age 12 years. Serological surveillance can be used to validate reported coverage and explore variations within it and changes in serological markers over time.Residual serum specimens collected from females aged 15-19 years in 2010-2011 were tested for anti-HPV16 and HPV18 IgG by ELISA. Based on these results, females were classified as follows: seronegative, probable natural infection, probable vaccine-induced seropositivity, or possible natural infection/possible vaccine-induced seropositivity. The proportion of females with vaccine-induced seropositivity was compared to the reported vaccination coverage.Of 2146 specimens tested, 1380 (64% were seropositive for both types HPV16 and HPV18 and 159 (7.4% positive for only one HPV type. The IgG concentrations were far higher for those positive for both HPV types than those positive for only one HPV type. 1320 (62% females were considered to have probable vaccine-induced seropositivity. Among vaccine-induced seropositives, antibody concentrations declined with increasing age at vaccination and increasing time since vaccination.The proportion of females with vaccine-induced seropositivity was closest to the reported 3-dose coverage in those offered the vaccination at younger ages, with a greater discrepancy in the older females. This suggests either some under-reporting of immunisations of older females and/or that partial vaccination (i.e. one- or two-doses has provided high antibody responses in 13-17 year olds.

  2. Print News Coverage of School-Based HPV Vaccine Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Dana; Smith, Katherine C.; Andon, Lindsay; Vernick, Jon; Tsui, Amy; Klassen, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2007, legislation was proposed in 24 states and the District of Columbia for school-based HPV vaccine mandates, and mandates were enacted in Texas, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Media coverage of these events was extensive, and media messages both reflected and contributed to controversy surrounding these legislative activities. Messages communicated through the media are an important influence on adolescent and parent understanding of school-based vaccine mandates. METHODS We conducted structured text analysis of newspaper coverage, including quantitative analysis of 169 articles published in mandate jurisdictions from 2005-2009, and qualitative analysis of 63 articles from 2007. Our structured analysis identified topics, key stakeholders and sources, tone, and the presence of conflict. Qualitative thematic analysis identified key messages and issues. RESULTS Media coverage was often incomplete, providing little context about cervical cancer or screening. Skepticism and autonomy concerns were common. Messages reflected conflict and distrust of government activities, which could negatively impact this and other youth-focused public health initiatives. CONCLUSIONS If school health professionals are aware of the potential issues raised in media coverage of school-based health mandates, they will be more able to convey appropriate health education messages, and promote informed decision-making by parents and students. PMID:25099421

  3. Impact of universal health insurance coverage on hypertension management: a cross-national study in the United States and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Andrew R H; Vamos, Eszter P; Harris, Matthew J; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Wachter, Robert M; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) galvanised debate in the United States (US) over universal health coverage. Comparison with countries providing universal coverage may illustrate whether the ACA can improve health outcomes and reduce disparities. We aimed to compare quality and disparities in hypertension management by socio-economic position in the US and England, the latter of which has universal health care. We used data from the Health and Retirement Survey in the US, and the English Longitudinal Study for Aging from England, including non-Hispanic White respondents aged 50-64 years (US market-based v NHS) and >65 years (US-Medicare v NHS) with diagnosed hypertension. We compared blood pressure control to clinical guideline (140/90 mmHg) and audit (150/90 mmHg) targets; mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and antihypertensive prescribing, and disparities in each by educational attainment, income and wealth, using regression models. There were no significant differences in aggregate achievement of clinical targets aged 50 to 65 years (US market-based vs. NHS--62.3% vs. 61.3% [p = 0.835]). There was, however, greater control in the US in patients aged 65 years and over (US Medicare vs. NHS--53.5% vs. 58.2% [p = 0.043]). England had no significant socioeconomic disparity in blood pressure control (60.9% vs. 63.5% [p = 0.588], high and low wealth aged ≥65 years). The US had socioeconomic differences in the 50-64 years group (71.7% vs. 55.2% [p = 0.003], high and low wealth); these were attenuated but not abolished in Medicare beneficiaries. Moves towards universal health coverage in the US may reduce disparities in hypertension management. The current situation, providing universal coverage for residents aged 65 years and over, may not be sufficient for equality in care.

  4. Media ownership and news framing: an analysis of HIV/AIDS coverage by Ugandan press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka-Tondo, James; Albada, Kelly F; Payton, Fay Cobb

    2012-12-01

    Applying framing theory, the present research analyzes trends in Ugandan news coverage and the prominent issue frames for HIV/AIDS-related stories. In order to determine the influence of other factors, such as media ownership and journalist origin, nearly 800 articles, from 2000 to 2004, were gathered from the major private newspaper and government-owned newspaper in Uganda. After systematic sampling, 365 articles constitute the sample. The results indicate that print news coverage of HIV and AIDS followed a non-linear trajectory, declining from 2000-2002 and then increasing from 2003-2004. Curative medicine emerged as the most prominent issue frame. Higher-risk behaviour was the least prominent issue frame overall. The 'solutions' issue frame nearly doubled in prominence from 2000-2004, while the HIV-prevention frame decreased from 2000-2002 and then rebounded from 2003-2004. Concerning HIV-related topics, the private newspaper included more features, printed lengthier articles, incorporated a greater variety of news frames, and published more articles by foreign journalists than the government-owned newspaper. The private newspaper employed the 'HIV-prevention,' 'action,' and 'victims' frames more often than the government-owned newspaper. Journalists at the government-owned newspaper adopted a 'solutions' frame more often than their private-press counterparts. Though foreign journalists were more likely than local journalists to employ the HIV-prevention frame, additional tests revealed that the news organisation for which the journalists worked contributed to issue framing to a greater extent than did either a local or foreign reporting origin. Local (Ugandan) journalists working for the two news organisations differed in their tendencies to apply the HIV-prevention, action, victims, and tragedy frames in news stories on HIV and AIDS, with journalists at the private newspaper using these frames more often than did journalists at the government-owned newspaper.

  5. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  6. Summary of DOD Acquisition Program Audit Coverage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This report will provide the DoD audit community with information to support their planning efforts and provide management with information on the extent of audit coverage of DoD acquisition programs...

  7. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  8. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  9. Continuous Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — States have the option to provide children with 12 months of continuous coverage through Medicaid and CHIP, even if the family experiences a change in income during...

  10. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  11. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  12. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  13. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  14. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum...

  15. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a...

  16. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients...

  17. Measuring populations to improve vaccination coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Nita; Djibo, Ali; Tatem, Andrew J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    In low-income settings, vaccination campaigns supplement routine immunization but often fail to achieve coverage goals due to uncertainty about target population size and distribution. Accurate, updated estimates of target populations are rare but critical; short-term fluctuations can greatly impact population size and susceptibility. We use satellite imagery to quantify population fluctuations and the coverage achieved by a measles outbreak response vaccination campaign in urban Niger and compare campaign estimates to measurements from a post-campaign survey. Vaccine coverage was overestimated because the campaign underestimated resident numbers and seasonal migration further increased the target population. We combine satellite-derived measurements of fluctuations in population distribution with high-resolution measles case reports to develop a dynamic model that illustrates the potential improvement in vaccination campaign coverage if planners account for predictable population fluctuations. Satellite imagery can improve retrospective estimates of vaccination campaign impact and future campaign planning by synchronizing interventions with predictable population fluxes.

  18. Effective cataract surgical coverage: An indicator for measuring quality-of-care in the context of Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ramke

    Full Text Available To define and demonstrate effective cataract surgical coverage (eCSC, a candidate UHC indicator that combines a coverage measure (cataract surgical coverage, CSC with quality (post-operative visual outcome.All Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB surveys with datasets on the online RAAB Repository on April 1 2016 were downloaded. The most recent study from each country was included. By country, cataract surgical outcome (CSOGood, 6/18 or better; CSOPoor, worse than 6/60, CSC (operated cataract as a proportion of operable plus operated cataract and eCSC (operated cataract and a good outcome as a proportion of operable plus operated cataract were calculated. The association between CSC and CSO was assessed by linear regression. Gender inequality in CSC and eCSC was calculated.Datasets from 20 countries were included (2005-2013; 67,337 participants; 5,474 cataract surgeries. Median CSC was 53.7% (inter-quartile range[IQR] 46.1-66.6%, CSOGood was 58.9% (IQR 53.7-67.6% and CSOPoor was 17.7% (IQR 11.3-21.1%. Coverage and quality of cataract surgery were moderately associated-every 1% CSC increase was associated with a 0.46% CSOGood increase and 0.28% CSOPoor decrease. Median eCSC was 36.7% (IQR 30.2-50.6%, approximately one-third lower than the median CSC. Women tended to fare worse than men, and gender inequality was slightly higher for eCSC (4.6% IQR 0.5-7.1% than for CSC (median 2.3% IQR -1.5-11.6%.eCSC allows monitoring of quality in conjunction with coverage of cataract surgery. In the surveys analysed, on average 36.7% of people who could benefit from cataract surgery had undergone surgery and obtained a good visual outcome.

  19. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  20. [Strategies to improve influenza vaccination coverage in Primary Health Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, F; Richart, M J; Serrano, S; Martínez, A M; Pruteanu, D F

    2016-04-01

    Vaccination coverage reached in adults is insufficient, and there is a real need for new strategies. To compare strategies for improving influenza vaccination coverage in persons older than 64 years. New strategies were introduced in our health care centre during 2013-2014 influenza vaccination campaign, which included vaccinating patients in homes for the aged as well as in the health care centre. A comparison was made on vaccination coverage over the last 4 years in 3 practices of our health care centre: P1, the general physician vaccinated patients older than 64 that came to the practice; P2, the general physician systematically insisted in vaccination in elderly patients, strongly advising to book appointments, and P3, the general physician did not insist. These practices looked after P1: 278; P2: 320; P3: 294 patients older than 64 years. Overall/P1/P2/P3 coverages in 2010: 51.2/51.4/55/46.9% (P=NS), in 2011: 52.4/52.9/53.8/50.3% (P=NS), in 2012: 51.9/52.5/55.3/47.6% (P=NS), and in 2013: 63.5/79.1/59.7/52.7 (P=.000, P1 versus P2 and P3; P=NS between P2 and P3). Comparing the coverages in 2012-2013 within each practice P1 (P=.000); P2 (P=.045); P3 (P=.018). In P2 and P3 all vaccinations were given by the nurses as previously scheduled. In P3, 55% of the vaccinations were given by the nurses, 24.1% by the GP, 9.7% rejected vaccination, and the remainder did not come to the practice during the vaccination period (October 2013-February 2014). The strategy of vaccinating in the homes for the aged improved the vaccination coverage by 5% in each practice. The strategy of "I've got you here, I jab you here" in P1 improved the vaccination coverage by 22%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  2. Mass anti-malarial administration in western Cambodia: a qualitative study of factors affecting coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pell, Christopher; Tripura, Rupam; Nguon, Chea; Cheah, Phaikyeong; Davoeung, Chan; Heng, Chhouen; Dara, Lim; Sareth, Ma; Dondorp, Arjen; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Peto, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Mass anti-malarial administration has been proposed as a key component of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategy in the Greater Mekong sub-Region. Its effectiveness depends on high levels of coverage in the target population. This article explores the factors that influenced mass

  3. A graphical tool to evaluate temporal coverage of occupational history by exposure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, J.; Fransman, W.; Miller, B.; Burstyn, I.; Heederik, D.; Hurley, F.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In occupational epidemiology, differences in the temporal coverage of the exposure history by available exposure measurement data may affect the uncertainty of exposure estimates. In the reporting of results of studies, greater attention should be paid to the extent to which exposure

  4. A graphical tool to evaluate temporal coverage of occupational history by exposure measurements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Fransman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000461; Miller, B.; Burstyn, I.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Hurley, F.; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In occupational epidemiology, differences in the temporal coverage of the exposure history by available exposure measurement data may affect the uncertainty of exposure estimates. In the reporting of results of studies, greater attention should be paid to the extent to which exposure

  5. Tertiary Institutions in Ghana Curriculum Coverage on Climate Change: Implications for Climate Change Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Global problems such as climate change, which have deeper implications for survival of mankind on this planet, needs to be given wider attention in the quest for knowledge. It is expected that, improved knowledge derived from curriculum coverage may promote greater public awareness of such important global issue. This research aims at examining…

  6. Health Insurance Coverage and Its Impact on Medical Cost: Observations from the Floating Population in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinjun; Kang, Bowei; Liu, Yawen; Li, Yichong; Shi, Guoqing; Shen, Tao; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Background China has the world's largest floating (migrant) population, which has characteristics largely different from the rest of the population. Our goal is to study health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost for this population. Methods A telephone survey was conducted in 2012. 644 subjects were surveyed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted on insurance coverage and medical cost. Results 82.2% of the surveyed subjects were covered by basic insurance at hometowns with hukou or at residences. Subjects' characteristics including age, education, occupation, and presence of chronic diseases were associated with insurance coverage. After controlling for confounders, insurance coverage was not significantly associated with gross or out-of-pocket medical cost. Conclusion For the floating population, health insurance coverage needs to be improved. Policy interventions are needed so that health insurance can have a more effective protective effect on cost. PMID:25386914

  7. Health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost: observations from the floating population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinjun Zhao

    Full Text Available China has the world's largest floating (migrant population, which has characteristics largely different from the rest of the population. Our goal is to study health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost for this population.A telephone survey was conducted in 2012. 644 subjects were surveyed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted on insurance coverage and medical cost.82.2% of the surveyed subjects were covered by basic insurance at hometowns with hukou or at residences. Subjects' characteristics including age, education, occupation, and presence of chronic diseases were associated with insurance coverage. After controlling for confounders, insurance coverage was not significantly associated with gross or out-of-pocket medical cost.For the floating population, health insurance coverage needs to be improved. Policy interventions are needed so that health insurance can have a more effective protective effect on cost.

  8. Performance Evaluation of a Dual Coverage System for Internet of Things Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Said

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual coverage system for Internet of Things (IoT environments is introduced. This system is used to connect IoT nodes regardless of their locations. The proposed system has three different architectures, which are based on satellites and High Altitude Platforms (HAPs. In case of Internet coverage problems, the Internet coverage will be replaced with the Satellite/HAP network coverage under specific restrictions such as loss and delay. According to IoT requirements, the proposed architectures should include multiple levels of satellites or HAPs, or a combination of both, to cover the global Internet things. It was shown that the Satellite/HAP/HAP/Things architecture provides the largest coverage area. A network simulation package, NS2, was used to test the performance of the proposed multilevel architectures. The results indicated that the HAP/HAP/Things architecture has the best end-to-end delay, packet loss, throughput, energy consumption, and handover.

  9. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  10. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  12. Control and Elimination of Helminth Zoonoses in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will contribute evidence to help control and eliminate schistosomiasis and liver fluke infections in the Greater Mekong Subregion. This economic area is bound by the Mekong River, covering 2.6 million square kilometres, and includes a combined population of 326 million in Burma, Cambodia, China, Laos, ...

  13. Medicaid: A Primer - Key Information on the Nation's Health Coverage Program for Low-Income People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including severe mental illness. Health homes involve the integration and coordination of primary, acute, mental and behavioral ... Managed Care Programs op. cit. 47 The Crunch Continues: Medicaid Spending, Coverage and Policy in the Midst ...

  14. Memetic Algorithm-Based Multi-Objective Coverage Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining effective coverage and extending the network lifetime as much as possible has become one of the most critical issues in the coverage of WSNs. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective coverage optimization algorithm for WSNs, namely MOCADMA, which models the coverage control of WSNs as the multi-objective optimization problem. MOCADMA uses a memetic algorithm with a dynamic local search strategy to optimize the coverage of WSNs and achieve the objectives such as high network coverage, effective node utilization and more residual energy. In MOCADMA, the alternative solutions are represented as the chromosomes in matrix form, and the optimal solutions are selected through numerous iterations of the evolution process, including selection, crossover, mutation, local enhancement, and fitness evaluation. The experiment and evaluation results show MOCADMA can have good capabilities in maintaining the sensing coverage, achieve higher network coverage while improving the energy efficiency and effectively prolonging the network lifetime, and have a significant improvement over some existing algorithms.

  15. [Pentavalent vaccine and vaccination coverage in children aged less than one in Colombia 2000-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sotelo, Jaid C; Prieto-Alvarado, Franklyn E

    2006-05-01

    Determining the impact of including pentavalent vaccine in third-dose immunisation coverage for children aged less than 1 (2002 and 2003) by geographic cluster. This was an ecologic study using department, province, municipality and capital city as analysis units. It compared third-dose coverage, desertion index, number of places having more than 80% immunisation coverage and the number of children being immunised before and after vaccination was introduced. Having more than 80% immunisation coverage was compared to the number of children or places having unsatisfied basic needs, the presence of armed conflict or municipal category. Immunisation coverage increased from 23% to 26%, mainly for Hib3. Desertion index was 9.3-31.7% in 2000 and 0.3% in 2003. The number of municipalities having more than 80% immunisation coverage increased from 265 in 2000 to 627 in 2003. 462,000-584,000 third-doses were applied in 2000 and 805,000-813,000 in 2003. More municipalities having more than 80% coverage had high unsatisfied basic needs, low socioeconomic income or conflict. The introduction of the vaccine affected immunisation coverage. Financing should be sought for the vaccine to ensure its continuity and to implement studies for new vaccines or introducing combination vaccines.

  16. Memetic Algorithm-Based Multi-Objective Coverage Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Li, Shuai; Yue, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining effective coverage and extending the network lifetime as much as possible has become one of the most critical issues in the coverage of WSNs. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective coverage optimization algorithm for WSNs, namely MOCADMA, which models the coverage control of WSNs as the multi-objective optimization problem. MOCADMA uses a memetic algorithm with a dynamic local search strategy to optimize the coverage of WSNs and achieve the objectives such as high network coverage, effective node utilization and more residual energy. In MOCADMA, the alternative solutions are represented as the chromosomes in matrix form, and the optimal solutions are selected through numerous iterations of the evolution process, including selection, crossover, mutation, local enhancement, and fitness evaluation. The experiment and evaluation results show MOCADMA can have good capabilities in maintaining the sensing coverage, achieve higher network coverage while improving the energy efficiency and effectively prolonging the network lifetime, and have a significant improvement over some existing algorithms. PMID:25360579

  17. Shortcomings in public and private insurance coverage of diabetes self-management education and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Fisher, Edwin B; Greene, Sandra B

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study is to present preliminary data to characterize public and private insurance coverage for diabetes self-management education (DSM Education) and diabetes self-management support (DSM Support). Representatives from Medicaid and 2 private insurance providers in 10 states provided coverage information for their insurance plans. Two states (the most populous state from the East and West coasts) were sampled purposively and 8 additional states from 4 geographic regions (northeast, southeast, northwest, southwest) were sampled at random. Representatives from each private insurer described both a premium and basic coverage plan. Thus, 10 Medicaid programs and 40 private insurance plans were represented. Information about Medicare coverage was accessed from publicly available documents. Restricted by physician certification of patient eligibility, Medicare coverage included 10 hours of DSM Education plus 3 hours of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) within a continuous 12-month period, and 4 hours of follow-up (2 hours DSM Education and 2 hours MNT) for each subsequent year. Only 22 of 40 sampled private insurance and 5 of 10 Medicaid plans covered DSM Education, which ranged from 7 to 20 hours of education per year. Medicaid and private plans often limited the amount of DSM Education or required patients to obtain a physician certification of eligibility. Other than on-demand access features, coverage of DSM Support was minimal. Public and private insurance coverage of DSM Education was neither widespread nor uniform, while coverage of DSM Support was scarce.

  18. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  19. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdisalan M Noor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups.We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004, the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005, and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006. The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281; 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131, and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000. The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor, and the commercial

  20. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  1. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage: results from the World Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage was observed within most of the countries, although lower income countries showed greater levels of relative inequality than higher income countries. Overall, lowest coverage and highest relative inequality were found in the low-income countries. The findings of this study may inform policies for oral health at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups.

  2. Towards Semantic Web Services on Large, Multi-Dimensional Coverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, P.

    2009-04-01

    does not anticipate any particular protocol. One such protocol is given by the OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS) Processing Extension standard which ties WCPS into WCS. Another protocol which makes WCPS an OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) Profile is under preparation. Thereby, WCPS bridges WCS and WPS. The conceptual model of WCPS relies on the coverage model of WCS, which in turn is based on ISO 19123. WCS currently addresses raster-type coverages where a coverage is seen as a function mapping points from a spatio-temporal extent (its domain) into values of some cell type (its range). A retrievable coverage has an identifier associated, further the CRSs supported and, for each range field (aka band, channel), the interpolation methods applicable. The WCPS language offers access to one or several such coverages via a functional, side-effect free language. The following example, which derives the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from given coverages C1, C2, and C3 within the regions identified by the binary mask R, illustrates the language concept: for c in ( C1, C2, C3 ), r in ( R ) return encode( (char) (c.nir - c.red) / (c.nir + c.red), H˜DF-EOS\\~ ) The result is a list of three HDF-EOS encoded images containing masked NDVI values. Note that the same request can operate on coverages of any dimensionality. The expressive power of WCPS includes statistics, image, and signal processing up to recursion, to maintain safe evaluation. As both syntax and semantics of any WCPS expression is well known the language is Semantic Web ready: clients can construct WCPS requests on the fly, servers can optimize such requests (this has been investigated extensively with the rasdaman raster database system) and automatically distribute them for processing in a WCPS-enabled computing cloud. The WCPS Reference Implementation is being finalized now that the standard is stable; it will be released in open source once ready. Among the future tasks is to extend WCPS to general

  3. Cholera in Haiti: Reproductive numbers and vaccination coverage estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukandavire, Zindoga; Smith, David L.; Morris, J. Glenn, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Cholera reappeared in Haiti in October, 2010 after decades of absence. Cases were first detected in Artibonite region and in the ensuing months the disease spread to every department in the country. The rate of increase in the number of cases at the start of epidemics provides valuable information about the basic reproductive number (). Quantitative analysis of such data gives useful information for planning and evaluating disease control interventions, including vaccination. Using a mathematical model, we fitted data on the cumulative number of reported hospitalized cholera cases in Haiti. varied by department, ranging from 1.06 to 2.63. At a national level, 46% vaccination coverage would result in an () cholera vaccines in endemic and non-endemic regions, our results suggest that moderate cholera vaccine coverage would be an important element of disease control in Haiti.

  4. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  5. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  6. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  7. Evaluating Childhood Vaccination Coverage of NIP Vaccines: Coverage Survey versus Zhejiang Provincial Immunization Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Chen, Yaping

    2017-07-11

    Vaccination coverage in Zhejiang province, east China, is evaluated through repeated coverage surveys. The Zhejiang provincial immunization information system (ZJIIS) was established in 2004 with links to all immunization clinics. ZJIIS has become an alternative to quickly assess the vaccination coverage. To assess the current completeness and accuracy on the vaccination coverage derived from ZJIIS, we compared the estimates from ZJIIS with the estimates from the most recent provincial coverage survey in 2014, which combined interview data with verified data from ZJIIS. Of the enrolled 2772 children in the 2014 provincial survey, the proportions of children with vaccination cards and registered in ZJIIS were 94.0% and 87.4%, respectively. Coverage estimates from ZJIIS were systematically higher than the corresponding estimates obtained through the survey, with a mean difference of 4.5%. Of the vaccination doses registered in ZJIIS, 16.7% differed from the date recorded in the corresponding vaccination cards. Under-registration in ZJIIS significantly influenced the coverage estimates derived from ZJIIS. Therefore, periodic coverage surveys currently provide more complete and reliable results than the estimates based on ZJIIS alone. However, further improvement of completeness and accuracy of ZJIIS will likely allow more reliable and timely estimates in future.

  8. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  9. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Do income inequality and social capital associate with measles-containing vaccine coverage rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Kei; Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun

    2012-12-14

    We investigated the association between income inequality and social capital with measles-containing vaccine (MCV) coverage rates in Japan. MCV coverage data for all 1750 municipalities were collected from statistics publicized by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan in 2010. Prefectural Gini coefficients in 2009 (an indicator of income inequality) and social capital indicators (including voting rates, volunteer rates at the prefectural level, and move-in ratios at the municipal level) were linked to MCV coverage using a multilevel analysis adjusting for covariates (population, age distribution, average income, average number of household members). Coverage of the first dose of MCV (MCV1), and second dose (MCV2), decreased by 3.98% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-7.71) and 4.28% (95% CI: 0.60-7.60) per each 0.1-unit increase in Gini coefficients within large municipalities (with a population 50,000 or more), respectively. Conversely, coverage of MCV2 increased by 0.26% (95% CI: 0.08-0.45) per 1% increase in voting rate within large municipalities. Volunteer rates were inversely associated with MCV2 coverage within large municipalities. Move-in ratios at the municipal level were inversely associated with MCV2 coverage within medium-sized municipalities (with a population between 10,000 and 50,000). While higher income inequality at a prefectural level was associated with lower MCV coverage rates, higher social capital was associated with higher coverage in large municipalities. To enhance MCV coverage in Japan, we recommend that income inequality be addressed and social capital boosted at the prefectural level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coverage statistics for sequence census methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Steven N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We study the statistical properties of fragment coverage in genome sequencing experiments. In an extension of the classic Lander-Waterman model, we consider the effect of the length distribution of fragments. We also introduce a coding of the shape of the coverage depth function as a tree and explain how this can be used to detect regions with anomalous coverage. This modeling perspective is especially germane to current high-throughput sequencing experiments, where both sample preparation protocols and sequencing technology particulars can affect fragment length distributions. Results Under the mild assumptions that fragment start sites are Poisson distributed and successive fragment lengths are independent and identically distributed, we observe that, regardless of fragment length distribution, the fragments produced in a sequencing experiment can be viewed as resulting from a two-dimensional spatial Poisson process. We then study the successive jumps of the coverage function, and show that they can be encoded as a random tree that is approximately a Galton-Watson tree with generation-dependent geometric offspring distributions whose parameters can be computed. Conclusions We extend standard analyses of shotgun sequencing that focus on coverage statistics at individual sites, and provide a null model for detecting deviations from random coverage in high-throughput sequence census based experiments. Our approach leads to explicit determinations of the null distributions of certain test statistics, while for others it greatly simplifies the approximation of their null distributions by simulation. Our focus on fragments also leads to a new approach to visualizing sequencing data that is of independent interest.

  12. Challenges in Estimating Vaccine Coverage in Refugee and Displaced Populations: Results From Household Surveys in Jordan and Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Roberton, Timothy; Weiss, William; Doocy, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring the sustained immunization of displaced persons is a key objective in humanitarian emergencies. Typically, humanitarian actors measure coverage of single vaccines following an immunization campaign; few measure routine coverage of all vaccines. We undertook household surveys of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon, outside of camps, using a mix of random and respondent-driven sampling, to measure coverage of all vaccinations included in the host country’s vaccine schedule. We analyz...

  13. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  14. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Rachul, Christen

    2012-06-08

    Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People's Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  15. A method for allocating low-coverage sequencing resources by targeting haplotypes rather than individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Freixedes, Roger; Gonen, Serap; Gorjanc, Gregor; Hickey, John M

    2017-10-25

    This paper describes a heuristic method for allocating low-coverage sequencing resources by targeting haplotypes rather than individuals. Low-coverage sequencing assembles high-coverage sequence information for every individual by accumulating data from the genome segments that they share with many other individuals into consensus haplotypes. Deriving the consensus haplotypes accurately is critical for achieving a high phasing and imputation accuracy. In order to enable accurate phasing and imputation of sequence information for the whole population, we allocate the available sequencing resources among individuals with existing phased genomic data by targeting the sequencing coverage of their haplotypes. Our method, called AlphaSeqOpt, prioritizes haplotypes using a score function that is based on the frequency of the haplotypes in the sequencing set relative to the target coverage. AlphaSeqOpt has two steps: (1) selection of an initial set of individuals by iteratively choosing the individuals that have the maximum score conditional on the current set, and (2) refinement of the set through several rounds of exchanges of individuals. AlphaSeqOpt is very effective for distributing a fixed amount of sequencing resources evenly across haplotypes, which results in a reduction of the proportion of haplotypes that are sequenced below the target coverage. AlphaSeqOpt can provide a greater proportion of haplotypes sequenced at the target coverage by sequencing less individuals, as compared with other methods that use a score function based on haplotype frequencies in the population. A refinement of the initially selected set can provide a larger more diverse set with more unique individuals, which is beneficial in the context of low-coverage sequencing. We extend the method with an approach for filtering rare haplotypes based on their flanking haplotypes, so that only those that are likely to derive from a recombination event are targeted. We present a method for

  16. Evaluation of Coverage and Barriers to Access to MAM Treatment in West Pokot County, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basquin, Cecile; Imelda, Awino; Gallagher, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    pitting oedema. Results showed that none of the four sub-counties achieved high coverage classification. The coverage for OTP was moderate in North and South Pokot, whilst low in West and Central Pokot. The overall county coverage classification was moderate. SFP coverage classification was found to be low across all four sub-counties and county wide as well. The assessment also identified that barriers to access to SAM and MAM treatment were often similar, e.g., the main barrier to access for both services was lack of programme awareness in Central and West Pokot. Some key recommendations towards increasing coverage included to improve stakeholder awareness via advocacy, engaging with the use of mass media, increasing outreach activities, and to minimize rejection by revising screening methods and systems in place. These were applicable to both OTP and SFP components of IMAM. Coverage evaluations for MAM treatment are less commonly conducted than those for SAM treatment as it is more challenging to identify cases of MAM physically. Nonetheless, in order to document program effectiveness, it will be important to further explore methods that can evaluate coverage of MAM programming. (author)

  17. Greater occipital nerve blockade in cervicogenic headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINCENT MAURICE B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervicocogenic headache (CeH is a relatively common disorder. Although no ideal treatment is available so far, blockades in different structures and nerves may be temporarily effective. We studied the effects of 1-2 mL 0.5% bupivacaine injection at the ipsilateral greater occipital nerve (GON in 41 CeH patients. The pain is significantly reduced both immediately and as long as 7 days after the blockade. The improvement is less marked during the first two days, a phenomenon we called "tilde pattern". GON blockades may reduce the pool of exaggerated sensory input and antagonize a putative "wind-up-like effect" which may explain the headache improvement.

  18. Energy-efficient area coverage for intruder detection in sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    He, Shibo; Li, Junkun

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents recent research results on area coverage for intruder detection from an energy-efficient perspective. These results cover a variety of topics, including environmental surveillance and security monitoring. The authors also provide the background and range of applications for area coverage and elaborate on system models such as the formal definition of area coverage and sensing models. Several chapters focus on energy-efficient intruder detection and intruder trapping under the well-known binary sensing model, along with intruder trapping under the probabilistic sens

  19. An Approach to Greater Specificity for Glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson C. Chow

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid steroids are among the most prescribed drugs each year. Nonetheless, the many undesirable side effects, and lack of selectivity, restrict their greater usage. Research to increase glucocorticoid specificity has spanned many years. These efforts have been hampered by the ability of glucocorticoids to both induce and repress gene transcription and also by the lack of success in defining any predictable properties that control glucocorticoid specificity. Correlations of transcriptional specificity have been observed with changes in steroid structure, receptor and chromatin conformation, DNA sequence for receptor binding, and associated cofactors. However, none of these studies have progressed to the point of being able to offer guidance for increased specificity. We summarize here a mathematical theory that allows a novel and quantifiable approach to increase selectivity. The theory applies to all three major actions of glucocorticoid receptors: induction by agonists, induction by antagonists, and repression by agonists. Simple graphical analysis of competition assays involving any two factors (steroid, chemical, peptide, protein, DNA, etc. yields information (1 about the kinetically described mechanism of action for each factor at that step where the factor acts in the overall reaction sequence and (2 about the relative position of that step where each factor acts. These two pieces of information uniquely provide direction for increasing the specificity of glucocorticoid action. Consideration of all three modes of action indicate that the most promising approach for increased specificity is to vary the concentrations of those cofactors/pharmaceuticals that act closest to the observed end point. The potential for selectivity is even greater when varying cofactors/pharmaceuticals in conjunction with a select class of antagonists.

