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Sample records for include grade level

  1. Performance Of Growing Rabbits Fed Graded Levels Of Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ten-week feeding trial was conducted to assess the biological and economic performance of growing rabbits fed graded levels of goat rumen content (GRC). The GRC which contained 27.25% crude protein and 28.33% crude fibre were included at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% levels in diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively to ...

  2. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  3. DNA copy number analysis of Grade II-III and Grade IV gliomas reveals differences in molecular ontogeny including chromothripsis associated with IDH mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam; Sato, Mariko; Aldape, Kenneth; Mason, Clinton C; Alfaro-Munoz, Kristin; Heathcock, Lindsey; South, Sarah T; Abegglen, Lisa M; Schiffman, Joshua D; Colman, Howard

    2015-06-20

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status and grade define subgroups of diffuse gliomas differing based on age, tumor location, presentation, and prognosis. While some biologic differences between IDH mutated (IDH (mut)) and wild-type (IDH (wt)) gliomas are clear, the distinct alterations associated with progression of the two subtypes to glioblastoma (GBM, Grade IV) have not been well described. We analyzed copy number alterations (CNAs) across grades (Grade II-III and GBM) in both IDH (mut) and IDH (wt) infiltrating gliomas using molecular inversion probe arrays. Ninety four patient samples were divided into four groups: Grade II-III IDH (wt) (n = 17), Grade II-III IDH (mut) (n = 28), GBM IDH (wt) (n = 25), and GBM IDH (mut) (n = 24). We validated prior observations that IDH (wt) GBM have a high frequency of chromosome 7 gain (including EGFR) and chromosome 10 loss (including PTEN) compared with IDH (mut) GBM. Hierarchical clustering of IDH (mut) gliomas demonstrated distinct CNA patterns distinguishing lower grade gliomas versus GBM. However, similar hierarchical clustering of IDH (wt) gliomas demonstrated no CNA distinction between lower grade glioma and GBM. Functional analyses showed that IDH (wt) gliomas had more chromosome gains in regions containing receptor tyrosine kinase pathways. In contrast, IDH (mut) gliomas more commonly demonstrated amplification of cyclins and cyclin dependent kinase genes. One of the most common alterations associated with transformation of lower grade to GBM IDH (mut) gliomas was the loss of chromosomal regions surrounding PTEN. IDH (mut) GBM tumors demonstrated significantly higher levels of overall CNAs compared to lower grade IDH (mut) tumors and all grades of IDH (wt) tumors, and IDH (mut) GBMs also demonstrated significant increase in incidence of chromothripsis. Taken together, these analyses demonstrate distinct molecular ontogeny between IDH (wt) and IDH (mut) gliomas. Our data also support the novel

  4. Influence of graded levels or toasted Bambara groundnut meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding graded levels of toasted bambara ground nut meal on rabbit weaners was investigated. A total of fifty white rabbit weaners of 6 - 8 weeks with an average weight of 366.7g were fed the graded level of Bambara nut meal at 0, 5, 15, 25 or 35% inclusion level in a complete randomized design experiment ...

  5. Grade-Level Retention in Texas Public Schools, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This annual report provides information for the 2015-16 school year on grade-level retention in the Texas public school system. Data on retention are provided by student characteristics, including grade level; race/ethnicity; gender; degree of English proficiency; and economic, at-risk, immigrant, migrant, and overage statuses. Data also are…

  6. Children's Images of Scientists: Does Grade Level Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's images of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) and to determine if differences in these images exist between grade levels. The DAST was administered to 243 children who were enrolled in kindergarten (aged 6) and grade 3 and 5 (aged 9 and 11). Findings obtained from the study…

  7. Grade Level Differences in Factors of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokenes, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, using approximately 1500 elementary school students. Also investigated grade level differences in preadolescent and adolescent children. (Author/ED)

  8. Effect of Supplementation with Graded Levels of Concentrate Mix on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Supplementation with Graded Levels of Concentrate Mix on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Body Weight Change, Carcass Parameters and Economic benefit of Arsi-bale Sheep Fed with Basal Diet of Urea Treated Barley Straw.

  9. Performance of rabbits fed diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinchilla x New Zealand white) weaned rabbits with average initial weights of 540g to evaluate the performance of rabbits fed diets containing graded levels of processed tallow (Detarium microcarpum) seed meal. The design of the experiment ...

  10. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  11. Study Of Relationship Between The Grades In 'A' Level Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of students in 'A' level practical examinations was analysed to construct a backdrop for a study of 'A' level science practical work. This paper presents the results of regression analyses that were carried out to find out if any significant relationship exists between the grades in practical and theory papers.

  12. Ortographic difficulties in writing at a basic grade level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the performance in children’s writing at a basic grade level. A written test was applied to 546 grade 2 or 3 boys and girls (aged 7 to 13 in public and private schools from the State of São Paulo. The results showed that the grade 3 participants presented a better performance than the grade 2 participants even though both groups have achieved the same maximum and minimum scores. It was confirmed that participants had more difficulty with words containing compound syllables, while words with aggregated consonants and digraphs were associated with the highest rate of correct answers. Furthermore, students from private school revealed more competence in orthographic writing than those coming from public schools. As to gender differences, there were no significant differences in performance for compound and complex syllables items though for other words, girls had better scores.   Keywords: writing; academic achievement; evaluation.

  13. Haematology and serum indices of broiler starter fed graded levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the haematology and serum indices of broiler starter fed graded levels of raw pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherima) seedmeal. Seventy two day old Marshal broiler chicks obtained from Obasanjo Farms, Igboora, Oyo state, Nigeria were randomly assigned into four treatments, each ...

  14. Carcass and organ characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of graded levels of heat-treated castor oil bean meal and supplementary L-lysine on carcass and organ characteristics of broiler birds was investigated. In experiment 1, 180 seven-day old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were randomly divided into 12 groups of 15 birds each. In experiment 2, 144 six weeks old broiler ...

  15. Impact of diets containing graded level of malted sorghum sprout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing graded levels of malted sorghum sprout mixed with pineapple waste (MSPW) on rumen fermentation profile of West African dwarf goats using in vitro gas production techniques. The malted sorghum sprout and pineapple waste mixture were obtained ...

  16. Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

  17. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted eight (8) weeks was carried out to determine the intake and nutrient digestibility by growing Yankasa rams fed graded levels of Tamarindus indica leaves. Twelve Yankasa rams with average liveweight of 17.40kg were randomly allocated to three treatments of four replicates in a Randomized ...

  18. Interventions for rosacea: abridged updated Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic facial dermatosis. This update of our Cochrane review on interventions for rosacea summarizes the evidence, including Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group assessments, of the effects of the currently available treatments. Searches included the following: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Science Citation Index, and ongoing trials registries (July 2014). We included 106 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 13 631 participants, a more than 80% increase since the last update in 2011. Pooling of data was feasible for a few outcomes, for topical metronidazole and azelaic acid and both appeared to be more effective than placebo (moderate and high-quality evidence, respectively). Topical ivermectin was more effective than placebo based on two studies (high-quality evidence), and slightly more effective than metronidazole in one study. Brimonidine was more effective than vehicle in reducing erythema in rosacea (high-quality evidence). Ciclosporin ophthalmic emulsion was effective for ocular rosacea (low-quality evidence). For oral treatments there was moderate-quality evidence for the effectiveness of tetracycline based on two old studies, and high-quality evidence for doxycycline 40 mg compared with placebo according to physician assessments. One study at high risk of bias demonstrated equivalent effectiveness for azithromycin and doxycycline 100 mg. Minocycline 45 mg may be effective for papulopustular rosacea (low-quality evidence). Low-dose isotretinoin appeared to be slightly more effective than doxycycline 50-100 mg (high-quality evidence). Laser and light-based therapies for erythema in rosacea were effective (low-quality evidence). Further RCTs are required for ocular rosacea. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Performance of broiler starter chicks fed graded levels of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of broiler starter chicks fed graded levels of cassava chips meal as replacement for whole maize. ... Results show that birds on control (0% CCM) and T2 (12.5% CCM) with weight gains 643 g and 625 g; average daily feed intake, 46.7 and 46.9 g average daily weight gain 23.0 and 21.3 g; feed conversion ratio, ...

  20. Teacher-to-Teacher Consultation: Facilitating Consistent and Effective Intervention across Grade Levels for Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Matthew J.; Dupaul, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher-to-teacher consultation (TTC) is an extension of standard behavioral consultation that seeks to transfer an established and effective intervention across a grade-level transition by including teachers from both grade levels as conjoint consultees at the beginning of the second school year. The purpose of the current study was to determine…

  1. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  2. A carpal tunnel grading system including combined sensory index-diagnosed mild cases: Relation to presenting features and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Pandey, Dilip K

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated superiority of the combined sensory index (CSI) algorithm in diagnosing mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and have compared presenting symptoms to CTS grade. However, CTS symptoms, signs, and outcomes, including CSI-diagnosed cases, have not been compared with CTS grade. We retrospectively studied 294 CTS hands from 2010 to 2013; stratified them into mild, moderate, and severe grades; and analyzed the association between CTS grade and presenting symptoms/signs and outcomes. Sensorimotor symptoms (P = 0.017) and signs (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with CTS grade. Regardless of CTS grade, 94% of hands improved with surgery compared with 42% with conservative treatment (P < 0.001). Even in mild CTS, 100% improved with surgery vs. 33% with conservative management (P = 0.011). These results corroborate prior studies that compared symptoms to CTS grade and suggest that more objective signs associate even better. CTS grades associate with outcomes, but additional studies are required. Muscle Nerve 57: 45-48, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prevalence and Implementation Practices of School Salad Bars Across Grade Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Adams, Marc A; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Hurley, Jane

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of school salad bars in Arizona and to describe common practices of salad bar use among school nutrition managers across grade level. Cross-sectional web-based surveys. School nutrition managers from elementary, middle, high, and K-12 schools (N = 648). Prevalence of salad bars; implementation practices such as years with salad bar, salad bar type, location, monitor, and reimbursement practices; and food-related components of salad bars including frequency of items, popular items, and sources of food. Descriptive analyses were conducted including Fisher exact test, analysis of variance, and the Kruskal-Wallis test comparing practices across grade level (elementary, middle, high, and K-12 schools). Overall, 61.1% of respondents had a salad bar; there were significant differences in the prevalence across grade level: elementary, middle, high, and K-12 schools had prevalence of 67.3%, 75.0%, 45.5%, and 51.1%, respectively ( P related components of salad bars across grade levels including type, salad bar location, sources of food, and frequency of serving cut vegetables. This study provides insights on the prevalence of salad bars and is the first to report on implementation practices of school salad bars. These results may also guide the development of interventions for nutrition educators to use for the promotion fruit and vegetable consumption via school salad bars.

  4. Micro and macro level safety analysis at railroad grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Railroad grade crossings are potential conflict points between train and highway vehicles, and train and pedestrians. Grade crossings pose a risk to all the travelers and the degree of risk depends on factors such as train and vehicle volumes, presen...

  5. Enactment of Scientific Inquiry: Observation of Two Cases at Different Grade Levels in China Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ronghui; Clarke, David; Wang, Weizhen

    2014-04-01

    Enactment of scientific inquiry in classroom has attracted a great attention of science educators around the world. In this study, we examined two competent teachers' (one Grade 9 chemistry teacher and one Grade 4 science teacher) enactment of scientific inquiry in selected teaching units to reveal the characteristics of enacted inquiry at different grade levels by analyzing lesson sequence videos. The coding schemes for enacted inquiry consist of ontological properties and instructional practices. Pre-topic and post-topic teacher interviews and the two teachers' responses to a questionnaire were adopted to identify the factors influencing teacher's enactment. The results indicate that the two case teachers' enactment involved a range of inquiry activities. The enacted inquiry at fourth-grade level covered all the inquiry elements, tending to engage students in the whole procedure of inquiry. The ninth-grade chemistry class placed emphasis on the elements "making plans" to solve problems in authentic context. Important factors influencing the enactment include teacher's understanding about scientific inquiry, textbooks, assessment, students and resource. Implications for inquiry enactment and instruction improvement have been provided.

  6. Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an 84-day feeding trial, the effect of feeding varying dietary levels of Acacia albida pods (AAP) on the carcass parameters of growing rabbits was studied. AAP was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels in diets, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The diets and clean drinking water were provided ad libitum. At the end of the ...

  7. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed S. Hussein; Jamal Al Ghurair; P. George Kunju John; Hosam M. Habib; Mohsin Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of...

  8. Performance of growing rabbits fed graded levels of sugarcane peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty five growing rabbits of mixed breeds and average weight of 894g were used in a seven week feeding trial. Five experimental diets were formulated in which sugarcane peels (SCP) was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels to replace maize offal. The rabbits were balanced for weight and allotted to the treatments ...

  9. Grade Level Differences in High School Students' Conceptions of and Motives for Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-08-01

    Students' conceptions of learning science and their relations with motive for learning may vary as the education level increases. This study aimed to compare the quantitative patterns in students' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and motives for learning science (MLS) across grade levels by adopting two survey instruments. A total of 768 high school students were surveyed in Taiwan, including 204 eighth graders, 262 tenth graders, and 302 12th graders. In the current research, memorizing, testing, and calculating and practicing were categorized as reproductive conceptions of learning science, while increase of knowledge, applying, understanding and seeing-in-a-new-way were regarded as constructivist conceptions. The results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) revealed that conceptions of learning science are more constructivist as education level increases. Both tenth graders and 12th graders endorsed understanding, seeing-in-a-new-way, and the constructivist COLS composite more strongly than the eighth graders did. In addition, the results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis indicated that the positive relations between testing and reproductive COLS were stronger as the grade level increased, while the negative relations between reproductive COLS and deep motive were tighter with the increase in grade level.

  10. Grade Level and Achievement of Immigrants' Children: Academic Redshirting in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Suet-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants' children at a disadvantaged position in the…

  11. Grade level and achievement of immigrants’ children: academic redshirting in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Pong, Suet-ling

    2009-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants’ children at a disadvantaged position in the mathematics, reading, and science literacy tests. The academic advantage of immigrants’ children in Hong Kong is only revealed after grade is statist...

  12. Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrice Helen

    This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual

  13. Sample Grade Level Benchmarks, Grades 5-8, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents the application and use of mathematics learning proposed by the Arkansas curriculum frameworks for grades 5-8. The standards are presented in chart form and organized into five strands: (1) number sense, properties, and operations; (2) geometry and spatial sense; (3) measurement; (4) data analysis, statistics, and…

  14. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  15. The Association of Fatty Acid Levels and Gleason Grade among Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhao

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids (FAs may be associated with cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality, whereas ω-3 FAs are potentially protective. We examined the association of the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3 FA (ω-6:ω-3 and individual FA components with pathological results among men with prostate cancer (PCa undergoing radical prostatectomy.Sixty-nine men were included in the study. Components of ω-6 (linoleic acid (LA, arachidonic acid (AA, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA and ω-3 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass selective detector separation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine association of FA with pathological high grade (Gleason ≥4+3 disease.The were 35 men with low grade disease (Gleason ≤3+4 and 34 men with high grade disease. Men with low grade disease were significantly younger (58y vs 61y, p = 0.012 and had lower D'Amico clinical classification (p = 0.001 compared to men with high grade disease. There was no significant association of ω-6:ω-3 with high grade disease (OR 0.93, p = 0.78, however overall ω-6, ω-3, and individual components of ω-6 and ω-3 FAs except EPA were significantly associated with high grade disease (ω-6: OR 3.37, 95% CI: 1.27,8.98; LA: OR 3.33, 95% CI:1.24,8.94; AA: OR 2.93, 95% CI:1.24,6.94; DGLA: OR 3.21, 95% CI:1.28,8.04; ω-3: OR 3.47, 95% CI:1.22,9.83; DHA: OR 3.13, 95% CI:1.26,7.74. ω-6 and ω-3 FA components were highly correlated (Spearman ρ = 0.77.Higher levels of individual components of ω-6 and ω-3FAs may be associated with higher-grade PCa.Studies into the causative factors/pathways regarding FAs and prostate carcinogenesis may prove a potential association with PCa aggressiveness.

  16. Rigorous theory of graded thermoelectric converters including finite heat transfer coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenmaier, York Christian; Wachutka, Gerhard

    2017-11-01

    Maximization of thermoelectric (TE) converter performance with an inhomogeneous material and electric current distribution has been investigated in previous literature neglecting thermal contact resistances to the heat reservoirs. The heat transfer coefficients (HTCs), defined as inverse thermal contact resistances per unit area, are thus infinite, whereas in reality, always parasitic thermal resistances, i.e., finite HTCs, are present. Maximization of the generated electric power and of cooling power in the refrigerator mode with respect to Seebeck coefficients and heat conductivity for a given profile of the material's TE figure of merit Z are mathematically ill-posed problems in the presence of infinite HTCs. As will be shown in this work, a fully self consistent solution is possible for finite HTCs, and in many respects, the results are fundamentally different. A previous theory for 3D devices will be extended to include finite HTCs and is applied to 1D devices. For the heat conductivity profile, an infinite number of solutions exist leading to the same device performance. Cooling power maximization for finite HTCs in 1D will lead to a strongly enhanced corresponding efficiency (coefficient of performance), whereas results with infinite HTCs lead to a non-monotonous temperature profile and coefficient of performance tending to zero for the prescribed heat conductivities. For maximized generated electric power, the corresponding generator efficiency is nearly a constant independent from the finite HTC values. The maximized efficiencies in the generator and cooling mode are equal to the efficiencies for the infinite HTC, provided that the corresponding powers approach zero. These and more findings are condensed in 4 theorems in the conclusions.

  17. An Analysis of Grades, Class Level and Faculty Evaluation Scores in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the results of a student evaluation of faculty against the grades awarded and the level of the course for a higher education institution in the United Arab Emirates. The purpose of the study was to determine if the grades awarded in the course and/or level of the course impacted the evaluation scores awarded to the faculty…

  18. The Analysis of Reading Skills and Visual Perception Levels of First Grade Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Aysel; Sivri, Diler Ayvaz

    2016-01-01

    In this study, primary school first grade students' reading skills and visual perception levels were investigated. Sample of the study, which was designed with relational scanning model, consisted of 168 first grade students studying at three public primary schools in Kozlu, Zonguldak, in 2013-2014 education year. Students' reading level, reading…

  19. An Assessment of China’s New Urbanization Level - Based on the Vertical and Horizontal Levels of the Grade Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wangping

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct the six criterion layers evaluation index system of new urbanization, including population urbanization, land urbanization, economic urbanization, social urbanization, ecological civilization and overall planning of urban and rural areas. We use the horizontal and vertical levels of the grade method in order to determine the weight of each index, and then calculate the quality of the urbanization process at the provincial level in 2004-2013. The result shows that the overall comprehensive evaluation index of China has a trend of rising volatility. The quality of new urbanization has continuously been improving since 2004; the new urbanization process, however, shows significant differences between the regions and specific performances: eastern urbanization level is the highest, whereas the western is the lowest. The evaluation index, however, increases steadily during the studied period and the gap with other regions gradually narrows.

  20. Sex and grade level differences in marijuana use among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Hoffman, Ashlee R

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana in the past year, while 1 in 10 (10%) used marijuana in the past month. Students at highest risk for marijuana use were those who felt use was not harmful/somewhat harmful, felt it was easy/very easy to access marijuana, and had parents/peers who did not disapprove of use. Findings can assist prevention specialists to more thoroughly understand how perceived harm, ease of access, and parent/peer disapproval affect marijuana use among youth. Consistent parent-child communication on marijuana use should be encouraged.

  1. Relationship of the Van Herick Grading System with Peripheral Iris Configuration and Level of Iris Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman

    2017-09-01

    To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.

  2. Grade-Level Declines in Perceived Academic Support from Peers: A Moderated Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell

    2017-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that perceived academic support from peers positively predicts school adjustment. In this cross-sectional study, we provide evidence that perceived academic support from peers declines from 3rd to 8th grade and that this decline is partially mediated by grade-level declines in perceptions that academic success…

  3. The importance of O – level grades in medical school admission: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grades in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics. In the latter group, the JAMB scores and O' level grades were given equal weighting (50% of mark ... were given a written interview test and an oral interview. At the end of the exercise, 40 candidates were admitted. Eventually, 31 of this group and four out of the five ...

  4. Effects of Graded Levels of Pigeon Pea Meal on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were fed on 0, 50, 75 and 100% dietary inclusions of toasted pigeon pea as replacement for soybean in a 28 day feeding trial. Significant interaction between dietary levels of pigeon pea and soybean were observed on feed efficiency and weight gain (p<0.05). Increase in dietary levels of pigeon pea reduced feed ...

  5. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    matter digestibilities were significantly higher (PO.05) in the animals fed 0% inclusion level compared to other ... tropics are predominantly raised on grasses .... of ruminant livestock. Acknowledgement. The authors are grateful to the. Department of Animal Science, Bayero. University, Kano for allowing them the use.

  6. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    TC representing 0%, 15%, and 30% inclusion level ofTamarindus indica (Table. 1). The feed ingredients used were T. indica, wheat offal, rice mill waste, cotton seed cake, groundnut hay and cowpea husk. All the feed ingredients were purchased from livestock feed market in Kano with the exception of T indica leaves which ...

  7. Effects of graded taurine levels on juvenile cobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-...

  8. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in the corpus callosum (CC), a heterotopia, in adult rats following hypothyroidism induced by the hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). In this report we have investigated the dose- response relationships to administered dose of PTU, the magnitude of reductions in circulating TH, and the incidence and volume of the heterotopia in adult offspring of PTU-treated dams. Pregnant rat dams were administered 0, 1, 2, 3 or 10 ppm of PTU in the drinking water from gestational day 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day 21 (PN2 1). Serum hormones in the dams were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, but at the lower dose levels (1, 2 and 3ppm) reductions were limited to T4 with no change in serum T3. At higher PTU concentrations, serum T3 was reduced in dams (1 Oppm) and pups on PN14 and 21 (3 and 10 ppm). All hormone levels returned to control levels in adulthood. On PN 130, female offspring were perfused with paraformaldehyde and sections prepared for immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. All sections (40-45 50u through the hippocampus) were examined for the presence of a heterotopia in the CC. A dose-dependent increase in incidence and volume of heterotopic re

  9. Performance and digestibility of weaner rabbits fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weaner crossbred rabbits were allocated to five treatment groups in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of 100, 75, 50 and 25% levels of soybean cheese waste/maize offal diet (SBW). 100% rabbit meal served as control. Each rabbit received chopped Bracharia decumbens hay ad libitum. Water was ...

  10. Low grade inflammation as measured by levels of YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Raymond, Ilan; Kistorp, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    factors and markers including lipids, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), N-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and urinary albumin/creatinine-ratio (UACR). Median follow-up period was 5.0 (0.17-5.28) years. RESULTS: In subjects without diabetes and CVD at baseline...... predict overall and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in a 50+ years population without known CVD. METHODS: A representative population sample of 639 individuals aged 50-89 years was recruited from general practices. Examination at baseline included echocardiography and blood and urine samples for CV risk...

  11. Effect of graded levels of phosphorus on growth and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Eleven diets (D1 - D11), designated as treatments (T1 - T11), supplemented with different levels of inorganic phosphorus (P) (CaHPO4) were fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (10.8 ± 0.02 g) to determine the optimum P requirement. D1 - D11 contained total P of 10.2, 10.4, 11.0, 11.9, 12.3, 12.6, 13.4, 13.9, ...

  12. Response of weaner rabbits to diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... The results obtained in this study revealed that up to 30% of the cooked MSM can be included in the diets of weaner rabbits without any deleterious effect on rabbit performance. Key words: Processed Mucuna seed meal, diets, rabbits, response. INTRODUCTION. The demand for protein of animal origin in ...

  13. Cloning of a novel transcription factor-like gene amplified in human glioma including astrocytoma grade I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, U.; Heckel, D.; Michel, A.; Janka, M.; Hulsebos, T.; Meese, E.

    1997-01-01

    Gene amplification, which is generally considered to occur late in tumor development, is a common feature of high grade glioma. Up until now, there have been no reports on amplification in astrocytoma grade I. In this study, we report cloning and sequencing of a cDNA termed glioma-amplified sequence

  14. The Effect of Arabism of Romanic Alphabets on the Development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language Students' Writing Skills at Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhair, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the effect of Arabization of Romanic Alphabets on the development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language students' composition writing skills at secondary school level. This experimental study includes 25 secondary school students in their 9th Grade in which English is taught as a foreign language at…

  15. Performance of Layers Fed Graded Levels of Blood –Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    240 laying hens were fed graded levels of Blood-Rumen content mixture (BRCM) for a period of eight weeks. The study was designed to determine the level of BRCM that layers can tolerate in their diet. Feed intake by birds fed the control and 4% BRCM diets were comparable, but significantly higher (P<0.05) than those ...

  16. CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, S.; Espin, C.A.; Stevenson, C.E.

    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status,

  17. Students' Level of Boredom, Boredom Coping Strategies, Epistemic Curiosity, and Graded Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay; Coskun, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among students' levels of boredom, boredom coping strategies, epistemic curiosity, and graded performance regarding mathematics lessons, with the intention to explore the mediating roles of boredom coping strategies and epistemic curiosity in the relationship between the level of boredom and graded…

  18. Effect of graded levels of ground rice offal on the performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of graded levels of ground rice offal on the performance of broiler starter chicks. ... Daily water intake was measured by the difference between water measured in and water measured out the next morning. Results obtained indicates that levels of rice offal had significant (P<0.05) effect on all the performance ...

  19. CBM Maze-Scores as Indicators of Reading Level and Growth for Seventh-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Siuman; Espin, Christine A.; Stevenson, Claire E.

    2018-01-01

    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status, scores and growth on a standardized reading test.…

  20. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  1. Prediction of the Grade of Acute Cholecystitis by Plasma Level of C-Reactive Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabul Gurbulak, Esin; Gurbulak, Bunyamin; Akgun, Ismail Ethem; Duzkoylu, Yigit; Battal, Muharrem; Fevzi Celayir, Mustafa; Demir, Uygar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute cholecystitis is the most common complication of gallbladder stones. Today, Tokyo guidelines criteria are recommended for diagnosis, grading, and management of acute cholecystitis. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) at different cut-off values to predict the severity of the disease and its possible role in grading the disease with regard to the guideline. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study, analyzing 682 cases out of consecutive 892 patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to two different general surgery clinics in Istanbul, Turkey. Records of patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis were screened retrospectively from the hospital computer database between January 2011 and July 2014. A total of 210 patients with concomitant diseases causing high CRP levels were excluded from the study. The criteria of Tokyo guidelines were used in grading the severity of acute cholecystitis, and patients were divided into 3 groups. CRP values at the time of admission were analyzed and compared among the groups. Results: Mean CRP levels of groups were found to be significantly different, 18.96 mg/L in Group I, 133.51 mg/L in Group II, and 237.23 mg/L in Group III (P < 0.001). Having examined CRP values among the groups, they were found to be highly and significantly correlated with the disease grade (P < 0.0001). After evaluating CRP levels according to the grade of the disease, group 2 was distinguished from group 1 with a cut-off CRP level of 70.65 mg/L, and from group 3 with a value of 198.95 mg/L. Those results were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: CRP, a well-known acute phase reactant that increases rapidly in various inflammatory processes, can be accepted as a strong predictor in classifying different grades of the disease, and treatment can be reliably planned according to this classification. PMID:26023353

  2. Using Reading Grade Level to Assess Readability of Selected Plant and Soil Science Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graveel, John G.; Fribourg, Henry A.

    1987-01-01

    Reported is a study designed to determine whether reading grade level (RGL) assessment techniques used for elementary and secondary education textbooks would discriminate among plant and soil science textbooks. The study was to select the RGL indices suited to quantify the readability of these sources, and to identify the factors affecting…

  3. Principal Leadership: How Knowledge, Agency, and Beliefs Influence Grade-Level K-8 Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Despite voluminous research on the detrimental effects of grade-level retention, it continues as a regular practice in American public schools as an intervention for struggling students. While research has been done on the roles and influences of teachers on the retention process, little has been done to measure the influence of the school…

  4. Effect of graded levels of Saccharum officinarum as an additive to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of graded levels of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) as an additive to Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) silage. A previously established guinea grass plot, totaling an area of 625m2 was cut back and fertilized with urea at the rate of 200 kgN/ha. The pasture was then ...

  5. Readability Grade Levels of Selected Navy Technical School Curricula. Focus on the Trained Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, J. W.; And Others

    The U.S. Navy conducted a study to determine the readability grade level of materials used in its technical training schools curricula as a basis for (1) establishing minimal reading competencies for those schools, (2) identifying problem textual materials used in those schools, and (3) choosing additional school curricula for readability…

  6. Formative Assessment of Collaborative Teams (FACT): Development of a Grade-Level Instructional Team Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew J.; Hallam, Pamela R.; Charlton, Cade T.; Wall, D. Gary

    2014-01-01

    Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) have become increasingly popular in schools. PLCs are groups of teachers, administrators, parents, and students who collaborate to improve their practices and focus on results (DuFour, 2004). Grade-level and department teachers participate in regularly scheduled collaborative team meetings; however, many…

  7. Effect Of Graded Levels Of Dietary Penicillin On The Growth Rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred , 4 – week old Anak broiler chicks were used in an experiment to evaluate the effect of graded levels of dietary penicillin on the growth rate and feed conversion of broiler chicks. The birds were randomly assigned to five treatment diets in a Completely Randomized Design [CRD] and each treatment group was ...