  20. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this section...

  1. Promoting universal financial protection: how the Thai universal coverage scheme was designed to ensure equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Prakongsai, Phusit; Sumalee, Hathaichanok; Tosanguan, Jiraboon; Mills, Anne

    2013-08-06

    Empirical evidence demonstrates that the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) has improved equity of health financing and provided a relatively high level of financial risk protection. Several UCS design features contribute to these outcomes: a tax-financed scheme, a comprehensive benefit package and gradual extension of coverage to illnesses that can lead to catastrophic household costs, and capacity of the National Health Security Office (NHSO) to mobilise adequate resources. This study assesses the policy processes related to making decisions on these features. The study employs qualitative methods including reviews of relevant documents, in-depth interviews of 25 key informants, and triangulation amongst information sources. Continued political and financial commitments to the UCS, despite political rivalry, played a key role. The Thai Rak Thai (TRT)-led coalition government introduced UCS; staying in power 8 of the 11 years between 2001 and 2011 was long enough to nurture and strengthen the UCS and overcome resistance from various opponents. Prime Minister Surayud's government, replacing the ousted TRT government, introduced universal renal replacement therapy, which deepened financial risk protection.Commitment to their manifesto and fiscal capacity pushed the TRT to adopt a general tax-financed universal scheme; collecting premiums from people engaged in the informal sector was neither politically palatable nor technically feasible. The relatively stable tenure of NHSO Secretary Generals and the chairs of the Financing and the Benefit Package subcommittees provided a platform for continued deepening of financial risk protection. NHSO exerted monopsonistic purchasing power to control prices, resulting in greater patient access and better systems efficiency than might have been the case with a different design.The approach of proposing an annual per capita budget changed the conventional line-item programme budgeting system by basing negotiations between the

  2. Television news coverage of obesity in China, 1982-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhe; Xu, Rui Qing; Zhao, Kun; Li, Ke Ji

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how obesity was covered in television news in China, including the trends over time and the characteristics of obesity-related news. The frame analysis was adopted to assess the content of obesity-related news broadcasted in China Central Television (CCTV) from 1982 to 2009. To investigate the characteristics of the news, the obesity-related news was divided into subgroups according to populations concerned, as well as the period in which the news was broadcasted. The differences between subgroups were examined. A total of 1 599 pieces of news reported obesity, in which 1 278 pieces (79.92%) aired in "wealthy" period (2006-2009). More news was concerned with adults (1 134, 70.92%). "Individual behavior" dominated most of the cause frames (389, 24.33%), solution frames (522, 32.65%), and responsibility frames (860, 53.78%). There was more news mentioning individual factors in news aired in "wealthy" period and news concerning children. The coverage of social-structure causes was higher in news concerning children, while the coverage of social-structure solutions was higher in news concerning children and news aired in "wealthy" period. Although the coverage of obesity was modest, it showed an incremental trend as the economy grew. Obesity was mostly depicted as an individual problem in terms of responsibility, causes and solutions. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. HPV Vaccination Coverage of Male Adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; O'Halloran, Alissa; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Smith, Philip J; Stokley, Shannon; Singleton, James A; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-11-01

    In 2011, the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine use human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for male adolescents. We used the 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen data to assess HPV vaccine uptake (≥1 dose) and series completion (≥3 doses). Multivariable logistic regression analysis and a predictive marginal model were conducted to identify independent predictors of vaccination among adolescent males aged 13 to 17 years. HPV vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose was 34.6%, and series completion (≥3 doses) was 13.9%. Coverage was significantly higher among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic white male adolescents. Multivariable logistic regression showed that characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of HPV vaccination (≥1 dose) included being non-Hispanic black race or Hispanic ethnicity; having mothers who were widowed, divorced, or separated; having 1 to 3 physician contacts in the past 12 months; a well-child visit at age 11 to 12 years; having 1 or 2 vaccination providers; living in urban or suburban areas; and receiving vaccinations from >1 type of facility (P vaccinations from all sexually transmitted diseases/school/teen clinics or other facilities were independently associated with a lower likelihood of HPV vaccination (P vaccination among male adolescents, uptake in 2013 was low in this population. Increased efforts are needed to improve vaccination coverage, especially for those who are least likely to be vaccinated. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Racial and ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage among adult populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-jun; O’Halloran, Alissa; Williams, Walter W.; Lindley, Megan C.; Farrall, Susan; Bridges, Carolyn B.

    2018-01-01

    Background Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in immunization rates is a compelling public health goal. Disparities in childhood vaccination rates have been absent in recent years for most vaccines. Purpose The objective of this study is to assess adult vaccination by race/ethnicity in the United States. Methods The 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was analyzed in 2014 to assess adult vaccination by race/ethnicity for six vaccines routinely recommended for adults: The vaccines are: influenza, Tetanus, pneumococcal, human papilloma virus, and zoster vaccines. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with all adult vaccinations. Results Vaccination coverage was significantly lower among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Asians compared with non-Hispanic whites, with only a few exceptions. Age, sex, education, health insurance, usual place of care, number of physician visits in the past 12 months, and health insurance were independently associated with receipt of most of the vaccines examined. Racial/ethnic differences narrowed, but gaps remained after taking these factors into account. Conclusions Racial and ethnic differences in vaccination levels narrow when adjusting for socioeconomic factors analyzed in this survey, but are not eliminated, suggesting that other factors that associated with vaccination disparities were not measured by the NHIS and could also contribute to the differences in coverage. Additional efforts including systems changes to ensure routine assessment and recommendations for needed vaccination among adults for all racial/ethnic groups are essential for improving vaccine coverage. PMID:26297451

  5. Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Shuper, Paul A; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that adult per-capita alcohol consumption, as estimated from self-reports of nationally representative surveys, underestimates 'true' consumption, as measured as the sum of recorded and unrecorded consumption. The proportion of total adult alcohol per capita reported in representative surveys is usually labelled 'coverage'. The aim of the present paper was to estimate coverage for South Africa under different scenarios of alcohol use assessment and 'true' consumption. Five nationally representative surveys from South Africa were used to estimate the prevalence of drinking and the grams per day among current drinkers. All surveys used a complex multi-stage sampling frame that was accounted for by using survey weights. The total (recorded and unrecorded), the recorded and the adjusted total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa served as different estimates of the 'true' consumption. South Africa. Alcohol use information was assessed on a total of 8115, 16 398 and 13 181 adults (15 years or older) in surveys from the years 2003, 2005 and 2008, respectively. Two surveys in 2012 included 27 070 and 18 688 adults. Coverage of the alcohol use reported in the surveys was calculated, compared with the 'true' adult per-capita alcohol. The survey data covered between 11.8% [2005; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) = 9.3-16.2%)] and 19.4% (2003; 95% UI = 14.9-24.2%) of the total alcohol used per capita. The highest coverage of 27.9% (95% UI = 22.4-36.8%) was observed when looking only at recorded alcohol in 2003. Evidence from five nationally representative surveys assessing alcohol use suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. [Pneumococcal vaccination coverage in at-risk children in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roser; Armadans, Lluís; Martínez, Xavier; Moraga, Fernando; Campins, Magda

    2015-11-01

    The public health system in Catalonia only funds pneumococcal vaccination in paediatrics for children at-risk. The aim of this study was to determine pneumococcal vaccination coverage and its association with age, sociodemographic factors and other variables. Descriptive cross-sectional study of children aged between 2 months and 15 years old assigned to primary care centres in Catalonia and with diseases that are included for pneumococcal vaccine in the official vaccination program. The information on vaccination status and study variables were obtained from data registered in the electronic medical records in the primary care centres. An analysis was made of the association between pneumococcal vaccination and demographic and medical variables using bivariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR), with a confidence interval of 95%, was used to measure the relationships. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage was 47.7%. Variables which predicted pneumococcal vaccination were: age (aOR: 9.2 [7.9-10.7] in children 2 months-2 years old; aOR 8.1 [7.0-9.3] in children 3-5 years; aOR: 4.6 [4.0-5.2] in children 6-10 years), Spanish nationality (aOR: 3.9 [3.5-4.3]), correct immunisation according to systematic immunisation schedule (aOR: 2.5 [2.1-3.0]), and number of risk conditions (aOR: 3.2 [2.5-4.1] in children with 2 or more conditions). Pneumococcal vaccination coverage in children with risk conditions is low in Catalonia. Strategies need to be implemented to increase coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. 5 CFR 9701.302 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to...

  8. Newspaper coverage of agricultural information in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S.Sife

    Figures in brackets represent percentages. Comparisons were made on the two categories of English and Kiswahili newspapers to establish whether there were any significant differences with respect to their coverage of agricultural news. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test revealed that there was significance difference (p ...

  9. EDITORIAL COVERAGE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH BY THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    The New England Journal of Medicine published an article on coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications by Moynihan et al(l). These authors studied 207 news media stories reporting on benefits and risks of pravastatin (a cholesterol lowering drug), alendronate (a biophosphonate for treatment ...

  10. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Double coverage. 199.8 Section 199.8 National... supplement CHAMPUS benefits (a health insurance policy or other health benefit plan that meets the definition... population and for which entitlement does not derive from either premium payment of monetary contribution...

  11. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self-insurance plans shall provide for payment on behalf of the carrier, within the specific limits of liability in this section, of all sums that the carrier shall become legally obligated to pay as damages...

  12. Binning metagenomic contigs by coverage and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alneberg, J.; Bjarnason, B.S.; Bruijn, de I.; Schirmer, M.; Quick, J.; Ijaz, U.Z.; Lahti, L.M.; Loman, N.J.; Andersson, A.F.; Quince, C.

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing enables the reconstruction of genomes from complex microbial communities, but because assembly does not reconstruct entire genomes, it is necessary to bin genome fragments. Here we present CONCOCT, a new algorithm that combines sequence composition and coverage across multiple

  13. Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination Coverage And Differential Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Government commitment and support from a range of partnerships have led to a massive increase in tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among women of childbearing age, ensuring that both mothers and babies are protected against tetanus infection in. Bangladesh. In order to control and eliminate the ...

  14. Newspaper coverage of agricultural information in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the coverage of agricultural information in Tanzania's newspapers published between 2009 and 2013. Four newspapers—Mwananchi, Habari Leo, The Guardian and Daily News—comprising 840 editions were selected for the study. Data were collected using a checklist and analysed using Microsoft ...

  15. Coverage of space by random sets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider the non-negative integer line. For each integer point we toss a coin. If the toss at location i is a. Heads we place an interval (of random length) there and move to location i + 1,. Tails we move to location i + 1. Coverage of space by random sets – p. 2/29 ...

  16. St. Lukes' Survey on vaccination coverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chilema. Malawi period during 1990, we felt it necessary to investi- gate the apparent low vaccine coverage further. Methods. Because oflimited staff the survey was limited to the area within 5 km of the hospital. An estimated. 30% of the population served by the hospital, live within this area. This area is also near the road.

  17. Coverage maximization under resource constraints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-07

    Feb 7, 2015 ... Dissemination of information has been one of the prime needs in almost every kind of communication network. The existing algorithms for this service, try to maximize the coverage, i.e., the number of distinct nodes to which a given piece of information could be conveyed under the constraints of time and ...

  18. Is universal health coverage the practical expression of the right to health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Latif, Laila A; Waris, Attiya; Brolan, Claire E; Hammonds, Rachel; Friedman, Eric A; Mulumba, Moses; Forman, Lisa

    2014-02-24

    The present Millennium Development Goals are set to expire in 2015 and their next iteration is now being discussed within the international community. With regards to health, the World Health Organization proposes universal health coverage as a 'single overarching health goal' for the next iteration of the Millennium Development Goals.The present Millennium Development Goals have been criticised for being 'duplicative' or even 'competing alternatives' to international human rights law. The question then arises, if universal health coverage would indeed become the single overarching health goal, replacing the present health-related Millennium Development Goals, would that be more consistent with the right to health? The World Health Organization seems to have anticipated the question, as it labels universal health coverage as "by definition, a practical expression of the concern for health equity and the right to health".Rather than waiting for the negotiations to unfold, we thought it would be useful to verify this contention, using a comparative normative analysis. We found that--to be a practical expression of the right to health--at least one element is missing in present authoritative definitions of universal health coverage: a straightforward confirmation that international assistance is essential, not optional.But universal health coverage is a 'work in progress'. A recent proposal by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposed universal health coverage with a set of targets, including a target for international assistance, which would turn universal health coverage into a practical expression of the right to health care.

  19. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-07

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. A Flexible and Non-instrusive Approach for Computing Complex Structural Coverage Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Michael W.; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha; Staats, Matt; Grijincu, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Software analysis tools and techniques often leverage structural code coverage information to reason about the dynamic behavior of software. Existing techniques instrument the code with the required structural obligations and then monitor the execution of the compiled code to report coverage. Instrumentation based approaches often incur considerable runtime overhead for complex structural coverage metrics such as Modified Condition/Decision (MC/DC). Code instrumentation, in general, has to be approached with great care to ensure it does not modify the behavior of the original code. Furthermore, instrumented code cannot be used in conjunction with other analyses that reason about the structure and semantics of the code under test. In this work, we introduce a non-intrusive preprocessing approach for computing structural coverage information. It uses a static partial evaluation of the decisions in the source code and a source-to-bytecode mapping to generate the information necessary to efficiently track structural coverage metrics during execution. Our technique is flexible; the results of the preprocessing can be used by a variety of coverage-driven software analysis tasks, including automated analyses that are not possible for instrumented code. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution show the efficiency and flexibility of our nonintrusive approach for computing code coverage information

  1. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Pocock, Nicola Suyin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Chhorvann, Chhea; Duc, Ha Anh; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lim, Jeremy; Lucero-Prisno, Don Eliseo; Ng, Nawi; Phaholyothin, Natalie; Phonvisay, Alay; Soe, Kyaw Min; Sychareun, Vanphanom

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and 'snowball' further data. We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1) financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2) supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3) the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC) goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should be explicitly considered to mitigate

  2. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design: Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and ‘snowball’ further data. Results: We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1 financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2 supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3 the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should

  3. Health insurance coverage among women of reproductive age before and after implementation of the affordable care act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Sonfield, Adam

    2016-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act's expansions to Medicaid and private coverage are of particular importance for women of childbearing age, who have numerous preventive care and reproductive health care needs. We conducted two national surveys, one in 2012 and one in 2015, collecting information about health insurance coverage and access to care from 8000 women aged 18-39. We examine type of insurance and continuity of coverage between time periods, including poverty status and whether or not women live in a state that expanded Medicaid coverage. The proportion of women who were uninsured declined by almost 40% (from 19% to 12%), though several groups, including US-born and foreign-born Latinas, experienced no significant declines. Among low-income women in states that expanded Medicaid, the proportion uninsured declined from 38% to 15%, largely due to an increase in Medicaid coverage (from 40% to 62%). Declines in uninsurance in nonexpansion states were only marginally significant. Despite substantial improvements in health insurance coverage, significant gaps remain, particularly in states that have not expanded Medicaid and for Latinas. This analysis examines changes in insurance coverage that occurred after the Affordable Care Act was implemented. While coverage has improved for many populations, sizeable gaps in coverage remain for Latinas and women in states that did not expand Medicaid. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Universal Health Insurance and the Reasons of not Coverage in Iran: Secondary Analysis of a National Household Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Nosratnejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Universal insurance coverage is considered as one of the main goals of health systems around the world. Although Universal Health Insurance Law was legislated with the objective of covering all Iranian population under health insurance coverage in 1994, but imperfect insurance coverage has remained as a threatening dilemma. Heterogeneous statistics reported by insurer in Iran and the lack of appropriate, comprehensive databases have failed any judgments about the number of uninsured people and the reasons for it. Present study aimed to give better insight on insurance coverage among Iranian people and examine key reasons of imperfect coverage through a deep analysis of a national household survey. Material and Methods : Data which were collected from a national survey of health care utilization in Iran that covered over 102000 people of Iranians were analyzed. The survey had been implemented in 2007 by Iran's Ministry of Health. In order to identify possible reasons for imperfect coverage, national and international databases like SID, Iranmedex, ISC, Pubmed, Scopus, official statistics of Statistical Center of Iran (SCI, Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO and Central Insurance of IRIRAN (CII were searched. Data management was accomplished in Microsoft Excel software.  Results : Study results showed that 85% of Iranian households had health insurance coverage, compared to 15% without any coverage. Medical services insurance fund had the greater proportion of coverage (59.27% and basic private insurance coverage was accountable for the least coverage (0.2%. More than half of households (51% stated financial inability to pay as the main reason for not getting coverage, followed by the lack of knowledge about insurance (12%, unemployment (12% and bypass by employers (10%. A worthwhile finding was that, 13% of households implied they felt no need to health insurance and 2% found it useless. Conclusion : Despite

  5. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun; Lim, Jong Nam

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis

  6. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  7. Sensor-driven area coverage for an autonomous fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Liam; Thibault, Carl; Nagaty, Amr; Seto, Mae; Li, Howard

    2014-09-01

    Area coverage with an onboard sensor is an important task for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with many applications. Autonomous fixed-wing UAVs are more appropriate for larger scale area surveying since they can cover ground more quickly. However, their non-holonomic dynamics and susceptibility to disturbances make sensor coverage a challenging task. Most previous approaches to area coverage planning are offline and assume that the UAV can follow the planned trajectory exactly. In this paper, this restriction is removed as the aircraft maintains a coverage map based on its actual pose trajectory and makes control decisions based on that map. The aircraft is able to plan paths in situ based on sensor data and an accurate model of the on-board camera used for coverage. An information theoretic approach is used that selects desired headings that maximize the expected information gain over the coverage map. In addition, the branch entropy concept previously developed for autonomous underwater vehicles is extended to UAVs and ensures that the vehicle is able to achieve its global coverage mission. The coverage map over the workspace uses the projective camera model and compares the expected area of the target on the ground and the actual area covered on the ground by each pixel in the image. The camera is mounted on a two-axis gimbal and can either be stabilized or optimized for maximal coverage. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation results and real hardware implementation on a fixed-wing UAV show the effectiveness of the approach. By including the already developed automatic takeoff and landing capabilities, we now have a fully automated and robust platform for performing aerial imagery surveys.

  8. Examining levels, distribution and correlates of health insurance coverage in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazungu, Jacob S; Barasa, Edwine W

    2017-09-01

    To examine the levels, inequalities and factors associated with health insurance coverage in Kenya. We analysed secondary data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) conducted in 2009 and 2014. We examined the level of health insurance coverage overall, and by type, using an asset index to categorise households into five socio-economic quintiles with quintile 5 (Q5) being the richest and quintile 1 (Q1) being the poorest. The high-low ratio (Q5/Q1 ratio), concentration curve and concentration index (CIX) were employed to assess inequalities in health insurance coverage, and logistic regression to examine correlates of health insurance coverage. Overall health insurance coverage increased from 8.17% to 19.59% between 2009 and 2014. There was high inequality in overall health insurance coverage, even though this inequality decreased between 2009 (Q5/Q1 ratio of 31.21, CIX = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.0.71) and 2014 (Q5/Q1 ratio 12.34, CIX = 0.49, 95% CI 0.45-0.52). Individuals that were older, employed in the formal sector; married, exposed to media; and male, belonged to a small household, had a chronic disease and belonged to rich households, had increased odds of health insurance coverage. Health insurance coverage in Kenya remains low and is characterised by significant inequality. In a context where over 80% of the population is in the informal sector, and close to 50% live below the national poverty line, achieving high and equitable coverage levels with contributory and voluntary health insurance mechanism is problematic. Kenya should consider a universal, tax-funded mechanism that ensures revenues are equitably and efficiently collected, and everyone (including the poor and those in the informal sector) is covered. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Influence of Patient Positioning in Breast CT on Breast Tissue Coverage and Patient Comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rößler, A C; Wenkel, E; Althoff, F; Kalender, W

    2015-05-01

    The presented study aimed at optimizing a patient table design for breast CT (BCT) systems with respect to breast tissue coverage and patient comfort. Additionally, the benefits and acceptance of an immobilization device for BCT using underpressure were evaluated. Three different study parts were carried out. In a positioning study women were investigated on an MRI tabletop with exchangeable inserts (flat and cone-shaped with different opening diameters) to evaluate their influence on breast coverage and patient comfort in various positioning alternatives. Breast length and volume were calculated to compare positioning modalities including various opening diameters and forms. In the second study part, an underpressure system was tested for its functionality and comfort on a stereotactic biopsy table mimicking a future CT scanner table. In the last study part, this system was tested regarding breast tissue coverage. Best results for breast tissue coverage were shown for cone-shaped table inserts with an opening of 180 mm. Flat inserts did not provide complete coverage of breast tissue. The underpressure system showed robust function and tended to pull more breast tissue into the field of view. Patient comfort was rated good for all table inserts, with highest ratings for cone-shaped inserts. Cone-shaped tabletops appeared to be adequate for BCT systems and to allow imaging of almost the complete breast. An underpressure system proved promising for the fixation of the breast during imaging and increased coverage. Patient comfort appears to be adequate. Tissue coverage in breast CT is highly dependent on patient table design. An underpressure fixation system shows potential to increase breast coverage. The proposed breast CT patient table design combines good coverage and patient comfort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Effects of income and dental insurance coverage on need for dental care in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laura; Bonner, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the strength of the associations among income, dental insurance coverage and need for dental care (both urgent and nonurgent) in Canada. Multinomial logistic models were fit to data from the 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey to test unadjusted associations among household income, dental insurance coverage and the need for urgent and nonurgent dental care. Adjusted associations, controlling for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, immigration status, education and province of residence) and oral health habits (brushing, flossing and visits to the dentist) were also evaluated. In the unadjusted model, need for treatment was lower among people with dental insurance than among those without insurance coverage (for urgent treatment: odds ratio [OR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.89; for nonurgent treatment: OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.50-0.70). In addition, there was an income gradient, whereby people with higher income had less need for dental treatment (for urgent treatment: OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00; for nonurgent treatment: OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-0.99). Controlling for socio-demographic and oral health variables decreased the magnitude of the association between dental insurance coverage and need for treatment (for urgent treatment: OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.95; for nonurgent treatment: OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.92). An interaction term between dental coverage and income was significant in relation to the need for nonurgent treatment: among lower-income individuals, having insurance slightly decreased the odds of needing nonurgent treatment, with this decrease in odds becoming greater for middle-income earners and even greater for high-income earners. Income-related inequality in need for dental care exists even in the presence of dental insurance coverage and good dental hygiene habits. These findings highlight the need for increased access to dental care for low-income populations and families living in poverty.

  11. Effects of coverage gap reform on adherence to diabetes medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Patel, Bimal V; Brunetti, Louis

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the impact of Part D coverage gap reform on diabetes medication adherence. Retrospective data analysis based on pharmacy claims data from a national pharmacy benefit manager. We used a difference-in-difference-indifference method to evaluate the impact of coverage gap reform on adherence to diabetes medications. Two cohorts (2010 and 2011) were constructed to represent the last year before Affordable Care Act (ACA) reform and the first year after reform, respectively. Each patient had 2 observations: 1 before and 1 after entering the coverage gap. Patients in each cohort were divided into groups based on type of gap coverage: no coverage, partial coverage (generics only), and full coverage. Following ACA reform, patients with no gap coverage and patients with partial gap coverage experienced substantial drops in copayments in the coverage gap in 2011. Their adherence to diabetes medications in the gap, measured by percentage of days covered, improved correspondingly (2.99 percentage points, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-5.48, P = .019 for patients with no coverage; 6.46 percentage points, 95% CI 3.34-9.58, P gap in 2011. However, their adherence did not increase (-0.13 percentage point, P = .8011). In the first year of ACA coverage gap reform, copayments in the gap decreased substantially for all patients. Patients with no coverage and patients with partial coverage in the gap had better adherence in the gap in 2011.

  12. State Medicaid Expansion Tobacco Cessation Coverage and Number of Adult Smokers Enrolled in Expansion Coverage - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiulio, Anne; Haddix, Meredith; Jump, Zach; Babb, Stephen; Schecter, Anna; Williams, Kisha-Ann S; Asman, Kat; Armour, Brian S

    2016-12-09

    In 2015, 27.8% of adult Medicaid enrollees were current cigarette smokers, compared with 11.1% of adults with private health insurance, placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). In addition, smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to Medicaid costs, accounting for about 15% (>$39 billion) of annual Medicaid spending during 2006-2010 (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications are effective treatments for helping tobacco users quit (3). Insurance coverage for tobacco cessation treatments is associated with increased quit attempts, use of cessation treatments, and successful smoking cessation (3); this coverage has the potential to reduce Medicaid costs (4). However, barriers such as requiring copayments and prior authorization for treatment can impede access to cessation treatments (3,5). As of July 1, 2016, 32 states (including the District of Columbia) have expanded Medicaid eligibility through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA),* ,† which has increased access to health care services, including cessation treatments (5). CDC used data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicaid Budget and Expenditure System (MBES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the number of adult smokers enrolled in Medicaid expansion coverage. To assess cessation coverage among Medicaid expansion enrollees, the American Lung Association collected data on coverage of, and barriers to accessing, evidence-based cessation treatments. As of December 2015, approximately 2.3 million adult smokers were newly enrolled in Medicaid because of Medicaid expansion. As of July 1, 2016, all 32 states that have expanded Medicaid eligibility under ACA covered some cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion enrollees, with nine states covering all nine cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion

  13. Trends in news coverage about skin cancer prevention, 1993-2006: increasingly mixed messages for the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Dixon, Helen

    2008-10-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of trends in news coverage about sun protection issues in an Australian setting over a 14-year period. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N=547) published in two major daily newspapers, The Age and the Herald Sun, from 1993 to 2006. Articles were coded for article type, prominence, theme, spokesperson, topic slant and opinion slant. The most frequent themes were the health effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure (24% of articles), education/prevention (14%) and product issues (12%). Themes that became more dominant over time were vitamin D issues, solaria issues and fake tans. Sixty per cent of articles included a pro-sun protection spokesperson and 12% an anti-sun protection spokesperson, with the profile of anti-sun protection spokespeople increasing over time. Half the articles reported on topics positive for sun protection, whereas 18% reported on negative topics; however, this difference narrowed considerably from 2001 onwards. In opinionated articles, the opinions expressed by authors were mainly positive (57%) rather than negative (7%) for sun protection. The findings suggest that the mix of sun protection issues covered and views of sun protection have changed over time, resulting in greater coverage of controversies and issues not necessarily positive for sun protection objectives. These findings imply that evaluation of paid skin cancer prevention public education campaigns may need to take account of the changing news media environment in which they take place.

  14. Insecticide-treated net coverage in Africa: mapping progress in 2000-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Mutheu, Juliette J; Tatem, Andrew J; Hay, Simon I; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-03

    Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) provide a means to improve child survival across Africa. Sales figures of these nets and survey coverage data presented nationally mask inequities in populations at biological and economic risk, and do not allow for precision in the estimation of unmet commodity needs. We gathered subnational ITN coverage sample survey data from 40 malaria-endemic countries in Africa between 2000 and 2007. We computed the projected ITN coverage among children aged less than 5 years for age-adjusted population data that were stratified according to malaria transmission risks, proximate determinants of poverty, and methods of ITN delivery. In 2000, only 1.7 million (1.8%) African children living in stable malaria-endemic conditions were protected by an ITN and the number increased to 20.3 million (18.5%) by 2007 leaving 89.6 million children unprotected. Of these, 30 million were living in some of the poorest areas of Africa: 54% were living in only seven countries and 25% in Nigeria alone. Overall, 33 (83%) countries were estimated to have ITN coverage of less than 40% in 2007. On average, we noted a greater increase in ITN coverage in areas where free distribution had operated between survey periods. By mapping the distribution of populations in relation to malaria risk and intervention coverage, we provide a means to track the future requirements for scaling up essential disease-prevention strategies. The present coverage of ITN in Africa remains inadequate and a focused effort to improve distribution in selected areas would have a substantial effect on the continent's malaria burden.

  15. Handbook of infrared standards II with spectral coverage between

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    1993-01-01

    This timely compilation of infrared standards has been developed for use by infrared researchers in chemistry, physics, engineering, astrophysics, and laser and atmospheric sciences. Providing maps of closely spaced molecular spectra along with their measured wavenumbers between 1.4vm and 4vm, this handbook will complement the 1986 Handbook of Infrared Standards that included special coverage between 3 and 2600vm. It will serve as a necessary reference for all researchers conducting spectroscopic investigations in the near-infrared region.Key Features:- Provides all new spec

  16. Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test...... this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive...... association with the age of the expatriates. This finding provides partial affirmative support to the presumption that the age of business expatriates matters in a Chinese cultural context. Implications of this result are discussed in detail....

  17. Coverage dependence of FE flicker noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleint, Ch.

    1978-01-01

    Field emission flicker noise spectral density functions W(f) have been determined for potassium on W(112) and W(111) single planes. The coverage dependence of the spectral densities W(fsub(j)) shows pronounced maxima and minima, whereas the slopes epsilon obtained from double logarithmic plots of W(f) approximately fsup(-epsilon) vary considerably. Minima and maxima of W(fsub(j)) are assumed to be due to coherent and disordered adlayers, respectively, and the behaviour of the exponents epsilon supports further the proposed observation of order-disorder transitions of the potassium adsorbate. LEED results for W(112)K and W(111)K are in fair agreement with the corresponding coverages from noise measurements. (Auth.)

  18. Pension coverage among the baby boomers: initial findings from a 1993 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J R

    1994-01-01

    Using data from a series of supplements to the Current Population Survey, this article presents findings on workers' coverage under employer-sponsored retirement plans in 1993, and recent trends in coverage. The analysis focuses on workers 25-54, a group that includes the baby boom generation. Among all wage and salary workers in this age range (including government employees and part-time workers), 55 percent reported participating in a retirement plan on their current primary jobs, and an additional 3 percent were covered from other jobs. After a modest decline in the early 1980's, the coverage rate has remained essentially unchanged over the past 10 years, and limited data suggest that the baby boomers are doing about as well on pension coverage as older workers at similar points in their careers. Beneath this relative stability in overall coverage, however, at least two important changes have occurred: a significant narrowing of the gender gap in coverage and a shift in types of retirement plans. Increasing numbers of workers are being covered solely by 401(k)-type plans, a development that raises new uncertainties about the form and amount of future benefits. On the other hand, limited data in this study suggest that 401(k) plans may be serving their intended purpose for the majority of workers who have them.

  19. Analysis of the Science and Technology Narrative within Organ Donation and Transplantation Coverage in Canadian Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cheung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ failure is one cause of death. Advancements in scientific research and technological development made organ transplantation possible and continue to find better ways to substitute failed organs with other organs of biological origin or artificial organs. Media, including newspapers, are one source of information for the public. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent and how science and technology research and development are covered in the organ transplantation and organ donation (ODOT coverage of n = 300 Canadian newspapers, including the two Canadian newspapers with national reach (The Globe and Mail, National Post. The study generated qualitative and quantitative data addressing the following issues: (1 which scientific and technological developments are mentioned in the ODOT coverage; and (2 what issues are mentioned in the coverage of scientific and technological advancements linked to ODOT. We found little to no coverage of many technological and scientific advancements evident in academic and grey literature covering ODOT, and we found little engagement with social and ethical issues already raised about these advancements in the literature. The only area we found to be covered to a broader extent was xenotransplantation, although the coverage stopped after 2002. We argue that the newspaper coverage of ODOT under reports scientific and technological advancements related to ODOT and the issues these advancements might raise.

  20. Coverage of space by random sets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and move to location i + 1,. Tails we move to location i + 1. Coverage of space by random sets – p. 2/29 ... and a probability 1 − p of showing Tail. (ii) If the toss for the location i resulted in a Head, then the ... In the shotgun sequencing method employed in the human genome project the genome was first cloned to have many.

  1. Strengthening routine immunization systems to improve global vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodha, S V; Dietz, V

    2015-03-01

    Global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine among children under 1 year of age stagnated at ∼ 83-84% during 2008-13. Annual World Health Organization and UNICEF-derived national vaccination coverage estimates. Incomplete vaccination is associated with poor socioeconomic status, lower education, non-use of maternal-child health services, living in conflict-affected areas, missed immunization opportunities and cancelled vaccination sessions. Vaccination platforms must expand to include older ages including the second year of life. Immunization programmes, including eradication and elimination initiatives such as those for polio and measles, must integrate within the broader health system. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) 2011-20 is a framework for strengthening immunization systems, emphasizing country ownership, shared responsibility, equity, integration, sustainability and innovation. Immunization programmes should identify, monitor and evaluate gaps and interventions within the GVAP framework. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Delivery Reliability Optimalization in Distribution Systems with Backup Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin IVAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic two requirements for distribution systems include the maximum economic efficiency and reliability. Higher reliability can be achieved by considering such criterion when optimising. While a number of approaches [1], [2] or [3] have been published in terms of economic efficiency of distribution systems, the literature does not include much about modelling their structure. In our article, higher reliability will be achieved through the so-called backup coverage of the customer. The purpose of this article is to familiarise the readers with the optimisation approach to handle this issue based on a mathematical model. The article includes a mathematical model and sample example verifying its functionality. The mathematical model solution has been performed using the Xpress-IVE optimisation software. Structure optimalization of distribution system with backup coverage can be applied in a wide range of supplies. This article aims to familiarize readers with the theoretical part, where it will be given a mathematical model. Following the example of a solution procedure using an optimalization system Xpress – IVE.

  3. Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among adults 18-49 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; Byrd, Kathy K; Murphy, Trudy V

    2013-05-01

    Since 1996, hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) has been recommended for adults at increased risk for infection including travelers to high or intermediate hepatitis A endemic countries. In 2009, travel outside the United States and Canada was the most common exposure nationally reported for persons with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. To assess HepA vaccination coverage among adults 18-49 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity in the United States. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), to determine self-reported HepA vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) and series completion (≥2 dose) among persons 18-49 years who traveled, since 1995, to a country of high or intermediate HAV endemicity. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with HepA vaccine receipt. In 2010, approximately 36.6% of adults 18-49 years reported traveling to high or intermediate hepatitis A endemic countries; among this group unadjusted HepA vaccination coverage was 26.6% compared to 12.7% among non-travelers (P-valuesUnited States, having greater number of physician contacts or receipt of influenza vaccination in the previous year. HepB vaccination was excluded from the model because of the significant correlation between receipt of HepA vaccination and HepB vaccination could distort the model. Although travel to a country of high or intermediate hepatitis A endemicity was associated with higher likelihood of HepA vaccination in 2010 among adults 18-49 years, self-reported HepA vaccination coverage was low among adult travelers to these areas. Healthcare providers should ask their patients' upcoming travel plans and recommend and offer travel related vaccinations to their patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Livelihood patterns of displaced households in greater khartoum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, G M

    1992-09-01

    Members of impoverished households in Greater Khartoum, who have been displaced from their homelands by famine and civil war, gain a livelihood by utilising a wide variety of subsistence activities and sources. These include moonlighting, income diversification and pooling, exchange relations, scavenging, relief supplies from aid agencies and remittances from relatives working in other areas. This finding challenges the widely held view of the displaced as dependent and parasitic on the wider urban community. Several public policies are identified which have a detrimental effect on the livelihood of the displaced.

  5. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart. [55 FR 36820...

  6. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those aliens...

  7. 47 CFR 80.771 - Method of computing coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of computing coverage. 80.771 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.771 Method of computing coverage. Compute the +17 dBu contour as follows: (a) Determine the effective antenna...

  8. Improving the Methods for Accounting the Coverages of Payments to Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhurakovska Iryna V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at exploring the theoretical and practical problems of accounting the coverages of payments to employees and developing on this basis ways of addressing them. An analysis of both the international and the national accounting standards, practices of domestic enterprises, as well as scientific works of scientists, has helped to identify the problematic issues of accounting the coverages of payments to employees, including: ignoring the disclosure in accounting and reporting, absence of an adequate documentary support, complexity of the calculation methods, etc. The authors have suggested ways to improve accounting of payments to employees: documentation of coverages through the development of a Statement of the accrued coverages, simplification of calculation of payments to employees together with the related reflecting in the analytical accounting, disclosure in the accounting policy, and so forth. Such decisions would improve accounting the coverages of payments to employees, increase the frequency of applying such coverages in enterprises and their disclosure in the financial statements.

  9. The influence of patient positioning in breast CT on breast tissue coverage and patient comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, A.C.; Althoff, F.; Kalender, W. [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics; Wenkel, E. [University Hospital of Erlangen (Germany). Radiological Inst.

    2015-02-15

    The presented study aimed at optimizing a patient table design for breast CT (BCT) systems with respect to breast tissue coverage and patient comfort. Additionally, the benefits and acceptance of an immobilization device for BCT using underpressure were evaluated. Three different study parts were carried out. In a positioning study women were investigated on an MRI tabletop with exchangeable inserts (flat and cone-shaped with different opening diameters) to evaluate their influence on breast coverage and patient comfort in various positioning alternatives. Breast length and volume were calculated to compare positioning modalities including various opening diameters and forms. In the second study part, an underpressure system was tested for its functionality and comfort on a stereotactic biopsy table mimicking a future CT scanner table. In the last study part, this system was tested regarding breast tissue coverage. Best results for breast tissue coverage were shown for cone-shaped table inserts with an opening of 180 mm. Flat inserts did not provide complete coverage of breast tissue. The underpressure system showed robust function and tended to pull more breast tissue into the field of view. Patient comfort was rated good for all table inserts, with highest ratings for cone-shaped inserts. Cone-shaped tabletops appeared to be adequate for BCT systems and to allow imaging of almost the complete breast. An underpressure system proved promising for the fixation of the breast during imaging and increased coverage. Patient comfort appears to be adequate.

  10. A comparative analysis of coverage decisions for outpatient pharmaceuticals: evidence from Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grepstad, Mari; Kanavos, Panos

    2015-02-01

    This study analyses the reasons for differences and similarities in coverage recommendations for outpatient pharmaceuticals in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, following HTA appraisals. A comparative analysis of all outpatient drug appraisals carried out between January 2009 and December 2012, including an analysis of divergent coverage recommendations made by all three countries was performed. Agreement levels between HTA agencies were measured using kappa scores. Consultations with stakeholders in the three countries were carried out to complement the discussion on HTA processes and reimbursement outcomes. Nineteen outpatient drug-indication pairs appraised in each of the three countries were identified, of which 6 pairs (32%) had divergent coverage recommendations. An uneven distribution of coverage recommendations was observed, with the highest overlap in appraisals between Norway and Sweden (free-marginal kappa 0.89). Similarities were found in priority setting principles, mode of appraisal and reasoning for coverage recommendations. The study shows that health economic evaluation is less prominent or explicit in outpatient drug appraisals in Denmark than in Norway and Sweden, that all three countries could benefit from improved communication between appraisers and manufacturers, and that final coverage recommendations rely on factors other than safety, comparative efficacy or cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dominant frames in legacy and social media coverage of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Saffron; Williams, Hywel T. P.; Kurz, Tim; Wiersma, Bouke; Boykoff, Maxwell

    2015-04-01

    The media are powerful agents that translate information across the science-policy interface, framing it for audiences. Yet frames are never neutral: they define an issue, identify causes, make moral judgements and shape proposed solutions. Here, we show how the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) was framed in UK and US broadcast and print coverage, and on Twitter. Coverage of IPCC Working Group I (WGI) was contested and politicized, employing the `Settled Science, Uncertain Science, Political or Ideological Struggle and Role of Science’ frames. WGII coverage commonly used Disaster or Security. More diverse frames were employed for WGII and WGIII, including Economics and Morality and Ethics. Framing also varied by media institution: for example, the BBC used Uncertain Science, whereas Channel 4 did not. Coverage varied by working group, with WGIII gaining far less coverage than WGI or WGII. We suggest that media coverage and framing of AR5 was influenced by its sequential three-part structure and by the availability of accessible narratives and visuals. We recommend that these communication lessons be applied to future climate science reports.

  12. Vaccination Coverage Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2014-15 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Calhoun, Kayla; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Meador, Seth; Tippins, Ashley; Greby, Stacie M; Dietz, Vance

    2015-08-28

    State and local jurisdictions require children to be vaccinated before starting school to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. State vaccination requirements, which include school vaccination and exemption laws and health department regulations, permit medical exemptions for students with a medical contraindication to receiving a vaccine or vaccine component and may allow nonmedical exemptions for religious reasons or philosophic beliefs. To monitor state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among children attending kindergarten, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption estimates in 46 states and DC that reported the number of children with at least one exemption among kindergartners during the 2014-15 school year. Median vaccination coverage* was 94.0% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 94.2% for the local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 93.6% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among the 39 states and DC with a 2-dose requirement. The median percentage of any exemptions† was 1.7%. Although statewide vaccination coverage among kindergartners was high during the 2014-15 school year, geographic pockets of low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can place children at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. Appropriate school vaccination coverage assessments can help immunization programs identify clusters of low coverage and develop partnerships with schools and communities to ensure that children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases.

  13. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2012-13 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    State and local school vaccination requirements are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and minimize the risk from vaccine preventable diseases. To assess school vaccination coverage and exemptions, CDC annually analyzes school vaccination coverage data from federally funded immunization programs. These awardees include 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), five cities, and eight U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions. This report summarizes vaccination coverage from 48 states and DC and exemption rates from 49 states and DC for children entering kindergarten for the 2012-13 school year. Forty-eight states and DC reported vaccination coverage, with medians of 94.5% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.1% for local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination; and 93.8% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among awardees with a 2-dose requirement. Forty-nine states and DC reported exemption rates, with the median total of 1.8%. Although school entry coverage for most awardees was at or near national Healthy People 2020 targets of maintaining 95% vaccination coverage levels for 2 doses of MMR vaccine, 4 doses of DTaP† vaccine, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination and high exemption levels can cluster within communities, increasing the risk for disease. Reports to CDC are aggregated at the state level; however, local reporting of school vaccination coverage might be accessible by awardees. These local-level data can be used to create evidence-based health communication strategies to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the benefits of vaccinations to the health of their children and other kindergarteners.

  14. Single-Isocenter Multiple-Target Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Risk of Compromised Coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, Justin; Chanyavanich, Vorakarn; Betzel, Gregory; Switchenko, Jeffrey; Dhabaan, Anees

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effects of rotational errors on target coverage using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for multitarget stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 50 SRS cases, each with 2 intracranial planning target volumes (PTVs). Both PTVs were planned for simultaneous treatment to 21 Gy using a single-isocenter, noncoplanar VMAT SRS technique. Rotational errors of 0.5°, 1.0°, and 2.0° were simulated about all axes. The dose to 95% of the PTV (D95) and the volume covered by 95% of the prescribed dose (V95) were evaluated using multivariate analysis to determine how PTV coverage was related to PTV volume, PTV separation, and rotational error. Results: At 0.5° rotational error, D95 values and V95 coverage rates were ≥95% in all cases. For rotational errors of 1.0°, 7% of targets had D95 and V95 values <95%. Coverage worsened substantially when the rotational error increased to 2.0°: D95 and V95 values were >95% for only 63% of the targets. Multivariate analysis showed that PTV volume and distance to isocenter were strong predictors of target coverage. Conclusions: The effects of rotational errors on target coverage were studied across a broad range of SRS cases. In general, the risk of compromised coverage increased with decreasing target volume, increasing rotational error and increasing distance between targets. Multivariate regression models from this study may be used to quantify the dosimetric effects of rotational errors on target coverage given patient-specific input parameters of PTV volume and distance to isocenter.

  15. Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Dietz, Vance

    2016-10-07

    Sustained high coverage with recommended vaccinations among children has kept many vaccine-preventable diseases at low levels in the United States (1). To assess coverage with vaccinations recommended for children by age 2 years in the United States (2), CDC analyzed data collected by the 2015 National Immunization Survey (NIS) for children aged 19-35 months (born January 2012-May 2014). Overall, coverage did not change during 2014-2015. Coverage in 2015 was highest for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.7%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (92.6%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.9%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.8%). The data were also examined for potential vaccination coverage differences by race/ethnicity, poverty status, and urbanicity. Although disparities were noted for each of these factors, the most striking differences were seen for poverty status. Children living below the federal poverty level* had lower coverage with most of the vaccinations assessed compared with children living at or above the poverty level; the largest disparities were for rotavirus vaccine (66.8% versus 76.8%), ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (78.9% versus 87.2%), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib) (78.1% versus 85.5%), and ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (80.2% versus 87.1%). Although coverage was high in some groups, opportunities exist to continue to address disparities. Implementation of evidence-based interventions, including strategies to enhance access to vaccination services and systems strategies that can reduce missed opportunities, has the potential to increase vaccination coverage for children living below the poverty level and in rural areas (3).

  16. African media coverage of tobacco industry corporate social responsibility initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Cadman, Brie; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    Guidelines for implementing the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) recommend prohibiting tobacco industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, but few African countries have done so. We examined African media coverage of tobacco industry CSR initiatives to understand whether and how such initiatives were presented to the public and policymakers. We searched two online media databases (Lexis Nexis and Access World News) for all news items published from 1998 to 2013, coding retrieved items through a collaborative, iterative process. We analysed the volume, type, provenance, slant and content of coverage, including the presence of tobacco control or tobacco interest themes. We found 288 news items; most were news stories published in print newspapers. The majority of news stories relied solely on tobacco industry representatives as news sources, and portrayed tobacco industry CSR positively. When public health voices and tobacco control themes were included, news items were less likely to have a positive slant. This suggests that there is a foundation on which to build media advocacy efforts. Drawing links between implementing the FCTC and prohibiting or curtailing tobacco industry CSR programmes may result in more public dialogue in the media about the negative impacts of tobacco company CSR initiatives.

  17. Impact of universal health insurance coverage on hypertension management: a cross-national study in the United States and England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R H Dalton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA galvanised debate in the United States (US over universal health coverage. Comparison with countries providing universal coverage may illustrate whether the ACA can improve health outcomes and reduce disparities. We aimed to compare quality and disparities in hypertension management by socio-economic position in the US and England, the latter of which has universal health care. METHOD: We used data from the Health and Retirement Survey in the US, and the English Longitudinal Study for Aging from England, including non-Hispanic White respondents aged 50-64 years (US market-based v NHS and >65 years (US-Medicare v NHS with diagnosed hypertension. We compared blood pressure control to clinical guideline (140/90 mmHg and audit (150/90 mmHg targets; mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and antihypertensive prescribing, and disparities in each by educational attainment, income and wealth, using regression models. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in aggregate achievement of clinical targets aged 50 to 65 years (US market-based vs. NHS--62.3% vs. 61.3% [p = 0.835]. There was, however, greater control in the US in patients aged 65 years and over (US Medicare vs. NHS--53.5% vs. 58.2% [p = 0.043]. England had no significant socioeconomic disparity in blood pressure control (60.9% vs. 63.5% [p = 0.588], high and low wealth aged ≥65 years. The US had socioeconomic differences in the 50-64 years group (71.7% vs. 55.2% [p = 0.003], high and low wealth; these were attenuated but not abolished in Medicare beneficiaries. CONCLUSION: Moves towards universal health coverage in the US may reduce disparities in hypertension management. The current situation, providing universal coverage for residents aged 65 years and over, may not be sufficient for equality in care.

  18. Did Equity of Reproductive and Maternal Health Service Coverage Increase during the MDG Era? An Analysis of Trends and Determinants across 74 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Alkenbrack

    Full Text Available Despite widespread gains toward the 5th Millennium Development Goal (MDG, pro-rich inequalities in reproductive health (RH and maternal health (MH are pervasive throughout the world. As countries enter the post-MDG era and strive toward UHC, it will be important to monitor the extent to which countries are achieving equity of RH and MH service coverage. This study explores how equity of service coverage differs across countries, and explores what policy factors are associated with a country's progress, or lack thereof, toward more equitable RH and MH service coverage.We used RH and MH service coverage data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for 74 countries to examine trends in equity between countries and over time from 1990 to 2014. We examined trends in both relative and absolute equity, and measured relative equity using a concentration index of coverage data grouped by wealth quintile. Through multivariate analysis we examined the relative importance of policy factors, such as political commitment to health, governance, and the level of prepayment, in determining countries' progress toward greater equity in RH and MH service coverage.Relative equity for the coverage of RH and MH services has continually increased across all countries over the past quarter century; however, inequities in coverage persist, in some countries more than others. Multivariate analysis shows that higher education and greater political commitment (measured as the share of government spending allocated to health were significantly associated with higher equity of service coverage. Neither country income, i.e., GDP per capita, nor better governance were significantly associated with equity.Equity in RH and MH service coverage has improved but varies considerably across countries and over time. Even among the subset of countries that are close to achieving the MDGs, progress made on equity varies considerably across countries. Enduring disparities in access and

  19. Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine coverage achievements in low and middle-income countries 2007–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Gallagher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since 2007, HPV vaccine has been available to low and middle income countries (LAMIC for small-scale ‘demonstration projects’, or national programmes. We analysed coverage achieved in HPV vaccine demonstration projects and national programmes that had completed at least 6 months of implementation between January 2007–2016. Methods: A mapping exercise identified 45 LAMICs with HPV vaccine delivery experience. Estimates of coverage and factors influencing coverage were obtained from 56 key informant interviews, a systematic published literature search of 5 databases that identified 61 relevant full texts and 188 solicited unpublished documents, including coverage surveys. Coverage achievements were analysed descriptively against country or project/programme characteristics. Heterogeneity in data, funder requirements, and project/programme design precluded multivariate analysis. Results: Estimates of uptake, schedule completion rates and/or final dose coverage were available from 41 of 45 LAMICs included in the study. Only 17 estimates from 13 countries were from coverage surveys, most were administrative data. Final dose coverage estimates were all over 50% with most between 70% and 90%, and showed no trend over time. The majority of delivery strategies included schools as a vaccination venue. In countries with school enrolment rates below 90%, inclusion of strategies to reach out-of-school girls contributed to obtaining high coverage compared to school-only strategies. There was no correlation between final dose coverage and estimated recurrent financial costs of delivery from cost analyses. Coverage achieved during joint delivery of HPV vaccine combined with another intervention was variable with little/no evaluation of the correlates of success. Conclusions: This is the most comprehensive descriptive analysis of HPV vaccine coverage in LAMICs to date. It is possible to deliver HPV vaccine with excellent coverage in

  20. Development of trip coverage analysis methodology - CATHENA trip coverage analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Ho; Ohn, M. Y.; Cho, C. H.; Huh, J. Y.; Na, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, H. H.; Kim, S. W.; Bae, C. J.; Kim, T. M.; Kim, S. R.; Han, B. S.; Moon, B. J.; Oh, M. T. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Yongin (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    This report describes the CATHENA model for trip coverage analysis. This model is prepared based on the Wolsong 2 design data and consist of primary heat transport system, shutdown system, steam and feedwater system, reactor regulating system, heat transport pressure and inventory control system, and steam generator level and pressure control system. The new features and modified parts from the Wolsong 2 CATHENA LOCA Model required for trip coverage analysis is described. this model is tested by simulation of steady state at 100 % FP and at several low powers. Also, the cases of power rundown and power runup are tested. 17 refs., 124 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  1. Hybridization Efficiency of Molecular Beacons Bound to Gold Nanowires: Effect of Surface Coverage and Target Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Surface-bound nucleic acid probes designed to adopt specific secondary structures are becoming increasingly important in a range of biosensing applications but remain less well characterized than traditional single-stranded probes, which are typically designed to avoid secondary structure. We report the hybridization efficiency for surface-immobilized hairpin DNA probes. Our probes are molecular beacons, carrying a 3′ dye moiety and a 5′ thiol for attachment to gold nanowires, which serve as both scaffolds for probe attachment and quenchers. Hybridization efficiency was dependent on probe surface coverage, reaching a maximum of ∼90% at intermediate coverages of (1−2) × 1012 probes/cm2 and dropping to ≤20% at higher or lower coverages. Fluorescence intensity did not track with the number of target molecules bound, and was highest for high probe coverage despite the lower bound targets per square centimeter. Backfilling with short thiolated oligoethylene glycol spacers increased hybridization efficiency at low hairpin probe coverages (∼(3−4) × 1011 probes/cm2), but not at higher probe coverages (1 × 1012/cm2). We also evaluated the effect of target length by adding up to 50 nonhybridizing nucleotides to the 3′ or 5′ end of the complementary target sequence. Additional nucleotides on the 3′ end of the complementary target sequence (i.e., the end near the nanowire surface) had a much greater impact on hybridization efficiency as compared to nucleotides added to the 5′ end. This work provides guidance in designing sensors in which surface-bound probes designed to adopt secondary structures are used to detect target sequences from solution. PMID:21038880

  2. Al Jazeera and the DoD: The Need for Greater Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    informs and entertains . In addition to its normal programming that includes live interactive 11 programs, competitions and games, news, sports and...detention was “American harassment of an Arabic TV network whose coverage has long angered U.S. officials.”155 Although Al Hajj would be released without...issues and what is being down to address the issue (i.e. suicide rates in the U.S. military, women in combat, sexual assault). This type of dialogue

  3. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  4. Radiology 24/7 In-House Attending Coverage: Do Benefits Outweigh Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Stephanie; Holalkere, Nagaraj Setty; O׳Malley, Julie; Doherty, Gemma; Norbash, Alexander; Kadom, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    Many radiology practices, including academic centers, are moving to in-house 24/7 attending coverage. This could be costly and may not be easily accepted by radiology trainees and attending radiologists. In this article, we evaluated the effects of 24/7 in-house attending coverage on patient care, costs, and qualitative aspects such as trainee education. We retrospectively collected report turnaround times (TAT) and work relative value units (wRVU). We compared these parameters between the years before and after the implementation of 24/7 in-house attending coverage. The cost to provide additional attending coverage was estimated from departmental financial reports. A qualitative survey of radiology residents and faculty was performed to study perceived effects on trainee education. There were decreases in report TAT following 24/7 attending implementation: 69% reduction in computed tomography, 43% reduction in diagnostic radiography, 7% reduction in magnetic resonance imaging, and 43% reduction in ultrasound. There was an average daytime wRVU decrease of 9%, although this was compounded by a decrease in total RVUs of the 2013 calendar year. The financial investment by the institution was estimated at $850,000. Qualitative data demonstrated overall positive feedback from trainees and faculty in radiology, although loss of independence was reported as a negative effect. TAT and wRVU metrics changed with implementation of 24/7 attending coverage, although these metrics do not directly relate to patient outcomes. Additional clinical benefits may include fewer discrepancies between preliminary and final reports that may improve emergency and inpatient department workflows and liability exposure. Radiologists reported the impression that clinicians appreciated 24/7 in-house attending coverage, particularly surgical specialists. Loss of trainee independence on call was a perceived disadvantage of 24/7 attending coverage and raised a concern that residency education

  5. Armenian media coverage of science topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhitaryan, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses features and issues of Armenian media coverage on scientific topics and provides recommendations on how to promote scientific topics in media. The media is more interested in social or public reaction rather than in scientific information itself. Medical science has a large share of the global media coverage. It is followed by articles about environment, space, technology, physics and other areas. Armenian media mainly tends to focus on a scientific topic if at first sight it contains something revolutionary. Media primarily reviews whether that scientific study can affect the Armenian economy and only then decides to refer to it. Unfortunately, nowadays the perception of science is a little distorted in media. We can often see headlines of news where is mentioned that the scientist has made "an invention". Nowadays it is hard to see the border between a scientist and an inventor. In fact, the technological term "invention" attracts the media by making illusionary sensation and ensuring large audience. The report also addresses the "Gitamard" ("A science-man") special project started in 2016 in Mediamax that tells about scientists and their motivations.

  6. Medicaid Coverage of Methadone Maintenance and the Use of Opioid Agonist Therapy Among Pregnant Women in Specialty Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhuber, Marcus A; Mehta, Pooja K; Faherty, Laura J; Saloner, Brendan

    2017-12-01

    Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the standard of care for pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD). Medicaid coverage policies may strongly influence OAT use in this group. To examine the association between Medicaid coverage of methadone maintenance and planned use of OAT in the publicly funded treatment system. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of treatment admissions in 30 states extracted from the Treatment Episode Data Set (2013 and 2014). Medicaid-insured pregnant women with OUD (n=3354 treatment admissions). The main outcome measure was planned use of OAT on admission. The main exposure was state Medicaid coverage of methadone maintenance. Using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic, substance use, and treatment characteristics, we compared the probability of planned OAT use in states with Medicaid coverage of methadone maintenance versus states without coverage. A total of 71% of pregnant women admitted to OUD treatment were 18-29 years old, 85% were white non-Hispanic, and 56% used heroin. Overall, 74% of admissions occurred in the 18 states with Medicaid coverage of methadone maintenance and 53% of admissions involved planned use of OAT. Compared with states without Medicaid coverage of methadone maintenance, admissions in states with coverage were significantly more likely to involve planned OAT use (adjusted difference: 32.9 percentage points, 95% confidence interval, 19.2-46.7). Including methadone maintenance in the Medicaid benefit is essential to increasing OAT among pregnant women with OUD and should be considered a key policy strategy to enhance outcomes for mothers and newborns.

  7. Vaccination Coverage Among Adults With Diagnosed Diabetes: United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Maria A; Vahratian, Anjel

    2016-12-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey •Among adults aged 18 and over with diagnosed diabetes, 61.6% had an influenza vaccine in the past year. •A total of 52.6% of adults with diagnosed diabetes had a pneumococcal vaccine and 17.1% had the 3-dose vaccination schedule for hepatitis B at some point in the past. •Among adults aged 60 and over with diagnosed diabetes, 27.2% had ever had a shingles vaccine. •Among those with diagnosed diabetes, the vaccination coverage for influenza, pneumococcal, and shingles was lowest among poor adults, increased with age, and varied by race and ethnicity. •Hepatitis B vaccination coverage was lowest among poor adults, and it decreased with age. Persons with diabetes are at an increased risk for complications from vaccine-preventable infections (1-3). Several vaccines are recommended for adults with diabetes, including annual vaccination for influenza and at least a one-time dose of pneumococcal vaccine, regardless of age; a shingles vaccine starting at age 60; and a hepatitis B vaccine soon after diabetes diagnosis among those aged 19-59, and based on clinical discretion thereafter (4). This report describes the receipt of select vaccinations among adults with diagnosed diabetes by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and poverty status. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  8. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose.

  9. Complete coverage path planning of a random polygon - A FroboMind component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslund, Sebastian; Jensen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    The aim of this work is to have an universal solution for complete coverage which will be a component in the FroboMind architecture suggested by Kjeld Jensen in [9]. ... Compared to previously work done within the field of coverage path planning this work presents a complete, universal and generi...... for the FroboMind architecture and the agricultural community to explore and develop new algorithms for coverage path planning. Furthermore will the project be tested and verified by implementing it on a vehicle based on the FroboMind architecture....... solution where all the steps in the process is included: Segmentation of a data set, creation of a configuration space, decomposition of a polygon, global and local path planning. To achieve this, a series of known algorithms are used including some tweaks and improvements to create a solid foundation...

  10. Pediatric Emergency Department Utilization and Reliance by Insurance Coverage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Lauren E; Rogers, Michelle L; Gjelsvik, Annie; Linakis, James G; Vivier, Patrick M

    2017-12-01

    For many children, the emergency department (ED) serves as the main destination for health care, whether it be for emergent or nonurgent reasons. Through examination of repeat utilization and ED reliance (EDR), in addition to overall ED utilization, we can identify subpopulations dependent on the ED as their primary source of health care. Nationally representative data from the 2010 to 2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were used to examine the annual ED utilization of children age 0 to 17 years by insurance coverage. Overall utilization, repeat utilization (two or more ED visits), and EDR (percentage of all health care visits that occur in the ED) were examined using multivariate models, accounting for weighting and the complex survey design. High EDR was defined as having > 33% of outpatient visits in a year being ED visits. A total of 47,926 children were included in the study. Approximately 12% of children visited an ED within a 1-year period. A greater number of children with public insurance (15.2%) visited an ED at least once, compared to privately insured (10.1%) and uninsured (6.4%) children. Controlling for covariates, children with public insurance were more likely to visit the ED (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40-1.73) than children with private insurance, whereas uninsured children were less likely (aOR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.51-0.81). Children age 3 and under were significantly more likely to visit the ED than children age 15 to 17, whereas female children and Hispanic and non-Hispanic other race children were significantly less likely to visit the ED than male children and non-Hispanic white children. Among children with ED visits, 21% had two or more visits to the ED in a 1-year period. Children with public insurance were more likely to have two or more visits to the ED (aOR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.19-1.98) than children with private insurance whereas there was no significant difference in repeat ED utilization for

  11. Immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccination in Italian children with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, E; Carloni, E; Marino, M G; Ciofi degli Atti, M L; Gesualdo, F; Romano, M; Giannattasio, A; Guarino, A; Carloni, R; Borgia, P; Volpe, E; Perrelli, F; Pizzuti, R; Tozzi, A E

    2012-07-20

    Since children with chronic diseases represent a primary target for immunization strategies, it is important that their immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccines is optimal. We performed a study to measure immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccines in children with type 1 diabetes, HIV infection, Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and neurological diseases. A total of 275 children aged 6 months-18 years were included in the study. Coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), polio (Pol), and hepatitis B (HBV) vaccines approximated 85% at 24 months, while measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) coverage was 62%. Immunization coverage for seasonal influenza was 59%. The analysis of timeliness revealed that there was heterogeneity among children with different chronic diseases. A proportional hazard model showed that children with HIV infection had the longest time to complete three doses of DTP, Pol, and HBV, and those with neurological diseases received the first dose of MMR later than the other categories. Causes of missing or delayed vaccination mostly included a concurrent acute disease. Children with chronic diseases should be strictly monitored for routine and recommended vaccinations, and health care providers and families should be properly informed to avoid false contraindications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Between evidence and negligence: coverage and invisibilityof health topics in the Portuguese printed media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaca, Aline Guio; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Ferreira, Patrícia; Nunes, João Arriscado

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to conduct an assessment of the media coverage and dissemination of health issues in Portugal in order to problematize the aspects of coverage and invisibility of health topics and establish the themes neglected in media coverage. To achieve this, the coverage on health issues in the Portuguese daily newspaper Público was compared with the epidemiological context regarding health priorities and the perceptions of key players on media dissemination and the themes that are relevant to the Portuguese population. The results showed that the recurrent health-associated themes do not deal with diseases per se, but with the politics and economics of health and medication. The themes neglected in media coverage identified in the Portuguese context include: communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and tuberculosis; issues related to mental health and suicide; and ailments and social consequences associated with the economic crisis that has beset Portugal recently. From the standpoint of the people interviewed, other neglected diseases include hemochromatosis and other rare diseases. In tandem with this, the study highlights the well covered media themes that revolve around the lives and activities of celebrities, which are exhaustively aired in the communication media in the country.