  8. Physical activity levels and motor skills of 5 th to 7 th grade students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical activity (PA) and motor skill levels (MS) (flexibility, balance, speed, sit-up, hand grip strength, standing long jump) were determined for 5th to 7th grade students from central schools in Nigde Province, Turkey according to age and gender and to investigate the relationships. PAL was determined by means of ...

  9. Gender, Grade Level, PEN Scores and Risk-taking Behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk-taking behaviour leading to critical accidents and deaths is widespread and a social problem world-wide among adolescents. The interplay of gender, school grade levels and PEN scores on risk-taking behaviour are mixed, without a research pattern and inconclusive hence this study anchored on the hypotheses that ...

  10. Mathematics Confidence, Grade-Level Choice, Gender, and Age in Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Lesley Knoth

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject preservice…

  11. Effect of Graded Levels of Dates Dietary Fiber on Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of graded levels of dates dietary fiber on diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methodology: Rats were divided into eight groups, among which four groups (Groups 1-4) were normal and the other four groups were ...

  12. Spatial Skills as a Predictor of First Grade Girls' Use of Higher Level Arithmetic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Elida V.; Casey, Beth M.; Yu, Qingyi; Dulaney, Alana; Heyman, Miriam; Dearing, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Girls are more likely than boys to use counting strategies rather than higher-level mental strategies to solve arithmetic problems. Prior research suggests that dependence on counting strategies may have negative implications for girls' later math achievement. We investigated the relation between first-grade girls' verbal and spatial skills and…

  13. The Effect Of Feeding Graded Levels Of Raw Pigeon Pea Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-week study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding graded levels of raw pigeonpea seed (Cajanus cajan) meal (PSM) on the performance, nutrient retention and carcass characteristics of weaner rabbits 24 rabbits of initial average liveweight of 600-700g in a completely randomized design (CRD).

  14. The Interaction Effects of Gender and Grade Level on Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chua Kah; Karpudewan, Mageswary

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study reports the effects of gender and grade level on secondary students' attitude towards chemistry lessons. For this purpose, the Attitude towards Chemistry Lessons Scale (ATCLS) was administered to 446 secondary school students between 16-19 years old. The ATCLS consists of four different subscales: liking for chemistry…

  15. CARCINOMA PROSTATE HISTOPATHOLOGY IN NEEDLE BIOPSIES INCLUDING REVISED GLEASON’S GRADING AND ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Priyadarsini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adenocarcinoma of prostate is the most common form of cancer in men accounting for 29% of cancers in developed nations and the incidence of prostatic cancer is 6.4% in males of Trivandrum District. MATERIALS AND METHODS All prostatic biopsies taken per rectally and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. In suspected cases of malignancy immunohistochemical markers, the AMACR P504S and high molecular weight cytokeratin 34E12 were done. RESULTS The total number of cases studied were 142. The final diagnosis with histomorphological features show that maximum cases were prostatic carcinoma constituting 45.5% of the samples received. CONCLUSION All prostatic carcinomas were graded by revised Gleason’s grade (ISUP 2005 and the use of immunohistochemical markers in arriving at a definite diagnosis in carcinoma prostate was confirmed.

  16. Low testosterone level is an independent risk factor for high-grade prostate cancer detection at biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seung Bae; Son, Hwancheol; Jeong, Hyeon

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between low testosterone levels and prostate cancer detection risk in a biopsy population. In all, 681 men who underwent initial 12-core transrectal prostate biopsy at our institution were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into groups with low (levels (≥300 ng/dL). Clinical and pathological data were analysed. Among 681 men, 86 men (12.6%) had low testosterone levels, 143 (32.7%) had a positive biopsy, and 99 (14.5%) had high-grade prostate cancer. The mean age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA density, body mass index (BMI), number of abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings, and diabetes mellitus (DM) history were significantly different between the low and normal level testosterone groups. A low testosterone level was significantly associated with a higher risk of detection of overall prostate cancer than a normal testosterone level in univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR] 2.545, P = 0.001), but not in multivariate analysis adjusting for parameters such as age, PSA, prostate volume, BMI, abnormal DRE findings and DM (OR 1.583, P = 0.277). Meanwhile, a low testosterone level was significantly related to a higher rate of high-grade prostate cancer compared with a normal testosterone level in univariate (OR 3.324, P level is an independent risk factor for high-grade prostate cancer detection at biopsy. Therefore, checking testosterone levels could help to determine whether prostate biopsy should be carried out. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of the Level of Food Safety Protection Provided by the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Its Associated Cooperative Grade "A" Milk Safety Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinqing; Klontz, Karl C; DiNovi, Michael J; Edwards, Alison J; Hennes, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) Grade "A" Milk Safety Program through its implementation and enforcement of the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The number of reported illnesses associated with Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was obtained from state and federal agencies and published articles. The consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was estimated from food consumption survey data for individuals. The level of food safety protection was measured quantitatively using the metric of annual illness attack rate. During a 15-year period (1999 through 2013), the estimated annual illness attack rate was 0.41 reported illnesses per 1 billion exposures (estimated using person-day intake data) or 0.52 reported illnesses per 1 billion lb (454 million kg) of Grade "A" milk and milk products consumed. Food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products by the NCIMS through its implementation and enforcement of the PMO is important given the common consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States.

  18. The Perpetration of School Violence in Taiwan: An Analysis of Gender, Grade Level and School Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study aims to describe the prevalence of perpetration of school violence in Taiwan. The study explores how gender, age and school type relate to students' perpetration of violence in an Asian culture context. The sample included 14,022 students from elementary to high schools in grades 4 to…

  19. Similarity of muscle synergies extracted from the lower limb including the deep muscles between level and uphill treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akira; Tomita, Aya; Ando, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Kohei; Akima, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine muscle synergies involving the deeper muscles of the lower limb during level and uphill treadmill walking. Seven men and five women walked on a treadmill at three speeds (60, 80, and 100m/min) and two grades (level and 10% grade). Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from 10 muscles of the lower limb, including vastus intermedius, adductor magnus, and adductor longus. Muscle synergies were extracted applying non-negative matrix factorization, and the relative co-activation across muscles and the temporal information of synergy recruitment were identified by the muscle synergy vector and synergy activation coefficient, respectively. Correlation coefficients between a pair of synergy vectors during level and uphill walking were analyzed as a similarity index, with the similarity criterion at r=0.76. Changes in synergy activation coefficients between the walking conditions were evaluated by cross-correlation analysis. The mean number of synergies ranged from 3.8 to 4.0 across all conditions, and they were not significantly different between level and uphill walking conditions. Similarity between walking conditions was high (r>0.76) for three muscle synergies, but not for one synergy that mainly consisted of the quadriceps femoris. The inter-condition similarity of the synergy activation coefficients was high for the four synergies, and a significant lag time for synergy 2, which consisted mainly of the activity of medial gastrocnemius, was found at 60 and 80m/min. The muscle synergies extracted from the lower limb involving the deeper muscles appear to be consistent during level and uphill treadmill walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma upregulates markers associated with high-grade serous carcinomas including Rsf-1 (HBXAP), cyclin E and fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehdev, Ann Smith; Kurman, Robert J; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2010-06-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) has been proposed as a precursor for many pelvic high-grade serous carcinomas. Our previous analysis of the ovarian cancer genome identified several genes with oncogenic potential that are amplified and/or overexpressed in the majority of high-grade serous carcinomas. Determining whether these genes are upregulated in STICs is important in further elucidating the relationship of STICs to high-grade serous carcinomas and is fundamental in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of high-grade serous carcinomas. In this study, 37 morphologically defined STICs were obtained from 23 patients with stage IIIC/IV high-grade serous carcinomas. Both STICs and the high-grade serous carcinomas were analyzed for expression of Rsf-1 (HBXAP), cyclin E, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and mucin-4. In addition, they were examined for expression of established markers including p53, Ki-67 and p16. We found that diffuse nuclear p53 and p16 immunoreactivity was observed in 27 (75%) of 36 and 18 (55%) of 33 STICs, respectively, whereas an elevated Ki-67 labeling index (>or=10%) was detected in 29 (78%) of 37 STICs. Cyclin E nuclear staining was seen in 24 (77%) of 35 STICs, whereas normal tubal epithelial cells were all negative. Increased Rsf-1 and FASN immunoreactivity occurred in 63%, and 62% of STICs, respectively, compared with adjacent normal-appearing tubal epithelium. Interestingly, only one STIC showed increased mucin-4 immunoreactivity. Carcinomas, when compared with STICs, overexpressed p16, Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN in a higher proportion of cases. In conclusion, STICs express several markers including Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN in high-grade serous carcinomas. In contrast, mucin-4 immunoreactivity either did not change or was reduced in most STICs. These results suggest that overexpression of Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN occurs early in tumor progression.

  1. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Haegele, Justin A; Tang, Yan; Wu, Xueping

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b) to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children ( n = 48,118) reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th) and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%). Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR) = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74-6.11), but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72-0.84), controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not ( p homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.

  2. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (a to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118 reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%. Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74–6.11, but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72–0.84, controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not (p<0.01. Policy makers should promote physical activity and help children find a balance between homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.

  3. Radiomic features predict Ki-67 expression level and survival in lower grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Qian, Zenghui; Xu, Kaibin; Wang, Kai; Fan, Xing; Li, Shaowu; Liu, Xing; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the radiomic features associated with Ki-67 expression in lower grade gliomas and assess the prognostic values of these features. Patients with lower grade gliomas (n = 117) were randomly assigned into the training (n = 78) and validation (n = 39) sets. A total of 431 radiological features were extracted from each patient. Differential radiological features between the low and high Ki-67 expression groups were screened by significance analysis of microarrays. Then, generalized linear analysis was performed to select features that could predict the Ki-67 expression level. Predictive efficiencies were further evaluated in the validation set. Cox regression analysis was performed to investigate the prognostic values of Ki-67 expression level and Ki-67-related radiological features. A group of nine radiological features were screened for prediction of Ki-67 expression status; these achieved accuracies of 83.3% and 88.6% (areas under the curves, 0.91 and 0.93) in the training and validation sets, respectively. Of these features, only spherical disproportion (SD) was found to be a prognostic factor. Patients in the high SD group exhibited worse outcomes in the whole cohort (overall survival, p level and SD were independent prognostic factors in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. This study identified a radiomic signature for prediction of Ki-67 expression level as well as a prognostic radiological feature in patients with lower grade gliomas.

  4. Effect of graded levels of dry pineapple peel on digestibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of graded levels of dry pineapple peel on digestibility and growth performance of rabbit. ... Average daily weight gain (15.5 to 16.7 g) and feed conversion ratio (5.48 to 6.08) were better in rabbits fed R0, R20 and R30 diets. Conclusions and application of findings: Results from this study show that weaned rabbits are ...

  5. Fluency and accuracy levels in writing of Grade 12 ESL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Walt, Johann L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated two aspects of the level of second language development achieved by Grade 12 English Second Language (ESL learners in South Africa. It was inspired by the general concern about standards in the matriculation examination and calls for the improvement of ESL teaching and learning. The study involved an investigation and description of the fluency and accuracy levels of Grade 12 learners. We focussed on writing, since it is generally accepted that characteristic patterns of advanced learners are best studied in written production. 216 compositions were analysed in terms of T-units, and fluency and accuracy frequencies and ratios were calculated. Results show that fluency ratios (W/T and W/EFT and an accuracy ratio (EFT/T paint a poor picture of learners’ performance in writing, and suggest that Grade 12 ESL learners are ill-prepared for tertiary study. Better control of morphology and syntax is required, as this will lead to a general improvement of fluency and accuracy levels in ESL.

  6. High levels of pretreatment CA125 are associated to improved survival in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Vásquez, Flavia; Pedernera, Enrique; Reynaga-Obregón, Jesús; López-Basave, Horacio Noé; Gómora, María José; Carlón, Elisa; Cárdenas, Sandra; Silva-Ayala, Raúl; Almaraz, Miguel; Méndez, Carmen

    2016-07-07

    Serum levels of CA125 measured before any treatment have been evaluated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) as a predictor of patient survival; however, results in survival index are controversial, as CA125 levels are influenced by several variables. Taking this into consideration, the present study evaluated the association of pretreatment levels of CA125 serum with the clinical stage, histology and differentiation grade of the tumor and the survival rate in a group of patients from an oncology referral center in Mexico, all of them diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma. This retrospective study consisted of 1009 patients with EOC, diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 at the National Cancerology Institute (Instituto Nacional de Cancerología-INCan), considering only those with CA125 measurements before any chemotherapy or surgical cytoreduction. Patients with three years of medical follow-up having pretreatment CA125 value and simultaneous diagnoses of histological subtype, clinical stage and differentiation grade of the tumor (n = 656) were studied in order to determine their survival rate. The abnormal level (>35 U/mL) of CA125 was observed in 99 % of serous carcinoma cases rated I to IV in the FIGO stages. Abnormal CA125 proportions were 89 % in endometrioid subtype and 69 % in mucinous tumors, with the highest absolute value of CA125 observed in serous carcinoma surpassing any other histological subtype. Clinical stages III and IV displayed increased CA125 values compared to stages I and II. Undifferentiated carcinomas show the highest level of this indicator compared with those of low and moderate differentiated grade. Survival evaluation by Kaplan-Meier analysis including only high grade serous carcinoma at FIGO stage III (n = 57) demonstrated 57.1 % chances of survival in patients with CA125 pretreatment levels higher than 500 U/mL. Survival was 26.7 % in patients with CA125 lower than 500 U/mL and the hazard ratio for CA125 ≤ 500 U/mL was 2.28, 95

  7. Delayed management of Grade III blunt aortic injury: Series from a Level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeds, Matthew R; Wright, Mark P; Eidt, John F; Moursi, Mohammed M; Escobar, Guillermo A; Spencer, Horace J; Ali, Ahsan T

    2016-06-01

    Blunt aortic injuries (BAIs) are traditionally treated as surgical emergencies, with the majority of repairs performed in an urgent fashion within 24 hours, irrespective of the grade of aortic injury. These patients are often underresuscitated and often have multiple other trauma issues that need to be addressed. This study reviews a single center's experience comparing urgent (24 hours) TEVAR for Grade III BAI. All patients undergoing TEVAR for BAI at a single institution between March 2004 and March 2014 were reviewed (n = 43). Patients with Grade I, II, or IV aortic injuries as well as those who were repaired with an open procedure or who lacked preoperative imaging were excluded from the analysis. Demographics, intraoperative data, postoperative survival, and complications were compared. During this period, there were 43 patients with blunt thoracic aortic injury. There were 29 patients with Grade III or higher aortic injuries. Of these 29 patients, 1 declined surgery, 2 were repaired with an open procedure, 10 underwent urgent TEVAR, and 16 had initial observation. Of these 16, 13 underwent TEVAR in a delayed fashion (median, 9 days; range, 2-91 days), and 3 died of non-aortic-related pathology. Comparing the immediate repair group versus the delayed repair group, there were no significant demographic differences. Trauma classification scores were similar, although patients in the delayed group had a higher number of nonaortic injuries. The 30-day survival was similar between the two groups (9 of 10 vs. 12 of 16), with no mortalities caused by aortic pathology in either group. Watchful waiting may be permissible in patients with Grade III BAI with other associated multisystem trauma. This allows for a repair in a more controlled environment. Therapeutic study, level V.

  8. [Hierarchy of evidence: levels of evidence and grades of recommendation from current use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterola, Carlos; Asenjo-Lobos, Claudla; Otzen, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    There are multiple proposals and classifications that hierarchize evidence, which may confuse those who are dedicated to generate it both in health technology assessments, as for the development of clinical guidelines, etc. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the most commonly used classifications of levels of evidence and grades of recommendation, analyzing their main differences and applications so that the user can choose the one that better suits your needs and take this health decisions basing their practice on the best available evidence. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and MEDLINE databases and in Google, Yahoo and Ixquick search engines. A wealth of information concerning levels of evidence and degrees recommendation was obtained. It was summarized the information of the 11 proposals more currently used (CTFPHC, Sackett, USPSTF, CEBM, GRADE, SIGN, NICE, NHMRC, PCCRP, ADA y ACCF/AHA), between which it emphasizes the GRADE WORKING GROUP, incorporated by around 90 national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization, The Cochrane Library, American College of Physicians, American Thoracic Society, UpToDate, etc.; and locally by the Ministry of Health to create clinical practice guidelines.

  9. Expression of Telomeres in Astrocytoma WHO Grade 2 to 4: TERRA Level Correlates with Telomere Length, Telomerase Activity, and Advanced Clinical Grade12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors. PMID:22348177

  10. Expression of telomeres in astrocytoma WHO grade 2 to 4: TERRA level correlates with telomere length, telomerase activity, and advanced clinical grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus

    2012-02-01

    Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors.

  11. The Relationship between Teacher Efficacy Levels and Virginia Standards of Learning Fifth Grade Math Achievement in One Virginia School Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher efficacy levels and fifth grade Virginia SOL Mathematic achievement. This study sought to determine the extent to which personal efficacy, general efficacy, and total efficacy account for fifth grade Virginia Standards of Learning Mathematic achievement over and above…

  12. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    1973-01-01

    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  13. The Prediction of Reading Levels between Second and Third Grade Limited English Proficient Students in a Bilingual Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Britani Creel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the third grade English reading TAKS scores while considering the same students' native language, Spanish, reading level as assessed by a state-approved reading assessment, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura (EDL), from the end of the second grade year. In addition, this study was been designed to…

  14. No differences in grades or level of satisfaction in a flipped classroom for neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar Petter

    2015-10-01

    The intensive nature of a 5- or 6-week teaching block poses unique problems for adequate delivery of content. This study was designed to compare the delivery of a unit of undergraduate neuroanatomy in a short summer school period, as a traditionally taught unit, with a rendition given in the form of the "Flipped Classroom." The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in the intensive mode classroom. The flipped classroom encompassed the same learning outcomes, but students were responsible for covering the content at home in preparation for tutorials that applied their acquired knowledge to higher levels of thinking. The main outcome measures were the final course grades and the level of satisfaction with the course. There were no significant differences between the 2 cohorts in final grades (p = .259), self-rated knowledge (p = .182), or overall satisfaction with the course (p = .892). This particular design of the flipped classroom did not add value to the intensive mode experience. It may be that this mode of delivery is ill suited to intensive classes for subjects that carry a lot of content. The use of the flipped classroom requires further research to fully evaluate its value.

  15. Analyzing Assessment Questions in an Arabic Textbook (Communication Skills) for Eight Grade in Jordan According to Bloom's Taxonomy of Levels of Knowledge Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-hasanat, Hasan AbdRabbeh Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing assessment questions included in an Arabic language textbook (Communication Skills) for eight grade in the Jordanian schools according to the levels of knowledge in Bloom's Taxonomy to reveal the percentages of distributing of these questions against this taxonomy. In order to achieve the purposes of this study, the…

  16. Population-level associations between preschool vulnerability and grade-four basic skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo D'Angiulli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a predictive validity study examining the extent to which developmental vulnerability at kindergarten entry (as measured by the Early Development Instrument, EDI is associated with children's basic skills in 4th grade (as measured by the Foundation Skills Assessment, FSA.Relative risk analysis was performed on a large database linking individual-level EDI ratings to the scores the same children obtained on a provincial assessment of academic skills (FSA--Foundation Skills Assessment four years later. We found that early vulnerability in kindergarten is associated with the basic skills that underlie populations of children's academic achievement in reading, writing and math, indicating that the Early Development Instrument permits to predict achievement-related skills four years in advance.The EDI can be used to predict children's educational trends at the population level and can help select early prevention and intervention programs targeting pre-school populations at minimum cost.

  17. Linguistic Resources Used in Grade 8 Students' Submicro Level Explanations—Science Items from TIMSS 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frändberg, Birgitta; Lincoln, Per; Wallin, Anita

    2013-12-01

    Explanations involving submicro levels of representation are central to science education, but known to be difficult for students in secondary school. This study examines students' written explanations of physical and chemical phenomena regarding matter and changes in matter, in a large-scale test. This is done in order to understand linguistic challenges in constructing submicro level explanations involving the particle model of matter. Drawing from systemic functional linguistics, the lexicogrammatics used in explanations for realising experiential meaning in student explanations were analysed. We used answers to two partly constructed response items from the Swedish part of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies 2007, grade 8, to sort out explanations referring to the particle model of matter. These answers (86 from 954) were analysed regarding choices of vocabulary and grammar to distinguish between macro and submicro level of representation. The results show that students use a wide variety of lexicogrammatical resources to realise what happens on both macro and submicro level of representation, with greater diversity of verbs on the submicro level of explanation. The results suggest an uncertainty about the distinction between macro and submicro level of explanation.

  18. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization of chicks fed the control diet alone were not significantly (P < 0.05 different from chicks fed diets supplemented with either 5% or 15% sugar syrup. Supplementation of sugar syrup to broiler diets had no significant effect on blood glucose, creatinine, total protein, or liver enzymes. Adding 5% sugar syrup to broiler rations significantly decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens fed the sugar syrup diet compared with birds fed the control diet. In conclusion, the results shows sugar syrup can be used in poultry ration to replace part of the corn as a source of energy. These results allowed the authors to recommend the safe usage of sugar syrup in broiler rations.

  19. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    for electrical lighting by 30% compared to the method suggested in this paper, which is based on hourly calculated illuminance levels in a representative point in the workspace. Implementing the suggested method in Be06 would be a better representation of the reality compared to the current method. Furthermore......Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

  20. Analysis of facility needs level in architecture studio for students’ studio grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, A. S.; Hamid, B.; Pane, I. F.; Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Architects must be able to play an active role and contribute to the realization of a sustainable environment. Architectural education has inherited many education research used qualitative and quantitative methods. The data were gathered by conducting (a) observation,(b) interviews, (c) documentation, (d) literature study, and (e) Questionnaire. The gathered data were analyzed qualitatively to find out what equipment needed in the learning process in the Architecture Studio, USU. Questionnaires and Ms. Excel were used for the quantitative analysis. The tabulation of quantitative data would be correlated with the students’ studio grades. The result of the research showed that equipment with the highest level of needs was (1) drawing table, (2) Special room for each student, (3) Internet Network, (4) Air Conditioning, (5) Sufficient lighting.

  1. Evolution of a Greenland Ice sheet Including Shelves and Regional Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Sarah; Reerink, Thomas; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Helsen, Michiel; Goelzer, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and marine sediment cores infer that at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) grounded out across the Davis Strait into Baffin Bay, with fast flowing ice streams extending out to the continental shelf break along the NW margin. These observations lead to a number of questions as to weather the GIS and Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) coalesced during glacial maximums, and if so, did a significant ice shelf develop across Baffin Bay and how would such a configuration impact on the relative contribution of these ice sheets to eustatic sea level (ESL). Most previous paleo ice sheet modelling simulations of the GIS recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilised a simplified marine ice parameterisation to recreate an extended GIS, and therefore did not fully include ice shelf dynamics. In this study we simulate the evolution of the GIS from 220 kyr BP to present day using IMAU-ice; a 3D thermodynamical ice sheet model which fully accounts for grounded and floating ice, calculates grounding line migration and ice shelf dynamics. As there are few observational estimates of the long-term (yrs) sub marine basal melting rates (mbm) for the GIS, we developed a mbm parameterization within IMAU-ice controlled primarily by changes in paleo water depth. We also investigate the influence of the LIS on the GIS evolution by including relative sea level forcing's derived from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model. We will present results of how changes in the mbm directly impacts on the ice sheet dynamics, timing and spatial extent of the GIS at the glacial maximums, but also on the rate of retreat and spatial extent at the Last interglacial (LIG) minimum. Results indicate that with the inclusion of ice shelf dynamics, a larger GIS is generated which is grounded out into Davis strait, up to a water depth of -750 m, but significantly reduces the GIS contribution to Last

  2. Relationship of word- and sentence-level working memory to reading and writing in second, fourth, and sixth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Swanson, H Lee; Lovitt, Dan; Trivedi, Pam; Lin, Shin-Ju Cindy; Gould, Laura; Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of working memory at the word and sentence levels of language to reading and writing outcomes. Measures of working memory at the word and sentence levels, reading and writing, were administered to 2nd (N = 122), 4th (N = 222), and 6th (N = 105) graders. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate whether the 2 predictor working memory factors contributed unique variance beyond their shared covariance to each of 5 outcome factors: handwriting, spelling, composing, word reading, and reading comprehension. At each grade level, except for handwriting and composing in 6th grade, the word-level working memory factor contributed unique variance to each reading and writing outcome. The text-level working memory factor contributed unique variance to reading comprehension in 4th and 6th grade. The clinical significance of these findings for assessment and intervention is discussed.

  3. Effects of Graded Levels of Montmorillonite on Performance, Hematological Parameters and Bone Mineralization in Weaned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. W. Duan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of montmorillonite, a constituent of clay, on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty, 35-d-old crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace, 10.50±1.20 kg were used in a 28-d experiment and fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% montmorillonite added at the expense of wheat bran. Each treatment was replicated six times with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts per replicate. Feed intake declined (linear and quadratic effect, p< 0.01 with increasing level of montmorillonite while feed conversion was improved (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01. Daily gain was unaffected by dietary treatment. Plasma myeloperoxidase declined linearly (p = 0.03 with increasing dietary level of montmorillonite. Plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were quadratically affected (p<0.01 by montmorillonite with increases observed for pigs fed the 0.5 and 1.0% levels which then declined for pigs fed the 2.5 and 5.0% treatments. In bone, the content of potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and magnesium were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01 in response to an increase of dietary montmorillonite. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of montmorillonite at levels as high as 5.0% does not result in overt toxicity but could induce potential oxidative damage and reduce bone mineralization in pigs.

  4. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented

  5. Acceptable contamination levels in solar grade silicon: From feedstock to solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, J.; Lelievre, J.F.; Canizo, C.; Luque, A. del

    2009-01-01

    Ultimately, alternative ways of silicon purification for photovoltaic applications are developed and applied. There is an ongoing debate about what are the acceptable contamination levels within the purified silicon feedstock to specify the material as solar grade silicon. Applying a simple model and making some additional assumptions, we calculate the acceptable contamination levels of different characteristic impurities for each fabrication step of a typical industrial mc-Si solar cell. The acceptable impurity concentrations within the finished solar cell are calculated for SRH recombination exclusively and under low injection conditions. It is assumed that during solar cell fabrication impurity concentrations are only altered by a gettering step. During the crystallization process, impurity segregation at the solid-liquid interface and at extended defects are taken into account. Finally, the initial contamination levels allowed within the feedstock are deduced. The acceptable concentration of iron in the finished solar cell is determined to be 9.7x10 -3 ppma whereas the concentration in the silicon feedstock can be as high as 12.5 ppma. In comparison, the titanium concentration admitted in the solar cell is calculated to be 2.7x10 -4 ppma and the allowed concentration of 2.2x10 -2 ppma in the feedstock is only two orders of magnitude higher. Finally, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that slow cooling rates can lead to a decrease of the interstitial Fe concentration and thus relax the purity requirements in the feedstock.

  6. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti-ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF-α, leptin and IGF-1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes.

  7. Importance of Different Grades of Abdominal Obesity on Testosterone Level, Erectile Dysfunction, and Clinical Coincidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Juraj; Levcikova, Michaela; Ondrusova, Martina; Breza, Jan; Labas, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of different grades of abdominal obesity (AO) on the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), erectile dysfunction (ED), and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional descriptive study, a total of 216 males underwent a complete urological, internal, and hormonal evaluation. Males were divided according to waist circumference into five groups: less than 94 cm (Grade [G] 0), 94 to 101 cm (G1), 102 to 109 cm (G2), 110 to 119 cm (G3), and more than 120 cm (G4). Incidence of ED, TDS, and MetS was compared in these groups and in participants without AO. Some degree of ED was identified in 74.7% of males with AO. In G1, there were 61% of males with ED, in G2 68%, in G3 83%, and in G4 87%. A strong correlation between testosterone (TST) level and AO was identified. Ninety-eight out of 198 (49.5%) males with AO and 1/18 (5.5%) males without AO had TDS. There were significant differences between individual groups. In the group of males with AO G4 (more than 120 cm), 87.1% had TDS. MetS was diagnosed in 105/198 (53.0%) males with AO, but in G4, 83.9% of males with AO had MetS. Males older than 40 years of age with AO have a higher incidence of ED, TDS, and MetS. Dividing males into five groups according to waist circumference seems to be reasonable. With growing AO, there were significantly more males with ED, TDS, and MetS.

  8. Can delayed time to referral to a tertiary level urologist with an abnormal PSA level affect subsequent Gleason grade in the opportunistically screened population?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, Fardod

    2013-09-01

    There is growing conflict in the literature describing the effect of delayed treatment on outcomes following radical prostatectomy. There is also evidence to suggest progression of low-risk prostate cancer to develop higher grades and volumes of prostate cancer during active surveillance. It is unknown as to what affect a delay in referral of those men with abnormal screened-PSA levels have on subsequent Gleason grade.

  9. Serum Zinc level and liver pathological grading correlation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, in a university hospital in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Jamali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. The oxidative stress enzymes are the diagnostic markers to prediction of histologic status of liver in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis disease. The aim of the study was to assessment of relationship between serum Zinc (Zn levels with pathologic manifestation in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods: This cohort study was done in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis that had been visited in gastrointestinal clinic of Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran from April, 2014 to April, 2015. Control group included the patients with no clinical manifestation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and normal liver ultrasonography, lab test and liver biopsy. Serum Zn level was measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy. Normal Serum level of Zn was considered 10.7-22.9 µmol/L (70-150 µg/dL and less than 7 µg/dL was considered as Zn deficiency. Pathological findings were grading according to NAFLD activity score. Results: One hundred twenty patients were selected for the study in two equal groups. Six and 26 patients were excluded in case and control groups, respectively due to no consent to lab test. Finally, 54 patients (35 male/19 female and 34 patients (22 male/12 female in control group were participated in data analysis. The mean age on case and control group was 37.02±9.82 year and 33.24±12.01 year, respectively (P= 0.111. Zn level in case and control groups were 90.82±13.69 and 88.82±13.10, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between two group in serum Zn level (P= 0.50. Also, there were no statistically significant differences between pathological grading in case group participants (steatosis: P= 0.640; Lobular inflammation: P= 0.882; fibrosis: P= 0.531. Conclusion: The finding of the study showed no significant association between serum zinc level and hepatic steatosis, lobular

  10. Longitudinal Relationships of Levels of Language in Writing and between Writing and Reading in Grades 1 to 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Fayol, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used to evaluate longitudinal relationships across adjacent grade levels 1 to 7 for levels of language in writing (Model 1, subword letter writing, word spelling, and text composing) or writing and reading (Model 2, subword letter writing and word spelling and reading; Model 3, word spelling and…

  11. Teachers' Motivating Methods to Support Thai Ninth Grade Students' Levels of Motivation and Learning in Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenthien, Sansanee; Loima, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this qualitative research were to investigate the level of motivation and learning of ninth grade students in mathematics classrooms in Thailand and to reveal how the teachers supported students' levels of motivation and learning. The participants were 333 students and 12 teachers in 12 mathematics classrooms from four regions of…

  12. The Global Paleomagnetic Database Should Include Specimen-Level Demagnetization Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Kazansky, A.

    2002-12-01

    In their description of the paleomagnetic database, McElhinny and Smethurst [1] provided a reasonable description of the status quo in terms of compiling and storing a quantitative summary of the results from the past 50 years of paleomagnetic investigation. However, recent developments in science and technology have far outpaced the response of the paleomagnetic community on the issue of data archive and storage, and as a consequence this field risks being left in the dust. It is our opinion that the database should be expanded to include the entire set of specimen-level demagnetization data that go into a paleomagnetic study, along with the interpretation made by the authors. A simple back-of-the-envelope estimate suggests that all the raw paleomagnetic demagnetization data generated in the past 50 years would fit easily on a single hard drive of a personal computer. Other fields are doing precisely this type of the data archiving -- for example, nothing is accepted for publication in the good, peer-reviewed molecular genetics journals until the raw sequence data have been deposited in one of the internationally-accepted genetic databanks. As we feel that geophysics is in no way inferior to genetics, we should have no fear of archiving our data and making it publicly available in a similar fashion. The actual process of measuring and demagnetizing typical paleomagnetic materials has not changed much in the 30 years since the introduction of superconducting magnetometers, with most studies still utilizing some combination of alternating field, thermal, microwave, or chemical demagnetization to isolate the principal magnetic components (although the number of demagnetization steps per specimen has certainly improved with the increasing use of automation). In contrast, techniques for the analysis of paleomagnetic data have improved substantially (e.g., [2,3]). Hence, public access to the archived raw demagnetization data would not only allow independent scrutiny of

  13. A Comparison of High School Student Interests across Three Grade and Ability Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Newell T.

    1980-01-01

    Students (Grades 9-11) in two Florida metropolitan high schools rated their interest in 28 topics, such as travel, popular music, religion, the opposite sex, war, and politics. Interests were analyzed by sex, grade, and ability track in English (Honors, Average, Basic). Findings, especially those on romantic interests, are discussed. (SJL)

  14. Reproductive performance of breeding rabbits fed by graded levels of cassava (Manihot esculenta leaf meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahemen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Twenty breeding does and 4 rabbit bucks aged 28 weeks, weighing between 1622 to 1746g ,were used to investigate the reproductive performance of breeding does fed by graded levels of cassava leaf meal (CLM. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments viz: T (control, T , T and T with CLM inclusion levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively, after balancing for live weight. Each rabbit was 1 2 3 4 individually caged and served as a replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 17 weeks. The results showed that does on diet T (100% achieved the 2 highest conception rate, followed by T (75% and T (75% and the least in T (66.67%. Average daily weight change and change in weight 3 4 1 during pregnancy were the highest (p<0.05 in T . Litter size at birth was significantly (p<0.05 lower in T (2.67, while litter size at weaning was 4 4 significantly (p<0.05 higher in T (3.67 Average birth and weaning weights were significantly (p<0.05 higher in treatment T . Percentage of still 3 . 4 birth was higher in T (60% while pre-weaning mortality was the highest in T (5. It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 30% of CLM in 2 1 rabbit diet may support reproductive performance in female rabbits. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potential of cassava leaf meal at higher levels of inclusion on reproductive performance be investigated.

  15. Change in the level of strength and endurance development of 5-6 grades pupils under cheerleading exercises influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Bala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the degree of change in the level of strength and endurance development of 5-6 grades pupils under cheerleading exercises influence. Material and Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment and mathematical statistics methods. Results: parameters of strength and endurance development level are presented with their degree of change under cheerleading exercises influence for 5-6 grades pupils of secondary school. Conclusions: cheerleading exercises usage has positive influence on demonstrated strength and endurance degree of secondary school children by all investigated parameters.

  16. The Effect of Group Counseling Program on 8th Grade Students’ Assertiveness Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail SEÇER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to determine the effects of group counseling program on elementary school 8th grade students’ assertiveness skills. Study group was formed of 100 students getting educated in Erzurum Kültür Elementary School in 2011-2012 education years. RAE-Rathus Assertiveness Schedule was applied on this group to gather data. 30 students getting lower scores from the inventory have been randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Each group is formed of 15 students. Group counseling program has been carried out for 8 weeks on the experimental group to improve the students’ assertiveness skills. Single-way and two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA has been used in the analysis of the data. The data is analyzed with SPSS 19.00. The results of the study show that assertiveness skills of the students who participate in the group counseling program has increased significantly compared to the control group and to the preexperimental circumstances. Besides, it is determined that the change observed in the experimental group has been occurred separately from the age and socio-economic level variables, and it is determined with the monitoring test applied after four months that this affect is continued. According to this result, it can be said that the applied group counseling program is an effective means to improve the assertiveness skills of elementary school students

  17. Nadir CA-125 level as prognosis indicator of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Wang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Jia, Lizhou; Zhou, Yiqin; Deng, Fei; Qu, Junwei; Zhou, Bifang; Meng, Aifeng; Fu, Bole; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Qian, Zhiying; Wang, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of nadir CA-125 levels to predict the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer remains controversial. This study aimed to explore whether the nadir CA-125 serum levels could predict the durations of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC) from the USA and PRC. A total of 616 HG-SOC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC, USA) between 1990 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The results of 262 cases from the Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research (JICR, PRC) between 1992 and 2011 were used to validate the MDACC data. The CA-125 immunohistochemistry assay was performed on 280 tissue specimens. The Cox proportional hazards model and the log-rank test were used to assess the associations between the clinicopathological characteristics and duration of survival. The nadir CA-125 level was an independent predictor of OS and PFS (p CA-125 levels (≤10 U/mL) were associated with longer OS and PFS (median: 61.2 and 16.8 months with 95% CI: 52.0-72.4 and 14.0-19.6 months, respectively) than their counterparts with shorter OS and PFS (median: 49.2 and 10.5 months with 95% CI: 41.7-56.7 and 6.9-14.1 months, respectively). The nadir CA-125 levels in JICR patients were similarly independent when predicting the OS and PFS (p CA-125 levels less than or equal to 10 U/mL were associated with longer OS and PFS (median: 59.9 and 15.5 months with 95% CI: 49.7-70.1 and 10.6-20.4 months, respectively), as compared with those more than 10 U/mL (median: 42.0 and 9.0 months with 95% CI: 34.4-49.7 and 6.6-11.2 months, respectively). Baseline serum CA-125 levels, but not the CA-125 expression in tissues, were associated with the OS and PFS of HG-SOC patients in the MDACC and JICR groups. However, these values were not independent. Nadir CA-125 levels were not associated with the tumor burden based on second-look surgery (p = 0.09). Patients who achieved a pathologic complete

  18. Effects of graded noise levels on behavior, physiology and production performance of intensively managed lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Casamassima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of graded noise levels on behavioral, immune and cortisol respons-  es, and on production performance of forty precocious Merino lambs. The experiment lasted 42 days and was preceded  by a two-week adjustment period. The animals were divided into 3 test groups and a control group of 10 each, which  were housed in 12 m2 sound-proof rooms. The lambs in the test groups were exposed to recordings of high-speed motor  vehicle traffic noise for 8 hours a day. The frequency range of the recordings was 100 to 6,300 Hz, while the loudness  levels were different in the three experimental rooms: group A = 95 dB, group B = 85 dB, and group C = 75 dB. During  the same 8 hours the control group was exposed to a background noise of 42-44 dB. For the rest of the day, the ambi-  ent noise level in the animal building was 35-40 dB. Behavioral traits of lambs were recorded at the end of the adjust-  ment period and then at 14d, 28d and 42d of the experiment. At the same intervals, the plasma levels of glucose, total  cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, albumins and cortisol were determined. Cell-mediated immune response to phy-  tohemagglutinin (PHA was determined at the beginning and at days 21 and 42 of the trial. Live weights of lambs were  measured at the beginning of the trial and then at two-week intervals during the trial. After slaughtering, the carcass  weights and the dressing percentage were determined. The experimental treatment determined a significant increase in  the walking time (P   42 of the trial in groups A and B. The lambs in the test groups exhibited a slower growth rate (P   mals of the control group, whereas a deterioration of feed efficiency was observed only in group A (P   no differences amongst the groups in terms of cell-mediated immunity and blood metabolites. Results suggest that expo-  sure to noise has a detrimental effect on some biological functions in

  19. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  20. An Analysis of Grade 11 Learners' Levels of Understanding of Functions in Terms of APOS Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimhande, Tinoda; Naidoo, Ana; Stols, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study of six Grade 11 learners' levels of understanding of concepts related to the function definition and representation. Task-based clinical interviews were used to elicit the learners' interpretations and reasoning when working with these function-related concepts. Indicators for Action-Process-Object-Schema (APOS)…

  1. Hierarchical Effects of School-, Classroom-, and Student-Level Factors on the Science Performance of Eighth-Grade Taiwanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand the effect of student-, classroom-, and school-level factors on the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 by using multilevel analysis. A total of 5,042 students from 153 classrooms of 150 schools participated in the TIMSS…

  2. Assessment of Grade-Level Differences in Coping Behavior among Adolescents Using Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal-Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine grade-level differences in coping behaviors among adolescents using a probabilistic multidimensional scaling (MDS) single-ideal-point model. Using data from students in middle school and at college, this article illustrated the MDS single-ideal-point model as an alternative to examine students' typical…

  3. The Relationship of Reading Comprehension Success with Metacognitive Awareness, Motivation, and Reading Levels of Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Aysel; Bozkurt, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness, reading motivations, reading levels and reading comprehension success of fifth grade students using comparative relative scan model. There were 577 students. In the result of the research, in which data were collected with four scales, it was concluded that reading…

  4. The Relationship between Readability Level of Mississippi's Middle Schools' Websites and Seventh Grade Language Arts MCT2 Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Anna Marlene Graves

    2011-01-01

    Today's educators face the unprecedented challenge of increasing achievement for all students. One response has been to increase and improve parent involvement and school-to-home communication through the use of school websites. The quantitative section of this study analyzed the readability grade level of the website as it relates to state test…

  5. Strategies for Achieving the New SHAPE America Standards and Grade-Level Outcomes: Bringing Obstacle Course Training into Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Keri S.; Brewer, Hannah; Windish, Lance; Carlson, Hollie

    2017-01-01

    The new SHAPE America standards and grade level outcomes for high-school physical education focus exclusively on physical activities that are suitable for lifelong participation. Some of the fastest-growing physical activities for adults in the United States are non-traditional multi-sport events and obstacle course races. As "Healthy People…

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Multiple Intelligence Theory with Relationship to Gender and Grade Level in Selected Schools in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteng, Ellen N.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the relationships between Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory and students' gender, age, grade level, and enrollment into a public or private school. The research determined students' dominant intelligences and investigated whether students' intelligences may be influenced by demographic variables such as…

  7. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed Hibiscus Sabdariffa in Graded Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenkola, A Y; Oluremi, O I A

    2014-12-29

    This study was conducted for 10 weeks with the aim of investigating the erythrocyte membrane integrity as measured by erythrocyte osmotic fragility and excitability scores of rabbits fed graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (HSC). Twenty weaners' rabbit of both sexes were used for the study and were placed on four experimental diets which contain the following percentages of HSC 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, as feed additive and were added at 0 g, 62.5 g, 125 g, 187.5 g designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 experimental diets. Excitability scores were measured weekly as described by Voisnet et al. (1997). At the end of the experiment, the rabbits were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. A Blood sample (2 ml) was collected from each rabbit into sampled bottles, containing the Na EDTA as anticoagulant for hematological analysis. Packed cell volume (PCV) Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Total red blood cell (RBC) count, Total leukocyte count as well as differential leukocyte was determined using standard method. The percentage haemolysis recorded at 0.3 % to 0.8 % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rabbits in T1 compared to the remaining 3 diets. The result of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on diets 3 and 4 with a value of 65.5 ± 5.0 and 70.00 ± 5.50 % respectively. In conclusion this study demonstrated for the first time that chronic administration of HSC improves haematological parameters, brain mood and function as well as maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity.

  8. Effect of Fermented Cocoa Pod Husk Level in Concentrate on Etawah Grade Semen Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, F. F.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of study was to determine the effect of fermented CPH supplementation level in concentrate toward semen quality of Etawah Grade Buck (EGB). This research was conducted from August to October, 2011 at experiment pen and Feeds Science Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah, Yogyakarta. Semen was collected from 4 heads of EGB with about 2 years old and weight approximately of 24 kg. Concentrate was main material of CPH fermentation with composition P0 0, P1 20%, P2 40% and P3 60% from total of ration. The composer was used by the Aspergillus niger BPT with density 9.1 × 107 of colony/g as many as 1% of CPH material (on dry matter). Semen collection was done every 1 time/week and to be done five times semen collection. An examination was consisting of volume, color, smell, consistency, and the pH. Meanwhile, for microscopic examination was motion of mass, individual, motility, viability of spermatozoa. pH of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were 6.95, 7.03, 7.50 and 7.79, respectively. Mass movement of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were +++, +++, ++ and ++, while viability of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were 79.57%, 79.47%, 59.97% and 51.13%, respectively. It was concluded that addition of CPH fermentation in concentrates up to 20% for of EGB has not affect to feed consumption but it has affect to decreasing of semen quality in both of microscopic and microscopic.

  9. Relationship of sea level muon charge ratio to primary composition including nuclear target effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goned, A.; Shalaby, M.; Salem, A. M.; Roushdy, M.

    1985-01-01

    The discrepancy between the muon charge ratio observed at low energies and that calculated using pp data is removed by including nuclear target effects. Calculations at high energies show that the primary iron spectrum is expected to change slope from 2 to 2.2 to 2.4 to 2.5 for energies approx. 4 x 10 to the 3 GeV/nucleon if scaling features continue to the highest energies.

  10. Hierarchical Effects of School-, Classroom-, and Student-Level Factors on the Science Performance of Eighth-Grade Taiwanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to understand the effect of student-, classroom-, and school-level factors on the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 by using multilevel analysis. A total of 5,042 students from 153 classrooms of 150 schools participated in the TIMSS 2011 study, in which they were required to complete questionnaires. A 3-level multilevel analysis was used to assess the influence of factors at 3 levels on the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students. The results showed that the provision of education resources at home, teachers' level of education, and school climate were the strongest predictor of science performance at the student, classroom, and school level, respectively. It was concluded that the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students is driven largely by individual factors. Classroom-level factors accounted for a smaller proportion of the total variance in science performance than did school-level factors.

  11. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  12. Individual- and regional-level determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine refusal: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV vaccine cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Olivia; Smith, Leah M; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz E; Colley, Lindsey; Lévesque, Linda E

    2014-10-08

    Studies on the determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use have generally focused on individual-level characteristics, despite the potentially important influence of regional-level characteristics. Therefore, we undertook a population-based, retrospective cohort study to identify individual- and regional-level determinants of HPV vaccine refusal (non-receipt) in Ontario's (Canada) Grade 8 HPV Immunization Program. Ontario's administrative health and immunization databases were used to identify girls eligible for free HPV vaccination in 2007-2011 and to ascertain individual-level characteristics of cohort members (socio-demographics, vaccination history, health care utilization, medical history). The social and material characteristics of the girl's region (health unit) were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census. Generalized estimating equations (binomial distribution, logit link) were used to estimate the population-average effects of individual- and regional-level characteristics on HPV vaccine refusal. Our cohort consisted of 144,047 girls, 49.3% of whom refused HPV vaccination. Factors associated with refusal included a previous diagnosis of Down's syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.63) or autism (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.34-1.90), few physician visits (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.35-1.55), and previous refusal of mandatory (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 2.07-2.40) and optional (OR = 3.96, 95% CI 3.87-4.05) vaccines. Refusal was highest among the lowest and highest income levels. Finally, a previous diagnosis of obesity and living in an area of high deprivation were associated with lower refusal (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92 and OR = 0.82 95%, CI 0.79-0.86, respectively). Studies on HPV vaccine determinants should consider regional-level factors. Efforts to increase HPV vaccine acceptance should include vulnerable populations (such as girls of low income) and girls with limited contact with the healthcare system.

  13. Evaluation of the vitreous matrices to include high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Pasquali, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Programme considers a fuel cycle with Pu recycle. This will generate high-level liquid wastes, that should be safely eliminated. With this purpose, primary glasses utilizing three prototipe compositions were prepared. Simulated wastes oxides in the rate of about 10% were added to the vitreous matrices. The mixture was melted in ceramic melting pots in a muffle furnace at 1 100 deg C during 8 hours. Resistance leaching tests were made following an adaptation of the DIN 12 111 standard. Quantitative analysis of the leaching solutions were made to evaluate the solubility of the different elements. Glasses were observed with optical microscopy scanning before and after leaching. In the first, glasses, bubbles and crystalline-phase appear; in the second ones, puncture and embrittlement were detected. By means of differential thermoanalysis, endo and exothermal peaks were identified in glasses supporting gradual heating. X ray diffraction analysis were made in samples with and without wastes. The degree of crystallization of samples was evaluated by photographic and diffractometric techniques. Leaching studies showed the existance of a direct relation between leaching and glass alkaline content. (M.E.L.) [es

  14. [Level of smoking of 3rd and 4th grade students studying health and related factors: follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (plevel of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking.

  15. Impact of School Violence on Youth Alcohol Abuse: Differences Based on Gender and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…

  16. A study of the level of correlation between WAEC and NECO grades ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the results reveals that there was no statistically significant difference between the grades awarded by NECO and WAEC in all the subjects considered. The findings from the study also reveal that candidates performed better (have higher mean score) in some subjects. International Journal of Emotional Psychology and ...

  17. An Enriched and Cooperative Reading Program for Achievers at the Sixth Grade Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Arkansas Education Center, Little Rock.

    An enrichment and cooperative reading program for high achievers in grade 6 involved participants in four reading classes who received supplementary reading instruction with the aid of teacher made cassette tapes, listening stations, current newspapers and magazines, and Reader's Digest skill builders. Testing at the end of the first year…

  18. Choose Life! Unborn Children and the Right to Life. Senior High Level: Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum is designed to assist Catholic school teachers and parish catechists in their efforts to foster a pro-life attitude in students in grades 9-12. Following an introduction is the curriculum, which features six lessons. These are: (1) The miracle of human life; (2) Responsible parenthood versus abortion; (3) Abortion is no solution;…

  19. Choose Life! Unborn Children and the Right to Life. Intermediate Level: Grades 5-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum is designed to assist Catholic school teachers and parish catechists in their efforts to foster a pro-life attitude in students in grades 5 and 6. Following an introduction is the curriculum, which features six lessons. These are: (1) The miracle of life around us; (2) Respect for all life; (3) The miracle of human life; (4)…

  20. Choose Life! Unborn Children and the Right to Life. Junior High Level: Grades 7-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum is designed to assist Catholic school teachers and parish catechists in their efforts to foster a pro-life attitude in students in grades 7 and 8. Following an introduction is the curriculum which features six lessons. These are: (1) Unique in all the world; (2) The first nine months of human life; (3) The hard facts about…

  1. An investigation of gender and grade-level differences in middle school students' attitudes about science, in science process skills ability, and in parental expectations of their children's science performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Terri Renee'

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine different variables (i.e. science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation for their children in science, which may impinge on science education differently for males and females in grades five, seven, and nine. The research question addressed by the study was: What are the differences between science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation in science on the academic success of fifth, seventh, and ninth graders in science and do effects differ according to gender and grade level? The subjects included fifth, seven, and ninth grade students ( n = 543) and their parents (n = 474) from six rural, public elementary schools and two rural, public middle schools in Southern Mississippi. A two-way (grade x gender) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences in science process skill abilities of females and males in grade five, seven, and nine. An additional separate two-way multivariate analysis of variance (grade x gender) was also used to determine the differences in science attitudes of males and females in grade five, seven, and nine. A separate analysis of variance (PPSEX [parent's gender]) with the effects being parents' gender was used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. An additional separate analysis of variance (SSEX [student's gender]) with the effects being the gender of the student was also used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. Results of the analyses indicated significant main effects for grade level (p gender (p gender interaction on the TIPS II. Results for the TOSRA also indicated a significant main effect for grade (p gender as the main effect showed no significant difference. The analysis of variance with student's gender as the main effect showed no significant

  2. School-based exposure to hazardous air pollutants and grade point average: A multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    The problem of environmental health hazards around schools is serious but it has been neglected by researchers and analysts. This is concerning because children are highly susceptible to the effects of chemical hazards. Some ecological studies have demonstrated that higher school-level pollution is associated with lower aggregate school-level standardized test scores likely, related to increased respiratory illnesses and/or impaired cognitive development. However, an important question remains unexamined: How do school-level exposures impact individual children's academic performance? To address this, we obtained socio-demographic and grades data from the parents of 1888 fourth and fifth grade children in the El Paso (Texas, USA) Independent School District in 2012. El Paso is located on the US-side of the Mexican border and has a majority Mexican-origin population. School-based hazardous air pollution (HAP) exposure was calculated using census block-level US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter (PM). School-level demographics were obtained from the school district. Multi-level models adjusting for individual-level covariates (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, English proficiency, and economic deprivation) and school-level covariates (e.g., percent of students economically disadvantaged and student-teacher ratio) showed that higher school-level HAPs were associated with lower individual-level grade point averages. An interquartile range increase in school-level HAP exposure was associated with an adjusted 0.11-0.40 point decrease in individual students' grade point averages (GPAs), depending on HAP type and emission source. Respiratory risk from HAPs had a larger effect on GPA than did diesel PM risk. Non-road mobile and total respiratory risk had the largest effects on children's GPA of all HAP variables studied and only mother's level of education had a larger effect than those

  3. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

  4. In vitro bioavailability of iron from spinach (Spinacea oleracea) cultivated in soil fortified with graded levels of iron and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N S; Sondge, C V; Khan, T N

    1993-11-01

    A pot-culture experiment was conducted to assess the bioavailability of iron from spinach cultivated in soil fortified with graded levels of iron and zinc (FeSO4 x 7H2(0) and ZnSO4 x 7H2(0), respectively). Applications of varying levels of iron to soil increased the total iron and phosphorus contents and decreased the zinc content (P < 0.05). The effect of applying varying levels of zinc was the opposite of on the minerals in spinach. The ascorbic acid content was remarkably reduced with varying levels of iron and zinc. Higher levels of zinc and lower levels of iron in the soil increased the bioavailability of iron from spinach (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the interactions of 15 ppm zinc with 30 ppm iron significantly enhanced the bioavailability of iron, total iron and zinc contents.

  5. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-01-30

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among player positions at three grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study [mean height (Ht) ± standard deviation (SD) = 178 ± 7 cm, weight (Wt) = 86 ± 19 kg]. Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight two-way (9x3) mixed factorial ANOVAs [position (defensive back (DB), defensive end (DE), defensive lineman (DL), linebacker (LB), offensive lineman (OL), quarterback (QB), running back (RB), tight end (TE), and wide receiver (WR) x grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)] were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure [Ht, Wt, 40-yard (40yd) dash, pro-agility drill (PA), L-cone drill (LC), vertical jump (VJ), and broad jump (BJ)]. There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Wt, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. RBs were the shortest, while DBs and WRs weighed the least, and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as 'line' vs. 'skill' vs. 'big skill' when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  6. [Vitamin D blood levels of students in grades IV-Vl of primary schools in Katowice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braczkowski, Ryszard; Braczkowska, Bogumiła; Stryjewski, Piotr J; Kuczaj, Agnieszka; Al-Srory, Gamal

    2015-01-01

    Results of studies conducted around the world show a drastic deficiency vitamin D in almost all populations, and the strongest in the group of children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of vitamin D in children aged 10-12 years. The study included 42 children aged 10-12 years 24 girls and 18 boys).The obtained data were statistically analyzed using STATISTICA 10 (StatSoft Inc. Dell) Half of the subjects (n = 21) had levels of vitamin D i not greater than 14.872 ng/ml (median). The median concentrations of vitamin D was higher in the studied group of boys than girls and amounted to 16.54 vs 14.02. Most patients (n = 18; 42.8%) had levels of vitamin D between 10 and 20 ng / ml (deficiency),7 persons (16.7%) had a severe deficiency (≤10 ng/ml), a significant number of patients (n = 15; 35 7%) had a slight deficiency of vitamin D called moderate hypovitaminosis. Only two individuals (4.8%) had concentrations in the range defined as optimum. The results of the present study show a deficiency of vitamin D in the study group children aged 10 - 12 years.

  7. Low-grade inflammation is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, S. R.; Pedersen, O. B.; Petersen, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chronic inflammation can lead to anaemia of chronic disease due to the sequestration of iron caused by inflammatory cytokines and the protein hepcidin. However, the effect of low-grade inflammation (LGI) on haemoglobin among healthy individuals is not known. This study...... examines the effect of LGI on haemoglobin among Danish blood donors. Materials and Methods: We performed multivariable linear regression to assess the effect of LGI (i.e. high-sensitivity C-reactive protein above 3 mg/l but below 10 mg/l) on haemoglobin in 17 322 Danish blood donors. We also performed...

  8. Improving accuracy in astrocytomas grading by integrating a robust least squares mapping driven support vector machine classifier into a two level grade classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotsos, Dimitris; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Spyridonos, Panagiota; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Daskalakis, Antonis; Athanasiadis, Emmanouil; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Nikiforidis, George; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2008-06-01

    Grading of astrocytomas is an important task for treatment planning; however, it suffers from significantly great inter-observer variability. Computer-assisted diagnosis systems have been propose to assist towards minimizing subjectivity, however, these systems present either moderate accuracy or utilize specialized staining protocols and grading systems that are difficult to apply in daily clinical practice. The present study proposes a robust mathematical formulation by integrating state-of-art technologies (support vector machines and least squares mapping) in a cascade classification scheme for separating low from high and grade III from grade IV astrocytic tumours. Results have indicated that low from high-grade tumours can be correctly separated with a certainty as high as 97.3%, whereas grade III from grade IV tumours with 97.8%. The overall performance was 95.2%. These high rates have been a result of applying the least squares mapping technique to features prior to classification. A significant byproduct of least squares mapping is that the number of support vectors of the SVM classifiers dropped dramatically from about 80% when no mapping was used to less than 5% when mapping was used. The latter is a clear indication that the SVM classifier has a greater potential to generalize well to new data. In this way, digital image analysis systems for automated grading of astrocytomas are brought closer to clinical practice.