  13. Keen on teen vaccines: improvement of adolescent vaccine coverage in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Richard J; Walter, Emmanuel B; Kemper, Alex R; Dayton, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    To improve adolescent immunization coverage in a rural North Carolina county. Adolescent immunization coverage rates in an intervention and four comparison counties were compared over 1 year. We introduced practice-based interventions in seven practices centering on immunization registry-driven recall of adolescents for immunizations with postcard reminders (Phase 1), and 6 months later employed nontargeted school-generated telephone reminders to parents of adolescents (Phase 2). Improvements in the intervention county among 11- to 12-year-olds occurred for first-dose human papillomavirus vaccine in both boys (overall change, 14.2%-32.1%) and girls (27.4%-43.4%) and the meningococcal vaccine (34.6%-49.4%). Improvements among adolescents 13-18 years were limited to human papillomavirus vaccine completion in boys (1.6%-4.2%). Improvements were greater during Phase 1 than Phase 2 and among younger adolescents. Coverage improvements in the comparison counties were smaller than those observed in the intervention county. A resource-light two-phase intervention led to modest improvements in immunization coverage, most notably in the largest adolescent practice in the county, and suggested potential for further gains, particularly among younger adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Method for Estimating the Coverage of Mass Vaccination Campaigns Against Poliomyelitis From Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, K M; Cori, A; Durry, E; Wadood, M Z; Bosan, A; Aylward, R B; Grassly, N C

    2015-12-01

    Mass vaccination campaigns with the oral poliovirus vaccine targeting children aged poliomyelitis eradication effort. Monitoring the coverage of these campaigns is essential to allow corrective action, but current approaches are limited by their cross-sectional nature, nonrandom sampling, reporting biases, and accessibility issues. We describe a new Bayesian framework using data augmentation and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate variation in vaccination coverage from children's vaccination histories investigated during surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis. We tested the method using simulated data with at least 200 cases and were able to detect undervaccinated groups if they exceeded 10% of all children and temporal changes in coverage of ±10% with greater than 90% sensitivity. Application of the method to data from Pakistan for 2010-2011 identified undervaccinated groups within the Balochistan/Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa regions, as well as temporal changes in coverage. The sizes of these groups are consistent with the multiple challenges faced by the program in these regions as a result of conflict and insecurity. Application of this new method to routinely collected data can be a useful tool for identifying poorly performing areas and assisting in eradication efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  15. The good, the bad, and the ugly of medication coverage: Is altering a diagnosis to ensure medication coverage ethical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Weston, BS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a patient presented to the dermatology clinic suffering from disabling, recurrent palmoplantar vesicles and pustules. Biopsy demonstrated nondiagnostic histologic findings without unequivocal evidence for psoriasis. The localized rash was recalcitrant to a host of standard therapies. An anti-tumor necrosis factor biologic was considered, and experience suggested that this expensive medication would only be approved for coverage if a diagnosis was submitted for a Food and Drug Administration–approved indication as psoriasis. All health-care providers face similar dilemmas in caring for their own patients. To whom is the physician’s primary responsibility when what is best for the patient may not align with the realities of our health-care system? Should a physician alter or exaggerate a medical diagnosis to obtain insurance coverage for a needed medication? What are the ethical implications of this action? If the physician’s fiduciary duty to the patient had no limits, there would be multiple potential consequences including compromise of the health-care provider’s integrity and relationships with patients, other providers, and third-party payers as well as the risk to an individual patient’s health and creation of injustices within the health-care system.

  16. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  17. Payer Coverage for Hereditary Cancer Panels: Barriers, Opportunities, and Implications for the Precision Medicine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosman, Julia R; Weldon, Christine B; Douglas, Michael P; Kurian, Allison W; Kelley, R Kate; Deverka, Patricia A; Phillips, Kathryn A

    2017-02-01

    Background: Hereditary cancer panels (HCPs), testing for multiple genes and syndromes, are rapidly transforming cancer risk assessment but are controversial and lack formal insurance coverage. We aimed to identify payers' perspectives on barriers to HCP coverage and opportunities to address them. Comprehensive cancer risk assessment is highly relevant to the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), and payers' considerations could inform PMI's efforts. We describe our findings and discuss them in the context of PMI priorities. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 major US payers, covering >160 million lives. We used the framework approach of qualitative research to design, conduct, and analyze interviews, and used simple frequencies to further describe findings. Results: Barriers to HCP coverage included poor fit with coverage frameworks (100%); insufficient evidence (100%); departure from pedigree/family history-based testing toward genetic screening (91%); lacking rigor in the HCP hybrid research/clinical setting (82%); and patient transparency and involvement concerns (82%). Addressing barriers requires refining HCP-indicated populations (82%); developing evidence of actionability (82%) and pathogenicity/penetrance (64%); creating infrastructure and standards for informing and recontacting patients (45%); separating research from clinical use in the hybrid clinical-research setting (44%); and adjusting coverage frameworks (18%). Conclusions: Leveraging opportunities suggested by payers to address HCP coverage barriers is essential to ensure patients' access to evolving HCPs. Our findings inform 3 areas of the PMI: addressing insurance coverage to secure access to future PMI discoveries; incorporating payers' evidentiary requirements into PMI's research agenda; and leveraging payers' recommendations and experience to keep patients informed and involved. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  18. Is universal health coverage the practical expression of the right to health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The present Millennium Development Goals are set to expire in 2015 and their next iteration is now being discussed within the international community. With regards to health, the World Health Organization proposes universal health coverage as a ‘single overarching health goal’ for the next iteration of the Millennium Development Goals. The present Millennium Development Goals have been criticised for being ‘duplicative’ or even ‘competing alternatives’ to international human rights law. The question then arises, if universal health coverage would indeed become the single overarching health goal, replacing the present health-related Millennium Development Goals, would that be more consistent with the right to health? The World Health Organization seems to have anticipated the question, as it labels universal health coverage as “by definition, a practical expression of the concern for health equity and the right to health”. Rather than waiting for the negotiations to unfold, we thought it would be useful to verify this contention, using a comparative normative analysis. We found that – to be a practical expression of the right to health – at least one element is missing in present authoritative definitions of universal health coverage: a straightforward confirmation that international assistance is essential, not optional. But universal health coverage is a ‘work in progress’. A recent proposal by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposed universal health coverage with a set of targets, including a target for international assistance, which would turn universal health coverage into a practical expression of the right to health care. PMID:24559232

  19. Civil liability and nuclear coverage: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized

  20. Coverage and timing of children's vaccination: an evaluation of the expanded programme on immunisation in The Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Scott

    Full Text Available To evaluate the coverage and timeliness of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI in The Gambia.Vaccination data were obtained between January 2005 and December 2012 from the Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance System (FHDSS, the Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System (BHDSS, the Kiang West Demographic surveillance system (KWDSS, a cluster survey in the more urban Western Health Region (WR and a cross sectional study in four clinics in the semi-urban Greater Banjul area of WR. Kaplan-Meier survival function was used to estimate the proportion vaccinated by age and to assess timeliness to vaccination.BCG vaccine uptake was over 95% in all regions. Coverage of DPT1 ranged from 93.2% in BHDSS to 99.8% in the WR. Coverage decreased with increasing number of DPT doses; DPT3 coverage ranged from 81.7% in BHDSS to 99.0% in WR. Measles vaccination coverage ranged from 83.3% in BHDSS to 97.0% in WR. DPT4 booster coverage was low and ranged from 43.9% in the WR to 82.8% in KWDSS. Across all regions, delaying on previous vaccinations increased the likelihood of being delayed for the subsequent vaccination.The Gambia health system achieves high vaccine coverage in the first year of life. However, there continues to be a delay to vaccination which may impact on the introduction of new vaccines. Examples of effectively functioning EPI programmes such as The Gambia one may well be important models for other low income countries struggling to achieve high routine vaccination coverage.

  1. Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks with Probabilistic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Anxing; Xu, Xianghua; Cheng, Zongmao

    2016-01-01

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has attracted considerable attention. Conventional research on this topic focuses on the 0/1 coverage model, which is only a coarse approximation to the practical sensing model. In this paper, we study the target coverage problem, where the objective is to find the least number of sensor nodes in randomly-deployed WSNs based on the probabilistic sensing model. We analyze the joint detection probability of target with multiple sensors. Based on the theoretical analysis of the detection probability, we formulate the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem. We prove that the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem is NP-hard and present an approximation algorithm called the Probabilistic Sensor Coverage Algorithm (PSCA) with provable approximation ratios. To evaluate our design, we analyze the performance of PSCA theoretically and also perform extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27618902

  2. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-11-26

    Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that

  3. Reliability analysis of imperfect coverage systems with a shared warm standby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pei-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Redundancy technique is commonly applied to satisfy the reliability requirements of fault-tolerant systems. Warm standby, a compromise between hot standby and cold standby in term of power consumption and recovery time, has attracted wide attention over the past several decades. However, the existing reliability analysis methods for warm standby system with imperfect coverage are difficult to deal with some cases, such as non-exponential time-to-failure distributions for the system components and the systems with shared standbys. In this paper, a new approach based on step function and impulse function is proposed to overcome the limitations of the existing approaches. The reliability of a system including shared standbys is deduced considering two kinds of imperfect fault coverage models, which contain Element Level Coverage (ELC and Fault Level Coverage (FLC. The proposed approach can applicable to any type of time-to-failure distributions for the system components subject to imperfect fault coverage. A case study is presented to illustrate the applications and advantages.

  4. [Coverage of cervical cancer screening in Catalonia, Spain (2008-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Roura, Esther; Ibáñez, Raquel; Peris, Mercè; Bosch, F Xavier; Coma E, Ermengol; Silvia de Sanjosé

    2014-01-01

    To estimate cervical cytology coverage for the period 2008-2011 by age groups and health regions from data recorded in the medical records of women attending centers within the Catalan national health system. The data used to estimate coverage were obtained from the primary care information system. This information was anonymous and included age, center, date, and the results of cytological smears for a total of 2,292,564 women aged 15 years or more. A total of 758,690 smears were performed in 595,868 women. Among women aged 25-65 years, the estimated coverage was 32.4% of the assigned population and was 40.8% in the population attended. Geographical variation was observed, with higher coverage among health regions closer to Barcelona. Abnormal Pap smears increased slightly from 2008 to 2011 (from 3% to 3.5%, respectively, p cancer. These systems could be used to plan an organized screening program to ensure wider coverage and better follow-up. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Health Care Personnel - United States, 2016-17 Influenza Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carla L; Yue, Xin; Ball, Sarah W; Fink, Rebecca; de Perio, Marie A; Laney, A Scott; Williams, Walter W; Lindley, Megan C; Graitcer, Samuel B; Lu, Peng-Jun; Devlin, Rebecca; Greby, Stacie M

    2017-09-29

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all health care personnel (HCP) receive an annual influenza vaccination to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality among HCP and their patients and to reduce absenteeism among HCP (1-4). To estimate influenza vaccination coverage among HCP in the United States during the 2016-17 influenza season, CDC conducted an opt-in Internet panel survey of 2,438 HCP. Overall, 78.6% of survey respondents reported receiving vaccination during the 2016-17 season, similar to reported coverage in the previous three influenza seasons (5). Vaccination coverage continued to be higher among HCP working in hospitals (92.3%) and lower among HCP working in ambulatory (76.1%) and long-term care (LTC) (68.0%) settings. As in previous seasons, coverage was highest among HCP who were required by their employer to be vaccinated (96.7%) and lowest among HCP working in settings where vaccination was not required, promoted, or offered on-site (45.8%). Implementing workplace strategies found to improve vaccination coverage among HCP, including vaccination requirements or active promotion of on-site vaccinations at no cost, can help ensure that HCP and patients are protected against influenza (6).

  6. Crop classification modelling using remote sensing and environmental data in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    With an ever expanding population, potential climate variability and an increasing demand for agriculture-based alternative fuels, accurate agricultural land-cover classification for specific crops and their spatial distributions are becoming critical to researchers, policymakers, land managers and farmers. It is important to ensure the sustainability of these and other land uses and to quantify the net impacts that certain management practices have on the environment. Although other quality crop classification products are often available, temporal and spatial coverage gaps can create complications for certain regional or time-specific applications. Our goal was to develop a model capable of classifying major crops in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) for the post-2000 era to supplement existing crop classification products. This study identifies annual spatial distributions and area totals of corn, soybeans, wheat and other crops across the GPRB from 2000 to 2009. We developed a regression tree classification model based on 2.5 million training data points derived from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) Cropland Data Layer (CDL) in relation to a variety of other relevant input environmental variables. The primary input variables included the weekly 250 m US Geological Survey Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized differential vegetation index, average long-term growing season temperature, average long-term growing season precipitation and yearly start of growing season. An overall model accuracy rating of 78% was achieved for a test sample of roughly 215 000 independent points that were withheld from model training. Ten 250 m resolution annual crop classification maps were produced and evaluated for the GPRB region, one for each year from 2000 to 2009. In addition to the model accuracy assessment, our validation focused on spatial distribution and county-level crop area totals in comparison with the

  7. Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network Coverage Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to serve for the ecological monitoring efficiency of Poyang Lake, an improved hybrid algorithm, mixed with differential evolution and particle swarm optimization, is proposed and applied to optimize the coverage problem of wireless sensor network. And then, the affect of the population size and the number of iterations on the coverage performance are both discussed and analyzed. The four kinds of statistical results about the coverage rate are obtained through lots of simulation experiments.

  8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF LOCAL BARRIER COVERAGE IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Kannan

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of project is to create appropriate model of coverage for movement detection applications such as intrusion detection. However it has been proved that given sensor deployment sensors cannot locally determine whether deployment provides global coverage. Making it impossible to develop localized algorithms thus limiting it Dees use in practice. In this project I am introducing the concept of local barrier coverage to address this limitation. It is motivated by the observation that ...

  9. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this...

  10. Monitoring quality and coverage of harm reduction services for people who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiessing, Lucas; Ferri, Marica; Běláčková, Vendula

    2017-01-01

    indicators and to present a framework for extending them with additional indicators of coverage and quality of harm reduction services, for monitoring and evaluation at international, national or subnational levels. The ultimate aim is to improve these services in order to reduce health and social problems...... are proposed for opioid agonist therapy (OAT), needle and syringe programmes (NSP) and generic cross-cutting aspects of harm reduction (and potentially other drug) services. Under the specific OAT indicators, priority indicators included 'coverage', 'waiting list time', 'dosage' and 'availability in prisons...

  11. Greedy Sparse Approaches for Homological Coverage in Location Unaware Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-08

    coverage holes (i.e., finding a minimal cycle of nodes that circum- ference a coverage hole or gap),17,20,22,24,31,32 7. event detection,33 and 8...mapping and route planning in an unknown environment.34–36 This list merely includes a good sampling of the applications that use homology as a basis for...subgroup of k-boundaries, denoted Bk(K), and we refer to the kernel of ∂k as the subgroup of k- cycles , denoted Zk(K). Since Bk(K) ⊂ Zk(K), the

  12. Health insurance coverage and health care access in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Sava, Valeriu; Menon, Rekha; McKee, Martin

    2012-05-01

    In 2004, the Moldovan government introduced mandatory (social) health insurance (MHI) with the goals of sustainable health financing and improved access to services for poorer sections of the population. The government pays contributions for non-employed groups but the self-employed, which in Moldova include many agricultural workers, must purchase their own cover. This paper describes the extent to which the Moldovan MHI scheme has managed to achieve coverage of its population and the characteristics of those who remain without cover. The 2008 July-October enhanced health module of the Moldovan Household Budget Survey was used. The survey uses multi-stage random sampling, identifying individuals within households within 150 primary sampling units. Numbers and characteristics of those without insurance were tabulated and the determinants of lack of cover were assessed using multivariate regression. 3760 respondents were interviewed. Seventy-eight per cent were covered by MHI. Factors associated with being uninsured include being self-employed (particularly in agriculture), unemployed, younger age and low income. Respondents who were self-employed in agriculture were over 27 times more likely to be uninsured than those who were employed. Agricultural workers in Moldova are responsible for purchasing their own cover; most respondents cited cost as the main reason for not doing so. While being uninsured has an impact on utilization, financial barriers persist for those with insurance who seek care. The strengths and weaknesses of the MHI system in Moldova provide valuable lessons for policy makers in low- and middle-income countries addressing the challenges of achieving equitable coverage in health insurance schemes and the complex nature of financial barriers to access.

  13. Visual impairment and spectacle coverage rate in Baoshan district, China: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment associated with refractive error and the unmet need for spectacles in a special suburban senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai, one of several rural areas undergoing a transition from rural to urban area, where data of visual impairment are limited. Methods The study was a population based survey of 4545 Chinese aged (age: >60 years or older ) at Baoshan, Shanghai, in 2009. One copy of questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. Results The prevalence of mild (6/12 to 6/18), moderate (6/18 to 6/60) and severe visual impairment was 12.59%, 8.38% and 0.44%, respectively, and 5.26%, 3.06% and 0.09% with refractive correction. Visual impairment was associated with age, gender, education and career, but not insurance . The prevalence of correctable visual impairment was 5.81% (using 6/18 cutoff) and 13.18% (using 6/12 cutoff). Senior people and women were significantly at a higher risk of correctable visual impairment, while the well-educated on the contrary. The prevalence of undercorrected refractive error (improves by 2 or more lines with refraction) was 24.84%, and the proportion with undercorrected refractive error for mild, moderate , severe and no visual impairment was 61.54%, 67.98%, 60.00% and 14.10%, respectively. The spectacle coverage rate was 44.12%. Greater unmet need for spectacles was observed among elderly people, females, non-peasant, and subjects with less education and astigmatism only. Conclusions High prevalence of visual impairment, visual impairment alleviated by refractive correction, and low spectacle coverage existed among the senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai. Education for the public of the importance of regular examination and appropriate and

  14. Visual impairment and spectacle coverage rate in Baoshan district, China: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengjun; Tong, Xiaowei; Zhao, Rong; He, Xiangui; Zhao, Huijuan; Liu, Meiling; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2013-04-08

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment associated with refractive error and the unmet need for spectacles in a special suburban senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai, one of several rural areas undergoing a transition from rural to urban area, where data of visual impairment are limited. The study was a population based survey of 4545 Chinese aged (age: >60 years or older ) at Baoshan, Shanghai, in 2009. One copy of questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. The prevalence of mild (6/12 to 6/18), moderate (6/18 to 6/60) and severe visual impairment was 12.59%, 8.38% and 0.44%, respectively, and 5.26%, 3.06% and 0.09% with refractive correction. Visual impairment was associated with age, gender, education and career, but not insurance . The prevalence of correctable visual impairment was 5.81% (using 6/18 cutoff) and 13.18% (using 6/12 cutoff). Senior people and women were significantly at a higher risk of correctable visual impairment, while the well-educated on the contrary. The prevalence of undercorrected refractive error (improves by 2 or more lines with refraction) was 24.84%, and the proportion with undercorrected refractive error for mild, moderate , severe and no visual impairment was 61.54%, 67.98%, 60.00% and 14.10%, respectively. The spectacle coverage rate was 44.12%. Greater unmet need for spectacles was observed among elderly people, females, non-peasant, and subjects with less education and astigmatism only. High prevalence of visual impairment, visual impairment alleviated by refractive correction, and low spectacle coverage existed among the senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai. Education for the public of the importance of regular examination and appropriate and accessible refraction service might be

  15. The cigarette advertising broadcast ban and magazine coverage of smoking and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E; Goldenhar, L M

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the cigarette broadcast advertising ban, which took effect in 1971, cigarette manufacturers rapidly shifted advertising expenditures from the broadcast media to the print media. In the last year of broadcast advertising and the first year of the ban, cigarette ad expenditures in a sample of major national magazines increased by 49 and then 131 percent in constant dollars. From an 11-year period preceding the ban to an 11-year period following it, these magazines decreased their coverage of smoking and health by 65 percent, an amount that is statistically significantly greater than decreases found in magazines that did not carry cigarette ads and in two major newspapers. This finding adds to evidence that media dependent on cigarette advertising have restricted their coverage of smoking and health. This may have significant implications for public health, as well as raising obvious concerns about the integrity of the profession of journalism.

  16. The impact of the macroeconomy on health insurance coverage: evidence from the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Moriya, Asako S; Simon, Kosali

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the macroeconomy on the health insurance coverage of Americans using panel data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation for 2004-2010, a period that includes the Great Recession of 2007-2009. We find that a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate is associated with a 1.67 percentage point (2.12%) reduction in the probability that men have health insurance; this effect is strongest among college-educated, white, and older (50-64 years old) men. For women and children, health insurance coverage is not significantly correlated with the unemployment rate, which may be the result of public health insurance acting as a social safety net. Compared with the previous recession, the health insurance coverage of men is more sensitive to the unemployment rate, which may be due to the nature of the Great Recession. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Medical devices: from licensing to coverage. highlights from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Ares, Lucila; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Pichon Riviere, Andrés; Garcia Marti, Sebastián; Gilardino, Ramiro; Cabra, Hermilio Arturo; Augustovski, Federico

    2016-11-01

    To describe and compare the requirements for medical devices licensing and reimbursement in four Latin-American countries. We conducted a literature search in major databases, and generic Internet engines, and interviewed key informants. We included all publications describing regulation and/or coverage and enriched them with key informant's interviews. We found that licensing processes are similar. The decision-making process for coverage is not formally different than the one used for drugs. Although countries differ, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico have an explicit process informed by Health Technology Assessment. In general, coverage policies are defined for procedures and don´t specify device brand or model, and for that reason they may reimburse without explicit one by one device evaluation. The process for licensing and reimbursement is broadly similar but less stringent than that for drugs. It allows the adoption of medical devices without individual comprehensive assessment.

  18. 76 FR 52475 - Summary of Benefits and Coverage and Uniform Glossary-Templates, Instructions, and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ...; instructions, sample language, and a guide for coverage examples calculations to be used in completing the... professionals, patient advocates including those representing ] individuals with limited English proficiency... of vocabulary, such as ``don't'' verses ``do not'' reflects intentional design based on feedback from...

  19. Atypical coverage in community-acquired pneumonia after outpatient beta-lactam monotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338003207; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/234602236; Postma, Douwe F.; Bonten, Marc J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123144337

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after >48 h of outpatient beta-lactam monotherapy, coverage of atypical pathogens is recommended based on expert opinion. Methods In a post-hoc analysis of a large study of CAP treatment we included patients who received

  20. 77 FR 8706 - Summary of Benefits and Coverage and Uniform Glossary-Templates, Instructions, and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... ``standards for the definitions of terms used in health insurance coverage.'' The statute directs the... included prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, hypertension, heart attack, stroke, major depression, and... glossary is intended to be educational in nature and that the definitions contained in the glossary may not...

  1. Fatigue resistance of teeth restored with cuspal-coverage composite restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Kuijs, R.H.; Kreulen, C.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the influence of palatal cuspal coverage on the in vitro fatigue resistance and failure mode of Class II resin composite restorations including replacement of the buccal cusp in premolars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A master model was made of a maxillary premolar with an MOD

  2. Looking for Work: The Coverage of Work in Canadian Introductory Sociology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shane Michael; Quirke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the textual coverage of the topic of work in Canadian English--language introductory sociology textbooks. Our findings are based on a content analysis of 21 Canadian texts published between 2008 and 2012. We found that only 12 of 21 textbooks included a chapter on work, suggesting that work occupies a peripheral position in…

  3. Vaccination coverage and out-of-sequence vaccinations in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornshøj, Linda; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fernandes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The WHO aims for 90% coverage of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), which in Guinea-Bissau included BCG vaccine at birth, three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months when...

  4. Mass anti-malarial administration in western Cambodia: a qualitative study of factors affecting coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Christopher; Tripura, Rupam; Nguon, Chea; Cheah, Phaikyeong; Davoeung, Chan; Heng, Chhouen; Dara, Lim; Sareth, Ma; Dondorp, Arjen; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Peto, Thomas J

    2017-05-19

    Mass anti-malarial administration has been proposed as a key component of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategy in the Greater Mekong sub-Region. Its effectiveness depends on high levels of coverage in the target population. This article explores the factors that influenced mass anti-malarial administration coverage within a clinical trial in Battambang Province, western Cambodia. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with villagers, in-depth interviews with study staff, trial drop-outs and refusers, and observations in the communities. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and translated from Khmer to English for qualitative content analysis using QSR NVivo. Malaria was an important health concern and villagers reported a demand for malaria treatment. This was in spite of a fall in incidence over the previous decade and a lack of familiarity with asymptomatic malaria. Participants generally understood the overall study aim and were familiar with study activities. Comprehension of the study rationale was however limited. After the first mass anti-malarial administration, seasonal health complaints that participants attributed to the anti-malarial as "side effects" contributed to a decrease of coverage in round two. Staff therefore adapted the community engagement approach, bringing to prominence local leaders in village meetings. This contributed to a subsequent increase in coverage. Future mass anti-malarial administration must consider seasonal disease patterns and the importance of local leaders taking prominent roles in community engagement. Further research is needed to investigate coverage in scenarios that more closely resemble implementation i.e. without participation incentives, blood sampling and free healthcare.

  5. Will health care reform reduce disparities in insurance coverage?: Evidence from the dependent coverage mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Dan M; Ayyagari, Padmaja

    2014-06-01

    We used data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to assess the impact of the Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage mandate on disparities in health insurance coverage rates and evaluated whether non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics gained coverage at the same rates as non-Hispanic whites. To estimate changes in insurance rates, we employed a difference-in-difference regression approach comparing 7962 young adults aged 19-25 to 9321 adults aged 27-34. Separate regressions were estimated for non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites to understand whether the mandate had differential effects by race/ethnicity. Separate regressions by income level and race/ethnicity were also estimated. Insurance rates increased by 9.3 percentage points among non-Hispanic whites, 7.2 percentage points among Hispanics, and 9.4 percentage points among non-Hispanic blacks. These changes were not significantly different from each other. Among individuals with income of insurance rates among all racial and ethnic groups but did not change overall disparities. Disparities may have widened among low-income populations which highlights the importance of Medicaid expansions in reducing disparities. Among higher-income populations, disparities between non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites were reduced.

  6. Blood from a turnip: tissue origin of low-coverage shotgun sequencing libraries affects recovery of mitogenome sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F. Keith; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Tomback, Diana F.

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing methods allow rapid, economical accumulation of data that have many applications, even at relatively low levels of genome coverage. However, the utility of shotgun sequencing data sets for specific goals may vary depending on the biological nature of the samples sequenced. We show that the ability to assemble mitogenomes from three avian samples of two different tissue types varies widely. In particular, data with coverage typical of microsatellite development efforts (∼1×) from DNA extracted from avian blood failed to cover even 50% of the mitogenome, relative to at least 500-fold coverage from muscle-derived data. Researchers should consider possible applications of their data and select the tissue source for their work accordingly. Practitioners analyzing low-coverage shotgun sequencing data (including for microsatellite locus development) should consider the potential benefits of mitogenome assembly, including internal barcode verification of species identity, mitochondrial primer development, and phylogenetics.

  7. Coverage of breast cancer in the Australian print media--does advertising and editorial coverage reflect correct social marketing messages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C

    2004-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer by mammographic screening has the potential to dramatically reduce mortality rates, but many women do not comply with screening recommendations. The media are an important source of health information for many women--through both direct social marketing advertisements and indirect dissemination of information via editorial content. This study investigated the accuracy of breast cancer detection messages in the top-selling Australian women's magazines and three weekend newspapers in the six-month period from December 2000 to May 2001 that included any reference to breast cancer and found that current coverage of breast cancer in the Australian print media conveys messages that are unlikely to encourage appropriate screening.

  8. Leaflets and continual educational offerings led to increased coverage rate of newborn hearing screening in Akita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Teruyuki; Nakazawa, Misao; Takahashi, Shin; Mizuno, Tomomi; Sato, Akira; Noguchi, Atsuko; Sato, Megumi; Katagiri, Sadako; Yamada, Takechiyo

    2017-11-28

    Newborn hearing screening (NHS) has been actively performed in Japan since 2001. The NHS coverage rate has increased each year in Akita Prefecture. We analyzed the details of the NHS program and how the Akita leaflets and the many educational offerings about the importance of NHS led to the high NHS coverage rate. A retrospective study was conducted in liveborn newborns in hospitals and in clinics where hearing screening was performed from the program's beginning in 2001 through the end of 2015. We describe the chronological history of NHS. The outcome data of NHS were collected from our department and analyzed. From the founding of the program in 2001 to 2015, the live birth rate in Akita continually declined. Nevertheless, the number of infants receiving NHS rose each year. Since 2012, the coverage rate of NHS has been over 90%. From 2001 to 2015, 75,331 newborns constituted the eligible population for the NHS program. Since 2012, the number of NHS tests has stabilized. We prepared educational leaflets for Akita Prefecture early in 2002. We also provided many educational classes about the importance of NHS for not only pregnant women but also professionals including obstetricians and gynecologists, pediatricians and municipal staff members. The NHS program received the complete endorsement of the Akita Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in 2010. The largest increase in the NHS coverage rate occurred from 2001 to 2002, and the second largest increase occurred from 2009 to 2010. The number of participating institutions increased the coverage rate. The coverage rate is strongly correlated with the number of participating institutions (rs=0.843, pinstitutions increased each year, and the number of NHS tests and the coverage rate increased proportionately. The number of participating institutions statistically has a strong correlation with the number of NHS tests and the coverage rate. Our research indicates that the Akita leaflets and the provision of

  9. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rachel; Bain, Robert; Cumming, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030). The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally. The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS) or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access) and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access). Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution. Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower. Rural

  10. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roche

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015 and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030. The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally.The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access. Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution.Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower

  11. Medicare Beneficiaries Face Growing Out-Of-Pocket Burden For Specialty Drugs While In Catastrophic Coverage Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin; Xu, Jianhui; Joyce, Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes provisions to reduce Medicare beneficiaries' out-of-pocket spending for prescription drugs by gradually closing the coverage gap between the initial coverage limit and the catastrophic coverage threshold (known as the doughnut hole) beginning in 2011. However, Medicare beneficiaries who take specialty pharmaceuticals could still face a large out-of-pocket burden because of uncapped cost sharing in the catastrophic coverage phase. Using 2008-12 pharmacy claims data from a 20 percent sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we analyzed trends in total and out-of-pocket spending among Medicare beneficiaries who take at least one high-cost specialty drug from the top eight specialty drug classes in terms of spending. Annual total drug spending per specialty drug user studied increased considerably during the study period, from $18,335 to $33,301, and the proportion of expenditures incurred while in the catastrophic coverage phase increased from 70 percent to 80 percent. We observed a 26 percent decrease in mean annual out-of-pocket expenditures incurred below the catastrophic coverage threshold, likely attributable to the ACA's doughnut hole cost-sharing reductions, but increases in mean annual out-of-pocket expenditures incurred while in the catastrophic coverage phase offset these reductions almost entirely. Policy makers should consider implementing limits on patients' out-of-pocket burden. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  13. An Evaluation of Voluntary Varicella Vaccination Coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2014 a 2-doses varicella vaccine (VarV schedule was recommended by the Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We aimed to assess the coverage of the 1st dose of VarV (VarV1 and the 2nd dose of VarV (VarV2 among children aged 2–6 years through the Zhejiang Provincial Immunization Information System (ZJIIS and to explore the determinants associated with the VarV coverage. Methods: Children aged 2–6 years (born from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013 registered in ZJIIS were enrolled. Anonymized individual records of target children were extracted from the ZJIIS database on 1 January 2016, including their VarV and (measles-containing vaccine MCV vaccination information. The VarV1 and VarV2 coverage rates were evaluated for each birth cohorts. The coverage of VarV also was estimated among strata defined by cities, gender and immigration status. We also evaluated the difference in coverage between VarV and MCV. Results: A total of 3,028,222 children aged 2–6 years were enrolled. The coverage of VarV1 ranged from 84.8% to 87.9% in the 2009–2013 birth cohorts, while the coverage of VarV2 increased from 31.8% for the 2009 birth cohort to 48.7% for the 2011 birth cohort. Higher coverage rates for both VarV1 and VarV2 were observed among resident children in relevant birth cohorts. The coverage rates of VarV1 and VarV2 were lower than those for the 1st and 2nd dose of MCV, which were above 95%. The proportion of children who were vaccinated with VarV1 at the recommended age increased from 34.6% for the 2009 birth cohort to 75.2% for the 2013 birth cohort, while the proportion of children who were vaccinated with VarV2 at the recommended age increased from 19.7% for the 2009 birth cohort to 48.7% for the 2011 birth cohort. Conclusions: Our study showed a rapid increasing VarV2 coverage of children, indicating a growing acceptance of the 2-doses VarV schedule among children’s caregivers and physicians after

  14. Assessing U.S. Health Journalists' Beliefs About Medical Overtreatment and the Impact of Related News Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Childers, Kim; Braddock, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    The United States spends more on health care than any other country in the world, but often experiences poorer health outcomes and lower patient satisfaction than other developed countries. One possible explanation for this paradox is overtreatment, the use of medical tests and treatment for which harms outweigh benefits. Because journalists play a key role in informing people about the health care system, including issues such as overtreatment, it is important to understand how they define the issue and its importance. This qualitative study of health news journalists offers an analysis of journalists' perspectives on overtreatment coverage. The interviews produced four major themes in regard to journalists' beliefs about overtreatment and its coverage: journalists' roles and responsibilities, the medical context, causes of overtreatment, and economics/costs. Journalists view overtreatment as an important but complex issue driven by Americans' faith in medicine and cultural norms that make uncertainty unacceptable. The medical contexts most associated with overtreatment are cancer testing and treatment and overprescribing. Journalists see themselves as providing information to help consumers make personal treatment decisions, rather than helping audiences understand health policy. For decades, the American public has expressed dissatisfaction with the U.S. health system; in one recent assessment, two-thirds of Americans graded the overall quality of health care in the country at a "C" or worse (Blendon, Benson, SteelFisher, & Weldon, 2011; Blendon, Brodie, Benson, Altman, & Buhr, 2006). A study of patient satisfaction in 11 Western countries showed greater dissatisfaction with the U.S. system than with those in any of the comparison countries, with more than one-quarter of Americans saying the U.S. health system needs to be completely rebuilt (Papanicolas, Cylus, & Smith, 2013).

  15. Policy implications of first-dollar coverage: a qualitative examination from the payer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, Emily F; Moore, Jonathan R; Whitmore, Heidi; O'Grady, Michael J; Shen, Angela K

    2011-01-01

    Immunization against potentially life-threatening illnesses for children and adults has proved to be one of the great public health successes of the 20th century and is extremely cost-effective. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes a number of provisions to increase coverage and access to immunizations for the consumer, including a provision for health plans to cover all Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices-recommended vaccines at first dollar, or without cost sharing. In this study, we examined payers' perspectives on first-dollar coverage of vaccines and strategies to improve vaccination rates. This was a qualitative study, using a literature review and semistructured expert interviews with payers. Four key themes emerged, including (1) the cost implications of the first-dollar change; (2) the importance of examining barriers to children, adolescents, and adults separately to focus interventions more strategically; (3) the importance of provider knowledge and education in increasing immunization; and (4) the effect of first-dollar coverage on those who decline vaccination for personal reasons. We determined that, while reducing financial barriers through first-dollar coverage is an important first step to increasing immunization rates, there are structural and cultural barriers that also will require collaborative, strategic work among all vaccine stakeholders.

  16. Universal health coverage and user charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C

    2013-10-01

    There has been an explosion of interest in the concept of ‘universal health coverage’, fuelled by publication of the World Health Report 2010. This paper argues that the system of user charges for health services is a fundamental determinant of levels of coverage. A charge can lead to a loss of utility in two ways. Citizens who are deterred from using services by the charge will suffer an adverse health impact. And citizens who use the service will suffer a loss of wealth. The role of social health insurance is threefold: to reduce households’ financial risk associated with sickness; to promote enhanced access to needed health services; and to contribute to societal equity objectives, through an implicit financial transfer from rich to poor and healthy to sick. In principle, an optimal user charge policy can ensure that the social health insurance funds are used to best effect in pursuit of these objectives. This paper calls for a fundamental rethink of attitudes and policy towards user charges.

  17. Deep coverage of the beer proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochalová, Martina; Konečná, Hana; Stejskal, Karel; Potěšil, David; Fridrichová, Danuše; Srbová, Eva; Ornerová, Kateřina; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2017-06-06

    We adopted an approach based on peptide immobilized pH gradient-isoelectric focusing (IPG-IEF) separation, coupled with LC-MS/MS, in order to maximize coverage of the beer proteome. A lager beer brewed using traditional Czech technology was degassed, desalted and digested. Tryptic peptides were separated by isoelectric focusing on an immobilized pH gradient strip and, after separation, the gel strip was divided into seven equally sized parts. Peptides extracted from gel fractions were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This approach resulted in a three-fold increase in the number of proteins identified (over 1700) when compared to analysis of unfractionated beer processed by a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP). Over 1900 protein groups (PGs) in total were identified by both approaches. The study significantly extends knowledge about the beer proteome and demonstrates its complexity. Detailed knowledge of the protein content, especially gluten proteins, will enhance the evaluation of potential health risks related to beer consumption (coeliac disease) and will contribute to improving beer quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating Software Complexity Based on Decision Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa AL-HAJJAJI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the complexity of software products. Software metrics are proposed to help show indications for quality, size, complexity, etc. of software products. In this paper, software metrics related to complexity are developed and evaluated. A dataset of many open source projects is built to assess the value of the developed metrics. Comparisons and correlations are conducted among the different tested projects. A classifica-tion is proposed to classify software code into different levels of complexity. The results showed that measuring the complexity of software products based on decision coverage gives a significant indicator of degree of complexity of those software products. However, such in-dicator is not exclusive as there are many other complexity indicators that can be measured in software products. In addition, we conducted a comparison among several available metric tools that can collect software complexity metrics. Results among those different tools were not consistent. Such comparison shows the need to have a unified standard for measuring and collecting complexity attributes.

  19. News coverage of controversial emerging technologies. Evidence for the issue attention cycle in print and online media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the issue attention cycle for print and online media coverage of a scientific publication examining the deaths of Chinese factory workers due to lung damage from chronic exposure to nanoparticles. The results of the nanoparticle study, published in 2009, embody news values that would make the study a prime candidate for press coverage, namely, novelty, negativity, controversy, and potential widespread impact. Nevertheless, mentions of the event in traditional English-language print media were nearly nonexistent. Online media, on the other hand, gave the story greater coverage. This case study exemplifies why online media may not be bound to the same issue attention cycle that print media are for controversial scientific events.

  20. Economic analysis of athletic team coverage by an orthopedic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Nicholas; Freedman, Kevin; Tucker, Brad; Austin, Luke; Eck, Brandon; Pepe, Matt; Tjoumakaris, Fotios

    2015-11-01

    Coverage of high school football by orthopedic sports medicine specialists is considered standard of care in many localities. Determining the economic viability of this endeavor has never been investigated. The primary purpose of the present investigation was to perform an economic analysis of local high school sports coverage by an orthopedic sports medicine practice. From January 2010 to June 2012, a prospective injury report database was used to collect sports injuries from five high school athletic programs covered by a single, private orthopedic sports medicine practice. Patients referred for orthopedic care were then tracked to determine expected cost of care (potential revenue). Evaluation and management codes and current procedure terminology codes were obtained to determine the value of physician visits and surgical care rendered. Overhead costs were calculated based on historical rates within our practice and incorporated to determine estimated profit. 19,165 athletic trainer contacts with athletes playing all sports, including both those 'on-field' and in the training room, resulted in 473 (2.5%) physician referrals. The covering orthopedic practice handled 89 (27.9%) of the orthopedic referrals. Of orthopedic physician referrals, 26 (5.4%) required orthopedic surgical treatment. The covering team practice handled 17/26 (65%) surgical cases. The total revenue collected by the covering team practice was $26,226.14. The overhead cost of treatment was $9441.41. Overall estimated profit of orthopedic visits and treatment during this period for the covering practice was $16,784.73. The covering team practice handled 28% of the orthopedic referrals, 65% of the surgical cases and captured 59% of the potential profit. An increase in physician referrals could increase the benefit for orthopedic surgeons.

  1. The environment in the headlines. Newspaper coverage of climate change and euthropication in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyytimaeki, J.

    2009-07-01

    most important factors contributing to the increase in coverage since 2006 include international policy negotiations and mild and snowless winters. Between 2006 and 2008, other factors included the releases of major scientific reviews, expressions of concern by key actors, and the related debate on energy policy. Changes in the anthropogenic driving forces of the environmental changes, namely nutrient discharges and greenhouse gas emissions, had only a marginal impact on the level of coverage. Based on the results, it is suggested that wide-ranging climate reporting has caused what has been called a piercing effect. This means that after the phase of intense and widespread media coverage, climate issues will not disappear but will shift from highly visible environmental headlines to less visible but more pervasive background information presented in various contexts. Such a piercing effect was not identified for eutrophication. This thesis highlights the importance of taking media coverage into account as a key factor in the formulation and implementation of environmental policies aimed at broad-based actions. (orig.)

  2. Newspaper coverage of human-pig chimera research: A qualitative study on select media coverage of scientific breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan-Brown, Abena; Favaretto, Maddalena; Borry, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    A recently published article in the journal Cell by scientists from the Salk Institute highlighted the successful integration of stem cells from humans in pig embryos. This marks the first step toward the goal of growing human organs in animals for transplantation. There has, to date, been no research performed on the presentation of this breakthrough in the media. We thus assessed early newspaper coverage of the chimera study, looking into the descriptions as well as the benefits and concerns raised by the study mentioned by newspaper sources. We looked at newspaper coverage of the human-pig chimera study in the two weeks after the publication of the article describing the breakthrough in Cell. This time period spanned from January 26 to February 9, 2017. We used the LexisNexis Academic database and identified articles using the search string "hybrid OR chimera AND pig OR human OR embryo." The relevant articles were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Two researchers openly coded the articles independently using themes that emerged from the raw texts. Our search yielded 31 unique articles, after extensive screening for relevance and duplicates. Through our analysis, we were able to identify several themes in a majority of the texts. Almost every article gave descriptive information about the chimera experiment with details about the study findings. All of the articles mentioned the benefits of the study, citing both immediate- and long-term goals, which included creating transplantable human organs, disease and drug development, and personalized medicine, among others. Some of the articles highlighted some ethical, social, and health concerns that the study and its future implications pose. Many of the articles also offered reassurances over the concerns brought up by the experiment. Our results appeared to align with similar research performed on the media representation of sensitive scientific news coverage. We also explored the inconsistency between

  3. Higher Education Students' Perceptions of Environmental Issues and Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinonen, Tuula; Palmberg, Irmeli; Kukkonen, Jari; Yli-Panula, Eija; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find higher education students' perceptions about environmental issues and how the perceptions are related to perceptions of media coverage. This study investigates higher education students' perceptions of the seriousness of environmental issues and their relation to perceptions of media coverage. Higher education students…

  4. A Computer Profile of Mobility Coverage and a Safety Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, B. B.; De l'Aune, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the Mobility Coverage Profile and Safety Index, which allows for computerized quantitative and qualitative evaluation of cane coverage by individuals with blindness. The mobility specialist inputs microcomponents of an individual's cane technique and a defined environmental situation, and the software generates a graphically…

  5. A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Such coverage is seen as having three interrelated dimensions: coverage of people, with needed health services and financial risk protection. The WHO asked a group of health ethicists from India, Zambia, Thailand, Uganda, Ethiopia, Norway, the UK, and the United States to develop guidelines to help countries address ...

  6. A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for Ethiopia, Uganda, and Zambia. As national health systems in developing countries make progress toward achieving universal health service coverage, many face ethical challenges. In its 2010 World Health Report, the World Health Assembly called on the ...

  7. Media coverage as an instrument of language rights activism: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contentious nature of language rights in the education system of South Africa has over the years given rise to the utilisation of media coverage as an instrument of language rights activism. This article focuses on the media coverage of the Hoërskool Ermelo case which was heard in the Pretoria High Court from February ...

  8. 5 CFR 250.201 - Coverage and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage and purpose. 250.201 Section 250.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.201 Coverage and purpose. The Chief Human...

  9. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Critical analysis of experimental surface ozone data and cloud coverage is reported over Kolkata during the period January 2011 to December 2011. Significant relationship between these two parameters is observed. Analysis shows that the trend of surface ozone concentration and cloud coverage follow opposite ...

  10. Pap smear coverage among rural workers | London | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the high incidence of cancer of the uterine cervix aInong black South African women, many do not have access to cytological screening services. Data describing Papanicolaou smear coverage and factors related to .coverage are presented from 9 surveys ofrural women workers in the food canning and processing ...

  11. Local Coverage of Three Mile Island during 1981-82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    Local newspaper coverage of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident was examined in a study to determine what changes, if any, were made by local media and what lessons they had learned from it. Data were collected through interviews with 21 media representatives. TMI coverage in the six newspapers was examined using each…

  12. St. Lukes' Survey on vaccination coverage | Quartero | Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    St. Lukes hospital, a PRAM unit in Zomba district, had an estimated vaccination coverage of 44% in 1990. To conf"1rID this very low coverage, a survey was done in the 5 km catchment area around the hospital. 611 children, being 104% of the estimated number, bom between 1st June 1989 and 31st May 1990 were ...

  13. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those aliens...

  14. Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka and Kerala. This project will provide evidence-based support to implement universal health coverage (UHC) pilot activities in two Indian states: Kerala and Karnataka. The project team will provide technical assistance to these early adopter states to assist ...

  15. 12 CFR 717.20 - Coverage and definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.20 Coverage and definitions (a) Coverage. Subpart C of this part applies...-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed agent, and a consumer based on— (A) A financial contract...

  16. 12 CFR 571.20 - Coverage and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 571.20 Coverage and definitions. (a) Coverage. Subpart C of this part applies to... account numbers, names, or addresses. (4) Pre-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed...

  17. 12 CFR 334.20 - Coverage and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.20 Coverage and definitions. (a) Coverage. Subpart C of... account numbers, names, or addresses. (4) Pre-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed...

  18. An Appraisal of Immunisation in Nigeria: Towards Improving Coverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though the Nigeria's universal child immunization coverage is said to have improved in the last two years much is still needed to bring the coverage target to at least 75% throughout the nation for effective control of all Vaccine Preventable Diseases. Targeted “mop-up” campaigns should be intensified for the wild polio ...

  19. Anterior palatal island advancement flap for bone graft coverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Palatal Island Advancement Flap was effective in bone graft coverage in premaxillary edentulous area. Conclusion: It can be used as an aid for bone graft coverage of premaxillary edentulous ridge, where the need for mucosa is small in width but long in length. Keywords: Anterior maxilla, bone graft, dental implant, ...

  20. Tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among mothers of below one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty and lack of health facilities also contributed to the low level of immunization coverage. For TT immunization to improve in the area studied, factors impeding immunization must be addressed. Keywords: tetanus, immunization, coverage. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 233- ...

  1. Newspaper Coverage of Nigeria Police Activities: A Content Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a content analysis of newspaper coverage of police activities in Nigeria from January to March, 2012. Three national dailies (the Nation, the Punch and Daily Sun) were studied. Among the specific objectives were to determine the volume of coverage of the activities of Nigeria Police by selected newspapers, ...

  2. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  3. Medical Coverage of High School Football in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, James B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of New York secondary schools showed that nearly 25 percent do not employ a physician to oversee medical coverage of football games. The authors suggest several ways to improve this much-needed coverage--not only to protect athletes but also to shield the administration from litigation. (JD)

  4. 22 CFR 151.3 - Types of insurance coverage required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of insurance coverage required. 151.3... LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.3 Types of insurance coverage required. (a) Every person subject to the Act and every mission shall have and maintain with respect to any motor...

  5. Understanding the Influence of Socioeconomic Environment on Paediatric Antiretroviral Treatment Coverage: Towards Closing Treatment Gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyinka, Daniel A; Evans, Meirion R; Ozigbu, Chamberline E; van Woerden, Hugo; Adeyinka, Esther F; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Aimakhu, Chris; Odoh, Deborah; Chamla, Dick

    2017-03-01

    Many sub-Saharan African countries have massively scaled-up their antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, but many national programmes still show large gaps in paediatric ART coverage making it challenging to reduce AIDS-related deaths among HIV-infected children. We sought to identify enablers of paediatric ART coverage in Africa by examining the relationship between paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic parameters measured at the population level so as to accelerate reaching the 90-90-90 targets. Ecological analyses of paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic indicators were performed. The data were obtained from the United Nations agencies and Forum for a new World Governance reports for the 21 Global Plan priority countries in Africa with highest burden of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Spearman's correlation and median regression were utilized to explore possible enablers of paediatric ART coverage. Factors associated with paediatric ART coverage included adult literacy (r=0.6, p=0.004), effective governance (r=0.6, p=0.003), virology testing by 2 months of age (r=0.9, p=0.001), density of healthcare workers per 10,000 population (r=0.6, p=0.007), and government expenditure on health (r=0.5, p=0.046). The paediatric ART coverage had a significant inverse relationship with the national mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate (r=-0.9, p<0.001) and gender inequality index (r=-0.6, p=0.006). Paediatric ART coverage had no relationship with poverty and HIV stigma indices. Low paediatric ART coverage continues to hamper progress towards eliminating AIDS-related deaths in HIV-infected children. Achieving this requires full commitment to a broad range of socioeconomic development goals. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  6. Strategies to improve treatment coverage in community-based public health programs: A systematic review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina V Deardorff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Community-based public health campaigns, such as those used in mass deworming, vitamin A supplementation and child immunization programs, provide key healthcare interventions to targeted populations at scale. However, these programs often fall short of established coverage targets. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of strategies used to increase treatment coverage in community-based public health campaigns.We systematically searched CAB Direct, Embase, and PubMed archives for studies utilizing specific interventions to increase coverage of community-based distribution of drugs, vaccines, or other public health services. We identified 5,637 articles, from which 79 full texts were evaluated according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-eight articles met inclusion criteria and data were abstracted regarding strategy-specific changes in coverage from these sources. Strategies used to increase coverage included community-directed treatment (n = 6, pooled percent change in coverage: +26.2%, distributor incentives (n = 2, +25.3%, distribution along kinship networks (n = 1, +24.5%, intensified information, education, and communication activities (n = 8, +21.6%, fixed-point delivery (n = 1, +21.4%, door-to-door delivery (n = 1, +14.0%, integrated service distribution (n = 9, +12.7%, conversion from school- to community-based delivery (n = 3, +11.9%, and management by a non-governmental organization (n = 1, +5.8%.Strategies that target improving community member ownership of distribution appear to have a large impact on increasing treatment coverage. However, all strategies used to increase coverage successfully did so. These results may be useful to National Ministries, programs, and implementing partners in optimizing treatment coverage in community-based public health programs.

  7. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  8. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2014-03-03

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  9. Low coverage of central point vaccination against dog rabies in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiani, Yvonne; Traoré, Abdallah; Mauti, Stephanie; Zinsstag, Jakob; Hattendorf, Jan

    2015-06-15

    Canine rabies remains an important public-health problem in Africa. Dog mass vaccination is the recommended method for rabies control and elimination. We report on the first small-scale mass dog vaccination campaign trial in Bamako, Mali. Our objective was to estimate coverage of the vaccination campaign and to quantify determinants of intervention effectiveness. In September 2013, a central point vaccination campaign--free of cost for dog owners--was carried out in 17 posts on three consecutive days within Bamako's Commune 1. Vaccination coverage and the proportion of ownerless dogs were estimated by combining mark-recapture household and transect surveys using Bayesian modeling. The estimated vaccination coverage was 17.6% (95% Credibility Interval, CI: 14.4-22.1%) which is far below the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended vaccination coverage of 70%. The Bayesian estimate for the owned dog population of Commune 1 was 3459 dogs (95% CI: 2786-4131) and the proportion of ownerless dogs was about 8%. The low coverage observed is primarily attributed to low participation by dog owners. Dog owners reported several reasons for not bringing their dogs to the vaccination posts. The most frequently reported reasons for non-attendance were lack of information (25%) and the inability to handle the dog (16%). For 37% of respondents, no clear reason was given for non-vaccination. Despite low coverage, the vaccination campaign in Bamako was relatively easy to implement, both in terms of logistics and organization. Almost half of the participating dog owners brought their pets on the first day of the campaign. Participatory stakeholder processes involving communities and local authorities are needed to identify effective communication channels and locally adapted vaccination strategies, which could include both central-point and door-to-door vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Atypical coverage in community-acquired pneumonia after outpatient beta-lactam monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Postma, Douwe F; Bonten, Marc J M

    2017-08-01

    In adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after >48 h of outpatient beta-lactam monotherapy, coverage of atypical pathogens is recommended based on expert opinion. In a post-hoc analysis of a large study of CAP treatment we included patients who received beta-lactam monotherapy for >48 h before hospitalization. Length of hospital stay (LOS), 30-day mortality, and number of treatment escalations were compared for those that continued beta-lactam monotherapy and those that received atypical coverage at admission. Of 179 patients (median age 66 years (IQR 50-78), 100 (56%) male), 131 (73%) received additional atypical coverage at admission. These patients were younger, had less comorbidities, and longer symptom duration, compared to those that continued beta-lactam monotherapy. In crude analysis, median (IQR) LOS was 6 (4-8) and 6 (4-9) days, mortality was 2% and 4%, and treatment escalations occurred in 8 (17%) and 11 (8%) patients without and with atypical coverage, respectively. Adjusted effect ratios for absence of atypical coverage on LOS, mortality, and treatment escalation were 0.77 (95% CI 0.61-0.97), 0.37 (0.04-3.67), and 2.75 (0.94-8.09), respectively. In adults hospitalized with CAP after >48 h of outpatient beta-lactam monotherapy, not starting antibiotics with atypical coverage was associated with a trend towards more treatment escalations, without evidence of increased LOS or mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low vaccination coverage of Greek Roma children amid economic crisis: national survey using stratified cluster sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraki, Ioanna; Arkoudis, Chrisoula; Terzidis, Agis; Smyrnakis, Emmanouil; Benos, Alexis; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research on Roma health is fragmentary as major methodological obstacles often exist. Reliable estimates on vaccination coverage of Roma children at a national level and identification of risk factors for low coverage could play an instrumental role in developing evidence-based policies to promote vaccination in this marginalized population group. Methods: We carried out a national vaccination coverage survey of Roma children. Thirty Roma settlements, stratified by geographical region and settlement type, were included; 7–10 children aged 24–77 months were selected from each settlement using systematic sampling. Information on children’s vaccination coverage was collected from multiple sources. In the analysis we applied weights for each stratum, identified through a consensus process. Results: A total of 251 Roma children participated in the study. A vaccination document was presented for the large majority (86%). We found very low vaccination coverage for all vaccines. In 35–39% of children ‘minimum vaccination’ (DTP3 and IPV2 and MMR1) was administered, while 34–38% had received HepB3 and 31–35% Hib3; no child was vaccinated against tuberculosis in the first year of life. Better living conditions and primary care services close to Roma settlements were associated with higher vaccination indices. Conclusions: Our study showed inadequate vaccination coverage of Roma children in Greece, much lower than that of the non-minority child population. This serious public health challenge should be systematically addressed, or, amid continuing economic recession, the gap may widen. Valid national estimates on important characteristics of the Roma population can contribute to planning inclusion policies. PMID:27694159

  12. Low vaccination coverage of Greek Roma children amid economic crisis: national survey using stratified cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamichail, Dimitris; Petraki, Ioanna; Arkoudis, Chrisoula; Terzidis, Agis; Smyrnakis, Emmanouil; Benos, Alexis; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2017-04-01

    Research on Roma health is fragmentary as major methodological obstacles often exist. Reliable estimates on vaccination coverage of Roma children at a national level and identification of risk factors for low coverage could play an instrumental role in developing evidence-based policies to promote vaccination in this marginalized population group. We carried out a national vaccination coverage survey of Roma children. Thirty Roma settlements, stratified by geographical region and settlement type, were included; 7-10 children aged 24-77 months were selected from each settlement using systematic sampling. Information on children's vaccination coverage was collected from multiple sources. In the analysis we applied weights for each stratum, identified through a consensus process. A total of 251 Roma children participated in the study. A vaccination document was presented for the large majority (86%). We found very low vaccination coverage for all vaccines. In 35-39% of children 'minimum vaccination' (DTP3 and IPV2 and MMR1) was administered, while 34-38% had received HepB3 and 31-35% Hib3; no child was vaccinated against tuberculosis in the first year of life. Better living conditions and primary care services close to Roma settlements were associated with higher vaccination indices. Our study showed inadequate vaccination coverage of Roma children in Greece, much lower than that of the non-minority child population. This serious public health challenge should be systematically addressed, or, amid continuing economic recession, the gap may widen. Valid national estimates on important characteristics of the Roma population can contribute to planning inclusion policies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Stakeholders apply the GRADE evidence-to-decision framework to facilitate coverage decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Philipp; Oxman, Andrew D; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Murad, M Hassan; Amato, Laura; Parmelli, Elena; Davoli, Marina; Morgan, Rebecca L; Mustafa, Reem A; Sultan, Shahnaz; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Akl, Elie A; Schünemann, Holger J

    2017-06-01

    Coverage decisions are complex and require the consideration of many factors. A well-defined, transparent process could improve decision-making and facilitate decision-maker accountability. We surveyed key US-based stakeholders regarding their current approaches for coverage decisions. Then, we held a workshop to test an evidence-to-decision (EtD) framework for coverage based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. A total of 42 individuals (including 19 US stakeholders as well as international health policymakers and GRADE working group members) attended the workshop. Of the 19 stakeholders, 14 (74%) completed the survey before the workshop. Almost all of their organizations (13 of 14; 93%) used systematic reviews for coverage decision-making; few (2 of 14; 14%) developed their own evidence synthesis; a majority (9 of 14; 64%) rated the certainty of evidence (using various systems); almost all (13 of 14; 93%) denied formal consideration of resource use; and half (7 of 14; 50%) reported explicit criteria for decision-making. At the workshop, stakeholders successfully applied the EtD framework to four case studies and provided narrative feedback, which centered on contextual factors affecting coverage decisions in the United States, the need for reliable data on subgroups of patients, and the challenge of decision-making without formal consideration of resource use. Stakeholders successfully applied the EtD framework to four case studies and highlighted contextual factors affecting coverage decisions and affirmed its value. Their input informed the further development of a revised EtD framework, now publicly available (http://gradepro.org/). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Optimization of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesters including non-linear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R; McWilliam, S; Popov, A A

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a versatile non-linear model for predicting piezoelectric energy harvester performance. The presented model includes (i) material non-linearity, for both substrate and piezoelectric layers, and (ii) geometric non-linearity incorporated by assuming inextensibility and accurately representing beam curvature. The addition of a sub-model, which utilizes the transfer matrix method to predict eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors for segmented beams, allows for accurate optimization of piezoelectric layer coverage. A validation of the overall theoretical model is performed through experimental testing on both uniform and non-uniform samples manufactured in-house. For the harvester composition used in this work, the magnitude of material non-linearity exhibited by the piezoelectric layer is 35 times greater than that of the substrate layer. It is also observed that material non-linearity, responsible for reductions in resonant frequency with increases in base acceleration, is dominant over geometric non-linearity for standard piezoelectric harvesting devices. Finally, over the tested range, energy loss due to damping is found to increase in a quasi-linear fashion with base acceleration. During an optimization study on piezoelectric layer coverage, results from the developed model were compared with those from a linear model. Unbiased comparisons between harvesters were realized by using devices with identical natural frequencies—created by adjusting the device substrate thickness. Results from three studies, each with a different assumption on mechanical damping variations, are presented. Findings showed that, depending on damping variation, a non-linear model is essential for such optimization studies with each model predicting vastly differing optimum configurations. (paper)

  15. Application of HIPAA group market rules to individuals who were denied coverage due to a health status-related factor--HCFA. Clarification of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-29

    This document addresses certain issues arising under the group market portability provisions added by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) with respect to employees (or their dependents) who, until the effective date of the HIPAA nondiscrimination provisions, were denied coverage under a group health plan, including group health insurance coverage, because of a health status-related factor.

  16. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Deep Space Network Antenna Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Fuentes, Michael; Meyer, Nicholas; Sil, Amy

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to understand NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) coverage gaps and any limitations to provide redundant communication coverage for future deep space missions, especially for manned missions to Moon and Mars. The DSN antennas are required to provide continuous communication coverage for deep space flights, interplanetary missions, and deep space scientific observations. The DSN consists of ground antennas located at three sites: Goldstone in USA, Canberra in Australia, and Madrid in Spain. These locations are not separated by the exactly 120 degrees and some DSN antennas are located in the bowl-shaped mountainous terrain to shield against radiofrequency interference resulting in a coverage gap in the southern hemisphere for the current DSN architecture. To analyze the extent of this gap and other coverage limitations, simulations of the DSN architecture were performed. In addition to the physical properties of the DSN assets, the simulation incorporated communication forward link calculations and azimuth/elevation masks that constrain the effects of terrain for each DSN antenna. Analysis of the simulation data was performed to create coverage profiles with the receiver settings at a deep space altitudes ranging from 2 million to 10 million km and a spherical grid resolution of 0.25 degrees with respect to longitude and latitude. With the results of these simulations, two- and three-dimensional representations of the area without communication coverage and area with coverage were developed, showing the size and shape of the communication coverage gap projected in space. Also, the significance of this communication coverage gap is analyzed from the simulation data.