  9. Planning of questions for various level of reading of textbooks for early grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Haxhijaha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the entire history of education, questioning has been one of the usual techniques of teaching. Despite all the changes in the education theory and technology, this technique continues to be usual, because it is an efficient tool to increase learning. Questioning is an interactive relation, which enlivens the conversation, by giving continuity to the finding of final result. Questioning should be assessed as a technique, which gives high results, when it is managed successfully and with attention towards the teacher, playing meanwhile an important role during the learning of students. Through various planed activities, I tried to influence teachers in order to plan as many questions as possible, for the development of student’s critical thinking. Taking into account the development of further activities I focused in the results extracted from the data gained from the observation of teachers, target group, consultations with teachers, and took into consideration various literature which considered this issue. This research included five teachers that teach in classes 1-5, in the ELSS “Emin Duraku” in Prizren/Kosovo. Observation consisted of two periods. Results of the first period of observation showed that while preparing the teaching work, specifically planning of questions I noticed that a big number were direct questions with a low level of thinking. The research continued by maintaining the target group focused where important discussions were held about the importance of planning the questions of different levels that helped students to understand what they read and also contributed to the increasing of their interest for reading-understanding of various school texts. Then the second period of observation was conducted. Results showed that there were differences in the planning of questions by teachers, compared to the results of the first period of observation. Conclusions of this operational research showed that students can

  10. The results of STEM education methods in physics at the 11th grade level: Light and visual equipment lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungsombatsanti, A.; Ponkham, K.; Somtoa, T.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) To evaluate the efficiency of the process and the efficiency of the results (E1 / E2) of the innovative instructional lesson plan in the form of the STEM Education method in the field of physics of secondary students at the 10th grade level in physics class to determine the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria of the 70/70 standard level. 2) To study students' critical thinking skills of secondary students at the 11th grade level, and assessing skill in criteria 80 percentage 3) To compare learning achievements between students' pre-post testing after taught in STEM Education 4) To evaluate Student' Satisfaction after using STEM Education teaching by using mean compare to 5 points Likert Scale. The participant used were 40 students from grade 11 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 11 students of 1 schemes with total of 15 hours, 2) The test of critical think skills with essay type in amount of 30 items, 3) achievement test on Light and visual equipment with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 16 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The results of these findings revealed that the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria indicate that are higher than the standard level of the 70/70 at 71.51/75 2) Student has critical thinking scores that are higher than criteria 80 percentage as amount is 26 people. 3) Statistically significant of students' learning achievements to their later outcomes were differentiated between pretest and posttest at the .05 level, evidently. 4) The student' level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a good level (X ¯ = 4.33, S.D = 0.64).

  11. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the Bender-Gestalt and Beery/Buktenica Tests of Visual-Motor Integration as a Function of Grade Level for Regular Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Joanne; Breen, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Regular education students (N=125) in grades K-3 were administered the Bender-Gestalt and Beery/Buktenica tests of visual-motor integration. Found significant differences between the mean Bender and Beery age equivalent scores at each grade level. Discusses implications for their utilization in assessing fine motor readiness development.…

  13. Quality of breast and thigh meats when broilers are fed rations containing graded levels of sugar syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Hussein, A S; Afifi, H S

    2013-08-01

    The dietary energy for broiler chicken is provided through the inclusion of cereal grains and vegetable oil in the ration. The cost of corn is increasing exponentially, whereas sugar syrup (SS) is available with reasonable cost. Sugar syrup can be used as a substitute for starch/grains and vegetable oil. No research has been reported on the effect of SS on broiler meat quality. In this study, Hubbard commercial broiler chicks were fed a control basal diet (corn-soy basal diet on an ad libitum basis) alone or with graded levels of SS. A completely randomized design with 3 replications (n = 3, treatments = 4 with 4 subsamples per treatment) were used to investigate the effect of replacing part of the corn and oil in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of SS (5, 10, and 15%) on breast and thigh meat quality (proximate analysis, cooking loss, instrumental color, and texture and sensory properties). Rations containing up to 15% SS had a slight effect on proximate composition of raw and cooked broiler breast and thigh meats. Cooking loss of thigh meat decreased significantly with increasing SS but increased significantly for breast meats. No significant differences were detected (P > 0.05) among breast or thigh meats fed rations with a different level of SS on all sensory properties, except that cooked thigh meat had a slightly harder texture. Overall, results suggest that feeding broilers with SS rations (up to 15%) produced high-quality breast and thigh meats with minimal differences.

  14. Emperor penguin oxygen consumption, heart rate and plasma lactate levels during graded swimming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, G L; Ponganis, P J

    1994-10-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate and blood chemistry were measured in four emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri (Gray), during graded swimming exercise. The maximum VO2 obtained, 52 ml O2 kg-1 min-1, was 7.8 times the measured resting VO2 of 6.7 ml O2 kg-1 min-1 and 9.1 times the predicted resting VO2. As the swimming effort rose, a linear increase in surface and submerged heart rates (fH) occurred. The highest average maximum surface and submersion heart rates of any bird were 213 and 210 beats min-1, respectively. No increase in plasma lactate concentrations occurred until VO2 was greater than 25 ml O2 kg-1 min-1. At the highest VO2 values measured, plasma lactate concentration reached 9.4 mmol l-1. In comparison with other animals of approximately the same mass, the aerobic capacity of the emperor penguin is less than those of the emu and dog but about the same as those of the seal, sea lion and domestic goat. For aquatic animals, a low aerobic capacity seems to be consistent with the needs of parsimonious oxygen utilization while breath-holding.

  15. High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

  16. The Relationship between Metacognitive Awareness Levels, Learning Styles, Genders and Mathematics Grades of Fifth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Serdal; Yildiz, Avni; Özcakir, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that students, who have high levels of metacognitive awareness, perform better achievement levels than other students. Besides, it can be said that learning styles may affect metacognitive awareness of students. In the literature, studies about metacognition focused on problem solving and learners' mathematical…

  17. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  18. Predicting Model of Lymph Node Metastasis Using Preoperative Tumor Grade, Transvaginal Ultrasound, and Serum CA-125 Level in Patients With Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisun; Kong, Tae-Wook; Paek, Jiheum; Chang, Suk-Joon; Ryu, Hee-Sug

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predicting model for lymph node metastasis using preoperative tumor grade, transvaginal sonography (TVS), and serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) level in patients with endometrial cancer. Between January 2000 and February 2013, we identified 172 consecutive patients with surgically staged endometrial cancer. Transvaginal sonography was performed by an expert gynecologic radiologist in all patients. All patients had complete staging surgery including total hysterectomy with bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and were staged according to the 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification. Various clinicopathologic data were obtained from medical records and were retrospectively analyzed. Of 172 patients, 138 patients presented with stage I (118 IA and 20 IB), 12 had stage II, 18 had stage III (2 IIIA, 1 IIIB, 8 IIIC1, and 7 IIIC2), and 2 had stage IV diseases. Most patients had endometrioid adenocarcinoma (88.4%), and others (12.6%) had nonendometrioid histology. Eighteen patients (10.5%) were found to have lymph node metastasis. Deep myometrial invasion on preoperative TVS (≥50%), high serum CA-125 level (≥ 35 IU/mL), preoperative grade 2 or 3 tumors were significant preoperative factors predicting lymph node metastasis. There was no significant association between preoperative histology and lymph node metastasis. We calculated the simple model predicting lymph node metastasis based on preoperative tumor grade, TVS findings, and CA-125 level using logistic regression analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of this model were 94% and 57%, respectively (area under the curve, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.93; P CA-125 can accurately predict lymph node metastasis in patients with endometrial cancer. The current study suggests the possibility that TVS could be positively used for preoperative evaluation strategy in the low-resource countries instead of expensive

  19. Effects of graded levels of iron-fortified locally produced natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, dressing percentage was not affected (P>0.05) by the dietary levels, relative fresh organs and primal cut weights were different (P<0.05) for birds fed the various levels of LPNVP and the control birds fed CVMP-based diets. It was however cheaper (P<0.05) to use LPNVP than CVMP as a source of vitamin for ...

  20. Effect of graded levels of lablab ( Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) hay on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results revealed that a 50% inclusion level of lablab hay in the diet led to 79% higher (P<0.05) dressed weight compared to the control diet (35%). The length of small intestine increased by 51% (P<0.05) at 100% level of inclusion of lablab hay compared to the control diet (25%). Also, there was a 45% increase (P<0.05) in ...

  1. A Literature Study on Usage of and Satisfaction Levels with Combined Treatment Including Oriental and Western Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Jung-Hun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to summarize and analyze the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine. Methods: We searched studies on the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine over the past 10 yrs (2001-2011 from 3 Korean databases (National Assembly Library, Research Information Service System, and National Discovery for Science Leaders. The reviewers also conducted a summarizing analysis by sampling the literature according to the type of study, study period, region, study subjects, sample size, type of sampling, research method, data analysis, study instruments, main results, etc. Results: When the main results of six studies on combined treatment usage and satisfaction levels were considered together, the most important decisive factor in determining the usage of combined treatment was the illness of the patient, followed by the patient’s occupation, sex, age, education, marital status, religion, treatment cost, and treatment results. In addition, the most important factor that determined satisfaction levels with combined treatment was age, followed by education, religion, income, health status, treatment procedures, staff attitude, and cleanliness. Conclusions: Elderly patients with musculoskeletal, cerebro-vascular, and circulatory system illnesses are more likely to prefer combined treatment over independent Oriental or Western treatment and are more likely to request specialized, adjusted medical care.

  2. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels predict clinical outcomes of patients with high-grade gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Kaijia; Xu, Li; Chen, Baoshi; Li, Guilin; Qiu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Wei; Song, Sonya W.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) is a malignancy-associated protein measurable in tumors and blood. Increased IGFBP-2 is associated with shortened survival of advanced glioma patients. Thus, we examined plasma IGFBP-2 levels in glioma patients and healthy controls to evaluate its value as a plasma bio-marker for glioma. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels in 196 patients with newly diagnosed glioma and 55 healthy controls were analyzed using an IGFBP-2 ELISA kit. Blood was collected b...

  3. Analysis on the International Trends in Safe Management of Very Low Level Waste Based upon Graded Approach and Their Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak

    2011-01-01

    Recently, International Atomic Energy Agency and major leading countries in radioactive waste management tend to subdivide the categories of radioactive waste based upon risk-graded approach. In this context, the category of very low level waste has been newly introduced, or optimized management options for this kind of waste have been pursued in many countries. The application of engineered surface landfill type facilities dedicated to dispose of very low level waste has been gradually expanded, and it was analyzed that their design concept of isolation has been much advanced than those of the old fashioned surface trench-type disposal facilities for low and intermediate level waste, which were usually constructed in 1960's. In addition, the management options for very low level waste in major leading countries are varied depending upon and interfaced with the affecting factors such as: national framework for clearance, legal and practical availability of low and intermediate level waste repository and/or non-nuclear waste landfill, public acceptance toward alternative waste management options, and so forth. In this regard, it was concluded that optimized long-term management options for very low level waste in Korea should be also established in a timely manner through comprehensive review and discussions, in preparation of decommissioning of large nuclear facilities in the future, and be implemented in a systematic manner under the framework of national policy and management plan for radioactive waste management

  4. Response of broiler turkeys to graded dietary levels of Palm Kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of local broiler turkeys fed dietary treatments in which palm kernel meal (PKM) replaced maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent was evaluated. The replacement levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent represented diets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. One hundred and eighty dayold unsexed turkey ...

  5. Evaluation of the meat quality Yankasa rams fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty Yankasa rams aged between 10 and 12 months with average weight of 12.15kg were used to evaluate the effect of different levels of biscuit waste and Leucaena leucocephala meal inclusion in diets on the quality of their meat samples. The rams were randomly assigned to five treatment diets of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% ...

  6. Effects of replacing marine fishmeal with graded levels of Tra Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, daily weight gain (ADG) was higher in TPH75 (655 g/day) and TPH100 (663 g/day) than in TPH0 (639 g/day). Feed conversion ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ether extract (EE) contents and meat colour values a* (redness) in the longissimus dorsi muscle increased with TPH replacement level. Feed costs ...

  7. Learn to Think and Write: A Paradigm for Teaching Grades 4-8, Introductory Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Una McGinley

    2011-01-01

    The EPILLAW Paradigm is a practical method for developing writing skills. It consists of an original nine-level taxonomy and sequential methodology of listening, speaking, writing and reading. In this method, the development of writing precedes the development of reading. The work consists of two books. In the introductory book, the author…

  8. Estimating Optimum Compaction Level for Dense-Graded Hot-Mix Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Shamsi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical step in the design of asphalt mixtures is laboratory compaction. Laboratory compaction should reflect field compaction and should produce mixtures that are economical and possess high structural stability. During the compaction process, asphalt mixtures are subjected to certain amount of compaction energy in order to achieve the required density. The Superpave volumetric mix design is based on compacting HMA mixtures to a specified compaction level described by the number of gyrations from the Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC. This level is termed Ndes and represents the required energy (based on the traffic level expected to densify the mixture to a 4% air voids level. This paper re-examines the Superpave compaction requirements through extensive laboratory investigation of the response of a number of asphalt mixtures to the applied compaction energy. It also presents an alternative method to estimate the number of gyrations at which a mixture first reaches an optimum aggregate interlock and hence prevents overcompaction problems that might result in unstable aggregate structures or dry asphalt mixtures. A total of 12 HMA mixtures were studied. During compaction, force measurement was made using the pressure distribution analyzer (PDA. The compaction characteristics of the mixtures were analyzed using data from the PDA and the traditional Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC results.

  9. Effect of graded levels of concentrate mixture containing 4% palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen male Red Sokoto goats (RSG) of average weight of 21.50 ± 1.04 kg were used to determine the effects of feeding levels of concentrate mixture containing 4% palm oil on nutrient digestion by Red Sokoto goats fed basal diet of wooly finger grass (Digitaria smutsii, Stent) hay. The goats were randomly assigned to ...

  10. Reflects of graded levels of cassava peel-based diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight diets were produced to contain 0, 7.5, 15.0 and 22.5% processed cassava peel at 24 and 20% crude protein levels respectively. The diets were made isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to cobb broilers for ten weeks. Results obtain indicated that up to 15.0% cassava peel could be incorporated in broiler diets ...

  11. The impact of graded levels of day length on turkey health and behavior to 18 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermette, C; Schwean-Lardner, K; Gomis, S; Grahn, B H; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L

    2016-06-01

    The impact of graded levels of day length on turkey health and behavior was determined in hens and toms raised to 18 wk of age. Birds were allocated to one of 4 lighting treatments (trt) providing 14 (14L), 17 (17L), 20 (20L), and 23 (23L) h of day length. Two time-replicated trials were completed with each, providing 2 rooms per lighting trt and each room having 3 hen (n = 720) and 3 tom (n = 480) pens. Data collection included gait score (GS), the incidence of footpad dermatitis (FPD), breast buttons and blisters, ocular size and pressure (males only), and behavioral observations (males only). Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3 based on a completely randomized design nested within 4 lighting trt. Regression analysis established relationships between response criteria and day length. Differences were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and trends noted at P ≤ 0.10. Gait score, FPD, and the incidence of breast buttons and blisters were assessed on 5 birds per pen at 11 and 17 wk of age. Average GS increased linearly with day length at 11 and 17 wk for both hens and toms, but the effect was larger in toms. Day length did not affect FPD, but more lesions and severe scores were found for hens than toms. The presence of breast buttons and blisters increased linearly with day length (11 wk) with the effect on blisters predominately seen in toms. Eye weight and size increased with increasing day length at 12 and 18 wk. Ocular pressure was not affected by day length. Infrared cameras recorded tom behavior over a 24 h period, and behaviors were classified over 10-min intervals using a scan sampling technique at 11 and 17 wk. Alterations in behavioral repertoire were observed with a linear increase in inactive resting and a linear decrease in standing, walking, preening, and environmental and feather pecking behaviors with increased day length. To conclude, day length affected bird mobility and incidence of breast blisters in an age- and gender-specific manner, and time

  12. Correlation between Computer and Mathematical Literacy Levels of 6th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ic, Unal; Tutak, Tayfun

    2018-01-01

    Literacy has been defined in the literature frequently. Each new interpretation leads to the idea that the definition can change based on the relevant environment, instruments used and/or the intended objective and there might be different types of literacy including computer literacy, media literacy and visual literacy (Reinking, McKenna, Labbo…

  13. Evaluation Of Enzyme (Maxigrain®) Treatment Of Graded Levels Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Palm Kernel Meal (PKM) in diets treated with or without enzyme (Maxigrain®) as replacement for Maize in broiler diets. Four hundred and five day old chicks of Arbor acres strain were randomly allotted to nine isonitrogeneous dietary treatments where PKM was included in ...

  14. Calorimetry of the PD-D2O system: The drive towards high levels of low grade heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, M.; Pons, S.

    1995-01-01

    We review some of the factors which prompted our search for anomalously fast nuclear reactions of D + electrochemically compressed into Pd (and Pd-alloy) host lattices using calorimetry as a principal means of investigation. The most surprising results are that the high levels of excess heat generated are riot accompanied by the expected levels of tritium and neutrons (low but significant levels of these open-quotes nuclear ashesclose quotes are detected). It has been found that excess heat generation is dependent on the protocol of the experiments mainly because of positive feedback. A rationale for such positive feedback is presented; this also leads to oscillation in the system properties which must be minimised so as to reach high levels of excess enthalpy generation at intermediate temperatures (∼100 degrees C i.e. low grade heat). We illustrate the progressive development by the achievement of specific rates of ∼20Wcm -3 , ∼100Wcm -3 and 4kWcm -3 corresponding to those of gas cooled, pressurised water and fast breeder reactors. The highest levels require restrictions of the engineering of the systems which we will outline

  15. Assessment of primary school students’ level of understanding the concepts of 2nd grade life sciences course based on different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altıntaş Gülşen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of Life Sciences is one of the pivot courses taught in the first three years of primary school. Ensuring children get to know their environment and gain correct information related to their problems by making them investigate their natural and socio-cultural environment as well as providing them with necessary information, skills and behaviors for environmental adaptation are among the main purposes of Life Sciences course. The concepts to be instilled in students in line with these purposes are important. Since concepts are mostly intellectual and non-physical, they can only exist tangibly through examples. This study aims to assess Primary School Students’ Level of Understanding the Concepts of 2nd Grade Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables. 17 concepts included in the 2nd Grade Life Sciences course within the subject of School Excitement were addressed within the study, and students were requested to define and exemplify these concepts. A total of 102 students from five different primary schools of upper-middle and lower socioeconomic classes located in Manisa and Istanbul were included in the study in line with the intentional maximum diversity sample selection. The answers given by students for each concept were categorized and analyzed in terms of liking or disliking home, school, technology and the course of Life Sciences.

  16. Low testosterone level predicts prostate cancer in re-biopsy in patients with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cruz, Eduard; Piqueras, Marta; Ribal, Maria José; Huguet, Jorge; Serapiao, Rodrigo; Peri, Lluis; Izquierdo, Laura; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is a risk factor for prostate cancer (PCa), but only multifocality is an indication for early rebiopsy. Other risk factors for PCa development from HGPIN remain unknown. PCa is related to testosterone. Testosterone has been proven to be linked to PCa detection and poor prognosis PCa. This study shows that low free and bioavailable testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of PCa in a rebiopsy after HGPIN diagnosis. Men with low testosterone levels and HGPIN could therefore be considered a high-risk cohort for developing PCa. To determine the relevance of the hormonal profile of patients with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and its relationship to prostate cancer (PCa) in rebiopsy. We prospectively analysed 82 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of HGPIN without PCa in a prostate biopsy between September 2007 and December 2009. Of these 82 patients, 45 underwent rebiopsy and their hormonal profile was determined (testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin [SHBG]) as part of our clinical protocol. Patient age, PSA level, prostate volume, PSA density, testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and SHBG were recorded prospectively. A comparative study between those patients with a positive rebiopsy and those with a negative rebiopsy was performed. We found that free testosterone (P = 0.04), bioavailable testosterone (P = 0.04) and SHBG (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with a positive rebiopsy. Other variables such as age (P = 0.745), PSA level (P = 0.630), prostate volume (P = 0.690), PSA density (P = 0.950), testosterone (P = 0.981) and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia multifocality (P = 0.777) were not associated with the presence of adenocarcinoma in the rebiopsy. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate after a diagnosis of HGPIN have higher SHBG levels and lower calculated free

  17. Separating semiconductor devices from substrate by etching graded composition release layer disposed between semiconductor devices and substrate including forming protuberances that reduce stiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Nielson, Gregory N; Cederberg, Jeffrey G; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2015-05-12

    A method includes etching a release layer that is coupled between a plurality of semiconductor devices and a substrate with an etch. The etching includes etching the release layer between the semiconductor devices and the substrate until the semiconductor devices are at least substantially released from the substrate. The etching also includes etching a protuberance in the release layer between each of the semiconductor devices and the substrate. The etch is stopped while the protuberances remain between each of the semiconductor devices and the substrate. The method also includes separating the semiconductor devices from the substrate. Other methods and apparatus are also disclosed.

  18. A new simulation model estimates micronutrient levels to include in fortified blended foods used in food aid programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Lisa E; Sahyoun, Nadine R; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2010-02-01

    Current micronutrient levels in Public Law 480 fortified blended foods (FBF) may not be appropriate for all food aid beneficiaries, particularly infants and/or young children and pregnant and/or lactating women. A simulation model was developed to determine the micronutrient fortification levels to include in FBF for food aid programs with the goal of reducing the risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes without exceeding the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for any recipient group. For each micronutrient, the age and gender group with the highest daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) relative to energy requirement was identified and the effect of providing different percentages of that RNI (66, 75, and 100%) was simulated. In this modeling exercise, we also examined consumption of the FBF at 25 (the usual level), 50, and 100% of daily energy requirement. Results indicated that 2 FBF products are needed: a complementary food for age 6-36 mo and a supplementary food for the older groups. Both of the FBF could be fortified to supply at least 75% of the RNI to all groups, without exceeding the UL for most nutrients, if consumed at 25% of the energy requirement. Even if consumed at 50% of energy requirements, mean intakes of most micronutrients would not exceed the UL, although at 100% of the energy requirement, several micronutrients were undesirably high. We conclude that fortifying an FBF to provide 75% of the RNI would be appropriate for most micronutrients, but this level of fortification would not be appropriate for long-term consumption of the FBF at 100% of the energy requirements.

  19. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P facial pores (R = 0.43, P pore area (R = 0.32, P facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Effect of roasting conditions on color and volatile profile including HMF level in sweet almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl

    2012-04-01

    Microwave, oven, and oil roasting of almonds were used to promote almond flavor and color formation. Raw pasteurized almonds were roasted in a microwave for 1 to 3 min, in an oven at 177 °C for 5, 10, 15, and 20 min; and at 135 and 163 °C for 20 min, and in oil at 135, 163, and 177 °C for 5 min and 177 °C for 10 min. Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of ground almonds, both raw and roasted, by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Strong correlations were found between L value, chroma, and 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural; and were independent of roasting method. Raw almonds had lower concentrations of most volatiles than roasted almonds. Conditions that produced color equivalent to commercial samples were 2 min in the microwave, 5 min at 177 °C in the oven, and 5 min at 135 °C in oil. Microwave heating produced higher levels of most volatiles than oven and oil roasting at commercial color. Sensory evaluation indicated that microwave-roasted almonds had the strongest aroma and were the most preferred. Oil-roasted almonds showed significantly lower levels of volatiles than other methods, likely due to loss of these volatiles into the oil. Alcohols such as benzyl alcohols and strecker aldehydes including benzaldehyde and methional were at higher concentrations than other volatiles in roasted almonds. The oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as nonanal and degradation of sugars to form furan type compounds was also observed. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of more of the total volatiles in almonds than the lipid oxidation reaction. The level of 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural (HMF), color, volatile profile, and sensory perception can be used to develop the best roasting method, time, and temperature for almonds. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ under different roasting conditions. Based on the color, volatile, and sensory assessments of the 3 almonds, the use of microwave technology

  1. Analysis of Class Attendance Policies and Grade-Related Contingencies in Graduate-Level Education Administration Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chet

    2004-01-01

    Professors of Educational Administration spend an inordinate amount of time tracking student attendance and calculating absences into final grades. A study of student attendance in one educational administration program at a medium-sized public institution of higher education in California concluded that: (1) negative and positive grade-related…

  2. The Effects of a Peer Tutoring Intervention Program on the Reading Levels of Underachieving Fifth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marie J.

    A practicum addressed the cognitive and affective needs of underachieving fifth grade students in a suburban school in southwest Florida. Twelve fifth grade students (the target group) were paired with same age tutors who provided supplemental reading instruction four times a week over a 12-week period. They also participated in weekly…

  3. Beyond Minimum Technology Requirements: Course Characteristics for the Instructional Design of Virtual Programs at the Elementary Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytlacil, Kerrie A.

    2013-01-01

    With virtual public school initiatives in each of the 50 states, there is an impetus to develop and implement online programs for the elementary grades (Cavanaugh, 2004, pp. 262-266; Oliver et al., p. 56). Yet, learner usability characteristics for successful online schooling for the elementary grades are unknown and/or unspecified. The purpose of…

  4. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children.

  5. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  6. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program, 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Third Grade, Level 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the third grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  7. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program. 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Second Grade, Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the second grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  8. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G titer correlates with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density, and levels of serum biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. RESULTS. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend pylori density score increased from 0 to 3, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers also increased from 24.7 to 44.8 EIU (p for trend pylori IgG titer was associated positively with serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17 concentrations and negatively with PGI/II ratio, and the association was the strongest for PGII. The mean PGII concentration of the patients in the highest quartile of IgG titer was twice the mean concentration of the patients in the lowest quartile (17.2 vs. 8.6 EIU, p pylori IgG titer was associated positively with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.

  9. Level of knowledge and understanding of informed consent amongst the training grade group orthodontists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratik K; Chate, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    To assess the level of knowledge and understanding of informed consent in UK orthodontic trainees. A cross-sectional, written questionnaire-based study. Hospital orthodontic departments in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A one page questionnaire which covered a range of legal issues pertinent to informed consent was circulated to 207 members of the Training Grades Group (TGG) of the British Orthodontic Society (BOS). The questionnaire consisted of four open questions with 11 responses, which the investigators considered to be ideal, seven closed questions requiring yes/no responses and one question requiring a yes/no response followed by two open responses. Following the initial circulation, a second posting to non-responders was conducted. The response rate was 61% (N=126). The mean number of complete answers to the 21 questions was 13 (62%; median 13; mode 14). There were a low number of complete responses to specific questions in the following areas - explanations patients need from clinicians prior to obtaining consent; how to fully judge if a patient is capable of consenting; how to manage a patient incapable of giving consent; the legal status of fathers consenting on behalf of their children; whether consent forms have to be re-signed if the start of treatment is delayed by six months or more and responsibility for obtaining consent for dental treatment under general anaesthesia. There was a disappointingly high proportion of incomplete answers to questions testing the knowledge and understanding of the law as it pertains to informed consent exists amongst members of the TGG of BOS.

  10. Including All Families in Education: School District-Level Efforts to Promote Parent Engagement in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent engagement plays an essential role in student achievement and well-being, but not all families are able to participate in their children's education. This article focuses on strategies for reaching and supporting parents who face challenges to engagement such as poverty and cultural diversity. Five district-level parent engagement projects…

  11. 77 FR 22790 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... practice, and other public or private nonprofit health or education entities to assist the disadvantaged to... who live together. A ``household'' may be only one person. Most HRSA programs use the income of the... for the 48 Contiguous States and the District of Columbia Income Size of parents' family* level** 1...

  12. 76 FR 14417 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... adjusts the low-income levels based on the Department's poverty guidelines and makes them available to... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration ``Low Income... to identify a ``low-income family'' for the purpose of determining eligibility for programs that...

  13. Inventory of forest resources (including water) by multi-level sampling. [nine northern Virginia coastal plain counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Dana, R. W.; Roberts, E. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A stratified random sample using LANDSAT band 5 and 7 panchromatic prints resulted in estimates of water in counties with sampling errors less than + or - 9% (67% probability level). A forest inventory using a four band LANDSAT color composite resulted in estimates of forest area by counties that were within + or - 6.7% and + or - 3.7% respectively (67% probability level). Estimates of forest area for counties by computer assisted techniques were within + or - 21% of operational forest survey figures and for all counties the difference was only one percent. Correlations of airborne terrain reflectance measurements with LANDSAT radiance verified a linear atmospheric model with an additive (path radiance) term and multiplicative (transmittance) term. Coefficients of determination for 28 of the 32 modeling attempts, not adverseley affected by rain shower occurring between the times of LANDSAT passage and aircraft overflights, exceeded 0.83.

  14. Hepatic ALT isoenzymes are elevated in gluconeogenic conditions including diabetes and suppressed by insulin at the protein level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Zhong, Shao; Xie, Keming; Yu, Daozhan; Yang, Rongze; Gong, Da-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Alanine transaminase (ALT) plays an important role in gluconeogenesis by converting alanine into pyruvate for glucose production. Early studies have shown that ALT activities are upregulated in gluconeogenic conditions and may be implicated in the development of diabetes. ALT consists of two isoforms, ALT1 and ALT2, with distinctive subcellular and tissue distributions. Whether and how they are regulated are largely unknown. By using Western blotting analysis, we measured hepatic ALT isoforms at the protein level in obese and diabetic animals and in Fao hepatoma cells treated with dexamethasone and insulin. In addition, we measured glucose output in Fao cells over-expressing ALT1 and ALT2. Both ALT isoforms in the liver were increased in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats and during fasting. However, in ob/ob mice, only ALT2, but not ALT1, protein levels were elevated, and the increase of ALT2 was correlated with that of ALT activity. We further demonstrated that, in vitro, both ALT1 and ALT2 were induced by glucocorticoid dexamethasone, but suppressed by insulin in Fao cells. Finally, we showed that the over-expression of ALT1 and ALT2 in Fao cells directly increased glucose output. We have shown the similarity and difference in the regulation of ALT isoforms in gluconeogenic conditions at the protein level, supporting that ALT isoenzymes play an important role in glucose metabolism and may be implicated the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Comparison of functional outcomes following surgical decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion in single level low grade lumbar degenerative versus isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Rahimi, Mohammad Dawood; Khanzadeh, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The two most common types of surgically treated lumbar spondylolisthesis in adults include the degenerative and isthmic types. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of surgical decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion in patients with lumbar degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical outcomes in surgically treated patients with single level, low grade lumbar degenerative, and isthmic spondylolisthesis (groups A and B, respectively) from August 2007 to April 2011. We tried to compare paired settings with similar initial conditions. Group A included 52 patients with a mean age of 49.2 ± 6.1 years, and group B included 52 patients with a mean age of 47.3 ± 7.4 years. Minimum follow-up was 24 months. The surgical procedure comprised neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion. Pain and disability were assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare indices. The most common sites for degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis were at the L4-L5 (88.5%) and L5-S1 (84.6%) levels, respectively. Surgery in both groups significantly improved VAS and ODI scores. The efficacy of surgery based on subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in the degenerative and isthmic groups. Notable complications were also comparable in both groups. Neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion significantly improved pain and disability in patients with degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. The efficacy of surgery for overall subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in both groups.

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engineer. The analysis should include a narrative discussion of the features of the building structure... and location of fuel items, space layout, building construction, openings and ventilation, suppression capability, detection time, occupant notification, occupant reaction time, occupant mobility, and means of...

  17. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5a: Geometria - Conjuntos de Puntos (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5a: Geometry - Sets of Points).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in the booklet include points, lines, planes, space, angles, and intersection and union of sets. (MK)

  18. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6a: Suma de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6a: Addition of Fractions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  19. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6b: Resta de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6b: Subtraction of Fractions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include subtraction of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  20. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4a: Multiplicacion de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4a: Multiplication of Fractions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include equivalent fractions, mixed numbers, and multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  1. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5b: Medida Lineal, Perimetro y Area (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5b: Linear Measure, Perimeter and Area).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include measurement, perimeter, and area. (MK)

  2. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4b: Division de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4b: Division of Fractions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include reciprocals, complex fractions, and division of fractions. (MK)

  3. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK)). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement

  4. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri Lawton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK. The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual

  5. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination ( PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading ( Raz-Kids ( RK )). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement

  6. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  7. Low circulating free and bioavailable testosterone levels as predictors of high-grade tumors in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Priscilla; Seisen, Thomas; Cussenot, Olivier; Drouin, Sarah J; Cattarino, Susanna; Compérat, Eva; Renard-Penna, Raphaële; Mozer, Pierre; Bitker, Marc-Olivier; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2015-09-01

    Controversy exists regarding the propensity of hypogonadism and metabolic disorders to promote the development of high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Our aim was to prospectively test whether preoperative circulating testosterone levels, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were correlated with aggressive pathological features after radical prostatectomy (RP). Overall, 354 patients undergoing robot-assisted RP at our academic institution, between 2010 and 2013, to treat clinically localized PCa were included in this prospective study. Pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed in 116 (32.8%) patients and confirmed the absence of nodal metastases in all of them. Cardiovascular risk factors and body-mass index (BMI) were used to define MetS and obesity, respectively. Total testosterone (TT) levels were assessed using an immunoassay method, whereas bioavailable testosterone (BT) and free testosterone (FT) levels were estimated using Vermeulen׳s formula. Multivariate logistic regression analyses assessed independent predictors for postoperative aggressive pathological features (i.e., a pathological Gleason score [GS] ≥ 7, extracapsular extension [ECE], seminal vesicle invasion [SVI], and positive surgical margins [PSM]) and GS upgrading. Low TT, BT, and FT levels were found in 54 (15.2%), 70 (19.8%), and 62 (17.5%) patients, respectively. Median BMI was 26.3 kg/m(2) (range: 17.4-43.9), and prevalence of MetS was 18.9%. Significantly higher rates of pathological GS ≥ 7 were observed in groups with a low TT level (46.3% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.01), low BT level (44.3% vs. 33.1%; Ptestosterone levels and ECE, SVI, or PSM. Furthermore, BMI (OR = 1.28; P = 0.04) and MetS (OR = 1.19; P = 0.01) were only correlated with PSM. Hypogonadism, obesity, and MetS were not independent predictors of pathological GS ≥ 7, ECE, or SVI after RP. Our data suggest that only low BT and FT levels, which might logically result in an active androgen-depleted environment, were linked with high-grade

  8. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  9. A double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of Titanium-13Zirconium versus Titanium Grade IV small-diameter bone level implants in edentulous mandibles--results from a 1-year observation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nawas, Bilal; Brägger, Urs; Meijer, Henny J A; Naert, Ignace; Persson, Rigmor; Perucchi, Alessandro; Quirynen, Marc; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Reichert, Torsten E; Romeo, Eugenio; Santing, Hendrik J; Schimmel, Martin; Storelli, Stefano; ten Bruggenkate, Christiaan; Vandekerckhove, Betty; Wagner, Wilfried; Wismeijer, Daniel; Müller, Frauke

    2012-12-01

    The use of endosseous dental implants has become common practice for the rehabilitation of edentulous patients, and a two-implant overdenture has been recommended as the standard of care. The use of small-diameter implants may extend treatment options and reduce the necessity for bone augmentation. However, the mechanical strength of titanium is limited, so titanium alloys with greater tensile and fatigue strength may be preferable. This randomized, controlled, double-blind, multicenter study investigated in a split-mouth model whether small-diameter implants made from Titanium-13Zirconium alloy (TiZr, Roxolid™) perform at least as well as Titanium Grade IV implants. Patients with an edentulous mandible received one TiZr and one Ti Grade IV small-diameter bone level implant (3.3 mm, SLActive®) in the interforaminal region. The site distribution was randomized and double-blinded. Outcome measures included change in radiological peri-implant bone level from surgery to 12 months post-insertion (primary), implant survival, success, soft tissue conditions, and safety (secondary). Of 91 treated patients, 87 were available for the 12-month follow-up. Peri-implant bone level change (-0.3 ± 0.5 mm vs -0.3 ± 0.6 mm), plaque, and sulcus bleeding indices were not significantly different between TiZr and Ti Grade IV implants. Implant survival rates were 98.9 percent and 97.8 percent, success rates were 96.6 percent and 94.4 percent, respectively. Nineteen minor and no serious adverse events were related to the study devices. This study confirms that TiZr small-diameter bone level implants provide at least the same outcomes after 12 months as Ti Grade IV bone level implants. The improved mechanical properties of TiZr implants may extend implant therapy to more challenging clinical situations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Analyzing Entrepreneurship Skill Levels of the 3rd Grade Primary School Students in Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Life Sciences course entrepreneurship skills of the 3rd grade primary school students as evaluated by their parents. The study was conducted with the screening model. The participants of the study were the parents (47 mothers and 23 fathers) of the students (32 girls, 38 boys) who study in the center of…

  11. Water. An Environmental Learning Experience for Use at the Second Grade Primary Level. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This resource book introduces second-grade children to the importance of water and the environment. The lessons and concepts covered in this unit are designed to develop an awareness of the importance of water in our lives, an awareness of some of the things water can do, and an awareness of our responsibility to help protect and conserve our…

  12. Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2018-01-01

    Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 (N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling…

  13. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Burns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of recommended levels (≥30 min/day of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533 also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥30 min/day from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01, and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001. Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05. A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001. Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children.

  14. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  15. Predicting species distribution and abundance responses to climate change: why it is essential to include biotic interactions across trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Putten, Wim H; Macel, Mirka; Visser, Marcel E

    2010-07-12

    Current predictions on species responses to climate change strongly rely on projecting altered environmental conditions on species distributions. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that climate change also influences species interactions. We review and synthesize literature information on biotic interactions and use it to argue that the abundance of species and the direction of selection during climate change vary depending on how their trophic interactions become disrupted. Plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground multitrophic level interactions with herbivores, pathogens, symbionts and their enemies. We discuss how these interactions may alter during climate change and the resulting species range shifts. We suggest conceptual analogies between species responses to climate warming and exotic species introduced in new ranges. There are also important differences: the herbivores, pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of range-expanding species and their enemies may co-migrate, and the continuous gene flow under climate warming can make adaptation in the expansion zone of range expanders different from that of cross-continental exotic species. We conclude that under climate change, results of altered species interactions may vary, ranging from species becoming rare to disproportionately abundant. Taking these possibilities into account will provide a new perspective on predicting species distribution under climate change.

  16. Effects of hypobaric Endurance Training on Graded Exercise Induced Lymphocyte Mobilization, Senescence and Their Surface Thiol Levels in Elite Male Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim - Azali Alamdari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of each hypoxemic exercise session or overall training period still remains to be more elucidated in elite athletes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypobaric endurance training on lymphocytes mobilization and senescence and also their surface Thiol levels following to graded exercise test (GXT in elite male athletes. Fourty six volunteer subjects were randomized into normobaric control (NC, hypobaric control (HC, normobaric exercise (NE and hypobaric exercise (HE groups. The NE and HE groups were exposed to homeland (700 mmHg and 2800 meters above sea level (570 mmHg simulated barometric pressures respectively, while HC and NC groups were remained sedentary at the same conditions. The training was included on treadmill running for four weeks, five sessions/week, 45 min/ session. Each session was consisted of three-min warmed up period, three cycles of 10-min running at 65% maximal heart rate reserve (HRRmax interspersed with a three-min active recovery and three-min cool-down running period. Two GXTs were performed before (baseline and after the interventions and blood samples were collected three times at both occasions. In all groups, mobilization of CD8+lymphocytes and senescent phenotype population of their both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets were increased after both GXTs, however; these changes were reversed following to recovery period(P<0.05. Moreover, HE were decreased lymphocytes surface thiol levels before and after the second GXT (P<0.05.it can be concluded that HE has no additional benefits for elite athletes regarded to lymphocytes mobilization and senescence, however; it may render them to oxidative stress.  

  17. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

    2015-01-30

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance-covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The association of elevated reactive oxygen species levels from neutrophils with low-grade inflammation in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Katsuhiko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS, including free radicals, oxygen ions, and peroxides, are implicated in cell damage. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the spontaneous production of ROS from neutrophils changes with age and is associated with the conventional inflammatory markers. Results Thirty-seven elderly subjects (median age, 87, range 70–95 years and 22 young subjects (median age, 26, range 21–37 years participated in this study. Circulating levels of C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and heat shock protein (HSP70 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated ROS of neutrophils were quantified by flow cytometry. Both spontaneous ROS production and circulating levels of inflammatory markers were higher in the elderly group than in the younger group. In addition, spontaneous ROS production by neutrophils was negatively associated with HSP70 in plasma. We could not find the association between spontaneous ROS production by neutrophils and the other inflammatory markers including cytokines. Conclusion The results suggest that spontaneous ROS production from neutrophils may increase with age and represent the different aspect of age-associated immune dysregulation.

  19. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Xia, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Wei, Dianjun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG) is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808) and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615) were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard β coefficient = 0.882). This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration.

  20. Datasets will not be made accessible to the public due to the fact that they include household level data with PII.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Datasets will not be made accessible to the public due to the fact that they include household level data with PII. This dataset is not publicly accessible because:...

  1. Reporting the incidence of school violence across grade levels in the U.S. using the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei

    2004-01-01

    School violence has increasingly captured public attention due to deadly school shootings. Controversy on school violence is demonstrated by a mixed picture of school safety and the lack of consensus on the definitions of violence, which makes comparison of findings across studies difficult. This study extended the application of the Rasch model to school violence research using TIMSS data. The results show that school violence occurred at a level much lower than the predictions of the measurement model. Across all grade levels the most frequently reported type of violence is intimidation or verbal abuse of students and the least frequently reported physical injury to teachers or staff. Copyright 2004

  2. Differences in eighth grade science student and teacher perceptions of students' level of input into academic planning and decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jarrett Michael

    Teachers are expected to improve their planning, instruction, and assessment as they progress through their career. An important component to teachers knowing what to modify in their teaching style is being able to solicit meaningful feedback from students. This mixed-methods study was conducted to provide teachers with a quantitative method to collect data about their teaching using the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). Phase 1 allowed students to provide anonymous feedback to their teachers that the teachers could later reflect upon in conjunction with the students' other feedback. Using measures of central tendencies, it was determined that of the five categories of the CLES the area of student negotiation was statistically different from the other categories. While eight teachers had sufficient (n>10) student data to be invited to participate in Phase 2, only five of the teachers choose to participate in a semi-structured interview to further examine the potential differences between teacher and student perception of student negotiation with the curriculum, instruction and assessment that occurs in the classroom. Coding the interview transcripts led to three categories: 1) teaching style (with themes including curriculum, instruction, and assessment, and sub themes of teacher centered and student centered); 2) external pressures (with themes of standards , standardized tests, and socioeconomic conditions); 3) effectiveness of student negotiation (with themes of positive effect or no effect on motivation). The five teachers who participated in Phase 2 had varying levels of awareness and willingness to adjust their classroom curriculum, instruction, and assessment to include student negotiation. All but one teacher, however, saw the value in increasing student negotiation in the classroom and desired to continue to change their teaching to include more student negotiation.

  3. Individual and school level effects of perceived harm, perceived availability, and community size on marijuana use among 12th-grade students: a random effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C

    2003-06-01

    A hierarchical linear model was used to estimate the individual and school level effects for marijuana use among a national sample of 12th-grade students. School effects were small in comparison to individual level effects, accounting for 2.9% of the variance in marijuana use. At the individual level, perceived harm, perceived availability, and their interaction were significant predictors, each of which varied randomly across schools. Among two school-level predictors, the normative environment for perceived harm was not significant, but normative perceived availability predicted level of marijuana use. The effect of perceived availability on marijuana use was stronger in larger, compared to smaller communities. Results are discussed in light of the use of random regression methods for identifying school-specific patterns of risk and protection for prevention planning.

  4. The reciprocal links between synaptophysin serum levels and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to selected low-grade inflammation indices and age-related androgen serum level changes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Waldemar Adam; Wójcicka, Marlena; Kołodziejczak, Barbara; Losy, Jacek; Łącka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The correlations between synaptophysin (SYP) plasma levels and the brain neurotransmission activity are still not strictly identified. However, the efficiency of neurotransmission depends, inter alia, on the age, hormonal status, and coexistence of a low-grade systemic inflammation (LGSI) which is regarded as a pathogenic link with obesity and insulin resistance, atherogenesis and aging per se. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between synaptophysin serum levels and age, LGSI indices, homocysteine and selected hormonal parameters (dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, free-testosterone, SHBG) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in men over the age of 40. After randomization, 157 male volunteers aged 40-80 years were included in a retrospective study. MS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. For the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) we adopted the criteria proposed by the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). Synaptophysin plasma concentrations in respondents decreased with age, but only between the ages of 40 to 70 years. There were no differences in SYP plasma concentrations in men suffering from MS compared to healthy subjects (p=0.845). Men suffering from MS demonstrated while higher hs-CRP (high sensitive C - reactive protein) levels than healthy (p=0.019), contrary to the α1-antichymotrypsin and transferrin. A positive monotonic correlation between synaptophysin and hs-CRP was demonstrated (r=0.235; p=0.003). No statistically significant relationships between SYP and homocysteine plasma levels were presented (r=0.047; p=0.562), although in men diagnosed with MS higher homocysteine levels compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. No correlations between synaptophysin and free testosterone (r=-0.036; p=0.651), DHEA (r=-0.122; p=0.128) and its sulphate (r=-0.024; p=0.764) as well as SHBG (r=-0.088; p=0.288) were demonstrated. Although the correlations between synaptophysin plasma

  5. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp.) on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    OpenAIRE

    Molatelo Junior Madibana; Victor Mlambo; Brett Lewis; Chris Fouché

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp.) into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus) on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0), 50 (Ulva50), 100 (Ulva100), 150 (Ulva150) and 200 (Ulva200) g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14â¯Â±â¯0.30â¯g) were distribu...

  6. The awareness level of the parents about the benefits of the physical education lesson in secondary grade of the primary education schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taş Burak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to determine the awareness level of the parents on the benefits of the Physical Education Course in the Secondary Grade of the Primary Education Schools. The sample of this study consists of 130 parents whose children studied at Şehit Ümit Balkan Secondary School in the District of İzmit in the Province of Kocaeli in the 2015–2016 academic year. The study is carried out by using the survey method for the purpose of collecting any and all data. The data collected is calculated through package program SPSS 17.0. In respect of the analysis of the data, the frequency (N and percentage (% values which are the descriptive statistics for all of the independent variables are determined primarily. Then, T-Test is utilized to determine the difference between the binary variables. The level of significance is considered as p0,05 is determined between the awareness level of the parents regarding the variable of gender concerning the benefits of the physical education course in the secondary grade of the primary education schools

  7. miRNA-146a, miRNA-155 and JNK expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells according to grade of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyocak, Ahu; Kurt, Hulyam; Ozgen, Merih; Turgut Cosan, Didem; Colak, Ertugrul; Gunes, Hasan Veysi

    2017-09-05

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease characterized by joint pain and a progressive loss of articular cartilage. OA known as a non-inflammatory disease. Despite this the recent studies are shown synovitis and low inflammation to have a role in OA pathophysiology. The aim of this study to determine the roles of a potential therapeutic targets miRNA-146a, miRNA-155 and JNK expression levels in OA patients. Peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) were extracted from OA patients and healthy subjects. The expression levels of miRNA-146a, miRNA-155 and JNK were quantified using by real-time PCR assay. According to study results a statistically significant increase was observed only in miRNA-155 expression level (p=0,039). However, miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 expressions increased in the progressive stages (grade 3 and grade 4) in OA patients. Our data suggests that correlation of miRNAs regulating and signal pathways can play an important role in OA pathogenesis and disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M

    1993-01-01

    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made.

  9. Learning from Graded Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodinsky, Marilyn; Nation, Paul

    1988-01-01

    A word frequency study of two graded readers and an unsimplified text indicated that graded readers facilitated better foreign-language reading and vocabulary learning than did unsimplified texts. It was found that students needed to read several same-level texts to master vocabulary, and that vocabulary mastery was not necessary for successful…

  10. The effects of uphill vs. level-grade high-intensity interval training on VO2max, Vmax, V(LT), and Tmax in well-trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferley, Derek D; Osborn, Roy W; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2013-06-01

    Uphill running represents a frequently used and often prescribed training tactic in the development of competitive distance runners but remains largely uninvestigated and unsubstantiated as a training modality. The purpose of this investigation included documenting the effects of uphill interval training compared with level-grade interval training on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the running speed associated with VO2max (Vmax), the running speed associated with lactate threshold (V(LT)), and the duration for which Vmax can be sustained (Tmax) in well-trained distance runners. Thirty-two well-trained distance runners (age, 27.4 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 64.8 ± 8.9 kg; height, 173.6 ± 6.4 cm; and VO2max, 60.9 ± 8.5 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) received assignment to an uphill interval training group (G(Hill) = 12), level-grade interval training group (G(Flat) = 12), or control group (G(Con) = 8). G(Hill) and G(Flat) completed 12 interval and 12 continuous running sessions over 6 weeks, whereas G(Con) maintained their normal training routine. Pre- and posttest measures of VO2max, Vmax, V(LT), and Tmax were used to assess performance. A 3 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for each dependent variable and revealed a significant difference in Tmax in both G(Hill) and G(Flat) (p interval training can induce significant improvements in a run-to-exhaustion test in well-trained runners at the speed associated with VO2max but that traditional level-grade training produces greater gains.

  11. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of thyroid hormone insufficiency: Dose dependent increases in heterotopia volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in ...

  12. Developing models to predict 8th grade students' achievement levels on timss science based on opportunity-to-learn variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Melinda M.

    Science educational reforms have placed major emphasis on improving science classroom instruction and it is therefore vital to study opportunity-to-learn (OTL) variables related to student science learning experiences and teacher teaching practices. This study will identify relationships between OTL and student science achievement and will identify OTL predictors of students' attainment at various distinct achievement levels (low/intermediate/high/advanced). Specifically, the study (a) address limitations of previous studies by examining a large number of independent and control variables that may impact students' science achievement and (b) it will test hypotheses of structural relations to how the identified predictors and mediating factors impact on student achievement levels. The study will follow a multi-stage and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach to identify predictors of students' achievement levels on standardized tests using TIMSS 2011 dataset. Data mining or pattern recognition, a bottom-up approach will identify the most prevalent association patterns between different student achievement levels and variables related to student science learning experiences, teacher teaching practices and home and school environments. The second stage is a top-down approach, testing structural equation models of relations between the significant predictors and students' achievement levels according.

  13. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  14. Bodyweight and carcass characteristics of Somali goats fed hay supplemented with graded levels of peanut cake and wheat bran mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Solomon; Betsha, Simret

    2008-10-01

    The experiment was conducted for ninety days of feeding trial at Haramaya University, Ethiopia using twenty four yearling male Somali goats weighing 20.4 +/- 2.02 (mean +/- SD) with the objectives to evaluate the effect of supplementation of peanut cake and wheat bran mixture (3:1) on body weight (BW) gain and carcass characteristics of Somali goats. The experiment was arranged with six blocks and four treatments in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were ad libitum feeding of hay (T1, control) and supplementation with 200 g (T2), 300 g (T3) and 400 g (T4) peanut cake and wheat bran mixture on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplementation reduced (P < 0.001) hay DM intake, but increased (P < 0.001) total DM intake at 300 g DM (T3) and 400 g DM (T4) level of supplementation compared to the control treatment. Daily BW gain, final BW, empty BW, hot carcass weight and dressing percent were higher (P < 0.001) in the supplemented treatments. Goats on the medium (T3) level of supplementation had significantly heavier (P < 0.001) liver and more muscle deposition, whereas those on hay alone (T1) exhibited heavier bone, head as well as gut contents (P < 0.05). It was concluded that supplementation of Somali goats with the different levels of peanut cake and wheat bran mixture promoted BW gain, dressing percentage and increased the proportion of edible offals. Similarity between the different levels of supplementation used in this study with regard to BW and carcass characteristics favours the use of the low (T2) or medium (T3) level than the high (T4) level of supplementation.

  15. High levels of xenoestrogens in patients with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma--report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, O; Regauer, S; Scharf, S

    2010-01-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) are rare uterine tumors with unknown etiological risk factors, but estrogen-dependent growth promotion. We present two patients with advanced ESS, who had increased levels of p,p-DDE; hexachlorobenzene; PCB 28; PCB 52; PCB 101; PCB 138; PCB 153 and PCB 180 in abdominal adipose tissue. Other xenoestrogens were within expected limits for the non-exposed European population. Increased levels of xenoestrogens in patients with ESS may be involved in the pathogenesis of ESS. Chronic exposure to xenoestrogens may be a risk factor for tumor progression.

  16. The results of STEM education methods for enhancing critical thinking and problem solving skill in physics the 10th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soros, P.; Ponkham, K.; Ekkapim, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) compare the critical think and problem solving skills before and after learning using STEM Education plan, 2) compare student achievement before and after learning about force and laws of motion using STEM Education plan, and 3) the satisfaction of learning by using STEM Education. The sample used were 37 students from grade 10 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 10 students of 1 schemes with total of 14 hours, 2) The test of critical think and problem solving skills with multiple-choice type of 5 options and 2 option of 30 items, 3) achievement test on force and laws of motion with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 20 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have score of critical think and problem solving skills on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level .01. 2) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have achievement score on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level of .01. 3) The student'level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a high level (X ¯ = 4.51, S.D=0.56).

  17. Should Millions of Students Take a Gap Year? Large Numbers of Students Start the School Year above Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Scott J.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen; Makel, Matthew C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    Few topics have garnered more attention in preservice teacher training and educational reform than student diversity and its influence on learning. However, the actual degree of cognitive diversity has yet to be considered regarding instructional implications for advanced learners. We used four data sets (three state-level and one national) from…

  18. Teacher's Guide in Population Education for Social Studies, Grades I-VI. Elementary Level. (Revised for Muslim Filipinos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education and Culture, Manila (Philippines).

    Revised to be in accordance with the customs, traditions, beliefs, and practices of the Muslim Filipinos, these elementary-level social studies units will help Filipino children understand world population problems and develop the necessary skills, attitudes, and values that will lead them to make rational decisions about population matters,…

  19. Laboratory studies on leaching of low grade uranium ores and treatment of low level liquid waste generated by leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palabrica, O.T.; Antonino, E.J.; Caluag, L.A.; Villamater, D.

    1980-07-01

    Acid leaching experiments of preconcentrated uranium ore were carried out at a pulp density of 50% solids, using sulfuric acid with sodium chlorate as oxidant. The different leaching parameters considered in this work were temperature, oxidant level and leaching time. In the experimental procedure, the concentration of oxidant and the temperature were varied to determine how they affect the leaching process. Experimental results are illustrated in tabulated form for better interpretation. Uranium analyses were done by fluorimetric and delayed-neutron activation analysis. An anion exchange method using Dowex 1 x 8, 200-400 mesh (Cl - ) was used in treating the low-level liquid waste generated by leaching experiments. The purpose of this treatment was to minimize radioactive contamination in the waste materials and also to recover some of the uranium left in the liquid waste. (author)

  20. Measuring synovial fluid procalcitonin levels in distinguishing cases of septic arthritis, including prosthetic joints, from other causes of arthritis and aseptic loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, K; Dryden, M; Sitjar, A; White, G

    2013-08-01

    Differentiating septic arthritis from non-septic arthritis can be challenging as the clinical pictures are similar and an efficacious diagnostic test is not yet available. Our objectives in this study were to establish if procalcitonin (PCT) could be reproducibly measured from synovial fluid, if there is a difference in synovial procalcitonin values between patients with septic and non-septic arthritis, respectively, including those with implants and to determine cut-off levels that could be used as a practical tool in the management of these conditions. Using a standard serum assay, synovial fluid PCT levels were measured retrospectively in 26 septic and 50 non-septic predefined arthritis cases. The reproducibility of synovial PCT was also assessed at various concentrations. Synovial PCT can be measured and is reproducible. In this cohort, statistically significant higher synovial PCT levels were found in cases of septic arthritis than in non-septic arthritis. Sensitivities, specificities and positive and negative predictive values varied at different cut-off levels. The test could be added to other microbiological and biochemical tests and may be used to supplement other clinical, radiological and laboratory findings in the assessment of patients with acute painful joints. In our cohort, findings of very high synovial PCT levels supported an infection process, including in prosthesis-related infections. The high negative predictive value of low synovial PCT levels could exclude infection in both native and prosthetic joints. Larger prospective studies are needed to further validate these results and to examine the cost effectiveness of synovial PCT.

  1. [Grading the level of suspicion in criminal proceedings, restrictions of the proportionality principle and veto options in forensic autopsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerner, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with two topics: determination of the necessary level of suspicion for an internal post-mortem examination pursuant to Section 87 (German) Code of Criminal Procedure and options of the family to object to the forensic autopsy. The level of suspicion required in this case is to be regarded as very low, even below that of the initial suspicion, because a detailed opinion as to any third-party fault can only be given after completion of the autopsy. The individual concerned does not have a right to oppose a forensic autopsy while still alive. The same applies to the family. Other than in clinical autopsies, the interest in prosecution is to be considered the higher good to be protected, because at the time of deciding a homicide cannot be ruled out and only an internal examination can furnish the necessary evidence. Consequently, it is appropriate. Contrary to the opinion often expressed in the literature, one cannot infer from the provisions of Sections 87 subs. 4, 33 subs. 3 Code of Criminal Procedure and Section 103 subs. 3 Basic Law that the family of the deceased has a right to be informed or heard. This can only be changed by the legislator in an amendment to the autopsy law.