  17. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  18. Progress Toward Universal Health Coverage: A Comparative Analysis in 5 South Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Karan, Anup; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Parsons, Alexander; Abe, Sarah Krull; Bilano, Ver; Awan, Rabia; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    of skilled attendant during delivery were at least 3 times higher among the wealthiest mothers in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan compared with the rates among poor mothers. Access to institutional delivery was 60 to 65 percentage points higher among wealthy than poor mothers in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan compared with 21 percentage points higher in India. Coverage was least equitable among the countries for adequate sanitation, institutional delivery, and the presence of skilled birth attendants. Health coverage and financial risk protection was low, and inequality in access to health care remains a serious issue for these South Asian countries. Greater progress is needed to improve treatment and preventive services and financial security.

  19. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Harris Requejo

    Full Text Available Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  20. Empiric antibiotic coverage of atypical pathogens for community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim-Raz, Noa; Robenshtok, Eyal; Shefet, Daphna; Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Vidal, Liat; Paul, Mical; Leibovici, Leonard

    2012-09-12

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is caused by various pathogens, traditionally divided into 'typical' and 'atypical'. Initial antibiotic treatment of CAP is usually empirical, customarily covering both typical and atypical pathogens. To date, no sufficient evidence exists to support this broad coverage, while limiting coverage is bound to reduce toxicity, resistance and expense. The main objective was to estimate the mortality and proportion with treatment failure using regimens containing atypical antibiotic coverage compared to those that had typical coverage only. Secondary objectives included the assessment of adverse events. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 3, 2012 which includes the Acute Respiratory Infection Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE (January 1966 to April week 1, 2012) and EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2012). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adult patients hospitalized due to CAP, comparing antibiotic regimens with atypical coverage (quinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, streptogramins or ketolides) to a regimen without atypical antibiotic coverage. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from included trials. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed heterogeneity using a Chi(2) test. We included 28 trials, encompassing 5939 randomized patients. The atypical antibiotic was administered as monotherapy in all but three studies. Only one study assessed a beta-lactam combined with a macrolide compared to the same beta-lactam. There was no difference in mortality between the atypical arm and the non-atypical arm (RR 1.14; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.55), RR atypical arm. The atypical arm showed an insignificant trend toward clinical success and a significant advantage to bacteriological eradication, which disappeared when evaluating methodologically high quality studies alone. Clinical success for the atypical arm

  1. Implications of Medicaid coverage in a program for Latino substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Sara S; Walter, Angela W; Kuilan, Nellie; Lundgren, Lena M

    2008-02-01

    This cross-sectional study explored baseline differences between Medicaid covered and uninsured clients (n=368) in the Project La Voz, a community outreach program targeting Latino substance users. Independent variables included client demographics, health status and health service use; the dependent variable was Medicaid coverage vs. uninsured. Bi-variate analyses and three binomial logistic regression models were conducted. The first logistic regression model examining client characteristics indicated that La Voz enrollees with Medicaid coverage were more likely to be women, reside in stable housing, and report poor health status. Employment and educational status were not significantly associated with having Medicaid. A second model, examining the association between health care utilization in the past 30 days and Medicaid coverage, indicated that LaVoz enrollees with Medicaid were significantly more likely to have entered substance use treatment. In the third model, client characteristics and health care use were examined in one model; all variables remained significant except for gender. IMPLICATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING: Massachusetts recent health care reform efforts include substance abuse treatment benefits through Medicaid. Specific strategies are needed to ensure that Latinos substance abusers, particularly those who are homeless, gain Medicaid coverage and then have access to needed services.

  2. [Anti-pneumococcal vaccine coverage for hospitalized risk patients: Assessment and suggestions for improvements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, C; Le Garlantezec, P; Lamand, V; Rasamijao, V; Rapp, C

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause invasive infections. Incidence and severity are linked to patients' risk factors. Due to the resistance to leading antibiotics, the anti-pneumococcal vaccination has become a major public health issue. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the anti-pneumococcal vaccine coverage in a population of adults with risk factors. This was a prospective study that included patients with at least one recommendation for pneumococcal vaccination as indicated by the Weekly Epidemiological Bulletin (BEH), to which three further US recommendations were added (diabetes, obesity and age>65years). One hundred and thirty-four patients with an average age of 70 years were included. The physician could only confirm 68 % of the patients' vaccination status. Vaccination coverage as recommended by the BEH board was 30 % (n=54). All HIV patients were vaccinated (n=2) and the vaccination coverage was 75 % (n=8) for patients treated for autoimmune diseases and only 10 % (n=20) for patients treated with chemotherapy. Patients with no vaccination didn't know the existence of the vaccine or didn't know that vaccination was recommended to them. This study has highlighted a deficit in pneumococcal vaccination coverage and a high level of ignorance of the existence of recommended vaccination. In addition to awareness campaign for patients and caregiver training, the expansion of the vaccine e-book utilization could improve the vaccination status. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Universal health coverage in Latin American countries: how to improve solidarity-based schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelman, Daniel; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Acosta, Olga Lucía

    2015-04-04

    In this Health Policy we examine the association between the financing structure of health systems and universal health coverage. Latin American health systems encompass a wide range of financial sources, which translate into different solidarity-based schemes that combine contributory (payroll taxes) and non-contributory (general taxes) sources of financing. To move towards universal health coverage, solidarity-based schemes must heavily rely on countries' capacity to increase public expenditure in health. Improvement of solidarity-based schemes will need the expansion of mandatory universal insurance systems and strengthening of the public sector including increased fiscal expenditure. These actions demand a new model to integrate different sources of health-sector financing, including general tax revenue, social security contributions, and private expenditure. The extent of integration achieved among these sources will be the main determinant of solidarity and universal health coverage. The basic challenges for improvement of universal health coverage are not only to spend more on health, but also to reduce the proportion of out-of-pocket spending, which will need increased fiscal resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing Coverage of Hepatitis B Vaccination in China: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Implementation Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Smith, Helen; Peng, Zhuoxin; Xu, Biao; Wang, Weibing

    2016-05-01

    This study used a system evaluation method to summarize China's experience on improving the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine, especially the strategies employed to improve the uptake of timely birth dosage. Identifying successful methods and strategies will provide strong evidence for policy makers and health workers in other countries with high hepatitis B prevalence.We conducted a literature review included English or Chinese literature carried out in mainland China, using PubMed, the Cochrane databases, Web of Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang data, and other relevant databases.Nineteen articles about the effectiveness and impact of interventions on improving the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine were included. Strong or moderate evidence showed that reinforcing health education, training and supervision, providing subsidies for facility birth, strengthening the coordination among health care providers, and using out-of-cold-chain storage for vaccines were all important to improving vaccination coverage.We found evidence that community education was the most commonly used intervention, and out-reach programs such as out-of-cold chain strategy were more effective in increasing the coverage of vaccination in remote areas where the facility birth rate was respectively low. The essential impact factors were found to be strong government commitment and the cooperation of the different government departments.Public interventions relying on basic health care systems combined with outreach care services were critical elements in improving the hepatitis B vaccination rate in China. This success could not have occurred without exceptional national commitment.

  5. Frequency of Risk-Related News Media Messages in 2016 Coverage of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Watson, Crystal; Meyer, Diane; Kronk, Marissa; Ravi, Sanjana; Pechta, Laura E; Lubell, Keri M; Rose, Dale A

    2018-01-03

    News media plays a large role in the information the public receives during an infectious disease outbreak, and may influence public knowledge and perceptions of risk. This study analyzed and described the content of U.S. news media coverage of Zika virus and Zika response during 2016. A random selection of 800 Zika-related news stories from 25 print and television news sources was analyzed. The study examined 24 different messages that appeared in news media articles and characterized them using theories of risk perception as messages with characteristics that could increase perception of risk (risk-elevating messages; n = 14), messages that could decrease perception of risk (risk-minimizing messages; n = 8), or messages about travel or testing guidance (n = 2). Overall, 96% of news stories in the study sample contained at least one or more risk-elevating message(s) and 61% contained risk-minimizing message(s). The frequency of many messages changed after local transmission was confirmed in Florida, and differed between sources in locations with or without local transmission in 2016. Forty percent of news stories included messages about negative potential outcomes of Zika virus infection without mentioning ways to reduce risk. Findings from this study may help inform current federal, state, and local Zika responses by offering a detailed analysis of how news media are covering the outbreak and response activities as well as identifying specific messages appearing more or less frequently than intended. Findings identifying the types of messages that require greater emphasis may also assist public health communicators in responding more effectively to future outbreaks. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Coverage or Cover-up: A Comparison of Newspaper Coverage of the 19th Amendment and the Equal Rights Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda Lazier

    A study compared newspaper coverage of the women's suffrage movement in the 1920s with coverage of efforts to pass the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1970s and early 1980s, to see if the similar movements with different outcomes were treated similarly or differently by the press. A content analysis of relevant articles in the "New York…

  7. Health Coverage for Legal Immigrant Children: New Census Data Highlight Importance of Restoring Medicaid and SCHIP Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Leighton; Blaney, Shannon

    Health insurance coverage of low-income children and parents in immigrant families has become more precarious since passage of the federal welfare law in 1996. This is primarily the result of a substantial decline in Medicaid coverage for these children and parents, which stems from restrictions that the welfare law placed on the eligibility of…

  8. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  9. Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area ... It is expected that the project will result in greater accountability of leaders to local constituencies, and sharper awareness of environmental and economic opportunities on the part of participating communities.

  10. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... After 1 month, 60% of patients still showed improvement. Conclusion: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in eliminating chronic migraine headache.

  11. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  12. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  13. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  14. Assessing Human Impacts on the Greater Akaki River, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the impacts of human activities on the Greater Akaki River using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical samples and macroinvertebrates were collected bimonthly from eight sites established on the Greater Akaki River from February 2006 to April 2006. Eleven metrics ...

  15. Mercury's global contraction much greater than earlier estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Paul K.; Klimczak, Christian; Celâl Şengör, A. M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watters, Thomas R.; Hauck, Steven A., II

    2014-04-01

    Mercury, a planet with a lithosphere that forms a single tectonic plate, is replete with tectonic structures interpreted to be the result of planetary cooling and contraction. However, the amount of global contraction inferred from spacecraft images has been far lower than that predicted by models of the thermal evolution of the planet's interior. Here we present a synthesis of the global contraction of Mercury from orbital observations acquired by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We show that Mercury's global contraction has been accommodated by a substantially greater number and variety of structures than previously recognized, including long belts of ridges and scarps where the crust has been folded and faulted. The tectonic features on Mercury are consistent with models for large-scale deformation proposed for a globally contracting Earth--now obsolete--that pre-date plate tectonics theory. We find that Mercury has contracted radially by as much as 7 km, well in excess of the 0.8-3 km previously reported from photogeology and resolving the discrepancy with thermal models. Our findings provide a key constraint for studies of Mercury's thermal history, bulk silicate abundances of heat-producing elements, mantle convection and the structure of its large metallic core.

  16. Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite's t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set)

  17. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W

    2005-11-01

    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  18. [Reproductive health survey of young adults in greater Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M S; Herold, J M; Morris, L; López, I M

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 a survey was carried out in order to obtain information on knowledge about reproduction, sexual activity, attitudes, and use of contraceptive methods among residents between 15 and 24 years of age in Greater Santiago. For this purpose, a multistage, self-weighted, non-replacement probability sample was chosen from the entire Santiago urban area. After 2,898 households were visited, 865 women and 800 men were selected and interviewed. For the interview, a questionnaire with 156 questions was developed; many questions were similar to those included in similar surveys in Brazil and Guatemala. The interviewers were professionals who had received prior training. Although 75% of the interviewees had attended sex education classes, they had erroneous ideas on various basic subjects. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed had undergone menarche before attending these classes. In addition, 35.4% of the women and 65.0% of the men had had sexual relations prior to marriage, and less than 20% had used any contraceptive method. More than 60% of the interviewees who had children had conceived them before marrying. These findings point up the necessity of offering sex education classes for children and young people, as well as facilitating their access to family planning services, in order to decrease the number of illegitimate and unwanted children that are born in Chile.

  19. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  20. Health Care: Information on Coverage Choices for Servicemembers, Former Servicemembers, and Dependents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    services (including dental and vision). Page 4 GAO-15-4 Health Care Coverage 4. To what extent do servicemembers, former servicemembers...may apply to some types of care, such as dental services, durable medical equipment, and prosthetics. 35With respect to long-term care services, VA...includes medically necessary outpatient hospital services, physicians’ services, and durable medical equipment—such as walkers and wheelchairs .36

  1. US health policy and prescription drug coverage of FDA-approved medications for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G; Stanford, F C

    2017-11-20

    Obesity is now the most prevalent chronic disease in the United States, which amounts to an estimated $147 billion in health care spending annually. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) enacted in 2010 included provisions for private and public health insurance plans that expanded coverage for lifestyle/behavior modification and bariatric surgery for the treatment of obesity. Pharmacotherapy, however, has not been included despite their evidence-based efficacy. We set out to investigate the coverage of Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for obesity within Medicare, Medicaid and ACA-established marketplace health insurance plans. We examined coverage for phentermine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine, Benzphentamine, Lorcaserin, Phentermine/Topiramate (Qysmia), Liraglutide (Saxenda) and Buproprion/Naltrexone (Contrave) among Medicare, Medicaid and marketplace insurance plans in 34 states. Among 136 marketplace health insurance plans, 11% had some coverage for the specified drugs in only nine states. Medicare policy strictly excludes drug therapy for obesity. Only seven state Medicaid programs have drug coverage. Obesity requires an integrated approach to combat its public health threat. Broader coverage of pharmacotherapy can make a significant contribution to fighting this complex and chronic disease.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 9 January 2018; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.287.

  2. The quest for universal health coverage: achieving social protection for all in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; García-Junco, David; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Barraza-Lloréns, Mariana; Sandoval, Rosa; Caballero, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Juan, Mercedes; Kershenobich, David; Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruelas, Enrique; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Tapia, Roberto; Soberón, Guillermo; Chertorivski, Salomón; Frenk, Julio

    2012-10-06

    Mexico is reaching universal health coverage in 2012. A national health insurance programme called Seguro Popular, introduced in 2003, is providing access to a package of comprehensive health services with financial protection for more than 50 million Mexicans previously excluded from insurance. Universal coverage in Mexico is synonymous with social protection of health. This report analyses the road to universal coverage along three dimensions of protection: against health risks, for patients through quality assurance of health care, and against the financial consequences of disease and injury. We present a conceptual discussion of the transition from labour-based social security to social protection of health, which implies access to effective health care as a universal right based on citizenship, the ethical basis of the Mexican reform. We discuss the conditions that prompted the reform, as well as its design and inception, and we describe the 9-year, evidence-driven implementation process, including updates and improvements to the original programme. The core of the report concentrates on the effects and impacts of the reform, based on analysis of all published and publically available scientific literature and new data. Evidence indicates that Seguro Popular is improving access to health services and reducing the prevalence of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures, especially for the poor. Recent studies also show improvement in effective coverage. This research then addresses persistent challenges, including the need to translate financial resources into more effective, equitable and responsive health services. A next generation of reforms will be required and these include systemic measures to complete the reorganisation of the health system by functions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the Mexican quest to achieve universal health coverage and its relevance for other low-income and middle-income countries. Copyright

  3. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar Meera

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a

  4. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanja, Honorati; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Mshinda, Hassan M; Shekar, Meera; Mugyabuso, Joseph K L; Ndossi, Godwin D; de Savigny, Don

    2006-11-01

    Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+) approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1) during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999); and (2) three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002). A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1-2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10-18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72-81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70%) (p = 0.04). Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a need to monitor the effect of such campaigns on the routine health

  5. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%– vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage. PMID:25760670

  6. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%- vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage.

  7. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  8. Integrated diode circuits for greater than 1 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthal, Gerhard Siegbert

    The terahertz frequency band, spanning from roughly 100 GHz to 10 THz, forms the transition from electronics to photonics. This band is often referred to as the "terahertz technology gap" because it lacks typical microwave and optical components. The deficit of terahertz devices makes it difficult to conduct important scientific measurements that are exclusive to this band in fields such as radio astronomy and chemical spectroscopy. In addition, a number of scientific, military and commercial applications will become more practical when a suitable terahertz technology is developed. UVa's Applied Electrophysics Laboratory has extended non-linear microwave diode technology into the terahertz region. Initial success was achieved with whisker-contacted diodes and then discrete planar Schottky diodes soldered onto quartz circuits. Work at UVa and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory succeeded in integrating this diode technology onto low dielectric substrates, thereby producing more practical components with greater yield and improved performance. However, the development of circuit integration technologies for greater than 1 THz and the development of broadly tunable sources of terahertz power remain as major research goals. Meeting these critical needs is the primary motivation for this research. To achieve this goal and demonstrate a useful prototype for one of our sponsors, this research project has focused on the development of a Sideband Generator at 1.6 THz. This component allows use of a fixed narrow band source as a tunable power source for terahertz spectroscopy and compact range radar. To prove the new fabrication and circuit technologies, initial devices were fabricated and tested at 200 and 600 GHz. These circuits included non-ohmic cathodes, air-bridged fingers, oxideless anode formation, and improved quartz integration processes. The excellent performance of these components validated these new concepts. The prototype process was then further optimized to

  9. Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among adults 18–49 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-jun; Byrd, Kathy K.; Murphy, Trudy V.

    2018-01-01

    Background Since 1996, hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) has been recommended for adults at increased risk for infection including travelers to high or intermediate hepatitis A endemic countries. In 2009, travel outside the United States and Canada was the most common exposure nationally reported for persons with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Objective To assess HepA vaccination coverage among adults 18–49 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity in the United States. Methods We analyzed data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), to determine self-reported HepA vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) and series completion (≥2 dose) among persons 18–49 years who traveled, since 1995, to a country of high or intermediate HAV endemicity. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with HepA vaccine receipt. Results In 2010, approximately 36.6% of adults 18–49 years reported traveling to high or intermediate hepatitis A endemic countries; among this group unadjusted HepA vaccination coverage was 26.6% compared to 12.7% among non-travelers (P-values a higher likelihood of HepA receipt among travelers included Asian race/ethnicity, male sex, never having been married, having a high school or higher education, living in the western United States, having greater number of physician contacts or receipt of influenza vaccination in the previous year. HepB vaccination was excluded from the model because of the significant correlation between receipt of HepA vaccination and HepB vaccination could distort the model. Conclusions Although travel to a country of high or intermediate hepatitis A endemicity was associated with higher likelihood of HepA vaccination in 2010 among adults 18–49 years, self-reported HepA vaccination coverage was low among adult travelers to these areas. Healthcare providers should ask their patients’ upcoming travel plans and

  10. Contraception and abortion coverage: What do primary care physicians think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cynthia H; Martenis, Melissa E; Parisi, Sara M; Delano, Rachel E; Sobota, Mindy; Nothnagle, Melissa; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla

    2012-08-01

    Insurance coverage for family planning services has been a highly controversial element of the US health care reform debate. Whether primary care providers (PCPs) support public and private health insurance coverage for family planning services is unknown. PCPs in three states were surveyed regarding their opinions on health plan coverage and tax dollar use for contraception and abortion services. Almost all PCPs supported health plan coverage for contraception (96%) and use of tax dollars to cover contraception for low-income women (94%). A smaller majority supported health plan coverage for abortions (61%) and use of tax dollars to cover abortions for low-income women (63%). In adjusted models, support of health plan coverage for abortions was associated with female gender and internal medicine specialty, and support of using tax dollars for abortions for low-income women was associated with older age and internal medicine specialty. The majority of PCPs support health insurance coverage of contraception and abortion, as well as tax dollar subsidization of contraception and abortion services for low-income women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detecting Boundary Nodes and Coverage Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of coverage holes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs means that some special events have broken out and the function of WSNs will be seriously influenced. Therefore, the issues of coverage holes have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we focus on the identification of boundary nodes and coverage holes, which is crucially important to preventing the enlargement of coverage holes and ensuring the transmission of data. We define the problem of coverage holes and propose two novel algorithms to identify the coverage holes in WSNs. The first algorithm, Distributed Sector Cover Scanning (DSCS, can be used to identify the nodes on hole borders and the outer boundary of WSNs. The second scheme, Directional Walk (DW, can locate the coverage holes based on the boundary nodes identified with DSCS. We implement the algorithms in various scenarios and fully evaluate their performance. The simulation results show that the boundary nodes can be accurately detected by DSCS and the holes enclosed by the detected boundary nodes can be identified by DW. The comparisons confirm that the proposed algorithms outperform the existing ones.

  12. Middle school vaccination requirements and adolescent vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugenske, Erin; Stokley, Shannon; Kennedy, Allison; Dorell, Christina

    2012-06-01

    To determine if middle school vaccination requirements are associated with higher coverage for adolescent vaccines. School entry requirements for receipt of vaccination for school entry or education of parents for 3 vaccines recommended for adolescents: tetanus/diphtheria-containing (Td) or tetanus/diphtheria/acellular pertussis (TdaP), meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in place for the 2008-2009 school year were reviewed for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Vaccination coverage levels for adolescents 13 to 17 years of age by state requirement status and change in coverage from 2008 to 2009 were assessed by using the 2008-2009 National Immunization Survey-Teen. For the 2008-2009 school year, 32 states had requirements for Td/TdaP (14 specifically requiring TdaP) and none required education; 3 states required MenACWY vaccine and 10 others required education; and 1 state required HPV vaccine and 5 required education. Compared with states with no requirements, vaccination requirements were associated with significantly higher coverage for MenACWY (71% vs 53%, P vaccines. No association was found between education-only requirements and coverage levels for MenACWY and HPV vaccines. States with new 2008-2009 vaccination requirements (n = 6, P = .04) and states with preexisting vaccination requirements (n = 26, P = .02) for Td/TdaP experienced a significant increase in TdaP coverage over states with no requirements. Middle school vaccination requirements are associated with higher coverage for Td/TdaP and MenACWY vaccines, whereas education-only requirements do not appear to increase coverage levels for MenACWY or HPV vaccines. The impact on coverage should continue to be monitored as more states adopt requirements.

  13. Vaccine exemptions and the kindergarten vaccination coverage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip J; Shaw, Jana; Seither, Ranee; Lopez, Adriana; Hill, Holly A; Underwood, Mike; Knighton, Cynthia; Zhao, Zhen; Ravanam, Megha Shah; Greby, Stacie; Orenstein, Walter A

    2017-09-25

    Vaccination requirements for kindergarten entry vary by state, but all states require 2 doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV) at kindergarten entry. To assess (i) national MCV vaccination coverage for children who had attended kindergarten; (ii) the extent to which undervaccination after kindergarten entry is attributable to parents' requests for an exemption; (iii) the extent to which undervaccinated children had missed opportunities to be administered missing vaccine doses among children whose parent did not request an exemption; and (iv) the vaccination coverage gap between the "highest achievable" MCV coverage and actual MCV coverage among children who had attended kindergarten. A national survey of 1465 parents of 5-7year-old children was conducted during October 2013 through March 2014. Vaccination coverage estimates are based provider-reported vaccination histories. Children have a "missed opportunity" for MCV if they were not up-to-date and if there were dates on which other vaccines were administered but not MCV. The "highest achievable" MCV vaccination coverage rate is 100% minus the sum of the percentages of (i) undervaccinated children with parents who requested an exemption; and (ii) undervaccinated children with parents who did not request an exemption and whose vaccination statuses were assessed during a kindergarten grace period or period when they were provisionally enrolled in kindergarten. Among all children undervaccinated for MCV, 2.7% were attributable to having a parent who requested an exemption. Among children who were undervaccinated for MCV and whose parent did not request an exemption, 41.6% had a missed opportunity for MCV. The highest achievable MCV coverage was 98.6%, actual MCV coverage was 90.9%, and the kindergarten vaccination gap was 7.7%. Vaccination coverage may be increased by schools fully implementing state kindergarten vaccination laws, and by providers assessing children's vaccination status at every clinic visit, and

  14. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the federal

  15. 24/7 pediatric radiology attending coverage: times are changing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, James S. [Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Department of Medical Imaging, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, IL (United States); Thakrar, Kiran H. [University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Body Imaging, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The job of the pediatric radiologist long ago ceased to be an 8-to-5 role. Many practices have adopted evening shifts of in-house attending radiologists to cover the busy evening activity. With the ever-increasing role of imaging in clinical decisions and patient management, there is a need - if not a demand - to further extend attending pediatric radiology coverage. In this article, we discuss the needs and justification for extending pediatric radiology coverage at a tertiary-care children's hospital. We also describe the approach we took toward implementing 24/7 attending in-house coverage of pediatric radiology. (orig.)

  16. Coverage and Rate of Downlink Sequence Transmissions with Reliability Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Real-time distributed control is a promising application of 5G in which communication links should satisfy certain reliability guarantees. In this letter, we derive closed-form maximum average rate when a device (e.g. industrial machine) downloads a sequence of n operational commands through...... cellular connection, while guaranteeing a certain coverage for all n messages. The result is based on novel closed-form n- successive coverage bounds. The proposed lower bound provides a simple approximation that is increasingly accurate in the high reliability region. For moderate coverage, a linear...

  17. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  18. Vaccination coverage and timeliness in three South African areas: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Timely vaccination is important to induce adequate protective immunity. We measured vaccination timeliness and vaccination coverage in three geographical areas in South Africa. Methods This study used vaccination information from a community-based cluster-randomized trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal) between 2006 and 2008. Five interview visits were carried out between birth and up to 2 years of age (median follow-up time 18 months), and 1137 children were included in the analysis. We used Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis to describe vaccination coverage and timeliness in line with the Expanded Program on Immunization for the first eight vaccines. This included Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), four oral polio vaccines and 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine which protects against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Results The proportion receiving all these eight recommended vaccines were 94% in Paarl (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-96), 62% in Rietvlei (95%CI 54-68) and 88% in Umlazi (95%CI 84-91). Slightly fewer children received all vaccines within the recommended time periods. The situation was worst for the last pentavalent- and oral polio vaccines. The hazard ratio for incomplete vaccination was 7.2 (95%CI 4.7-11) for Rietvlei compared to Paarl. Conclusions There were large differences between the different South African sites in terms of vaccination coverage and timeliness, with the poorer areas of Rietvlei performing worse than the better-off areas in Paarl. The vaccination coverage was lower for the vaccines given at an older age. There is a need for continued efforts to improve vaccination coverage and timeliness, in particular in rural areas. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150 PMID:21619642

  19. Vaccination coverage and timeliness in three South African areas: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely vaccination is important to induce adequate protective immunity. We measured vaccination timeliness and vaccination coverage in three geographical areas in South Africa. Methods This study used vaccination information from a community-based cluster-randomized trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008. Five interview visits were carried out between birth and up to 2 years of age (median follow-up time 18 months, and 1137 children were included in the analysis. We used Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis to describe vaccination coverage and timeliness in line with the Expanded Program on Immunization for the first eight vaccines. This included Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, four oral polio vaccines and 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine which protects against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Results The proportion receiving all these eight recommended vaccines were 94% in Paarl (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-96, 62% in Rietvlei (95%CI 54-68 and 88% in Umlazi (95%CI 84-91. Slightly fewer children received all vaccines within the recommended time periods. The situation was worst for the last pentavalent- and oral polio vaccines. The hazard ratio for incomplete vaccination was 7.2 (95%CI 4.7-11 for Rietvlei compared to Paarl. Conclusions There were large differences between the different South African sites in terms of vaccination coverage and timeliness, with the poorer areas of Rietvlei performing worse than the better-off areas in Paarl. The vaccination coverage was lower for the vaccines given at an older age. There is a need for continued efforts to improve vaccination coverage and timeliness, in particular in rural areas. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150

  20. Quantifying the Impact of Spectral Coverage on the Retrieval of Molecular Abundances from Exoplanet Transmission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John W.; Zellem, Robert T.; Line, Michael R.; Vasisht, Gautam; Bryden, Geoff; Willacy, Karen; Iyer, Aishwarya R.; Bean, Jacob; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Kreidberg, Laura; Moses, Julianne I.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Swain, Mark R.

    2017-10-01

    Using forward models for representative exoplanet atmospheres and a radiometric instrument model, we generated synthetic observational data to explore how well the major C- and O-bearing chemical species (CO, CO2, CH4, and H2O), important for determining atmospheric opacity and radiation balance, can be constrained by transit measurements as a function of spectral wavelength coverage. This work features simulations for a notional transit spectroscopy mission and compares two cases for instrument spectral coverage (wavelength coverage from 0.5-2.5 μm and 0.5-5 μm). The simulation is conducted on a grid with a range of stellar magnitudes and incorporates a full retrieval of atmospheric model parameters. We consider a range of planets from sub-Neptunes to hot Jupiters and include both low and high mean molecular weight atmospheres. We find that including the 2.5-5 μm wavelength range provides a significant improvement in the degree of constraint on the retrieved molecular abundances: up to ˜3 orders of magnitude for a low mean molecular weight atmosphere (μ = 2.3) and up to a factor of ˜6 for a high mean molecular weight atmosphere (μ = 28). These decreased uncertainties imply that broad spectral coverage between the visible and the mid-infrared is an important tool for understanding the chemistry and composition of exoplanet atmospheres. This analysis suggests that the James Webb Space Telescope’s (JWST) Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) 0.6-5 μm prism spectroscopy mode, or similar wavelength coverage with possible future missions, will be an important resource for exoplanet atmospheric characterization.

  1. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  2. Insurers' policies on coverage for behavior management services and the impact of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton L

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on dental insurance coverage for behavior management services depends upon the child's source of insurance (Medicaid, CHIP, private commercial) and the policies that govern each such source. This contribution describes historical and projected sources of pediatric dental coverage, catalogues the seven behavior codes used by dentists, compares how often they are billed by pediatric and general dentists, assesses payment policies and practices for behavioral services across coverage sources, and describes how ACA coverage policies may impact each source. Differences between Congressional intent to ensure comprehensive oral health services with meaningful consumer protections for all legal-resident children and regulatory action by the Departments of Treasury and Health and Human Services are explored to explain how regulations fail to meet Congressional intent as of 2014. The ACA may additionally impact pediatric dentistry practice, including dentists' behavior management services, by expanding pediatric dental training and safety net delivery sites and by stimulating the evolution of novel payment and delivery systems designed to move provider incentives away from procedure-based payments and toward health outcome-based payments.

  3. Obesity coverage gap: Consumers perceive low coverage for obesity treatments even when workplace wellness programs target BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth Ruth; Kyle, Theodore K; Nadglowski, Joseph F; Stanford, Fatima Cody

    2017-02-01

    Evidence-based obesity treatments, such as bariatric surgery, are not considered essential health benefits under the Affordable Care Act. Employer-sponsored wellness programs with incentives based on biometric outcomes are allowed and often used despite mixed evidence regarding their effectiveness. This study examines consumers' perceptions of their coverage for obesity treatments and exposure to workplace wellness programs. A total of 7,378 participants completed an online survey during 2015-2016. Respondents answered questions regarding their health coverage for seven medical services and exposure to employer wellness programs that target weight or body mass index (BMI). Using χ 2 tests, associations between perceptions of exposure to employer wellness programs and coverage for medical services were examined. Differences between survey years were also assessed. Most respondents reported they did not have health coverage for obesity treatments, but more of the respondents with employer wellness programs reported having coverage. Neither the perception of coverage for obesity treatments nor exposure to wellness programs increased between 2015 and 2016. Even when consumers have exposure to employer wellness programs that target BMI, their health insurance often excludes obesity treatments. Given the clinical and cost-effectiveness of such treatments, reducing that coverage gap may mitigate obesity's individual- and population-level effects. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  4. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  5. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow ...