  2. The influence of graded levels of available phosphorus on growth performance, muscle antioxidant and flesh quality of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth, muscle composition, meat quality characteristics and antioxidant capacity in muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella (initial weight 282.9 ± 3.3 g fed graded levels of phosphorus (1.0, 2.5, 3.8, 5.6, 7.8 and 9.5 g/kg diet for 8 wk were investigated. Results indicated that percentage weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were improved with optimal phosphorus supplementations (P < 0.05. Muscle protein content and water holding capacity were significantly elevated, while moisture, lipid and ash contents were significantly decreased with dietary phosphorus to a certain level (P < 0.05. The meat shear force value and hydroxyproline content were not influenced by different levels of phosphorus. Muscle anti-hydroxyl radical, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase activities and glutathione content were significantly improved (P < 0.05. Conversely, anti-superoxide anion, glutathione reducase and glutathione peroxidase activities were decreased (P < 0.05 with dietary phosphorus to a certain level. These results indicated that suitable dietary phosphorus improved growth performance, meat quality and muscle antioxidant capacity. Dietary available phosphorus requirement of young grass carp for percentage weight gain was 4.0 g/kg diet.

  3. Contributions of morphological awareness skills to word-level reading and spelling in first-grade children with and without speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Lawrence, Jessika

    2011-10-01

    In this study, the authors compared the morphological awareness abilities of children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and children with typical speech skills and examined how morphological awareness ability predicted word-level reading and spelling performance above other known contributors to literacy development. Eighty-eight first-grade students--44 students with SSD and no known history of language deficiencies, and 44 students with typical speech and language skills--completed an assessment battery designed to measure speech sound production, morphological awareness, phonemic awareness, letter-name knowledge, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, and spelling abilities. The children with SSD scored significantly lower than did their counterparts on the morphological awareness measures as well as on phonemic awareness, word-level reading, and spelling tasks. Regression analyses suggested that morphological awareness predicted significant unique variance on the spelling measure for both groups and on the word-level reading measure for the children with typical skills. These results suggest that children with SSD may present with a general linguistic awareness insufficiency, which puts them at risk for difficulties with literacy and literacy-related tasks.

  4. Developing the conceptual instructional design with inquiry-based instruction model of secondary students at the 10th grade level on digestion system and cellular degradation issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotjanakunnatam, Boonthida; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research study was to develop the conceptual instructional design with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model (IBIM) of secondary students at the 10th grade level on Digestion System and Cellular Degradation issue using both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients were designed instructional model with a sample size of 45 secondary students at the 10th Grade level. Data were collected by asking students to do a questionnaire pre and post learning processes. The questionnaire consists of two main parts that composed of students' perception questionnaire and the questionnaire that asked the question answer concept for the selected questionnaire. The 10-item Conceptual Thinking Test (CTT) was assessed students' conceptual thinking evaluation that it was covered in two main concepts, namely; Oxygen degradation nutrients and degradation nutrients without oxygen. The data by classifying students' answers into 5 groups and measuring them in frequency and a percentage of students' performances of their learning pre and post activities with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model were analyzed as a tutorial. The results of this research found that: After the learning activities with the IBIM, most students developed concepts of both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients in the correct, complete and correct concept, and there are a number of students who have conceptual ideas in the wrong concept, and no concept was clearly reduced. However, the results are still found that; some students have some misconceptions, such as; the concept of direction of electron motion and formation of the ATP of bioactivities of life. This cause may come from the nature of the content, the complexity, the continuity, the movement, and the time constraints only in the classroom. Based on this research, it is suggested that some students may take some time, and the limited time in the classroom to their learning activity with content creation content binding and

  5. Non-Pulse-Leakage 100-kHz Level, High Beam Quality Industrial Grade Nd:YVO4 Picosecond Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenao Bai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-pulse-leakage optical fiber pumped 100-kHz level high beam quality Nd:YVO4 picosecond amplifier has been developed. An 80 MHz, 11.5 ps mode-locked picosecond laser is used as the seed with single pulse energy of 1 nJ. By harnessing the double β-BaB2O4 (BBO crystal Pockels cells in both the pulse picker and regenerative amplifier, the seed pulse leakage of the output is suppressed effectively with an adjustable repetition rate from 200 to 500 kHz. Through one stage traveling-wave amplifier, a maximum output power of 24.5 W is generated corresponding to the injected regenerative amplified power of 9.73 W at 500 kHz. The output pulse duration is 16.9 ps, and the beam quality factor M2 is measured to be 1.25 with near-field roundness higher than 99% at the full output power.

  6. Stratification of Highest-Risk Patients with Chronic Skin Ulcers in a Stanford Retrospective Cohort Includes Diabetes, Need for Systemic Antibiotics, and Albumin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Amir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nonsurgical skin wounds such as venous stasis and diabetic ulcers have been associated with a number of comorbid conditions; however, the strength of these associations has not been compared. We utilized the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE system to identify a cohort of 637 patients with chronic skin ulcers. Preliminary analysis ( showed that 49.7% of the patients had a poor prognosis such as amputation or a nonhealing ulcer for at least a year. Factors significantly associated ( with these outcomes included diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, and need for systemic antibiotics. Patients with poor outcomes also tended to have lower hemoglobin levels (, higher WBC levels (, and lower albumin levels (. On multivariate analysis, however, only diabetes mellitus (OR 5.87, 1.36–25.3, need for systemic antibiotics (OR 3.88, 1.06–14.2, and albumin levels (0.20 per unit, 0.07–0.60 remained significant independent predictors of poor wound-healing outcomes. These data identify patients at the highest risk for poor wound-healing and who may benefit the most from more aggressive wound care and treatment.

  7. Low MAD2 expression levels associate with reduced progression-free survival in patients with high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Furlong, Fiona

    2012-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has an innate susceptibility to become chemoresistant. Up to 30% of patients do not respond to conventional chemotherapy [paclitaxel (Taxol®) in combination with carboplatin] and, of those who have an initial response, many patients relapse. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate cellular chemotherapeutic responses in EOC cells has the potential to impact significantly on patient outcome. The mitotic arrest deficiency protein 2 (MAD2), is a centrally important mediator of the cellular response to paclitaxel. MAD2 immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 82 high-grade serous EOC samples. A multivariate Cox regression analysis of nuclear MAD2 IHC intensity adjusting for stage, tumour grade and optimum surgical debulking revealed that low MAD2 IHC staining intensity was significantly associated with reduced progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0003), with a hazard ratio of 4.689. The in vitro analyses of five ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated that cells with low MAD2 expression were less sensitive to paclitaxel. Furthermore, paclitaxel-induced activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and apoptotic cell death was abrogated in cells transfected with MAD2 siRNA. In silico analysis identified a miR-433 binding domain in the MAD2 3\\' UTR, which was verified in a series of experiments. Firstly, MAD2 protein expression levels were down-regulated in pre-miR-433 transfected A2780 cells. Secondly, pre-miR-433 suppressed the activity of a reporter construct containing the 3\\'-UTR of MAD2. Thirdly, blocking miR-433 binding to the MAD2 3\\' UTR protected MAD2 from miR-433 induced protein down-regulation. Importantly, reduced MAD2 protein expression in pre-miR-433-transfected A2780 cells rendered these cells less sensitive to paclitaxel. In conclusion, loss of MAD2 protein expression results in increased resistance to paclitaxel in EOC cells. Measuring MAD2 IHC staining intensity may predict

  8. Environmental Toxin Acrolein Alters Levels of Endogenous Lipids, Including TRP Agonists: A Potential Mechanism for Headache Driven by TRPA1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Emma; Kunkler, Phillip E; Manchanda, Meera; Sangani, Kishan; Stuart, Jordyn M; Oxford, Gerry S; Hurley, Joyce H; Bradshaw, Heather B

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N -acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N -arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization.

  9. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leishman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

  10. On the non-linear spectroscopy including saturated absorption and four-wave mixing in two and multi-level atoms: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; De Jager, G.; Nkosi, Z.; Wyngaard, A.; Govender, K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we report on the study of two and multi-level atoms interacting with multiple laser beams. The semi-classical approach is used to describe the system in which the atoms are treated quantum mechanically via the density matrix operator, while the laser beams are treated classically using Maxwells equations. We present results of a two level atom interacting with single and multiple laser beams and demonstrate Rabi oscillations between the levels. The effects of laser modulation on the dynamics of the atom (atomic populations and coherences) are examined by solving the optical Bloch equations. Plots of the density matrix elements as a function of time are presented for various parameters such as laser intensity, detuning, modulation etc. In addition, phase-space plots and Fourier analysis of the density matrix elements are provided. The atomic polarization, estimated from the coherence terms of the density matrix elements, is used in the numerical solution of Maxwells equations to determine the behaviour of the laser beams as they propagate through the atomic ensemble. The effects of saturation and hole-burning are demonstrated in the case of two counter propagating beams with one being a strong beam and the other being very weak. The above work is extended to include four-wave mixing in four level atoms in a diamond configuration. Two co-propagating beams of different wavelengths drive the atoms from a ground state |1〉 to an excited state |3〉 via an intermediate state |2〉. The atoms then move back to the ground state via another intermediate state |4〉, resulting in the generation of two additional correlated photon beams. The characteristics of these additional photons are studied.

  11. Tumor Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Review and Funding Outcomes Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring ... may require immediate or more aggressive treatment. The importance of tumor grade in planning treatment and determining ...

  12. Significant immunohistochemical expression of human chorionic gonadotropin in high-grade osteosarcoma is rare, but may be associated with clinically elevated serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna F; Pawel, Bruce R; Sullivan, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Survival rates have plateaued at 70% for osteosarcoma. Proteins ectopically produced by malignant tumors may provide insight into new therapeutic targets. Osteosarcomas secreting human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been suggested to have a worse prognosis. We examined the frequency of expression of β-subunit of hCG (β-hCG) in pretreatment osteosarcoma biopsies, and asked if it was associated with various clinical prognostic parameters, and the development of metastases. We subjected 51 pretreatment biopsies of high-grade osteosarcoma, from 51 patients, to β-hCG immunohistochemistry. In 19 of these patients, postchemotherapy metastatic biopsies also were examined for β-hCG expression. Clinical information (patient age, sex, survival status, and serum hCG in females only), and tumor characteristics (site, size, and presence of metastases) were recorded. The β-hCG positive and negative biopsies were separated and compared. Of 49 interpretable pretreatment biopsies, 28 (57%) showed positive cytoplasmic β-hCG expression: 27 with sparse positivity (1% of tumor cells) and 1 with frequent positivity (10% of tumor cells). The patient with frequent β-hCG positivity in her pretreatment biopsy had elevated serum hCG (88.2 mIU/mL) at diagnosis, decreasing to undetectable following chemotherapy and definitive resection. There was no difference in clinical parameters or rate of metastasis between β-hCG positive versus negative groups. Expression of β-hCG may be seen in high-grade osteosarcoma, but frequent β-hCG immunohistochemical expression by tumor cells, associated with clinically elevated serum β-hCG, is rare. Recognition that some nongerm cell tumors may produce β-hCG can prevent confusion with malignancies containing neoplastic syncytiotrophoblast cells, including germ cell and trophoblastic tumors.

  13. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P  0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  14. Instructional and Grading Practices That Change Grading Fidelity: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, final course grades of sixth- through eighth-grade language arts, mathematics, and eighth grade science students at the primary research site, Site A (pseudonym), suggest a high degree of grade inflation or disassociation when grade point averages (GPA) were compared to actual student performance levels as measured by annual state…

  15. Effect of graded levels of fiber from alfalfa meal on intestinal nutrient and energy flow, and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Zhang, H F; Gao, L X; Zhao, F; Lu, Q P; Sa, R N

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of fiber level from alfalfa meal and collection period on intestinal nutrient and energy flow, and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Twenty-four pigs (initial BW = 21.4 ± 1.5 kg) were prepared by T-cannula insertion into the distal ileum and allotted to 4 treatments. The pigs were provided a corn-soybean meal control diet or a diet in which corn and soybean meal were partly replaced by 5%, 10%, or 20% alfalfa meal to give the graded levels of dietary fiber during two 10-d collection periods. The BW of pigs at the start of periods 1 and 2 were 32.2 ± 2.4 and 37.7 ± 4.2 kg, respectively. The final BW at the end of period 2 was 46.8 ± 4.0 kg. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy were measured. The VFA concentration was also determined in the ileal and fecal samples. Nutrient digestibility was not affected by inclusion of 5% alfalfa meal in the diet. The AID, ATTD, and hindgut fermentation of DM, carbohydrates (CHO), and GE decreased (linear, P soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber intake, explained the variation (P fiber level and 10-d exposure to the experimental diets. Soluble and insoluble fibers from alfalfa meal have differential roles in nutrient digestion, which may help explain the variation observed in the intestinal flow of nutrients.

  16. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp. on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molatelo Junior Madibana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp. into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0, 50 (Ulva50, 100 (Ulva100, 150 (Ulva150 and 200 (Ulva200 g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14 ± 0.30 g were distributed into each of 20 experimental tanks and offered diets at 2.8% body mass. Weight and length of fish were measured weekly for 9 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish fed Ulva50 had higher body mass (38.20 ± 1.38 g compared to those fed the other three Ulva-based diets. Fish offered Ulva200 had significantly (P  .05 by dietary treatments. However, the levels of both blood cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase tended to decrease as dietary Ulva inclusion levels increased. These results indicate that Ulva could be incorporated at the rate of 50 g kg−1 in future commercial dusky kob diets without any negative effects on feed utilizationa and growth performance. Hematology and serum biochemistry results indicate that dietary inclusion of Ulva had no adverse effects on physiological status of the fish. Keywords: Ulva sp., Haematology, Dusky kob, Feed conversion efficiency, Specific growth rate

  17. The Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) Level and PAI-1 4G/5G Gene Polymorphism with the Formation and the Grade of Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Malik Ejder; Karakuş, Savas; Kurtulgan, Hande Küçük; Kılıçgün, Hasan; Erşan, Serpil; Bakır, Sevtap

    2017-08-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (Serpine 1), and it inhibits both tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator which are important in fibrinolysis. We aimed to find whether there is a possible association between PAI-1 level, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, and endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels in peripheral blood were determined in 82 patients with endometrial carcinoma and 76 female healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Then, the genomic DNA was extracted and screened by reverse hybridization procedure (Strip assay) to detect PAI 1 4G/5G polymorphism. The levels of PAI-1 in the patients were higher statistically in comparison to controls (P 5G polymorphism was quite different between patients and controls (P = 0.008), and 4G allelic frequency was significantly higher in the patients of endometrial cancer than in controls (P = 0.026). We found significant difference between Grade 1 and Grade 2+3 patients in terms of the PAI-1 levels (P = 0.047). There was no association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and the grades of endometrial cancer (P = 0.993). Our data suggest that the level of PAI-1 and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism are effective in the formation of endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels are also associated with the grades of endometrial cancer.

  18. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  19. The integrated learning management using the STEM education for improve learning achievement and creativity in the topic of force and motion at the 9th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarndee, Nampetch; Kudthalang, Nukool; Jansawang, Natchanok

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research study were to investigate and analyze the processing performances and the performance results (E1/E2) efficiency at the determining criteria for planning students' improvements to their learning processes toward their scientific knowledge were investigated, carry out the investigations, gathering evidence, and proposing explanations were developed and predicted. Students' engagements to their needs in unambiguous and clearly content of science teaching onto the instructional processes were attempted for establishing a national approach with the STEM education instructional method were strategized. Research administrations were designed to a sample size consisted of 40 secondary students in science class at the 9th grade level in Borabu School with the purposive sampling technique was selected. Using the STEM Education instructional innovation's lesson plans were managed learning activities. Students' learning achievements were assessed with the Pre-Test and Post-Test designs of 30 items. Students' creative thinking abilities were determined of their perceptions that obtained of the 3-item Creative Thinking Ability Test. The results for the effectiveness of the innovative instructional lesson plans based on the STEM Education Method, the lessoning effectiveness (E1/E2) evidences of 78.95/76.58 over the threshold setting is 75/75. Pretest-posttest designs for assessing students' learning achievements that impact a student's ability to achieve and explains with the STEM education instructional method were differences, significantly (ρ<.001) and the posttest of the 3-item Creative Thinking Ability Test designs for assessing Students' creative thinking abilities that impact a student's ability to have a good skill level in originality, fluency and flexibility thinking with the STEM education instructional method were differences, significantly (ρ<.001).

  20. High grade intraepithelial neoplasia of prostate is associated with values of prostate specific antigen related parameters intermediate between prostate cancer and normal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obralic, Nermina; Kulovac, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is widely regarded as the precancerous. The aim of this study was to determine PSA related parameters in patients with initial PSA values 2-10 ng/mL and diagnosis of HGPIN without finding carcinoma at the time of their first needle biopsy. Study groups consisted of 100 men who were diagnosed HGPIN, 84 with cancer and 183 with benign hyperplasia on first biopsy of prostate. Total PSA and free PSA were measured and ratio free/total PSA and PSA density calculated. Mean values of these parameters were compared, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used for comparison of PSA related parameters to discriminate groups of patients.Total PSA, free PSA level and PSA density in patients with HGPIN (6.388 ng/mL) did not differ significantly compared to prostate carcinoma (6.976 ng/mL) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (6.07 ng/mL) patients. Patients with HGPIN had significantly higher ratio free/total PSA than those with prostate carcinoma (0.168 vs 0.133), but significantly lower than patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (0.168 vs 0.185). Ratio of free/total PSA significantly discriminate HGPIN from prostate carcinoma with sensitivity 84.52 and specify 45.00 at cut-off point of ≤ 0.18. Values of PSA, free PSA and ratio free/total PSA in cases of HGPIN appear to be intermediate between prostate cancer and normal levels. Ratio of free/total PSA may help in decision to repeat biopsies in the presence of HGPIN on biopsy, without concomitant prostate cancer, in patients suitable for curative treatment, with normal digito-rectal examination and trans-rectal sonography.

  1. High grade intraepithelial neoplasia of prostate is associated with values of prostate specific antigen related parameters intermediate between prostate cancer and normal levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermina Obralic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN is widely regarded as the precancerous. The aim of this study was to determine PSA related parameters in patients with initial PSA values 2-10 ng/mL and diagnosis of HGPIN without finding carcinoma at the time of their first needle biopsy. Study groups consisted of 100 men who were diagnosed HGPIN, 84 with cancer and 183 with benign hyperplasia on first biopsy of prostate. Total PSA and free PSA were measured and ratio free/total PSA and PSA density calculated. Mean values of these parameters were compared, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used for comparison of PSA related parameters to discriminate groups of patients. Total PSA, free PSA level and PSA density in patients with HGPIN (6.388 ng/mL did not differ significantly compared to prostate carcinoma (6.976 ng/mL or benign prostatic hyperplasia (6.07 ng/mL patients. Patients with HGPIN had significantly higher ratio free/total PSA than those with prostate carcinoma (0.168 vs 0.133, but significantly lower than patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (0.168 vs 0.185. Ratio of free/total PSA significantly discriminate HGPIN from prostate carcinoma with sensitivity 84.52 and specify 45.00 at cut-off point of ≤ 0.18. Values of PSA, free PSA and ratio free/total PSA in cases of HGPIN appear to be intermediate between prostate cancer and normal levels. Ratio of free/total PSA may help in decision to repeat biopsies in the presence of HGPIN on biopsy, without concomitant prostate cancer, in patients suitable for curative treatment, with normal digito-rectal examination and trans-rectal sonography.

  2. Grading standards, prepared by the Configuration Management Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, G.; Donahue, S.; Frank, J.; Perkins, B.; Wrye, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the grading methodology used by the organization to determine the required levels of configuration management for all controlled elements that are part of the nuclear facility and its operation. The goal is to have a flexible grading system that accurately reflects the overall operational environment. The grading methodology should identify which items, processes, and information should be incorporated into facility baselines as controlled elements; and specify the level of formality that should be applied to activities that employ or impact these controlled elements. Evaluation categories include the following: radiological damage to workers; toxicological damage to workers; industrial safety; environmental damage; property damage; facility availability; cost effect; reputation; and commitments

  3. Effects of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, total protozoa and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, R; Saravanan, M; Baruah, L; Prasad, C S

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves, Autocarpus integrifolis, Azardirachta indica and Ficus bengalensis, on the in vitro rumen fermentation pattern, total protozoa and methane suppression in order to establish the optimum dose of these leaves for inclusion in the ruminant diets. The air-dried and ground samples of Au. integrifolis, Az. indica and Ficus bengalensis were subjected to in vitro incubation using 30 ml buffered rumen fluid at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0% (dry matter refers to moisture-free basis) of a total mixed ration (TMR: refers to mixture of roughage and concentrate containing cereals and oil cakes) devoid of tannin. The TMR for the experimental incubation was prepared by mixing 40 parts of ground Elusine coracana straw as roughage source with 60 parts of concentrate mixture. The leaves contained an average 130 g kg(-1) CP with 7·0 MJ of ME kg(-1) DM. The average neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content was tannin (TT) content also showed similar trend. However, condensed tannin (CT) was highest in F. bengalensis (260) followed by Au. integrifolis (186) and Az. indica (138). There was significant (P tannins did not cause inhibition of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA: refers to the concentration of volatile fatty acids, viz. acetic, butyric and propionic) concentration, whereas F. bengalensis and Az. indica tannins at higher level of incubation (>5.0%) reduced TVFA concentration. Protozoa (cells per mL) were similar at all levels of inclusion with Au. integrifolis, but reduced in case of F. bengalensis and Az. indica. As the level of tannin increased in the incubation medium, there was a linear reduction in methane concentration. Highest methane reduction (%) was recorded in incubations supplemented with Az. indica (61.5) followed by F. bengalensis (46.8) and Au. integrifolis (30.3). It was established from this study that tropical leaves of F. bengalensis, Au

  4. The practicality of including the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the definition of polytrauma: experience of a level one trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nerida E; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2013-01-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) has been advocated as a significant predictor of outcome in trauma. Recent trauma literature has proposed SIRS as a surrogate for physiological derangements characteristic of polytrauma with some authors recommending its inclusion into the definition of polytrauma. The practicality of daily SIRS collection outside of specifically designed prospective trials is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of SIRS variables and its appropriateness for inclusion into a definition of polytrauma. We hypothesised SIRS variables would be readily available and easy to collect, thus represent an appropriate inclusion into the definition of polytrauma. A prospective observational study of all trauma team activation patients over 7-months (August 2009 to February 2010) at a University affiliated level-1 urban trauma centre. SIRS data (temperature>38°C or 90 bpm; RR>20/min or a PaCO(2)12.0×10(9)L(-1), or 10 immature bands) collected from presentation, at 24 h intervals until 72 h post injury. Inclusion criteria were all patients generating a trauma team activation response age >16. 336 patients met inclusion criteria. In 46% (155/336) serial SIRS scores could not be calculated due to missing data. Lowest rates of missing data observed on admission [3% (11/336)]. Stratified by ISS>15 (132/336), in 7% (9/132) serial SIRS scores could not be calculated due to missing data. In 123 patients ISS>15 with complete data, 81% (100/123) developed SIRS. For Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)>2 in at least 2 body regions (64/336) in 5% (3/64) serial SIRS scores could not be calculated, with 92% (56/61) of patients with complete data developing SIRS. For Direct ICU admissions [25% (85/336)] 5% (4/85) of patients could not have serial SIRS calculated [mean ISS 15(±11)] and 90% (73/81) developed SIRS at least once over 72 h. Based on the experience of our level-1 trauma centre, the practicability of including SIRS into the

  5. Affix Meaning Knowledge in First Through Third Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Forty students at each grade level completed an assessment battery that included measures of phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, reading comprehension, and affix meaning knowledge. On the AMT, 1st-grade students were significantly less accurate than 2nd- and 3rd-grade students; there was no significant difference in performance between the 2nd- and 3rd-grade students. Regression analyses revealed that the AMT accounted for 8% unique variance of students' performance on word-level reading measures and 6% unique variance of students' performance on the reading comprehension measure, after age, phonological awareness, and receptive vocabulary were explained. These results provide initial information on the development of affix meaning knowledge via an explicit measure in 1st- through 3rd-grade students and demonstrate that affix meaning knowledge uniquely contributes to the development of reading abilities above other known literacy predictors. These findings provide empirical support for how students might use morphological problem solving to read unknown multimorphemic words successfully.

  6. Usage of subordinated and coordinated clauses in second grade and fourth grade narrative texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research examined selected aspects of language development in the context of narratives. The purpose of this study was to register and examine the usage of coordinated and subordinated clauses in narrative texts produced by second grade and fourth grade primary school students. It is assumed that possible differences within syntactic complexity between second graders and fourth graders show different levels of syntactic maturity. The children that participated in this study were attending the same primary school located in Belgrade, Serbia. Written text corpus was collected from 42 second graders and 44 fourth graders. The analysis of data included qualitative as well as quantitative parameters. The presence of both sentence types -compound and complex was registered in both grades. The prevailing usage of subordinated clauses in the fourth grade implies that they are more syntactically mature than second graders who produce more coordinated clauses. The analysis underscores the significance of subordination as an indicator of syntactic maturity.

  7. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  8. Second Language Acquisition at the Early Childhood Level: A 5-Year Longitudinal Case Study of Pre-Kindergarten through First-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billak, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This 5-year longitudinal study investigated the English language acquisition and development of students in pre-Kindergarten through Grade 1 at a U.S.-accredited international school. Of the 1,509 students tested, the overwhelming majority were nonnative English speakers. The data provide valuable insight into the rate of second language…

  9. Examining the Impact and School-Level Predictors of Impact Variability of an 8th Grade Reading Intervention on At-Risk Students' Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fien, Hank; Anderson, Daniel; Nelson, Nancy J.; Kennedy, Patrick; Baker, Scott K.; Stoolmiller, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to report on a large-scale investigation of six school districts' implementation of an initiative aimed at reducing dropout rates by improving reading achievement in the middle grades. Data for the Middle School Intervention Project (MSIP) were collected in 25 middle schools across the state of Oregon. We…

  10. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Primary-Level Mathematics Measures (Grades K-2), 2009-2010 Version. Technical Report #1006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Saez, Leilani; Jamgochian, Elisa; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In the following technical report, we present evidence of the technical adequacy of the easyCBM[R] math measures in grades K-2. In addition to reliability information, we present criterion-related validity evidence, both concurrent and predictive, and construct validity evidence. The results represent data gathered throughout the 2009/2010 school…

  11. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.T.; Traag, W.A.; Murk, A.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US

  12. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  13. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  14. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newark School District, DE.

    The fourth of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 4 (grades 9-12), science areas include earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Six major themes provide the basis for study in all levels (K-12). These are: Change, Continuity, Diversity, Interaction, Limitation, and Organization. In Level 4, all six themes are…

  15. Brine migration resulting from CO2 injection into saline aquifers – An approach to risk estimation including various levels of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Binning, Philip John; Oladyshkin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    for large-scale 3D models including complex physics. Therefore, we apply a model reduction based on arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion combined with probabilistic collocation method. It is shown that, dependent on data availability, both types of uncertainty can be equally significant. The presented study...... provides estimates of the risk of brine discharge into freshwater aquifers due to CO2 injection into geological formations and resultant salt concentrations in the overlying drinking water aquifers....

  16. Partial Enteral Nutrition Preserves Elements of Gut Barrier Function, Including Innate Immunity, Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) Level, and Intestinal Microbiota in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao; Bi, Jingcheng; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Wang, Xinying; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-08-03

    Lack of enteral nutrition (EN) during parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to higher incidence of infection because of gut barrier dysfunction. However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and microbiota remain unclear. The mice were randomized into six groups to receive either standard chow or isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutritional support with variable partial EN to PN ratios. Five days later, the mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were collected. Bacterial translocation, the levels of lysozyme, mucin 2 (MUC2), and IAP were analyzed. The composition of intestinal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Compared with chow, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) resulted in a dysfunctional mucosal barrier, as evidenced by increased bacterial translocation (p < 0.05), loss of lysozyme, MUC2, and IAP, and changes in the gut microbiota (p < 0.001). Administration of 20% EN supplemented with PN significantly increased the concentrations of lysozyme, MUC2, IAP, and the mRNA levels of lysozyme and MUC2 (p < 0.001). The percentages of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes were significantly lower in the 20% EN group than in the TPN group (p < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by maintained barrier function in bacterial culture (p < 0.05). Supplementation of PN with 20% EN preserves gut barrier function, by way of maintaining innate immunity, IAP and intestinal microbiota.