  6. AN EVALUATION OF SEASONAL MOVEMENT IN GREATER KUDU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN EVALUATION OF SEASONAL MOVEMENT IN GREATER KUDU POPULA-. TIONS - TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS PALLAS - IN THREE LOCALITIES. IN SOUTHERN AFRICA. C. DAVID SIMPSON". Caesar Kleberg Research Program in Wildlife Ecology,. Texas A & M University. With the emergence of more ...

  7. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  8. Setting the agenda for a healthy retail environment: content analysis of US newspaper coverage of tobacco control policies affecting the point of sale, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Allison E; Southwell, Brian G; Ribisl, Kurt M; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco control policies affecting the point of sale (POS) are an emerging intervention, yet POS-related news media content has not been studied. We describe news coverage of POS tobacco control efforts and assess relationships between article characteristics, including policy domains, frames, sources, localisation and evidence present, and slant towards tobacco control efforts. High circulation state (n=268) and national (n=5) newspapers comprised the sampling frame. We retrieved 917 relevant POS-focused articles in newspapers from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2014. 5 raters screened and coded articles, 10% of articles were double coded, and mean inter-rater reliability (IRR) was 0.74. POS coverage emphasised tobacco retailer licensing (49.1% of articles) and the most common frame present was regulation (71.3%). Government officials (52.3%), followed by tobacco retailers (39.6%), were the most frequent sources. Half of articles (51.3%) had a mixed, neutral or antitobacco control slant. Articles presenting a health frame, a greater number of protobacco control sources, and statistical evidence were significantly more likely to also have a protobacco control slant. Articles presenting a political/rights or regulation frame, a greater number of antitobacco control sources, or government, tobacco industry, tobacco retailers, or tobacco users as sources were significantly less likely to also have a protobacco control slant. Stories that feature procontrol sources, research evidence and a health frame also tend to support tobacco control objectives. Future research should investigate how to use data, stories and localisation to encourage a protobacco control slant, and should test relationships between content characteristics and policy progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Effects of the Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Mandate on Private Health Insurance Coverage in Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Kevin A; Kim, Nam Hyo; Arora, Prachi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) dependent coverage mandate on insurance coverage among young adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from 2006-2009 and 2011 waves of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A difference-in-difference analysis was used to compare changes in full-year private health insurance coverage among young adults aged 19-25 years with an older cohort aged 27-34 years. Separate regressions were estimated for individuals in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas and were tested for a differential impact by area of residence. Full-year private health insurance coverage significantly increased by 9.2 percentage points for young adults compared to the older cohort after the ACA mandate (P = .00). When stratifying the regression model by residence area, insurance coverage among young adults significantly increased by 9.0 percentage points in metropolitan areas (P = .00) and 10.1 percentage points in nonmetropolitan areas (P = .03). These changes were not significantly different from each other (P = .82), which suggests the ACA mandate's effects were not statistically different by area of residence. Although young adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas experienced increased access to private health insurance following the ACA's dependent coverage mandate, it did not appear to directly impact rural-urban disparities in health insurance coverage. Despite residents in both areas gaining insurance coverage, over one-third of young adults still lacked access to full-year health insurance coverage. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  10. GREATER OMENTUM: MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nekrutov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the structure organization and pathophysiological age specificities of the greater omentum, which determine its uniqueness and functional diversity in a child's organism. the article discusses protective functions of the organ, its role in the development of post operative complications of children, and the usage in children's reconstructive plastic surgery.Key words: greater omentum, omentitis, of post operative complications, children.

  11. Cost estimates for greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Boland, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of greater confinement disposal is to provide an intermediate disposal method for radioactive wastes considered unsuitable for shallow land burial but not requiring the isolation of a deep geologic repository. Presented are cost estimates for various disposal facility alternatives. It is concluded that greater confinement disposal can be cost competitive with shallow land burial and is cost effective in reducing long-term care costs

  12. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-03-05

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  14. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  15. Low-, high-coverage, and two-stage DNA sequencing in the design of the genetic association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wu, Kehao; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Shen, Hui; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2017-04-01

    Next-generation sequencing-based genetic association study (GAS) is a powerful tool to identify candidate disease variants and genomic regions. Although low-coverage sequencing offers low cost but inadequacy in calling rare variants, high coverage is able to detect essentially every variant but at a high cost. Two-stage sequencing may be an economical way to conduct GAS without losing power. In two-stage sequencing, an affordable number of samples are sequenced at high coverage as the reference panel, then to impute in a larger sample is sequenced at low coverage. As unit sequencing costs continue to decrease, investigators can now conduct GAS with more flexible sequencing depths. Here, we systematically evaluate the effect of the read depth and sample size on the variant discovery power and association power for study designs using low-coverage, high-coverage, and two-stage sequencing. We consider 12 low-coverage, 12 high-coverage, and 51 two-stage design scenarios with the read depth varying from 0.5× to 80×. With state-of-the-art simulation and analysis packages and in-house scripts, we simulate the complete study process from DNA sequencing to SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) calling and association testing. Our results show that with appropriate allocation of sequencing effort, two-stage sequencing is an effective approach for conducting GAS. We provide practical guidelines for investigators to plan the optimum sequencing-based GAS including two-stage sequencing design given their specific constraints of sequencing investment. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  17. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2017. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  18. Effect of Incumbency on Coverage Patterns in 1972 Presidential Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1976-01-01

    This replication of a 1968 study confirms that there are uniform patterns of campaign coverage practiced by daily newspapers, regardless of partisan orientation or other differences among the papers or their audiences. (Author/RB)

  19. Graphene transfer process and optimization of graphene coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfaezah Sabki, Syarifah; Hafly Shamsuri, Shafiq; Fazlina Fauzi, Siti; Lim Chon-Ki, Meghashama; Othman, Noraini

    2017-11-01

    Graphene grown on transition metal is known to be high in quality due to its controlled amount of defects and potentially used for many electronic applications. The transfer process of graphene grown on transition metal to a new substrate requires optimization in order to ensure that high graphene coverage can be obtained. In this work, an improvement in the graphene transfer process is performed from graphene grown on copper foil. It has been observed that the graphene coverage is affected by the pressure given to the top of PDMS to eliminate water and air between graphene and SiO2 (new substrate). This work experimented with different approaches to optimize the graphene coverage, and stamping method has proven to be the best technique in obtaining the largest graphene coverage. This work also highlights the elimination of impurities from graphene after the transfer process, known to be PMMA residues, which involved immersion of graphene in acetone. This method has improved the graphene conductivity.

  20. Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Authors of Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Information in 2012, recently published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  1. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2017. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  2. Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2014-02-14

    The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  3. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2018. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  4. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2016. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  5. Scientific Coverage in Community-Based Tourism: Sustainable Tourism and Strategy for Social Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvarez-García

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades in developing countries, the tourism sector has been immersed in an intense process of strengthening the participation of local communities through the so-called community tourism initiatives, whose main objective is to improve the quality of life of the inhabitants of host communities, ensuring the subsistence of traditional culture. Its growing momentum as a means for sustainable tourism and a strategy for social development has generated a large amount of academic literature, and it is necessary to analyze its presence in the main multidisciplinary databases. Thus, the main purpose of our article is to show the current state of scientific production on community tourism through a bibliometric comparative study of the documents indexed in the WoS and Scopus databases, dealing with aspects such as their coverage, correlation between both bases, overlapping of documents and journals, growth, dispersion or concentration of articles, among others. For this purpose, and by means of an advanced search by terms, a representative set of 115 articles in WoS and 185 in Scopus were selected, with the time limit set in 2017. These form the ad-hoc basis of the analysis. In view of the results, it is concluded that, although WoS and Scopus databases differ in terms of scope, volume of data, and coverage policies, both information systems are complementary but not exclusive. Although the documents and the results of their analysis are in many aspects similar, Scopus has a better coverage in the specific area of community tourism due to collecting a greater number of articles, journals and signatures, and its articles receiving a greater number of citations.

  6. Prioritizing integrated mHealth strategies for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Garrett; Labrique, Alain

    2014-09-12

    As countries strive toward universal health coverage, mobile wireless technologies-mHealth tools-in support of enumeration, registration, unique identification, and maintenance of health records will facilitate improved health system performance. Electronic forms and registry systems will enable routine monitoring of the coverage of essential interventions for individuals within relevant target populations. A cascading model is presented for prioritizing and operationalizing the role of integrated mHealth strategies. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Assessment of Immunization Coverage Using a Computerized System

    OpenAIRE

    KABASAWA, Reiko; TANABE, Naohito; SEKI, Nao; KATAGIRI, Mikio; MATSUI, Kazumitsu; SUZUKI, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    The major concerns with immunization programs for disease control continue to be improving and sustaining immunization coverage, which can be monitored via the direct or indirect measurement of vaccination levels. We have developed a computerized program to monitor immunization coverage with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) and measles vaccines using registration books of immunization in 7 villages and towns in Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and analyzed 838 children who were born in the calend...

  8. EUR-ASSESS Project Subgroup Report on Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Cranovsky, Richard; Matillon, Yves; Banta, David

    2017-01-01

    The issue of health benefits coverage—and its relation to health technology assessment (HTA)—has gained increasing attention in recent years. Economic constraints on health care, as well as the rapid pace of technological change, have forced European countries to face difficult choices in providing such care. The active use of coverage decision making has been proposed as a tool to help rationalize health care, and HTA has been advocated as a necessary activity to improve coverage decisions

  9. Coverage and Connectivity Issue in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Trivedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are an emerging area of interest in research and development. It finds use in military surveillance, health care, environmental monitoring, forest fire detection and smart environments. An important research issue in WSNs is the coverage since cost, area and lifetime are directly validated to it.In this paper we present an overview of WSNs and try to refine the coverage and connectivity issues in wireless sensor networks.

  10. Changes in Mountain Glaciers, Lake Levels, and Snow Coverage in the Tianshan Monitored by GRACE, ICESat, Altimetry, and MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Yi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tianshan mountain range is experiencing a notable environmental change as a result of global warming. In this paper; we adopt multiple remote sensing techniques to examine the diversified geophysical changes in the Tianshan; including glacier changes measured by Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE and Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat; lake level changes measured by radar altimetry; and snow coverage measured by moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS. We find a rapid transition from dry years to wet years in 2010 in the western and northern Tianshan for all the geophysical measurements. The transition is likely caused by increasing westerlies and greatly pollutes the gravity signals in the edge of Tianshan. However, glaciers in the central Tianshan are unaffected and have been steadily losing mass at a rate of –4.0 ± 0.7 Gt/year during 2003–2014 according to space gravimetry and –3.4 ± 0.8 Gt/year during 2003–2009 according to laser altimetry. Our results show a weaker declining trend and greater linearity compared with earlier estimates; because we investigate the signal pattern in more detail. Finally; water level records of 60 years in Bosten Lake; China; are presented to show that for areas strongly dependent on meltwater; rising temperature can benefit the water supply in the short run; but cause it to deteriorate in the long run.

  11. Empiric antibiotic coverage of atypical pathogens for community acquired pneumonia in hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robenshtok, E; Shefet, D; Gafter-Gvili, A; Paul, M; Vidal, L; Leibovici, L

    2008-01-23

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is caused by various pathogens, traditionally divided to 'typical' and 'atypical'. Initial antibiotic treatment of CAP is usually empirical, customarily covering both typical and atypical pathogens. To date, no sufficient evidence exists to support this broad coverage, while limiting coverage is bound to reduce toxicity, resistance and expense. To assess the efficacy and need of adding antibiotic coverage for atypical pathogens in hospitalized patients with CAP, in terms of mortality and successful treatment. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1) which includes the Acute Respiratory Infection Group's specialized register; MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2007); and EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2007). Randomized trials of adult patients hospitalized due to CAP, comparing antibiotic regimens with atypical antibiotic coverage to a regimen without atypical antibiotic coverage. Two review authors independently appraised the quality of each trial and extracted the data from included trials. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated, assuming an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis for the outcome measures. Twenty five trials were included, encompassing 5244 randomized patients. There was no difference in mortality between the atypical arm and the non-atypical arm (RR 1.15; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.56). The atypical arm showed an insignificant trend toward clinical success and a significant advantage to bacteriological eradication, which disappeared when evaluating methodologically high-quality studies alone. Clinical success for the atypical arm was significantly higher for Legionella pneumophilae (L. pneumophilae) and non-significantly lower for pneumococcal pneumonia. There was no significant difference between the groups in the frequency of (total) adverse events, or those requiring discontinuation of treatment. However, gastrointestinal events

  12. VaxView: Vaccination Coverage [data] in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. What is Vaccination Coverage and Why is it Important? Vaccination coverage ... and other data sets. How does CDC track vaccination coverage? CDC keeps track of the vaccination rates ...

  13. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Persistence with biologic therapies in the Medicare coverage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Leonardo; Uribe, Claudia L; Luo, Jiacong; Hanna, John W; Ball, Daniel E; Krohn, Kelly; Meadows, Eric S

    2011-11-01

    To describe persistence with teriparatide and other biologic therapies in Medicare Part D plans with and without a coverage gap. Retrospective (2006) cohort study of Medicare Part D prescription drug plan beneficiaries from a large benefits company. Two plans with a coverage gap (defined as "basic") were combined and compared with a single plan with coverage for generic and branded medications (defined as "complete"). Patients taking alendronate (nonbiologic comparator), teriparatide, etanercept, adalimumab, interferon β-1a, or glatiramer acetate were selected for the study. For patients with complete coverage, equivalent financial thresholds were used to define the "gap."The definition of discontinuation was failure to fill the index prescription after reaching the gap. For alendronate, 27% of 133,260 patients had enrolled in the complete plan. Patients taking biologic therapies had more commonly enrolled in complete plans: teriparatide (66% of 6221), etanercept (58% of 1469), adalimumab (52% of 824), interferon β-1a (60% of 438), and glatiramer acetate (53% of 393). For patients taking either alendronate or teriparatide, discontinuation rates were higher in the basic, versus complete, plan (adjusted odds ratios, 2.02 and 3.56, respectively). Discontinuation did not significantly vary by plan type for etanercept, adalimumab, interferon β-1a, or glatiramer acetate. For patients who reached the coverage gap, discontinuation was more likely for patients taking osteoporosis (OP) medication. Not having a coverage gap was associated with improved persistence with OP treatment.

  15. Cigarette advertising and media coverage of smoking and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E

    1985-02-07

    In the US, media coverage of the health hazards of cigarette smoking is consored by the tobacco industry. Tobacco companies, which in 1983 alone spent US$2.5 billion on smoking promtion, are a major source of advertising revenue for many media organizations. As a result media organizations frequently refuse to publish antismoking information, tent to tone down coverage of antismoking news events, and often refuse to accept antismoking advertisements. In a 1983 "Newsweek" supplement on personal health, prepared by the American Medical Association, only 4 sentences were devoted to the negative effects of smoking. A spokesman for the association reported that "Newsweek" editors refused to allow the association to use the forum to present a strong antismoking message. In 1984 a similar type of health supplement, published by "Time," failed to mention smoking at all. An examination of 10 major women's magazines revealed that between 1967-79, 4 of the magazines published no articles about the hazards of smoking and only 8 such articles appeared in the other 6 magazines. All of these magazines carried smoking advertisements. During the same time period, 2 magazines, which refused to publish cigarette ads, published a total of 16 articles on the hazards of smoking. Small magazines which publish antismoking articles are especially vulnerable to pressure from the tobacco industry. For example, the tobacco industry canceled all its ads in "Mother Jones" after the magazine printed 2 antismoking articles. 22 out of 36 magazines refused to run antismoking advertisements when they were requested to do so. Due to poor media coverage, th public's knowledge of the hazards of smoking is deficient. Recent surveys found that 2/3 of the public did not know that smoking could cause heart attacks, and 1/2 of the respondents did not know that smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. An analysis of time trends in cigarette smoking indicates that the public does respond to antismoking

  16. Climate Change Newspaper Coverage in the Web Portal Zulia University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Graciela Miquilena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the way as the University of Zulia assumes institutional communication and disclosure of its scientific production, through the Web portal: LUZ-Web, Agency de Notices (light/DNA, as a means of communication that facilitates the processing and dissemination of scientific journalism. The general objective was to examine media coverage of climate change on the web site of the University of Zulia, through the analysis of their news content of these topics, stored in your repository of cyberspace. The results showed a University communication related with the scientific journalism as part of the dissemination of the work of the institution, which recorded one hundred and seventy-five information about science and technology published between June 2009 and September 2012, including twenty-four linked directly or indirectly with the climate change, however, in general there is precedence of other content on the University and the Academy in relation to messages about the intellectual production carried outreason why it is concluded that the various activities of the University events, such as teaching, research and extension, form part of unevenly from the institutional communication universe that spreads and disseminates through the light/DNA.

  17. The scale, scope, coverage, and capability of childbirth care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oona M R; Calvert, Clara; Testa, Adrienne; Strehlow, Matthew; Benova, Lenka; Keyes, Emily; Donnay, France; Macleod, David; Gabrysch, Sabine; Rong, Luo; Ronsmans, Carine; Sadruddin, Salim; Koblinsky, Marge; Bailey, Patricia

    2016-10-29

    All women should have access to high quality maternity services-but what do we know about the health care available to and used by women? With a focus on low-income and middle-income countries, we present data that policy makers and planners can use to evaluate whether maternal health services are functioning to meet needs of women nationally, and potentially subnationally. We describe configurations of intrapartum care systems, and focus in particular on where, and with whom, deliveries take place. The necessity of ascertaining actual facility capability and providers' skills is highlighted, as is the paucity of information on maternity waiting homes and transport as mechanisms to link women to care. Furthermore, we stress the importance of assessment of routine provision of care (not just emergency care), and contextualise this importance within geographic circumstances (eg, in sparsely-populated regions vs dense urban areas). Although no single model-of-care fits all contexts, we discuss implications of the models we observe, and consider changes that might improve services and accelerate response to future challenges. Areas that need attention include minimisation of overintervention while responding to the changing disease burden. Conceptualisation, systematic measurement, and effective tackling of coverage and configuration challenges to implement high quality, respectful maternal health-care services are key to ensure that every woman can give birth without risk to her life, or that of her baby. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Greater tibial bone strength in male tennis players than controls in the absence of greater muscle output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ireland

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Results suggest that sports with quick turning movements are highly osteogenic, even in the absence of greater muscular output. This may be related to the large torsional stresses produced during turning movements.

  19. Decentralized coverage control problems for mobile robotic sensor and actuator networks

    CERN Document Server

    Savkin, A; Xi, Z; Javed, F; Matveev, A; Nguyen, H

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces various coverage control problems for mobile sensor networks including barrier, sweep and blanket. Unlike many existing algorithms, all of the robotic sensor and actuator motion algorithms developed in the book are fully decentralized or distributed, computationally efficient, easily implementable in engineering practice and based only on information on the closest neighbours of each mobile sensor and actuator and local information about the environment. Moreover, the mobile robotic sensors have no prior information about the environment in which they operation. These various types of coverage problems have never been covered before by a single book in a systematic way. Another topic of this book is the study of mobile robotic sensor and actuator networks. Many modern engineering applications include the use of sensor and actuator networks to provide efficient and effective monitoring and control of industrial and environmental processes. Such mobile sensor and actuator networks are abl...

  20. Prescription coverage in indigent patients affects the use of long-acting opioids in the management of cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Robert; Delarosa, Nila; Bryan, Margarette; Hill, Ann Marie; Amadio, William J

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that prescription coverage affects the prescribing of long-acting opiates to indigent inner city minority patients with cancer pain. We conducted a chart review of 360 patients treated in the Oncology Practice at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey University Hospital, who were prescribed opiate pain medications. Half the patients were charity care or self-pay (CC/SP), without the benefit of prescription coverage, and half had Medicaid, with unlimited prescription coverage. We evaluated patients discharged from a hospitalization, who had three subsequent outpatient follow-up visits. We compared demographics, pain intensity, the type and dose of opiates, adherence to prescribed pain regimen, unscheduled emergency department visits, and unscheduled hospitalizations. There was a significantly greater use of long-acting opiates in the Medicaid group than in the CC/SP group. The Medicaid group had significantly more African American patients and a greater rate of smoking and substance use, and the CC/SP group disproportionately more Hispanic and Asian patients and less smoking and substance use. Hispanic and Asian patients were less likely to have long-acting opiates prescribed to them. Pain levels and adherence were equivalent in both groups and were not affected by any of these variables except stage of disease, which was equally distributed in the two groups. Appropriate use of long-acting opiates for equivalent levels of cancer pain was influenced only by the availability of prescription coverage. The group without prescription coverage and receiving fewer long-acting opiates had disproportionately more Hispanic and Asian patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 7 CFR 1806.3 - Coverage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... value) all essential buildings. Essential buildings include the dwelling and any other buildings that... requirements is not available in a hurricane area, the County Supervisor may accept from the borrower or...

  2. Coverage and inequalities in maternal and child health interventions in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Akseer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghanistan has made considerable gains in improving maternal and child health and survival since 2001. However, socioeconomic and regional inequities may pose a threat to reaching universal coverage of health interventions and further health progress. We explored coverage and socioeconomic inequalities in key life-saving reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH interventions at the national level and by region in Afghanistan. We also assessed gains in child survival through scaling up effective community-based interventions across wealth groups. Methods Using data from the Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2010/11, we explored 11 interventions that spanned all stages of the continuum of care, including indicators of composite coverage. Asset-based wealth quintiles were constructed using standardised methods, and absolute inequalities were explored using wealth quintile (Q gaps (Q5-Q1 and the slope index of inequality (SII, while relative inequalities were assessed with ratios (Q5/Q1 and the concentration index (CIX. The lives saved tool (LiST modeling used to estimate neonatal and post-neonatal deaths averted from scaling up essential community-based interventions by 90 % coverage by 2025. Analyses considered the survey design characteristics and were conducted via STATA version 12.0 and SAS version 9.4. Results Our results underscore significant pro-rich socioeconomic absolute and relative inequalities, and mass population deprivation across most all RMNCH interventions studied. The most inequitable are antenatal care with a skilled attendant (ANCS, skilled birth attendance (SBA, and 4 or more antenatal care visits (ANC4 where the richest have between 3.0 and 5.6 times higher coverage relative to the poor, and Q5-Q1 gaps range from 32 % - 65 %. Treatment of sick children and breastfeeding interventions are the most equitably distributed. Across regions, inequalities were highest in the

  3. [Coverage for birth care in Mexico and its interpretation within the context of maternal mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Schiavon, Raffaela; Uribe-Zúñiga, Patricia; Walker, Dilys; Suárez-López, Leticia; Luna-Gordillo, Rufino; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate health coverage for birth care in Mexico within the frame of maternal mortality reduction. Two information sources were used: 1) The comparison between the results yield by the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Surveys 2006 and 2012 (ENSANUT 2006 and 2012), and 2) the databases monitoring maternal deaths during 2012 (up to December 26), and live births (LB) in Mexico as estimated by the Mexican National Population Council (Conapo). The national coverage for birth care by medical units is nearly 94.4% at the national level, but in some federal entities such as Chiapas (60.5%), Nayarit (87.8%), Guerrero (91.2%), Durango (92.5%), Oaxaca (92.6%), and Puebla (93.4%), coverage remains below the national average. In women belonging to any social security system (eg. IMSS, IMSS Oportunidades, ISSSTE), coverage is almost 99%, whereas in those affiliated to the Mexican Popular Health Insurance (which depends directly from the Federal Ministry of Health), coverage reached 92.9%. In terms of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), there are still large disparities among federal states in Mexico, with a national average of 47.0 per 100 000 LB (preliminary data for 2012, up to December 26). The MMR estimation has been updated using the most recent population projections. There is no correlation between the level of institutional birth care and the MMR in Mexico. It is thus necessary not only to guarantee universal birth care by health professionals, but also to provide obstetric care by qualified personnel in functional health services networks, to strengthen the quality of obstetric care, family planning programs, and to promote the implementation of new and innovative health policies that include intersectoral actions and human rights-based approaches targeted to reduce the enormous social inequity still prevailing in Mexico.

  4. Changes in water consumption linked to heavy news media coverage of extreme climatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Kimberly J; Ajami, Newsha K

    2017-10-01

    Public awareness of water- and drought-related issues is an important yet relatively unexplored component of water use behavior. To examine this relationship, we first quantified news media coverage of drought in California from 2005 to 2015, a period with two distinct droughts; the later drought received unprecedentedly high media coverage, whereas the earlier drought did not, as the United States was experiencing an economic downturn coinciding with a historic presidential election. Comparing this coverage to Google search frequency confirmed that public attention followed news media trends. We then modeled single-family residential water consumption in 20 service areas in the San Francisco Bay Area during the same period using geospatially explicit data and including news media coverage as a covariate. Model outputs revealed the factors affecting water use for populations of varying demographics. Importantly, the models estimated that an increase of 100 drought-related articles in a bimonthly period was associated with an 11 to 18% reduction in water use. Then, we evaluated high-resolution water consumption data from smart meters, known as advanced metering infrastructure, in one of the previously modeled service areas to evaluate breakpoints in water use trends. Results demonstrated that whereas nonresidential commercial irrigation customers responded to changes in climate, single-family residential customers decreased water use at the fastest rate following heavy drought-related news media coverage. These results highlight the need for water resource planners and decision makers to further consider the importance of effective, internally and externally driven, public awareness and education in water demand behavior and management.

  5. A Poisson hierarchical modelling approach to detecting copy number variation in sequence coverage data

    KAUST Repository

    Sepúlveda, Nuno

    2013-02-26

    Background: The advent of next generation sequencing technology has accelerated efforts to map and catalogue copy number variation (CNV) in genomes of important micro-organisms for public health. A typical analysis of the sequence data involves mapping reads onto a reference genome, calculating the respective coverage, and detecting regions with too-low or too-high coverage (deletions and amplifications, respectively). Current CNV detection methods rely on statistical assumptions (e.g., a Poisson model) that may not hold in general, or require fine-tuning the underlying algorithms to detect known hits. We propose a new CNV detection methodology based on two Poisson hierarchical models, the Poisson-Gamma and Poisson-Lognormal, with the advantage of being sufficiently flexible to describe different data patterns, whilst robust against deviations from the often assumed Poisson model.Results: Using sequence coverage data of 7 Plasmodium falciparum malaria genomes (3D7 reference strain, HB3, DD2, 7G8, GB4, OX005, and OX006), we showed that empirical coverage distributions are intrinsically asymmetric and overdispersed in relation to the Poisson model. We also demonstrated a low baseline false positive rate for the proposed methodology using 3D7 resequencing data and simulation. When applied to the non-reference isolate data, our approach detected known CNV hits, including an amplification of the PfMDR1 locus in DD2 and a large deletion in the CLAG3.2 gene in GB4, and putative novel CNV regions. When compared to the recently available FREEC and cn.MOPS approaches, our findings were more concordant with putative hits from the highest quality array data for the 7G8 and GB4 isolates.Conclusions: In summary, the proposed methodology brings an increase in flexibility, robustness, accuracy and statistical rigour to CNV detection using sequence coverage data. 2013 Seplveda et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing.The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed.The study included 35,745 (99.4% out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years. Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D,≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI:70.5,71.4, 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4, 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9, 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4, and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4, respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0, 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6 and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02, respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6, 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4 and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5, respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D. Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D was correlated (all P<0.001 with older age (OR:1.18, and 1.15, respectively, female gender (OR: 1.44 and 1.40, respectively, higher body mass index (OR: 1.02 and 1.03, respectively, taller body height (OR: 1.03 and 1.02, respectively, urban region of habitation (OR: 1.26 and 1.33, respectively and higher school type (OR:1.57 and 2.22, respectively. Prevalence of severe high myopia (≥-10D was associated only with older age (P<0.001; OR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.31, 1.59 but not with any education-related parameter such as higher school type (P = 0.48, urban region of habitation (P = 0.07 or female gender (P = 0.37.In this most recent survey, prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9% in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia

  7. Tibial coverage, meniscus position, size and damage in knees discordant for joint space narrowing – data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloecker, K.; Guermazi, A.; Wirth, W.; Benichou, O.; Kwoh, C.K.; Hunter, D.J.; Englund, M.; Resch, H.; Eckstein, F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Meniscal extrusion is thought to be associated with less meniscus coverage of the tibial surface, but the association of radiographic disease stage with quantitative measures of tibial plateau coverage is unknown. We therefore compared quantitative and semi-quantitative measures of meniscus position and morphology in individuals with bilateral painful knees discordant on medial joint space narrowing (mJSN). Methods A sample of 60 participants from the first half (2,678 cases) of the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort fulfilled the inclusion criteria: bilateral frequent pain, Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) mJSN grades 1–3 in one, no-JSN in the contra-lateral (CL), and no lateral JSN in either knee (43 unilateral mJSN1; 17 mJSN2/3; 22 men, 38 women, body mass index (BMI) 31.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2). Segmentation and three-dimensional quantitative analysis of the tibial plateau and meniscus, and semi-quantitative evaluation of meniscus damage (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) osteoarthritis knee score – MOAKS) was performed using coronal 3T MR images (MPR DESSwe and intermediate-weighted turbo spin echo (IW-TSE) images). CL knees were compared using paired t-tests (between-knee, within-person design). Results Medial tibial plateau coverage was 36 ± 9% in mJSN1 vs 45 ± 8% in CL no-JSN knees, and was 31 ± 9% in mJSN2/3 vs 46 ± 6% in no-JSN knees (both P meniscus extrusion and damage (MOAKS), but no significant difference in meniscus volume. No significant differences in lateral tibial coverage, lateral meniscus morphology or position were observed. Conclusions Knees with medial JSN showed substantially less medial tibial plateau coverage by the meniscus. We suggest that the less meniscal coverage, i.e., less mechanical protection may be a reason for greater rates of cartilage loss observed in JSN knees. PMID:23220556

  8. Evaluation of anti-measles and anti-mumps vaccination coverage in a cohort of youth in South-Centre of Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lo Magno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined a cohort of young people from South Centre Sicily, Italy, in order to evaluate anti-measles anti-mumps vaccination coverage. It is shown that, in proportion, an antibody protection against mumps is greater than an antibody protection against measles and also it causes acute episodes in some subjects vaccinated.

  9. Solving Minimal Covering Location Problems with Single and Multiple Node Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko DRAKULIĆ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Location science represents a very attractiveresearch field in combinatorial optimization and it is in expansion in last five decades. The main objective of location problems is determining the best position for facilities in a given set of nodes.Location science includes techniques for modelling problemsand methods for solving them. This paper presents results of solving two types of minimal covering location problems, with single and multiple node coverage, by using CPLEX optimizer and Particle Swarm Optimization method.

  10. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  11. Nest-site Selection of the Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis in Fallow Fields of I-Lan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsun Hsu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nest site quality often affects nest success and the fitness of avian breeders. Vegetation structure and water depth are possible factors evaluated in nest-site selection by ground nesting birds in wetlands. Vegetation structure may affect the predation risk, and water depth is linked to the possibility of being flooded. We examined these two factors in the nest site selection of a wetland bird, the Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis, in I-Lan, Taiwan. We found 17 Greater Painted Snipe nests in wet fallow fields. By paired comparisons, we found the breeders tended to nest on sites with higher vegetation coverage and lower water depth than random sites. No significant difference was found in the vegetation height between the nest sites and the paired random sites. Five nests failed to hatch due to flooding or predation. The preference for nest sites with low water depth may be an effort to avoid being flooded and the preference for dense vegetation coverage at nest sites may be a response to predation risk.

  12. Effectiveness of interventions that apply new media to improve vaccine uptake and vaccine coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Ferrari, Antonio; Spagnoli, Francesca; Visciarelli, Sara; Shefer, Abigail; Pasquarella, Cesira; Signorelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In high and middle-income settings, immunization coverage is relatively high. However, in many countries coverage rates of routinely recommended vaccines are still below the targets established by international and national advisory committees. Progress in the field of communication technology might provide useful tools to enhance immunization strategies. Objective To systematically collect and summarize the available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that apply new media to promote vaccination uptake and increase vaccination coverage. Design We conducted a systematic literature review. Studies published from January 1999 to September 2013 were identified by searching electronic resources (Pubmed, Embase), manual searches of references and expert consultation. Study setting We focused on interventions that targeted recommended vaccinations for children, adolescents and adults and: (1) aimed at increasing community demand for immunizations, or (2) were provider-based interventions. We limited the study setting to countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was a measure of vaccination (vaccine uptake or vaccine coverage). Considered secondary outcomes included willingness to receive immunization, attitudes and perceptions toward vaccination, and perceived helpfulness of the intervention. Results Nineteen studies were included in the systematic review. The majority of the studies were conducted in the US (74%, n = 14); 68% (n = 13) of the studies were experimental, the rest having an observational study design. Eleven (58%) reported results on the primary outcome. Retrieved studies explored the role of: text messaging (n.7, 37%), smartphone applications (n.1, 5%), Youtube videos (n.1, 5%), Facebook (n.1, 5%), targeted websites and portals (n.4, 21

  13. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA

  14. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevéy, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Rüger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...... warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient and suggest the possibility of convergence...

  15. First record of a Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis) in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis) breeds in the southern Atlantic Ocean and disperses after breeding to the North Atlantic. On 3 August 2001, I observed and photographed an unidentified shearwater (Figure 1) in the Gulf of Alaska, about 30 km off the southern coast of Montague Island (59°50' N, 148°00' W). The bird was subsequently identified as a Greater Shearwater. This observation and photographic documentation provides the first Alaska state record (D. Gibson in litt.) and one of very few records for the North Pacific (see Table 1). This is the 464th bird species to be recorded in the state of Alaska.

  16. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: heterogeneity and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2012-03-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by 'border malaria' and 'forest malaria' with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. 'Border malaria' is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is severely

  17. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.

    2006-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Unlike California's seismic environment of shallow and largely strike-slip faults, Tokyo lies 200 km from a triple junction with two subduction zones, and 80 km from a front of active volcanoes. Further, some of the region's megathust faults are seismically coupled, some undergo episodic slip events, and others appear to be permanently aseismic. To reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates, and estimate their earthquake frequency, we analyzed the 7,000-yr record of seventeen M~8 shocks preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits, and 150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years from Japan's GeoNet array. We also digitized 10,000 observations of historical shaking recorded over the past 400 years, and examined 300,000 earthquakes registered by the dense NIED/JMA network in a 3D geographic information system. In a principal departure from previous work, we propose that a 100-km-wide, 25-km-thick dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and argue that the this fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior, including the damaging 1855 M~7.1 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, we estimate that events with magnitude and location similar to the Ansei-Edo event have a 20% likelihood in an average 30-yr period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for great M~7.9 megathrust shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is just 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (~0.9 g peak ground acceleration) in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ~30%, and the annual probability is 1.3%.

  18. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  19. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  20. Improving word coverage using unsupervised morphological analyser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Powerful computers are needed for processing tasks related to human languages these days. ... to-speech synthesis, information extraction, syllable identification or machine translation. Tasks include the separation ... uages, where we have small or no machine-readable dictionaries and tools. Ideally, an unsuper-.

  1. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    .... As proposed, the agreement could be evidenced by the health insurance issuer issuing the master... wellness services and chronic disease management; and pediatric services, including oral and vision care... accommodation in the formula for determining the MLR for those lines of business. This was done because mini-med...

  3. Herbal remedy clinical trials in the media: a comparison with the coverage of conventional pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubela, Tania; Boon, Heather; Caulfield, Timothy

    2008-11-26

    This study systematically compares newspaper coverage of clinical trials for herbal remedies, a popular type of complementary and alternative medicine, with clinical trials for pharmaceuticals using a comparative content analysis. This is a timely inquiry given the recognized importance of the popular press as a source of health information, the complex and significant role of complementary and alternative medicine in individual health-care decisions, and the trend toward evidence-based research for some complementary and alternative medical therapies. We searched PubMed for clinical trials, Lexis/Nexis for newspaper articles in the UK, US, Australia/New Zealand, and Factiva for Canadian newspaper articles from 1995 to 2005. We used a coding frame to analyze and compare 48 pharmaceutical and 57 herbal remedy clinical trials as well as 201 pharmaceutical and 352 herbal remedy newspaper articles. Herbal remedy clinical trials had similar Jadad scores to pharmaceutical trials but were significantly smaller and of shorter duration. The trials were mostly studies from Western countries and published in high-ranking journals. The majority of pharmaceutical (64%) and herbal remedy (53%) clinical trials had private sector funding involvement. A minority declared further author conflicts of interest. Newspaper coverage of herbal remedy clinical trials was more negative than for pharmaceutical trials; a result only partly explained by the greater proportion of herbal remedy clinical trials reporting negative results (P = 0.0201; (2) = 7.8129; degrees of freedom = 2). Errors of omission were common in newspaper coverage, with little reporting of dose, sample size, location, and duration of the trial, methods, trial funding, and conflicts of interest. There was an under-reporting of risks, especially for herbal remedies. Our finding of negative coverage of herbal remedy trials is contrary to the positive trends in most published research based primarily on anecdotal accounts

  4. Herbal remedy clinical trials in the media: a comparison with the coverage of conventional pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caulfield Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study systematically compares newspaper coverage of clinical trials for herbal remedies, a popular type of complementary and alternative medicine, with clinical trials for pharmaceuticals using a comparative content analysis. This is a timely inquiry given the recognized importance of the popular press as a source of health information, the complex and significant role of complementary and alternative medicine in individual health-care decisions, and the trend toward evidence-based research for some complementary and alternative medical therapies. We searched PubMed for clinical trials, Lexis/Nexis for newspaper articles in the UK, US, Australia/New Zealand, and Factiva for Canadian newspaper articles from 1995 to 2005. We used a coding frame to analyze and compare 48 pharmaceutical and 57 herbal remedy clinical trials as well as 201 pharmaceutical and 352 herbal remedy newspaper articles. Results Herbal remedy clinical trials had similar Jadad scores to pharmaceutical trials but were significantly smaller and of shorter duration. The trials were mostly studies from Western countries and published in high-ranking journals. The majority of pharmaceutical (64% and herbal remedy (53% clinical trials had private sector funding involvement. A minority declared further author conflicts of interest. Newspaper coverage of herbal remedy clinical trials was more negative than for pharmaceutical trials; a result only partly explained by the greater proportion of herbal remedy clinical trials reporting negative results (P = 0.0201; χ2 = 7.8129; degrees of freedom = 2. Errors of omission were common in newspaper coverage, with little reporting of dose, sample size, location, and duration of the trial, methods, trial funding, and conflicts of interest. There was an under-reporting of risks, especially for herbal remedies. Conclusion Our finding of negative coverage of herbal remedy trials is contrary to the positive trends in most

  5. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  6. Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. In 2002, Mozambique, South Africa ... La résilience et les petits exploitants agricoles africains : accroître la capacité des collectivités de s'adapter aux changements climatiques. En raison de la prévalence et de la ...

  7. Greater Confinement Disposal trench and borehole operations status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.P. Jr.; Wilhite, E.L.; Jaegge, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facilities have been constructed within the operating burial ground at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to dispose of the higher activity fraction of SRP low-level waste. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms. Ba...

  9. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  10. Voices of visual artists from Greater Tshwane: a historiography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... views of 24 visual artists residing in Greater Tshwane, on practicing their art over the past decades, as well as their perceptions of present realities and future challenges. The findings indicate that the artists continue to experience a lack of support from both government and the private sector in helping to market their work, ...

  11. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    should a building be in order to achieve energy efficiency in the design and construction of the tall office building?” This involved the ... Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its .... panels that reduce the solar gain, as well as heat loss to half that of a ...

  12. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  13. Trends in maternal mortality for the Greater Harare Maternity Unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trends in maternal mortality for the Greater Harare Maternity Unit: 1976 to 1996. F Majoko, T Chipato, V Illif. Abstract. No Abstract. Central African Journal of Medicine Vol. 47 (8) 2001: pp. 199-202. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. The first recorded reproduction of the Greater Flamingo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following several decades of unsuccessful attempts at locating breeding colonies of the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus in Algeria, breeding was recorded on a natural islet of Garaet Ezzemoul, a seasonal salt lake near the town of Aïn M'lila in the Hauts Plateaux. This successful mass breeding event by at least 5 ...

  15. The Easterlin Illusion: Economic growth does go with greater happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); F. Vergunst (Floris)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The 'Easterlin Paradox' holds that economic growth in nations does not buy greater happiness for the average citizen. This thesis was advanced in the 1970s on the basis of the then available data on happiness in nations. Later data have disproved most of the empirical

  16. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  17. Survival estimates for the greater crested tern Thalasseus bergii in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nominate race of the greater crested tern Thalasseus bergii breeds only along the coast of the Benguela region (west coast) of southern Africa, where its population is increasing, in contrast to other species of breeding seabirds in the region which similarly depend on forage fish. Although this population's trends are ...

  18. User experience with a health insurance coverage and benefit-package access: implications for policy implementation towards expansion in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shafiu; Aji, Budi; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Souares, Aurelia; Dong, Hengjin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Developing countries are devising strategies and mechanisms to expand coverage and benefit-package access for their citizens through national health insurance schemes (NHIS). In Nigeria, the scheme aims to provide affordable healthcare services to insured-persons and their dependants. However, inclusion of dependants is restricted to four biological children and a spouse per user. This study assesses the progress of implementation of the NHIS in Nigeria, relating to coverage and benefit-package access, and examines individual factors associated with the implementation, according to users' perspectives. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was done between October 2010 and March 2011 in Kaduna state and 796 users were randomly interviewed. Questions regarding coverage of immediate-family members and access to benefit-package for treatment were analysed. Indicators of coverage and benefit-package access were each further aggregated and assessed by unit-weighted composite. The additive-ordinary least square regression model was used to identify user factors that may influence coverage and benefit-package access. With respect to coverage, immediate-dependants were included for 62.3% of the users, and 49.6 rated this inclusion 'good' (49.6%). In contrast, 60.2% supported the abolishment of the policy restriction for non-inclusion of enrolees' additional children and spouses. With respect to benefit-package access, 82.7% of users had received full treatments, and 77.6% of them rated this as 'good'. Also, 14.4% of users had been refused treatments because they could not afford them. The coverage of immediate-dependants was associated with age, sex, educational status, children and enrolment duration. The benefit-package access was associated with types of providers, marital status and duration of enrolment. This study revealed that coverage of family members was relatively poor, while benefit-package access was more adequate. Non-inclusion of family members could

  19. Scalable Coverage Maintenance for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to numerous potential applications, wireless sensor networks have been attracting significant research effort recently. The critical challenge that wireless sensor networks often face is to sustain long-term operation on limited battery energy. Coverage maintenance schemes can effectively prolong network lifetime by selecting and employing a subset of sensors in the network to provide sufficient sensing coverage over a target region. We envision future wireless sensor networks composed of a vast number of miniaturized sensors in exceedingly high density. Therefore, the key issue of coverage maintenance for future sensor networks is the scalability to sensor deployment density. In this paper, we propose a novel coverage maintenance scheme, scalable coverage maintenance (SCOM, which is scalable to sensor deployment density in terms of communication overhead (i.e., number of transmitted and received beacons and computational complexity (i.e., time and space complexity. In addition, SCOM achieves high energy efficiency and load balancing over different sensors. We have validated our claims through both analysis and simulations.

  20. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  1. An analytic approach to understanding and predicting healthcare coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Dursun; Fuller, Christie

    2013-01-01

    The inequality in the level of healthcare coverage among the people in the US is a pressing issue. Unfortunately, many people do not have healthcare coverage and much research is needed to identify the factors leading to this phenomenon. Hence, the goal of this study is to examine the healthcare coverage of individuals by applying popular analytic techniques on a wide-variety of predictive factors. A large and feature-rich dataset is used in conjunction with four popular data mining techniques-artificial neural networks, decision trees, support vector machines and logistic regression-to develop prediction models. Applying sensitivity analysis to the developed prediction models, the ranked importance of variables is determined. The experimental results indicated that the most accurate classifier for this phenomenon was the support vector machines that had an overall classification accuracy of 82.23% on the 10-fold holdout/test sample. The most important predictive factors came out as income, employment status, education, and marital status. The ability to identify and explain the reasoning of those likely to be without healthcare coverage through the application of accurate classification models can potentially be used in reducing the disparity in health care coverage.

  2. Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Guerrero-Núñez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: determine the prevalence of Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile and its relation with the variables: Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Average of diabetics with metabolic control in 2011-2013; Mortality Rate for Diabetes Mellitus; and Percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program. Method: cross-sectional descriptive study with ecological components that uses documentary sources of the Ministry of Health. It was established that there is correlation between the Universal Effective Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and the independent variables; it was applied the Pearson Coefficient, being significant at the 0.05 level. Results: in Chile Universal Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (HbA1c<7% estimated population is less than 20%; this is related with Mortality Rate for Diabetes Mellitus and Percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program, being significant at the 0.01 level. Conclusion: effective prevalence of Universal Health Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is low, even though some regions stand out in this research and in the metabolic control of patients who participate in health control program; its relation with percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program represents a challenge and an opportunity for the health system.

  3. [Coverage by health insurance or discount cards: a household survey in the coverage area of the Family Health Strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo Ferreira; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Junqueira de; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2017-10-26

    This study was designed to assess the reasons for health insurance coverage in a population covered by the Family Health Strategy in Brazil. We describe overall health insurance coverage and according to types, and analyze its association with health-related and socio-demographic characteristics. Among the 31.3% of persons (95%CI: 23.8-39.9) who reported "health insurance" coverage, 57.0% (95%CI: 45.2-68.0) were covered only by discount cards, which do not offer any kind of coverage for medical care, but only discounts in pharmacies, clinics, and hospitals. Both for health insurance and discount cards, the most frequently cited reasons for such coverage were "to be on the safe side" and "to receive better care". Both types of coverage were associated statistically with age (+65 vs. 15-24 years: adjusted odds ratios, aOR = 2.98, 95%CI: 1.28-6.90; and aOR = 3.67; 95%CI: 2.22-6.07, respectively) and socioeconomic status (additional standard deviation: aOR = 2.25, 95%CI: 1.62-3.14; and aOR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.34-2.97). In addition, health insurance coverage was associated with schooling (aOR = 7.59, 95%CI: 4.44-13.00) for complete University Education and aOR = 3.74 (95%CI: 1.61-8.68) for complete Secondary Education, compared to less than complete Primary Education. Meanwhile, neither health insurance nor discount card was associated with health status or number of diagnosed diseases. In conclusion, studies that aim to assess private health insurance should be planned to distinguish between discount cards and formal health insurance.

  4. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  5. Water and nonwater-related challenges of achieving global sanitation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Lauren M; Mihelcic, James R; Watkins, David W

    2008-06-15

    Improved sanitation is considered equally important for public health as is access to improved drinking water. However, the world has been slower to meet the challenge of sanitation provision for the world's poor. We analyze previously cited barriers to sanitation coverage including inadequate investment poor or nonexistent policies, governance, too few resources, gender disparities, and water availability. Analysis includes investigation of correlation between indicators of the mentioned barriers and sanitation coverage, correlations among the indicators themselves, and a geospatial assessment of the potential impacts of sanitation technology on global water resources under six scenarios of sanitation technology choice. The challenges studied were found to be significant barriers to sanitation coverage, but water availability was not a primary obstacle at a global scale. Analysis at a 0.5 degrees grid scale shows, however, that water availability is an important barrier to as many as 46 million people, depending on the sanitation technology selected. The majority of these people are urban dwellers in countries where water quality is already poor and may be further degraded by sewering vast populations. Water quality is especially important because this vulnerable population primarily resides in locations that depend on environmental income associated with fish consumption.

  6. An Optimized Field Coverage Planning Approach for Navigation of Agricultural Robots in Fields Involving Obstacle Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Hameed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Technological advances combined with the demand of cost efficiency and environmental considerations has led farmers to review their practices towards the adoption of new managerial approaches, including enhanced automation. The application of field robots is one of the most promising advances among automation technologies. Since the primary goal of an agricultural vehicle is the complete coverage of the cropped area within a field, an essential prerequisite is the capability of the mobile unit to cover the whole field area autonomously. In this paper, the main objective is to develop an approach for coverage planning for agricultural operations involving the presence of obstacle areas within the field area. The developed approach involves a series of stages including the generation of field-work tracks in the field polygon, the clustering of the tracks into blocks taking into account the in-field obstacle areas, the headland paths generation for the field and each obstacle area, the implementation of a genetic algorithm to optimize the sequence that the field robot vehicle will follow to visit the blocks and an algorithmic generation of the task sequences derived from the farmer practices. This approach has proven that it is possible to capture the practices of farmers and embed these practices in an algorithmic description providing a complete field area coverage plan in a form prepared for execution by the navigation system of a field robot.

  7. ENHANCED IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE THROUGH INTERVENTIONS FOR CHILDHOOD CLUSTER DISEASES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Sheh; Somronghtong, Ratana; Kumar, Ramesh; Ghaffar, Abdul; Chapman, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Globally immunisation has to be considered as a most effective and efficient public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality among children. Most of the children from developing countries are still not fully immunized due to multiple factors including lack of interventions, awareness, and financial constraints and due to limited resource. Conversely, this review has identified the effectiveness of interventions to increase the immunisation coverage among children of developing countries. Systematic review by using PRISMA statement ("preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses") has been conducted in English. published articles on Pub Med, Scopus, Cochrane, Medline and ISI by searching keywords like immunizations, childhood vaccination and developing countries has been accessed. Only randomised controlled trial and quasi-experimental studies designs were included in the final analysis based on quality assessment by adopting the Down and Black checklist and finally pooled analysis was done by random effect model. This systematic review has been approved and registered by University of York. A total of 16,570 published articles were accessed and finally 10 fulfilled our criteria that were analysed and interpreted. It demonstrated that the interventions has shown significantly increase vaccine coverage for childhood cluster diseases (OR 2.136 and p 0.05) and full vaccination schedule (OR 1.342 and p>0.05). Systematic review has concluded that the professional interventions are an effective while in improving the child immunisation coverage for cluster diseases in developing countries, major effect on DTP an.d measles.

  8. Genomic Variance Estimation Based on Genotyping-by-Sequencing with Different Coverage in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Bilal; Fé, Dario; Jensen, Just

    2014-01-01

    on optimizing methods and models utilizing F2 family phenotype records and NGS information from F2 family pools in perennial ryegrass. Genomic variance was estimated using genomic relationship matrices based on different coverage depths to verify effects of coverage depth. Example traits were seed yield, rust......Advancement in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has significantly decreased the cost of DNA sequencing enabling increased use of genotyping by sequencing (GBS) in several plant species. In contrast to array-based genotyping GBS also allows for easy estimation of allele frequencies...... at each SNP in family pools or polyploids. There are, however, several statistical challenges associated with this method, including low sequencing depth and missing values. Low sequencing depth results in inaccuracies in estimates of allele frequencies for each SNP. In this work we have focused...

  9. Network coverage of the IMS noble gas component to detect nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppner, Michael [Institut fuer Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitik an der Universitaet Hamburg, Beim Schlump 83, 20144 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The noble gas component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) is supposed to detect radioxenon fission products from nuclear explosions and thereby deliver proof of the nuclear character of suspicious events. In this work an approach is presented to determine the network coverage of the IMS {sup 133}Xe component. Various parameters that influence the network coverage are identified and included. The global radioxenon background from legitimate facilities has been simulated and the resulting impact on the IMS noble gas component calculated. From this background a station-specific detection criterion has been deducted. Furthermore, emissions from underground as well as surface test explosions of 1kt devices have been simulated for each grid point and time step of one year. The percentage of detectable nuclear explosions has been calculated and analysed for geographical and temporal variances.

  10. Homophobia as a barrier to comprehensive media coverage of the Ugandan anti-homosexual bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local media. This article explores to what degree a discriminatory social environment manifests itself in the Ugandan print media and discusses the potential implications for media's coverage of contentious policy options such as the Anti-Homosexuality Bill. A content analysis of 115 items from two daily newspapers (the government-owned New Vision and the privately owned the Daily Monitor, between October and December 2009) indicates the existence of two separate house styles; this is in spite of the fact that both newspapers reproduce the surrounding society's homophobia, albeit with different frequency. Unlike the New Vision, the Daily Monitor includes coverage on homophobia and discrimination, as well as provides space for criticism of the Bill. By acknowledging discrimination and its negative impact, the newspaper de-legitimizes homophobia and problematizes the proposed Anti-homosexuality Bill for their readers.

  11. Polarizing news? Representations of threat and efficacy in leading US newspapers' coverage of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Lauren; Hart, P Sol; Milosevic, Tijana

    2017-05-01

    This study examines non-editorial news coverage in leading US newspapers as a source of ideological differences on climate change. A quantitative content analysis compared how the threat of climate change and efficacy for actions to address it were represented in climate change coverage across The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and USA Today between 2006 and 2011. Results show that The Wall Street Journal was least likely to discuss the impacts of and threat posed by climate change and most likely to include negative efficacy information and use conflict and negative economic framing when discussing actions to address climate change. The inclusion of positive efficacy information was similar across newspapers. Also, across all newspapers, climate impacts and actions to address climate change were more likely to be discussed separately than together in the same article. Implications for public engagement and ideological polarization are discussed.

  12. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children aged 12 - 23 months in a peri-urban area of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Lilian Chepkemoi; Karanja, Simon; Kombich, Janeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The institutionalization of strong immunization services over recent years has ensured that today more than 70% of the worlds’ targeted population is reached. In Kenya, approximately 77% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated with some districts reporting even lower levels of coverage. However, low immunization coverage remains a challenge in low income and high population settings such as Kaptembwo Location, Nakuru district. Methods A cross sectional community based survey was undertaken between January and March 2011. Cluster sampling method was employed. Data was collected using pretested interviewer guided structured questionnaires through house to house visits. Data was analyzed in SPSS using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors of full immunization. Results Complete immunization coverage was 76.6%. Coverage for specific antigens was; BCG (99.5%), OPV0 (97.6%), OPV 1(98.7%), OPV2 (96.6%), OPV3 (90.5%), Penta 1(98.9), Penta 2 (96.6%), Penta 3 (90.0%), Measles (77.4%). The drop-out rate between the first and third pentavalent vaccine coverage was 8.9%. Predictors of full immunization included number of children within the family, place of birth of the child, advice on date of next visit for growth monitoring and opinion on the health immunization services offered. Conclusion Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months is still below target. Efforts to improve vaccination coverage must take into account the immunization determinants found in this study. There is need to focus on strengthening of awareness strategies. PMID:23504493

  13. Fractographic study of the behavior of different ceramic veneers on full coverage crowns in relation to supporting core materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farga-Niñoles, Ignacio; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Román-Rodriguez, Juan L; Solá-Ruíz, María F; Granell-Ruíz, María; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    To observe porcelain veneer behavior of zirconia and metal-ceramic full coverage crowns when subjected to compression testing, comparing zirconia cores to metal cores. The porcelain fracture surfaces of 120 full coverage crowns (60 with a metal core and 60 with a zirconia core) subjected to static load (compression) testing were analyzed. Image analysis was performed using macroscopic processing with 8x and 12x enlargement. Five samples from each group were prepared and underwent scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis in order to make a fractographic study of fracture propagation in the contact area and composition analysis in the most significant areas of the specimen. Statistically significant differences in fracture type (cohesive or adhesive) were found between the metal-ceramic and zirconia groups: the incidence of adhesive fracture was seen to be greater in metal-ceramic groups (92%) and cohesive fracture was more frequent in zirconium oxide groups (72%). The fracture propagation pattern was on the periphery of the contact area in the full coverage crown restorations selected for fractographic study. The greater frequency of cohesive fracture in restorations with zirconia cores indicates that their behavior is inadequate compared to metal-ceramic restorations and that further research is needed to improve their clinical performance. Key words:Zirconia, zirconium oxide, fractography, composition, porcelain veneers, fracture, cohesive, adhesive.

  14. Coverage Dependent Assembly of Anthraquinone on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Brad; Deloach, Andrew; Einstein, Theodore; Dougherty, Daniel

    A study of adsorbate-adsorbate and surface state mediated interactions of anthraquinone (AnQ) on Au(111) is presented. We utilize scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to characterize the coverage dependence of AnQ structure formation. Ordered structures are observed up to a single monolayer (ML) and are found to be strongly dependent on molecular surface density. While the complete ML forms a well-ordered close-packed layer, for a narrow range of sub-ML coverages irregular close-packed islands are observed to coexist with a disordered pore network linking neighboring islands. This network displays a characteristic pore size and at lower coverages, the soliton walls of the herringbone reconstruction are shown to promote formation of distinct pore nanostructures. We will discuss these nanostructure formations in the context of surface mediated and more direct adsorbate interactions.

  15. Multiattribute Utility Copulas for Multi-objective Coverage Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valicka Christopher G.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and experimental results related to the control and coordination of multirobot systems interested in dynamically covering a compact domain while remaining proximal, so as to promote robust inter-robot communications, and while remaining collision free with respect to each other and static obstacles. A design for a novel, gradient-based controller using nonnegative definite objective functions and an overapproximation to the maximum function is presented. By using a multiattribute utility copula to scalarize the multiobjective control problem, a control law is presented that allows for flexible tuning of the tradeofs between objectives. This procedure mitigates the controller’s dependence on objective function parameters and allows for the straightforward integration of a novel global coverage objective. Simulation and experiments demonstrate the controller’s efectiveness in promoting scenarios with collision free trajectories, robust communications, and satisfactory coverage of the entire coverage domain concurrently for a group of differential drive robots.

  16. Insurance coverage of pediatric burns: Switzerland versus USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deghayli, Lina; Moufarrij, Sara; Norberg, Michael; Sheridan, Robert; Raffoul, Wassim; de Buys Roessingh, Anthony; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2014-08-01

    Burn care and research have significantly improved over the past years. However, insurance coverage of such treatments does not reflect the improvements in this multi-disciplinary field. Government insurance policies in first world countries renown for burn care treatment, such as Switzerland and the United States, have not adapted to the complexity and longitudinal nature of burn care. Using case studies from both countries, we have analyzed both the institutional and policy approach to pediatric burn treatment coverage. Subsequently, by presenting the Shriners burn care model, we offer a policy recommendation to both the Swiss and the American governments to better their present legislation and infrastructure on pediatric burn coverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. A difficult balancing act: policy actors' perspectives on using economic evaluation to inform health-care coverage decisions under the Universal Health Insurance Coverage scheme in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Russell, Steve

    2008-03-01

    In Thailand, policymakers have come under increasing pressure to use economic evaluation to inform health-care resource allocation decisions, especially after the introduction of the Universal Health Insurance Coverage (UC) scheme. This article presents qualitative findings from research that assessed a range of policymakers' perspectives on the acceptability of using economic evaluation for the development of health-care benefit packages in Thailand. The policy analysis examined their opinions about existing decision-making processes for including health interventions in the UC benefit package, their understanding of health economic evaluation, and their attitudes, acceptance, and values relating to the use of the method. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role or have some input into health resource allocation decisions within the Thai health-care system. These included 14 senior policymakers at the national level, 5 hospital directors, 10 health professionals, and 7 academics. Policy actors thought that economic evaluation information was relevant for decision-making because of the increasing need for rationing and more transparent criteria for making UC coverage decisions. Nevertheless, they raised several difficulties with using economic evaluation that would pose barriers to its introduction, including distrust in the method, conflicting philosophical positions and priorities compared to that of "health maximization," organizational allegiances, existing decision-making procedures that would be hard to change, and concerns about political pressure and acceptability.

  18. Rumor-Related and Exclusive Behavior Coverage in Internet News Reports Following the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Outbreak in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Jun; Harada, Nahoko; Tanichi, Masaaki; Nagamine, Masanori; Shimizu, Kunio; Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Tokuno, Shinichi; Tsumatori, Gentaro; Yoshino, Aihide

    2015-08-01

    We sought to elucidate news article reporting of adverse public psychosocial behaviors, in particular, rumor-related coverage (eg, panic, demagoguery) and exclusive behavior coverage (negative behaviors, eg, discrimination, bullying) during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) influenza pandemic in Japan. We examined 154 Internet news-site articles reporting adverse public psychosocial responses in the first 60 days of the outbreak. Rumor-related coverage and exclusive behavior coverage were dichotomously coded as included or not. Moreover, we assessed whether or not health information (eg, coping methods, virus toxicity information) or emphasis on information quality (eg, importance of information, cautions about overreactions) were simultaneously reported. Rumor-related coverage (n=120, 77.9%) was less likely to simultaneously report public health information (eg, toxicity information, health support information, and cautions about overreactions; PRumor-related coverage was less likely to have accompanying public health information, whereas exclusive behavior coverage was more likely to include it. During public health crises, it is essential to understand that rumors and exclusive behaviors have adverse effects on the public and that accompanying public health information may help people take proactive coping actions.

  19. Medieval Multilingualism in Poland: Creating a Corpus of Greater Poland Court Oaths (Rotha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopaczyk Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the research plan for the preparation of a searchable electronic repository of the earliest extant legal oaths from medieval Poland drawing on the expertise in historical corpus-building developed for the history of English. The oaths survive in the overwhelmingly Latin land books from the period between 1386 and 1446 for six localities Greater Poland, in which the land courts operated: Poznań, Kościan, Pyzdry, Gniezno, Konin and Kalisz. A diplomatic edition of the oaths was published in five volumes by Polish historical linguists (Kowalewicz & Kuraszkiewicz 1959–1966. The edition is the only comprehensive resource of considerable scope (over 6300 oaths from the years 1386–1446 for the study of the earliest attestations of the Polish language beyond glosses. Recognising some limitations, but most of all its unparalleled coverage of the coexistence of Latin and the vernacular, the ROThA project embarks on transforming the edition into an open up-to-date digital resource. We thus aim to facilitate research into the history of Polish and Latin as well as of the legal system and the related social and linguistic issues of the period.

  20. Military and civilian media coverage of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Kinn, Julie T; June, Jennifer D; Fullerton, Nicole R

    2011-01-01

    Military suicide has increased over the past decade and reports of Service Member and Veteran suicides receive media attention. Some methods of reporting suicide appear to cause a "media contagion" effect, potentially increasing suicide. This effect is explored in relation to media reports of both military and civilian suicides. To reduce possible contagion, recommendations for media reporting of suicides were adapted by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC). We assessed 240 military and civilian newspaper reports of suicide from 15 different sources for compliance with the SPRC guidelines. Nearly all reviewed articles violated at least one guideline. Results highlighted military news articles regarding Service Members included more pejorative language and discussion of failed psychological treatment. Conversely, civilian articles romanticized the victim and provided more details regarding the suicide. Further exploration of military suicide reporting bias is discussed as a need in future research.