  17. Comparison of Glycomacropeptide with Phenylalanine Free-Synthetic Amino Acids in Test Meals to PKU Patients: No Significant Differences in Biomarkers, Including Plasma Phe Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, Kirsten K; Lund, Allan M; Jensen, Erik; Jensen, Thomas G; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Bardow, Allan; Holst, Jens Juul; Rehfeld, Jens F; Møller, Lisbeth B

    2018-01-01

    Management of phenylketonuria (PKU) is achieved through low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet, supplemented with low-protein food and mixture of free-synthetic (FS) amino acid (AA). Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) is a natural peptide released in whey during cheese-making and does not contain Phe. Lacprodan® CGMP-20 used in this study contained a small amount of Phe due to minor presence of other proteins/peptides. The purpose of this study was to compare absorption of CGMP-20 to FSAA with the aim of evaluating short-term effects on plasma AAs as well as biomarkers related to food intake. This study included 8 patients, who had four visits and tested four drink mixtures (DM1-4), consisting of CGMP, FSAA, or a combination. Plasma blood samples were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes (min) after the meal. AA profiles and ghrelin were determined 6 times, while surrogate biomarkers were determined at baseline and 240 min. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for evaluation of taste and satiety. The surrogate biomarker concentrations and VAS scores for satiety and taste were nonsignificant between the four DMs, and there were only few significant results for AA profiles (not Phe). CGMP and FSAA had the overall same nonsignificant short-term effect on biomarkers, including Phe. This combination of FSAA and CGMP is a suitable supplement for PKU patients.

  18. Comparison of Glycomacropeptide with Phenylalanine Free-Synthetic Amino Acids in Test Meals to PKU Patients: No Significant Differences in Biomarkers, Including Plasma Phe Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten K. Ahring

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Management of phenylketonuria (PKU is achieved through low-phenylalanine (Phe diet, supplemented with low-protein food and mixture of free-synthetic (FS amino acid (AA. Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP is a natural peptide released in whey during cheese-making and does not contain Phe. Lacprodan® CGMP-20 used in this study contained a small amount of Phe due to minor presence of other proteins/peptides. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare absorption of CGMP-20 to FSAA with the aim of evaluating short-term effects on plasma AAs as well as biomarkers related to food intake. Methods. This study included 8 patients, who had four visits and tested four drink mixtures (DM1–4, consisting of CGMP, FSAA, or a combination. Plasma blood samples were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes (min after the meal. AA profiles and ghrelin were determined 6 times, while surrogate biomarkers were determined at baseline and 240 min. A visual analogue scale (VAS was used for evaluation of taste and satiety. Results. The surrogate biomarker concentrations and VAS scores for satiety and taste were nonsignificant between the four DMs, and there were only few significant results for AA profiles (not Phe. Conclusion. CGMP and FSAA had the overall same nonsignificant short-term effect on biomarkers, including Phe. This combination of FSAA and CGMP is a suitable supplement for PKU patients.

  19. Cafeteria-Style Grading in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John A.; Gilbert, Brian D.

    2001-04-01

    Self-selected individual course-grade weighting schemes allow students personal choice of course components in the general chemistry sequence at Coastal Carolina University. With the availability of a wide range of commercial and academically produced pedagogical resources, students can select materials that best suit their own learning styles, social situations, and motivation level. Our students use a signed contract to indicate their preferred grade-weighting schemes for determination of the course grade. In doing so, they choose from course components that include peer-led team learning (PLTL) in the Workshop Chemistry (WSC) model, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using the ChemSkill Builder (CSB) software, a variety of in-class quizzes and group problem-solving exercises, written exams, and the final written exam. Minimum percentage values are required of all components except WSC and CSB, which have been completely optional graded course components at CCU since the summer of 1999. Comparison of student success in the course and content learning suggests that the improvements observed with introduction of a gamut of activities increase even more when the cafeteria-style grading is implemented.

  20. WHAT ARE THEY BUYING IN PRIVATE TUITION? MICRO-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE ON THE PRACTICE OF PRIVATE TUITION BY GRADE 9 STUDENTS IN KALE TOWNSHIP, MYANMAR

    OpenAIRE

    Kam Tung Tuang Suante

    2017-01-01

    Private tuition is the practice of academic teaching and learning from outside of the school with a fee but a few of studies acknowledged what private tuition provides to the receivers beyond the teaching of academic subjects. This study explored the intensity and nature of private tuition through 1119 Grade 9 students’ survey reports and 18 interviewees’ responses. The study revealed the common practice of private tuition in Myanmar and 69.5% of the participants are in private boarding tuiti...

  1. Fertility in Namibia. Changes in fertility levels in North-Central Namibia 1960-2001, including an assessment of the impact of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Shemeikka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the development of fertility in North-Central Namibia, former Ovamboland, from 1960 to 2001. Special attention was given to the onset of fertility decline and to the impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility. An additional aim was to introduce parish registers as a source of data for fertility research in Africa.  Data used consisted of parish registers from Evangelical Lutheran congregations, the 1991 and 2001 Population and Housing Censuses, the 1992 and 2000 Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys, and the HIV sentinel surveillances of 1992-2004. Both period and cohort fertility were analysed. The P/F ratio method was used when analysing census data. The impact of HIV infection on fertility was estimated indirectly by comparing the fertility histories of women who died at an age of less than 50 years with the fertility of other women. The impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility was assessed both among infected women and in the general population.  Fertility in the study population began to decline in 1980. The decline was rapid during the 1980s, levelled off in the early 1990s at the end of war of independence and then continued to decline until the end of the study period. According to parish registers, total fertility was 6.4 in the 1960s and 6.5 in the 1970s, and declined to 5.1 in the 1980s and 4.2 in the 1990s. Adjustment of these total fertility rates to correspond to levels of fertility based on data from the 1991 and 2001 censuses resulted in total fertility declining from 7.6 in 1960-79 to 6.0 in 1980-89, and to 4.9 in 1990-99. The decline was associated with increased age at first marriage, declining marital fertility and increasing premarital fertility. Fertility among adolescents increased, whereas the fertility of women in all other age groups declined.  During the 1980s, the war of independence contributed to declining fertility through spousal separation and delayed marriages. Contraception

  2. Microparticles released from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human macrophages contain increased levels of the type I interferon inducible proteins including ISG15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Nathan J; Chan, Brian; Chan, Edwina; Kaufman, Kimberley L; Britton, Warwick J; Saunders, Bernadette M

    2015-09-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are small membranous particles (100-1000 nm) released under normal steady-state conditions and are thought to provide a communication network between host cells. Previous studies demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection of macrophages increased the release of MPs, and these MPs induced a proinflammatory response from uninfected macrophages in vitro and in vivo following their transfer into uninfected mice. To determine how M. tb infection modulates the protein composition of the MPs, and if this contributes to their proinflammatory properties, we compared the proteomes of MPs derived from M. tb-infected (TBinf-MP) and uninfected human THP-1 monocytic cells. MP proteins were analyzed by GeLC-MS/MS with spectral counting revealing 68 proteins with statistically significant differential abundances. The 42 proteins increased in abundance in TBinf-MPs included proteins associated with immune function (7), lysosomal/endosomal maturation (4), vesicular formation (12), nucleosome proteins (4), and antigen processing (9). Prominent among these were the type I interferon inducible proteins, ISG15, IFIT1, IFIT2, and IFIT3. Exposure of uninfected THP-1 cells to TBinf-MPs induced increased gene expression of isg15, ifit1, ifit2, and ifit3 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. These proteins may regulate the proinflammatory potential of the MPs and provide candidate biomarkers for M. tb infection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Career Awareness in Agribusiness, Renewable Natural Resources, and Environmental Protection: A Curriculum Guide for Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to be used as a model to develop Career Education Experiences in a classroom program. It includes eight sample learning modules for the primary grade level (K-3) and another eight for the intermediate grade level (4-6). Each module has three basic parts: instructional information, instructional activities, and culmination or…

  4. Effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, jejunum morphology, liver health, and serum metabolites of Japanese quails fed sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal-based diets containing graded levels of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeipour, Vahid; Barsalani, Alireza; Abdullahpour, Rohullah

    2016-08-01

    A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of two levels of dietary crude protein (200 or 240 g kg(-1)) and two inclusion rates of phytase enzyme supplementation (with or without) on performance, jejunum morphology, and some hematological parameters of Japanese quails fed diets based on three graded levels of sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal (0, 120, and 240 g kg(-1) of the diet). A total of 480 Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments with 4 replicates of 10 Japanese quails. The results showed that feed intake was decreased in quails fed diets containing 240 g kg(-1) of sesame meal (P morphology showed that diets containing 120 and 240 g kg(-1) sesame meal increased villus height and the ratio of VH to CD and decreased crypt depth (P liver weight was greater in Japanese quails fed diets containing 200 g kg(-1) crude protein and 120 g kg(-1) sesame meal (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of uric acid was increased in birds that received 240 g kg(-1) protein (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of sesame meal improved growth performance (FCR) of Japanese quails. Moreover, serum concentration of calcium and phosphorous was greater in quails with phytase supplementation included in their diet.

  5. An exploratory randomised controlled trial of a premises-level intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm including violence in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. Methods An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises’ customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. Results The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. Conclusions It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696

  6. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  7. [Effect of short term graded physical exercise on the level of glycemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: data of long term ECG monitoring and registration of motor activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, D N; Kruzhkova, M N; Riabykina, G V; Poliakov, S D; Korneeva, I T

    2012-01-01

    Study aim was to elucidate effect of graded physical exercise on glycemia level and interval QT duration in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We carried out 25-hours parallel monitoring of glycemia, ECG and physical activity in 15 children and adolescents aged 9-17 years. During monitoring these patients performed an exercise test (PWC170). We found that there were two periods of significant and prolonged lowering of glycemia: in 120-420 min and 19-21 hours after exercise. Lowering of glycemia after physical exercise was associated with prolongation of QT interval. Registration of motor activity allowed to exclude changes of glycemia due to physical activity unrelated to graded exercise.

  8. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  9. Upgrade the intervention levels derived for water and foods, to be include in the PERE 607 procedure the external radiological emergency plan in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llado Castillo, R.; Aguilar Pacheco, R.

    1998-01-01

    The work shows the results obtained in the upgrade the intervention levels derived for water and foods, to be include in the PERE 607 procedure the external radiological emergency plan in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  10. The effect of various grading scales on student grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Buring, Shauna M

    2012-04-10

    To investigate changes in and the impact of grading scales from 2005 to 2010 and explore pharmacy faculty and student perceptions of whole-letter and plus/minus grading scales on cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) in required courses. Grading scales used in 2010 at the University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were retrospectively identified and compared to those used in 2005. Mean GPA was calculated using a whole-letter grading scale and a plus/minus grading scale to determine the impact of scales on GPA. Faculty members and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of plus/minus grading. Nine unique grading scales were used throughout the curriculum, including plus/minus (64%) and whole-letter (21%) grading scales. From 2005 to 2010 there was transition from use of predominantly whole-letter scales to plus/minus grading scales. The type of grading scale used did not affect the mean cumulative GPA. Students preferred use of a plus-only grading scale while faculty members preferred use of a plus/minus grading scale. The transition from whole-letter grading to plus/minus grading in courses from 2005 to 2010 reflects pharmacy faculty members' perception that plus/minus grading allows for better differentiation between students' performances.

  11. The expression level of miR-18b in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with the grade of malignancy and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yoshiki; Tamori, Akihiro; Itami, Saori; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Toyoda, Hidenori; Tanaka, Masami; Wu, Weihong; Brojigin, Nariso; Kaneoka, Yuji; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Kumada, Takashi; Kawada, Norifumi; Kubo, Shoji; Kuroda, Masahiko

    2013-03-04

    Many studies support the hypothesis that specific microRNA (miRNA) expression in various human cancers including hepatocarcinogenesis is closely associated with diagnosis and prognosis. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), malignancy level is related to the degree of histological differentiation. In order to establish a novel biomarker that can determine the degree of malignancy and forecast patient prognosis, we performed a microarray analysis to investigate the miRNA expression profiles in 110 HCC which were comprised of 60 moderately, 30 poorly, and 20 well differentiated HCC. We found that the expression of 12 miRNAs varied significantly according to the degree of histological differentiation. Particularly, miR-18b expression in poorly differentiated HCC was significantly higher than in well differentiated HCC. Based on miRanda and Targetscan target search algorithms and Argonaute 2 immunoprecipitation study, we noted that miR-18b can control the expression of trinucleotide repeat containing 6B (TNRC6B) as a target gene. Additionally, in two hepatoma cell lines, we found that over-expression of miR-18b or down-regulation of TNRC6B accelerated cell proliferation and loss of cell adhesion ability. Finally, we observed that after surgical resection, HCC patients with high miR-18b expression had a significantly shorter relapse-free period than those with low expression. miR-18b expression is an important marker of cell proliferation and cell adhesion, and is predictive of clinical outcome. From a clinical point of view, our study emphasizes miR-18b as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for HCC progression.

  12. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade level. This model included latent predictor constructs of decoding, verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory and accounted for a large portion of the reading comprehension variance (73% to 87%) across grade levels. Verbal reasoning contributed the most unique variance to reading comprehension at all grade levels. In addition, we fit a multiple group 4-factor MIMIC model to investigate the relative stability (or variability) of the predictor contributions to reading comprehension across development (i.e., grade levels). The results revealed that the contributions of verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory to reading comprehension were stable across the three grade levels. Decoding was the only predictor that could not be constrained to be equal across grade levels. The contribution of decoding skills to reading comprehension was higher in third grade and then remained relatively stable between seventh and tenth grade. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using MIMIC models to explain individual differences in reading comprehension across the development of reading skills. PMID:25821346

  13. Modulation of selenium tissue distribution and selenoprotein expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with graded levels of plant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Monica B; Dam, Thi M C; Walton, James; Morken, Thea; Campbell, Patrick J; Tocher, Douglas R

    2016-04-01

    Increased substitution of marine ingredients by terrestrial plant products in aquafeeds has been proven to be suitable for Atlantic salmon farming. However, a reduction in n-3 long-chain PUFA is a consequence of this substitution. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of fishmeal and oil substitution on levels of micronutrients such as Se, considering fish are major sources of this mineral for human consumers. To evaluate the effects of dietary marine ingredient substitution on tissue Se distribution and the expression of Se metabolism and antioxidant enzyme genes, Atlantic salmons were fed three feeds based on commercial formulations with increasing levels of plant proteins (PP) and vegetable oil. Lipid content in flesh did not vary at any sampling point, but it was higher in the liver of 1 kg of fish fed higher PP. Fatty acid content reflected dietary input and was related to oxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Liver had the highest Se levels, followed by head kidney, whereas the lowest contents were found in brain and gill. The Se concentration of flesh decreased considerably with high levels of substitution, reducing the added value of fish consumption. Only the brain showed significant differences in glutathione peroxidase, transfer RNA selenocysteine 1-associated protein 1b and superoxide dismutase expression, whereas no significant regulation of Se-related genes was found in liver. Although Se levels in the diets satisfied the essential requirements of salmon, high PP levels led to a reduction in the supply of this essential micronutrient.

  14. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  15. CONTROL AND GRADE COMPETENCE FUTURE TEACHERS OF MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tatochenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical study of the problem of formation of control and grade competence of the students - future teachers of mathematics while studying special subjects. The essence of such notions as competence, professional competence, methodical competence, control and grade competence of the Mathematics teacher are differentiated. The following subjects are described: the goal orientation, the resource potential of the educational process and its objectives: to form the system of necessary methodological knowledge and skills, the system of pedagogical values that form the willingness for the control and grade activities at all stages of learning, which are derived from the objectives and available resources: content and training tools. Identified approaches (system, personal active, competent, technological, communicative active and the dominant principles necessary to form control and grade competence of the future Mathematics teachers (consistency, functionality of knowledge and skills, personal orientation, assessment of academic achievements of the student in accordance with the quality of Mathematics education. Contradictions are described and pedagogical conditions to provide this process are justified. The structure of the control and grade competence is characterized, including the motivation, professional skills, acquired knowledge and skills, activities of the subjects of the study; and its following components: motivational, cognitive, activity, reflective. The following stages of the formation of the control and grade competence are defined: motivational, informative, technological, assessment and effective. To form the control and grade competence of the students - future Mathematics teachers the technology of construction and solving of methodological situational tasks is suggested. The following criteria are identified: motivational, essential, activity; the following indicators are stated: motivation

  16. Effect of corn replacement with graded levels of wheat screening and enzyme supplementation on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, M.; Golian, A.; Kermanshahi, H.

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of corn replacement with five levels of wheat screening (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g/kg of diet) with (0.5 g/kg of diet) or without xylanase-glucanase enzyme on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers (25-42 days of age). Five hundred day-old Ross-308 male broiler chicks were fed by a standard commercial diet up to 24 days of age, then randomly assigned to 10 diets. Each diet was fed to five groups of ten chicks each. There was not significant differences in body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of birds fed with different levels of wheat screening (WS), whereas enzyme increased (p<0.05) BWG. Different levels of WS and enzyme did not have a significant effect on relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, and abdominal fat of broilers. Relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, small and large intestine, and relative length of jejunum and jejunal and ileal viscosity were increased (p<0.05) by WS, while were decreased (p<0.05) by enzyme. The serum cholesterol level decreased (p<0.05) by increasing levels of WS. Jejunal histomorphological observations showed (p<0.05) shorter and thicker villus and lower crypt depth by increasing levels of WS, while addition of enzyme to the diets, affected (p<0.05) reversely to these parameters. The results showed that the addition of wheat screening up to an inclusion level of 600 g/kg of diet had no adverse effect on broiler performance in the finisher (25-42 d) phases whereas decreased serum cholesterol levels, increased viscosity and villus atrophy. The dietary administration of exogenous enzyme improved performance parameters and decreased viscosity and villus atrophy of broiler jejunum. (Author)

  17. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions patients recognize vaccine antigens in the presence of activated dendritic cells, and produced high levels of CD8 + IFNγ + T cells and low levels of IL-2 when induced to proliferate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Montes Jorge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most infections with human papillomavirus (HPV are resolved without clinical intervention, but a minority evolves into chronic lesions of distinct grades, including cervical-uterine cancer. It is known that in most cases the immune system mediates elimination of HPV infection. However, the mechanism of immune evasion leading to HPV persistence and development of early cervical lesions is not fully understood. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL patients to be activated ex-vivo by vaccine antigens, the participation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, and to determine the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines mediated by stimulation of T cell receptors. Results We found that PBL from LSIL patients showed a significantly lower proliferation rate to vaccine antigens as compared to that of healthy donors, even though there was not a difference in the presence of antibodies to those antigens in sera from both groups. We did not find differences in either the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3+ in PBL, or the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 in plasma or conditioned media from PBL incubated with TcR agonists in vitro, between the two groups. However, we detected a lower production of IL-2 and a higher proportion of CD8 + IFNγ + cells in PBL from LSIL patients as compared with PBL from normal donors. We also observed that PBL from patients infected by HPV-16 and −18 were not able to proliferate in the presence of soluble HPV antigens added to the culture; however, a high level of proliferation was attained when these antigens were presented by activated dendritic cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the immunodeficiency reported in LSIL patients could be due to the inability of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes that for some unknown reason are present but unable to mount a response when

  18. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P

    2014-10-30

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  19. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  20. Memorization techniques: Using mnemonics to learn fifth grade science terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Juan O.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether mnemonic instruction could assist students in learning fifth-grade science terminology more effectively than traditional-study methods of recall currently in practice The task was to examine if fifth-grade students were able to learn a mnemonic and then use it to understand science vocabulary; subsequently, to determine if students were able to remember the science terms after a period of time. The problem is that in general, elementary school students are not being successful in science achievement at the fifth grade level. In view of this problem, if science performance is increased at the elementary level, then it is likely that students will be successful when tested at the 8th and 10th grade in science with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in the future. Two research questions were posited: (1) Is there a difference in recall achievement when a mnemonic such as method of loci, pegword method, or keyword method is used in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary as compared to the traditional-study method? (2) If using a mnemonic in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary was effective on recall achievement, would this achievement be maintained over a span of time? The need for this study was to assist students in learning science terms and concepts for state accountability purposes. The first assumption was that memorization techniques are not commonly applied in fifth-grade science classes in elementary schools. A second assumption was that mnemonic devices could be used successfully in learning science terms and increase long term retention. The first limitation was that the study was conducted on one campus in one school district in South Texas which limited the generalization of the study. The second limitation was that it included random assigned intact groups as opposed to random student assignment to fifth-grade classroom groups.

  1. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean daily body temperature and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Douglas, Alex; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A commonly observed response in mammals to calorie restriction (CR) is reduced body temperature (Tb). We explored how the Tb of male C57BL/6 mice responded to graded CR (10 to 40%), compared to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) over 3 months. Under CR there was a dynamic change in daily Tb over the first 30–35 days, which stabilized thereafter until day 70 after which a further decline was noted. The time to reach stability was dependent on restriction level. Body mass negatively correlated with Tb under ad libitum feeding and positively correlated under CR. The average Tb over the last 20 days was significantly related to the levels of body fat, structural tissue, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Some mice, particularly those under higher levels of CR, showed periods of daily torpor later in the restriction period. None of the changes in Tb under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. We conclude that changes in Tb under CR are a response only to the shortfall in calorie intake. The linear relationship between average Tb and the level of restriction supports the idea that Tb changes are an integral aspect of the lifespan effect. PMID:26286956

  2. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newark School District, DE.

    The third of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 3 (grades 6-8), science areas include life science, earth science, and physical science (physics and chemistry). Conveniently listed are page locations for educational and instructional objectives, cross-referenced to science area (i.e., life science, animals, genetics)…

  3. Growth, digestive and absorptive capacity and antioxidant status in intestine and hepatopancreas of sub-adult grass carp Ctenopharyngodonidella fed graded levels of dietary threonine

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yang; Jiang, Weidan; Kuang, Shengyao; Hu, Kai; Tang, Ling; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate effects of threonine levels on growth, digestive and absorptive capacity and antioxidant status in intestine and hepatopancreas of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodonidella). Results Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly improved by dietary threonine (P?

  4. Contributions of Morphological Awareness Skills to Word-Level Reading and Spelling in First-Grade Children with and without Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Lawrence, Jessika

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared the morphological awareness abilities of children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and children with typical speech skills and examined how morphological awareness ability predicted word-level reading and spelling performance above other known contributors to literacy development. Method: Eighty-eight…

  5. The Role of Counseling in an Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program: Counseling in a Work Oriented Setting (The Importance of Including Counseling Courses within the Curriculum of the Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program at the Community College Level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Bruce

    This research had a two-fold purpose: (1) to assess the need for a labor studies program at the community college level; and (2) to consider the advisability of including within such a curriculum a cross-section of adult/family/worker-oriented counseling and guidance courses. The study employed a questionnaire completed by union delegates, which…

  6. Influence of Graded Levels of l-Theanine Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, Organs Histomorphometry, Blood Chemistry and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad; Yatao, Xu; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Noreldin, Ahmed E; Sun, Chao

    2018-02-03

    l-theanine is a water-soluble non-proteinous amino acid mainly found in green tea leaves. Despite the availability of abundant literature on green tea, studies on the use of l-theanine as a feed additive in animals, and especially broilers are limited. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effect of different dietary levels of l-theanine on meat quality, growth performance, immune response, and blood metabolites in broilers. A total of 400 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups using a completely randomized design; C-control, basal diet; 100LT-basal diet + 100 mg l-theanine/kg diet; 200LT-basal diet + 200 mg l-theanine/kg diet; and 300LT-basal diet + 300 mg l-theanine/kg diet. Results revealed that the intermediate level of l-theanine (200 mg/kg diet) showed better results in terms of body weight gain (BWG), feed consumed (FC), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared with the other supplemented groups and the control. The live weight eviscerated weight and gizzard weight were higher in all l-theanine levels as compared to those of the control group. Increased weight ( p ≤ 0.05) of spleen and bursa were found in group 200LT (200 mg l-theanine/kg diet). Concerning meat color parameters, values for yellowness ( b* ), and redness ( a* ) were greater in l-theanine-supplemented groups than the control. Supplementing broiler diet with l-theanine reduced ( p = 0.02) total serum cholesterol contents while increased HDL. Further analysis revealed lower relative serum cytokines ( IL-2 and INF-γ ) and reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in thymus, and IFN-γ and IL-2 in spleen in the treated group. Moreover, supplementation with 200 mg/kg of l-theanine improved antioxidant status in blood by increasing SOD, GSH-Px, and relative CAT levels. It is concluded that the optimum supplementation level of l-theanine is 200 mg/kg of diet because it resulted in improved performance parameters in broilers. However

  7. Low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: A National Cancer Database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagle, Brandon-Luke L; Shilpi, Arunima; Buchanan, Samuel; Goodman, Chelain; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2017-08-01

    To provide refined prognostic information from large cohorts of women with low-grade or high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). We performed an observational retrospective cohort analysis of women diagnosed with low-grade or high-grade ESS from the 1998-2013 National Cancer Database. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable accelerated failure time survival analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors after multiple imputation of missing data. Recursive partitioning methods were used to rank prognostic factors in high-grade ESS. Matched cohort analyses were performed to hypothesis-test effects of adjuvant treatments. We identified 2414 and 1383 women with low-grade or high-grade ESS, respectively. Women with high-grade ESS had markedly decreased survival compared to women with low-grade ESS (five-year survival (95% CI): 32.6 (30.1-35.3%) versus 90.5% (89.3-91.8%), PTR) (95% CI): 1.36 (1.17-1.58), PTR (95% CI): 1.57 (1.32-1.87), P<0.001) were associated with increased survival for high-grade ESS. The contrasting excellent versus poor prognosis of low-grade versus high-grade ESS, respectively, was confirmed. The best treatment of high-grade ESS is early and complete surgical resection including lymphadenectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy may increase survival of women with high-grade ESS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Urinary protein thiols in different grades of proteinuria

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Mungli; Shetty, Jeevan K.; Dash, Sambit; Barik, Bijay K.; Sarkar, Abhirup; Awanti, Sharanabasappa M.; Prabhu, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Total thiol status of plasma, especially thiol groups over protein contributes maximum to the plasma antioxidant status of the body. Serum protein thiols were found to be decreased in various disease conditions including chronic renal failure patients. Only few studies determined the levels of urinary protein thiols in disease conditions. The current study was designed to know the levels of urinary protein thiols in patients with different grades of proteinuria. The study was conducted on uri...

  9. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  10. Prognostic impact of hemoglobin level and other factors in patients with high-grade gliomas treated with postoperative radiochemotherapy and sequential chemotherapy based on temozolomide. A 10-year experience at a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausili Cefaro, Giampiero; Genovesi, Domenico; Vinciguerra, Annamaria; Trignani, Marianna; Taraborrelli, Maria; Augurio, Antonietta [G. d' Annunzio Univ. of Chieti, SS. Annunziata Hospital, Chieti (Italy). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Buonaguidi, Roberto [G. d' Annunzio Univ. of Chieti, Spirito Santo Hospital, Pescara (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Galzio, Renato J. [Univ. of L' Aquila, San Salvatore Hospital, L' Aquila (Italy). Dept. of Operative Unit of Neurosurgery and Health Sciences; Di Nicola, Marta [G. d' Annunzio Univ. of Chieti (Italy). Lab. of Biostatistics

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate the influence of serum hemoglobin level prior to radiotherapy and other prognostic factors on survival in patients with high-grade gliomas. From 2001-2010, we retrospectively evaluated a total of 48 patients with malignant glioma treated with surgery and postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. A total of 37 of 48 patients received sequential temozolomide. Hemoglobin levels were assayed before radiotherapy in all patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate the overall survival, while the log-rank test was applied to evaluate the differences on survival probability between prognostic subgroups. Results were assessed in 43 patients. The median overall survival time was 18 months (95% confidence interval: 12-40 months). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62.2% and 36.3%, respectively. The prognostic factors analyzed were gender, age, extent of surgery, performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, hemoglobin level, and methylation of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT). In univariate analysis, the variables significantly related to survival were performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, and hemoglobin level. The median overall survival in patients with a hemoglobin level {<=} 12 g/dl was 12 months and 23 months in patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 46.7% and 20.0%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level {<=} 12 mg/dl and 69.6% and 45.7%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. Our results confirm the impact of well-known prognostic factors on survival. In this research, it was found that a low hemoglobin level before radiotherapy can adversely influence the prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas.

  11. Prognostic impact of hemoglobin level and other factors in patients with high-grade gliomas treated with postoperative radiochemotherapy and sequential chemotherapy based on temozolomide. A 10-year experience at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausili Cefaro, Giampiero; Genovesi, Domenico; Vinciguerra, Annamaria; Trignani, Marianna; Taraborrelli, Maria; Augurio, Antonietta; Buonaguidi, Roberto; Galzio, Renato J.; Di Nicola, Marta

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of serum hemoglobin level prior to radiotherapy and other prognostic factors on survival in patients with high-grade gliomas. From 2001-2010, we retrospectively evaluated a total of 48 patients with malignant glioma treated with surgery and postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. A total of 37 of 48 patients received sequential temozolomide. Hemoglobin levels were assayed before radiotherapy in all patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate the overall survival, while the log-rank test was applied to evaluate the differences on survival probability between prognostic subgroups. Results were assessed in 43 patients. The median overall survival time was 18 months (95% confidence interval: 12-40 months). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62.2% and 36.3%, respectively. The prognostic factors analyzed were gender, age, extent of surgery, performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, hemoglobin level, and methylation of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT). In univariate analysis, the variables significantly related to survival were performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, and hemoglobin level. The median overall survival in patients with a hemoglobin level ≤ 12 g/dl was 12 months and 23 months in patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 46.7% and 20.0%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level ≤ 12 mg/dl and 69.6% and 45.7%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. Our results confirm the impact of well-known prognostic factors on survival. In this research, it was found that a low hemoglobin level before radiotherapy can adversely influence the prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas.

  12. A Study of Puberty Health Literacy, Care skin and hair Level of the First 14-16 Year Girls Grade High School Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyeh zarrinkolah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The overall objective of this study is "to determine Maturity level of health literacy on Care skin and hair in girls 16-14 years old, first high school Eghlid city. Health literacy can be defined as the ability to read, understand and act upon the recommendations of health. Methods: This study is quantitative - descriptive that occurs on 186 girls and Stratified random sampling was performed. In order to access information from a two-part questionnaire (A - health literacy, reading comprehension, b – performance and computing related to health of skin and hair, the validity, and reliability of the questionnaire using Cronbach alpha and ending coefficient (r=0.81 and analysis the data by SPSS software (V.18. Results: Mean age, weight, height, body mass index standard deviation of students participating in the study, was respectively (15.31±0.63, 51.60± 9.15, (162.21± 7.48, (19.59± 3.11. Also the age of onset of sexual hair growth 12.09 years indicated. Level of health literacy and reading understanding of dermatological was adequate and health literacy in the calculation of the skin and the hair was border line. Between reading comprehension and performance measures correlated significantly with skin and hair (P=0.05. Conclusion: The research, health literacy level maturation, hair and skin health in adolescent girls Eghlid city have been evaluated borders. So by increase students' reading comprehension and calculation of their performance in the field of dermatology also increased. Paper Type: Research Article.

  13. Effects of graded levels of cupric citrate on growth performance, antioxidant status, serum lipid metabolites and immunity, and tissue residues of trace elements in weaned pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Cai Peng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of cupric citrate (CuCit on growth performance, antioxidant indices, serum lipid metabolites, serum immune indices, and tissue residues of copper (Cu, zinc, and iron in weaned pigs. Methods A total of 180 weaned pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Large White with an average body weight of 8.98±1.21 kg were randomly assigned to a corn-soybean meal control ration, or 4 similar rations with 30, 60, 120, or 240 mg/kg Cu as CuCit. All diets contained 10 mg/kg Cu as cupric sulfate from the vitamin-mineral premix. The experiment was divided into two phases: 0 to 14 d (phase 1 and 15 to 28 d (phase 2. Results Average daily gain (ADG; linearly, p<0.01 and average daily feed intake (ADFI; linearly and quadratically, p<0.05 were affected by an increase in CuCit during phase 2. Overall period, ADG (p<0.05 and ADFI (p<0.01 were linearly increased with increasing dietary levels of CuCit. Serum malondialdehyde concentrations (p<0.05 and glutathione peroxidase activity (p<0.01 linearly decreased and increased respectively with an increase in CuCit. Serum levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase were linearly affected with an increase in CuCit (p<0.01. Hepatic malondialdehyde levels decreased with an increase in CuCit (linearly and quadratically, p<0.01. Serum total cholesterol concentrations were quadratically affected (p<0.05 and decreased in pigs fed Cu as CuCit at 60 and 120 mg/kg and increased in pigs fed 240 mg/kg Cu as CuCit. Serum high-density lipoprotein concentrations were linearly affected with an increase in CuCit (p<0.01. Serum IL-1β levels were quadratically affected (p<0.05 by dietary treatment. Compared with other treatments, 240 mg/kg Cu from CuCit quadratically increased hepatic (p<0.01 and renal (p<0.05 Cu concentrations, and quadratically decreased hepatic and renal iron concentrations (p<0.05. Conclusion Cu administered in the form of CuCit at a dosage range of 30 to 60 mg/kg, effectively

  14. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb

    2004-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  15. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken Fed Graded Levels of Sun-Dried Irish Potato Peel Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafar James Raphael

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of substituting different levels of sun-dried Irish potato peel meal (SPPM for maize in diets of broiler chickens. Five diets in which SPPM was replaced with 0 (0SPPM, 25 (25SPPM, 50 (50SPPM, 75 (75SPPM and 100% (100SPPM of maize in starter and finisher diets for a 8 week period using broiler chickens were examined. A total of 300 two weeks old broilers chicks Anak 2000 were randomly allotted to five experimental diets with six pen per treatment and 10 birds chicks per pen. Body weight and feed intake of broilers, and feed conversion ratio were determined at the beginning and 56th day of the experiment respectively. On day 56, four broilers from each pen were selected and slaughtered to determine some carcass characteristics and serum biochemistry. The result of growth performance showed that 100SPPM decreased daily weight gain of chickens when compared to other SPPM levels (P

  16. Grades and Ranking: When Tenure Affects Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Filetti; Mary Wright; William M. King

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how a faculty member's status-'either tenured or tenure-track-'might affect the grades assigned to students in a writing class. We begin with a brief review of the research surrounding faculty to student assessment practices and follow with specific controversies regarding faculty motivation pertaining to grading practices. We interpret the grade distributions of tenured and tenure-track faculty members teaching a sophomore-level writing course in an English Department...

  17. An Evaluation of Training Interventions and Computed Scoring Techniques for Grading a Level Turn Task and a Straight In Landing Approach on a PC-Based Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    One result of the relatively recent advances in computing technology has been the decreasing cost of computers and increasing computational power. This has allowed high fidelity airplane simulations to be run on personal computers (PC). Thus, simulators are now used routinely by pilots to substitute real flight hours for simulated flight hours for training for an aircraft type rating thereby reducing the cost of flight training. However, FAA regulations require that such substitution training must be supervised by Certified Flight Instructors (CFI). If the CFI presence could be reduced or eliminated for certain tasks this would mean a further cost savings to the pilot. This would require that the flight simulator have a certain level of 'intelligence' in order to provide feedback on pilot perfolmance similar to that of a CFI. The 'intelligent' flight sinlulator would have at least the capability to use data gathered from the flight to create a measure for the performance of the student pilot. Also, to fully utilize the advances in computational power, the sinlulator would be capable of interacting with the student pilot using the best possible training interventions. This thesis reposts on the two studies conducted at Tuskegee University investigating the effects of interventions on the learning of two flight maneuvers on a flight sinlulator and the robustness and accuracy of calculated perfornlance indices as compared to CFI evaluations of performance. The intent of these studies is to take a step in the direction of creating an 'intelligent' flight simulator. The first study deals with the comparisons of novice pilot performance trained at different levels of above real-time to execute a level S-turn. The second study examined the effect of out-of-the-window (OTW) visual cues in the form of hoops on the performance of novice pilots learning to fly a landing approach on the flight simulator. The reliability/robustness of the computed performance metrics was

  18. Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  19. Science Equity in Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Kay; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Chu, Kwang-Lee

    2010-01-01

    The earliest national accountability tests occur at the fourth-grade level and the outcomes are aggregated. This national study exposes the depth of science education inequities a full year earlier by disaggregating third graders' demographic data with the science performance. A full 3-way ANOVA model was applied to test the 3 main effects…

  20. Age-Related Grade Inflation Expectancies in a University Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. Loffredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation is a recognized problem in higher education in the United States. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in discrepancies between student reports of their expected grade in each course and their expectations for general university grading practices were explored in a survey of 166 (mostly female participants at a small upper-division university. Results revealed that while a small minority of students agreed that grading systems in college should only include A or B grades, a large majority of students expected A or B grades. Thus, student discrepancies between their expectations for grading systems and their expected class grades were in line with expectations that they should receive inflated grades. Results also revealed statistically significant age differences in grade expectation with students older than the age of 55 expecting lower grades relative to their younger counterparts.

  1. Effects of Diets with Graded Levels of Canola Meal on the Growth Performance, Meat Qualities, Relative Organ Weights, and Blood Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BK An

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.

  2. The effect of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal on growth performances and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Aberra; Alemu, Temesgen; Banerjee, Sandip; Berihun, Kefyalew

    2016-06-30

    This study was designed to assess the effects of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performances and carcass components of broiler chickens. The experiment was a completely randomized design consisting of five dietary treatments replicated four times with ten chicks each. The control diet (treatment 1, T1) contained roasted soybean seed as the major protein source without SPLM and treatment diets containing SPLM at the levels of 30 g/kg (treatment 2, T2), 60 g/kg (treatment 3, T3), 90 g/kg (treatment 4, T4) and 120 g/kg (treatment 5, T5) by partially substituting the roasted soybean seed in the control diet. The results indicated that the body weight gain in chickens reared in T1 was (p<0.01) higher than those fed on T3, T4 and T5 diets. The individual feed intake in chickens reared in T1 was (p<0.001) higher than those fed on other treatment diets. The feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg gain) of chickens fed on T1 was (p<0.05) lower than those reared in T4 and T5 diets. Chickens fed with T2 diet had numerically higher values of slaughter, dressed carcass and breast than those reared in T4 and T5 diets. It can be concluded that the partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato leaf might be economically feasible feeding strategy of broiler chickens in smallholder poultry farm settings.

  3. Failing to progress or progressing to fail? Age-for-grade heterogeneity and grade repetition in primary schools in Karonga district, northern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Bindu S.; Elze, Markus; Chihana, Menard; Gondwe, Levie; Crampin, Amelia C.; Munkhondya, Masoyaona; Kondowe, Scotch; Glynn, Judith R.

    2018-01-01

    Timely progression through school is an important measure for school performance, completion and the onset of other life transitions for adolescents. This study examines the risk factors for grade repetition and establishes the extent to which age-for-grade heterogeneity contributes to subsequent grade repetition at early and later stages of school. Using data from a demographic surveillance site in Karonga district, northern Malawi, a cohort of 8174 respondents (ages 5–24 years) in primary school was followed in 2010 and subsequent grade repetition observed in 2011. Grade repetition was more common among those at early (grades 1–3) and later (grades 7–8) stages of school, with little variation by sex. Being under-age or over-age in school has different implications on schooling outcomes, depending on the stage of schooling. After adjusting for other risk factors, boys and girls who were under-age at early stages were at least twice as likely to repeat a grade as those at the official age-for-grade (girls: adjusted OR 2.06 p grades (4–8) was not associated with subsequent repetition but being over-age was associated with dropout. Other risk factors identified that were associated with repetition included both family-level factors (living away from their mother, having young children in the household, lower paternal education) and school-level factors (higher student-teacher ratio, proportion of female teachers and schools without access to water). Reducing direct and indirect costs of schooling for households; and improving school quality and resources at early stages of school may enable timely progression at early stages for greater retention at later stages. PMID:29391662

  4. Effects of corn gluten feed inclusion at graded levels in a corn-soybean diet on the ileal and fecal digestibility of growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the effect of the inclusion of corn gluten feed (CGF) on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids and the apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of energy in growing pigs. The study was performed using 16 barrows (weight, 45.3 ± 4.5 kg) that were fitted with a T cannula at the terminal ileum. There were four treatments: a corn-soybean diet without CGF and three corn-soybean diets containing increasing levels of CGF (65, 130, and 195 g/kg). Data were analyzed according to a randomized complete block design, four blocks with four pigs each (one pig per treatment). The trend of the response (linear or quadratic) was determined using orthogonal contrasts, and when a linear effect was determined, a linear equation was obtained. Results The results showed that the inclusion up to 195 g/kg of CGF in the corn-soybean diet did not diminish the ileal digestibility (apparent and standardized) of protein and amino acids (P > 0.05), except that of phenylalanine, cystine, and proline. A linear decrease (P digestibility of phenylalanine (0.011 and 0.015 percentage units, respectively), cystine (0.048 and 0.043 percentage units, respectively), and proline (0.045 and 0.047 percentage units, respectively) was noted. Similarly, ileal digestibility of dry matter and energy were adversely affected (reduced by 0.028 and 0.025 percentage units, respectively, per gram of CGF increment in the diet). A significant (P digestibility with increase in CGF amount in the diet was observed for energy (0.027 percentage units), dry matter (0.027 percentage units), crude protein (0.020 percentage units), and neutral detergent fiber (0.041 percentage units) per gram of CGF added to the diet. Conclusion CGF did not affect the ileal digestibility of protein and most amino acids but reduced the ileal and total tract digestibility of energy. PMID:25279142

  5. Association of extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies including 43,407 individuals: The EPOCH-JAPAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Aya; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Watanabe, Makoto; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2018-02-08

    The effect of very high or extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well described. Although a few recent studies have reported the adverse effects of extremely high levels of HDL-C on CVD events, these did not show a statistically significant association between extremely high levels of HDL-C and cause-specific CVD mortality. In addition, Asian populations have not been studied. We examine the impact of extremely high levels of HDL-C on cause-specific CVD mortality using pooled data of Japanese cohort studies. We performed a large-scale pooled analysis of 9 Japanese cohorts including 43,407 participants aged 40-89 years, dividing the participants into 5 groups by HDL-C levels, including extremely high levels of HDL-C ≥2.33 mmol/L (≥90 mg/dL). We estimated the adjusted hazard ratio of each HDL-C category for all-cause death and cause-specific deaths compared with HDL-C 1.04-1.55 mmol/L (40-59 mg/dL) using a cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. During a 12.1-year follow-up, 4995 all-cause deaths and 1280 deaths due to overall CVD were identified. Extremely high levels of HDL-C were significantly associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic CVD mortality (hazard ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-4.09 for total) and increased risk for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. In addition, the risk for extremely high HDL-C was more evident among current drinkers. We showed extremely high levels of HDL-C had an adverse effect on atherosclerotic CVD mortality in a pooled analysis of Japanese cohorts. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct behavior rating as a school-based behavior screener for elementary and middle grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafouleas, Sandra M; Kilgus, Stephen P; Jaffery, Rose; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Welsh, Megan; Christ, Theodore J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS) involving targets of academically engaged, disruptive, and respectful behaviors function in school-based screening assessment. Participants included 831 students in kindergarten through eighth grades who attended schools in the northeastern United States. Teachers provided behavior ratings for a sample of students in their classrooms on the DBR-SIS, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), and the Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994). Given variations in rating procedures to accommodate scheduling differences across grades, analysis was conducted separately for elementary school and middle school grade levels. Results suggested that the recommended cut scores, the combination of behavior targets, and the resulting conditional probability indices varied depending on grade level grouping (lower elementary, upper elementary, middle). For example, for the lower elementary grade level grouping, a combination of disruptive behavior (cut score=2) and academically engaged behavior (cut score=8) was considered to offer the best balance among indices of diagnostic accuracy, whereas a cut score of 1 for disruptive behavior and 8 for academically engaged behavior were recommended for the upper elementary school grade level grouping and cut scores of 1 and 9, respectively, were suggested for middle school grade level grouping. Generally, DBR-SIS cut scores considered optimal for screening using single or combined targets including academically engaged behavior and disruptive behavior by offering a reasonable balance of indices for sensitivity (.51-.90), specificity (.47-.83), negative predictive power (.94-.98), and positive predictive power (.14-.41). The single target of respectful behavior performed poorly across all grade level groups, and performance of DBR-SIS targets was relatively better in the elementary school than middle

  7. Social Studies Curriculum: Grade Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Arthur

    This document outlines the content of the grade 6 social studies curriculum of the Lebanon School District, Lebanon, New Hampshire. The program is essentially a chronological review of western civilization, which includes pre-historic man, early civilization, classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, Medieval period, and the Age of Expansion.…

  8. Seals. Grades 3-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Explanations of a marine mammal rescue program and information on seals and sea lions are presented in this curriculum package for intermediate grade teachers. Activities are highlighted which focus on the natural history of harbor seals. This unit contains: (1) pre-trip activities (including fact sheets and worksheets on the different types of…

  9. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  10. Comparative analysis of the performance of mixed terraces and level and graded terraces=Análise comparativa do desempenho de terraços mistos com terraços em nível e com gradiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Paulúcio da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The terracing of agricultural land is the most widespread mechanical practice used among farmers in the control of water erosion. The objective of this paper was to carry out a comparative analysis between mixed terraces and level and graded terraces. The dimensioning of level terraces was carried out based on the surface runoff volume, while the graded terrace dimensions were based on the maximum runoff flow rate. For the mixed terraces, the dimensioning was carried by considering two surface runoff hydrographs, one for the determination of the terrace channel capacity and another to estimate the flow rate at the extremity of the terrace channel. Therefore, in order to contain and transport the excess volume, an additional value was calculated and added to the depth of the channel. A case study was performed for the Uberaba, Minas Gerais State (Brazil rainfall conditions, considering events with return periods of 10, 30, and 50 years. The obtained results provided quantitative evidence that mixed terraces have a lower height than level terraces and a higher level than the graded terraces, resulting in direct consequences for the soil movement for the terrace construction.O terraceamento de terras agrícolas consiste na prática mecânica mais difundida entre os agricultores no controle da erosão hídrica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi proceder a análise comparativa do desempenho de terraços mistos com terraços em nível e com gradiente. O dimensionamento de terraços em nível foi feito com base no volume de escoamento superficial, enquanto o de terraços com gradiente foi baseado na vazão máxima de escoamento superficial. Para o dimensionamento de terraços mistos são utilizados dois hidrogramas de escoamento superficial, sendo um para a determinação da capacidade de armazenamento do terraço e o outro para a estimativa da vazão que escoa na extremidade do canal do terraço. Assim, de maneira a conter e transportar o excesso de

  11. Resistor grading at the NSC Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.M.; Jayan, K.M.; Ahuja, R.; Chopra, S.; Kanjilal, D.

    1997-01-01

    The cheap and robust voltage grading system, based on the point to plane corona discharge, provided in the Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) Pelletron accelerator is replaced by a grading system using high-voltage high-value resistors with appropriate spark protection for the resistors. The accelerator has been operating for more than a year now with the new grading system and the performance of the resistors has been quite satisfactory. A brief introduction followed by the work done at NSC is given. The main features and the performance of the voltage grading at NSC with resistors are also included. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig

  12. New similarity search based glioma grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegler, Katrin; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Boehm, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Computer Science, Munich (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone. (orig.)

  13. New similarity search based glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegler, Katrin; Wiesmann, Martin; Böhm, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica; Schnell, Oliver; Brückmann, Hartmut; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Linn, Jennifer

    2012-08-01

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone.

  14. Change and Continuity in Student Achievement from Grades 3 to 5: A Policy Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary McCaslin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine student performance on mandated tests in grades 3, 4, and 5 in one state. We focus on this interval, which we term "the fourth grade window," based on our hypothesis that students in grade four are particularly vulnerable to decrements in achievement. The national focus on the third grade as the critical benchmark in student performance has distracted researchers and policy makers from recognition that the fourth grade transition is essential to our understanding of how to promote complex thinking and reasoning that are built upon a foundation of basic skills that may be necessary, but are not sufficient, for the more nuanced learning expected in subsequent grades. We hypothesized that the basic skills that define a successful third grade performance do not predict successful performance in subsequent years. We examined student performance over time using two measures of student success: the Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS, a standards based test; and the Stanford 9 (SAT9, a norm-referenced test. Three groups of schools were included in these analyses. Schools were individually matched to the original sample of interest, which were schools serving students of poverty that received state funding to implement Comprehensive School Reform (CSR models that emphasize continuity across grade levels. The first comparison sample includes schools that also serve students of poverty but did not receive CSR funding, "nonCSR" schools. The second comparison sample includes schools individually matched on all variables except economic status. These schools, which we term "ow poverty" schools, are the wealthiest public schools in the state, with less than 10% of attending students receiving free or reduced lunch. Student test scores in math, reading, and writing (AIMS or language (SAT9 were analyzed for the years 2000-2003. These intervals allowed the analysis of two cohorts of the fourth grade window. Our results

  15. Comparisons between students' learning achievements of their conventional instruction and the science, technology and social conceptual instructional design on digestion system issue of secondary students at the 10th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichalek, Supattra; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Santiboon, Toansakul

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this action research study were 1) to develop learning activities according to the instructional designing model of science, technology, and social (STS) on Digestion Issue, 2) to compare students' learning achievements between their learning activities with the conventional instructional (CIM) and conceptual instructional designing methods of science, technology, and social (STS) on digestion system of secondary students at the 10th grade level with a sample size of 35 experimental student group of their STS learning method, and 91 controlling group in two classes in the first semester in academic year 2016. Using the 4-Instructional Innovative Lesson Plans, the Students' Learning Behaviour Observing Form, the Questionnaire on Teacher Behaviour Interaction (QTBI), the Researcher's Recording Form, the Learning Activity Form, and the Parallel Learning Achievement Test (LAT) were assessed. The results of this research have found that; the Index of Item Objective Congruence (IOC) value ranged from 0.67 to 1.00; the difficulty values were 0.47 and 0.79 for the CIM and STS methods, respectively, the discriminative validity for the LAT was ranged from 0.20 to 0.75. The reliability of the QTBI was 0.79. Students' responses of their learning achievements with the average means scores indicted of the normalized gain values of 0.79 for the STS group, and 0.50 and 0.36 for the CIM groups, respectively. Students' learning achievements of their post-test indicated that of a higher than pre-test, the pre-test and post-test assessments were also differentiated evidence at the 0.05 levels for the STS and CIM groups, significantly. The 22-students' learning outcomes from the STS group evidences at a high level, only of the 9-students' responses in a moderate level were developed of their learning achievements, responsibility.

  16. Grade differences in reading motivation among Hong Kong primary and secondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-Ling

    2009-12-01

    Most previous studies in Western societies have demonstrated a general decline in school motivation. However, it is not clear whether motivational decline occurs uniformly for all students. The moderating effects of individual and cultural differences on students' motivational decline need to be further explored. This study aimed to examine the grade differences in students' reading motivation, including self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and social motivation, in a Chinese educational context. Grade by gender and grade by school-average achievement interactions were also checked to explore the role of individual differences in students' motivational changes. A total of 1,794 students (860 boys and 934 girls) volunteered to take part in this study, of whom 648 were Grade 4-6 students from 11 primary schools, 627 were Grade 7-9 students from 12 junior secondary schools, and 519 Grade 10-11 students from 6 senior secondary schools. A Chinese version of the Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (CRMQ) was administered to all participants during regular class periods by their teachers. Reliability analyses and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were first undertaken to assess the psychometric quality of the CRMQ. Then, multisample CFA was conducted to examine whether the factor structure of the CRMQ was equivalent across students at different grade levels. Grade differences in various reading motivation constructs as well as grade x gender and grade x school-average achievement interactions were examined using multiple-indicator-multiple-causes modelling. The findings of this study supported the reliability and the factor structure of the CRMQ in measuring the reading motivation of Chinese students at different grade levels. The factor pattern of the CRMQ was invariant across primary, junior secondary, and senior secondary students in multisample CFA. As far as the scores on the four reading motivation constructs were concerned, students scored

  17. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  18. The Relationship of Error Rate and Comprehension in Second and Third Grade Oral Reading Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 2nd graders and 974 3rd graders. Participants were assessed using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) Passage Comprehension subtest. Results from this study further illuminate the significant relationships between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and grade-specific guidelines for appropriate error rate levels. Low oral reading fluency and high error rates predict the level of passage comprehension performance. For second grade students below benchmark, a fall assessment error rate of 28% predicts that student comprehension performance will be below average. For third grade students below benchmark, the fall assessment cut point is 14%. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  20. Using the mixed media according to internet-based on the instructional multimedia for developing students' learning achievements in biology course on foundational cell issue of secondary students at the 10th grade level in Rangsit University demonstration school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangloan, Pichet; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Santiboon, Toansakul

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research study were 1) to develop students' learning achievements in biology course on foundational cell issue, 2) to examine students' satisfactions of their learning activities through the mixed media according to internet-based multi-instruction in biology on foundational cell issue at the 10th grade level were used in the first semester in the academic year 2014, which a sample size of 17 students in Rangsit University Demonstration School with cluster random sampling was selected. Students' learning administrations were instructed with the 3-instructional lesson plans according to the 5-Step Ladder Learning Management Plan (LLMP) namely; the maintaining lesson plan on the equilibrium of cell issue, a lesson plan for learning how to communicate between cell and cell division. Students' learning achievements were assessed with the 30-item Assessment of Learning Biology Test (ALBT), students' perceptions of their satisfactions were satisfied with the 20-item Questionnaire on Students Satisfaction (QSS), and students' learning activities were assessed with the Mixed Media Internet-Based Instruction (MMIBI) on foundational cell issue was designed. The results of this research study have found that: statistically significant of students' post-learning achievements were higher than their pre-learning outcomes and indicated that the differences were significant at the .05 level. Students' performances of their satisfaction to their perceptions toward biology class with the mixed media according to internet-based multi instruction in biology on foundational cell issue were the highest level and evidence of average mean score as 4.59.

  1. Clinical and radiographic outcomes following traumatic Grade 3 and 4 carotid artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level 1 trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    Screening, management, and follow-up of Grade 3 and 4 blunt carotid artery injuries (BCAIs) remain controversial. These high-grade BCAIs were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries from August 2003 to April 2013 was performed, and Grade 3 and 4 BCAIs were identified. The authors define Grade 3 injuries as stenosis of the vessel greater than 50%, or the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and Grade 4 injuries as complete vessel occlusion. Demographic information, imaging findings, number of images obtained per individual, length of radiographic follow-up examination, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up period, treatment(s), and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were recorded. Fifty-three Grade 3 BCAIs in 44 patients and 5 Grade 4 BCAIs in 5 patients were identified and had available follow-up information. The mean follow-up duration for Grade 3 BCAIs was 113 days, and the mean follow-up for Grade 4 BCAIs was 78 days. Final imaging of Grade 3 BCAIs showed that 53% of cases were radiographically stable, 11% had resolved, and 11% were improved, whereas 25% had radiographically worsened. In terms of treatment, 75% of patients received aspirin (ASA) alone, 5% received various medications, and 2% received no treatment. Eighteen percent of the patients in the Grade 3 BCAI group underwent endovascular intervention, and in all of these cases, treatment with ASA was continued after the procedure. Final imaging of the Grade 4 BCAIs showed that 60% remained stable (with persistent occlusion), whereas the remaining arteries improved (with recanalization of the vessel). All patients in the Grade 4 BCAI follow-up group were treated with ASA, although in 1 patient treatment was transitioned to Coumadin. There were 3 cases of

  2. A Grade IV Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Hanney, William J

    2017-12-01

    A 15-year-old adolescent boy was referred by an orthopaedic surgeon for treatment of right gluteal and thigh pain. Following treatment that reduced his pain, he experienced acute onset of bilateral radiculopathy. He was referred back to the physician, who ordered radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging, which identified a grade IV isthmic spondylolisthesis at the L5-S1 level. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):971. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7547.

  3. Hemograma e perfil bioquímico sérico, inclusive hemogasométrico, de bezerros infectados experimentalmente com Salmonella Dublin Blood cell counts and serum biochemical profile, including blood gas levels, in Salmonella Dublin-infected calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o hemograma e o perfil bioquímico sérico, inclusive hemogasométrico, de bezerros infectados experimentalmente com Salmonella Dublin. Foram utilizados 12 bezerros sadios da raça Holandesa com 10 a 15 dias de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais: grupo-controle (n= 6 e grupo infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin (n=6. Os bezerros foram submetidos ao exame físico diário, e as amostras de sangue foram coletadas minutos antes da inoculação (0h e 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 e 168h após a inoculação. Além do hemograma e das análises hemogasométricas, foram mensuradas as atividades séricas das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, fosfatase alcalina (ALP, creatina cinase (CK, gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT e lactato desidrogenase (LDH, e os teores de albumina, bilirrubinas, cálcio total, cálcio ionizado, sódio, potássio, cloretos, creatinina, ferro, fibrinogênio, fósforo, glicose, magnésio, proteína totais e ureia. As principais alterações foram: redução das concentrações de albumina, ferro, glicose, magnésio e proteína total, aumento do teor de fibrinogênio, leucocitose e acidose metabólica e hiponatremia.The blood cell counts and biochemical profile, including blood gas levels, were evaluated, in Salmonella Dublin-infected calves. Twelve healthy 10 to 15-day old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into two groups: control (n=6 and group orally infected with 10(8 CFU Salmonella Dublin (n=6. The calves were submitted to physical examination and the blood samples were taken just before the inoculation (0h and at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168h later. Besides, blood cell counts, blood gas levels, and the serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatine kinase (CK, gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT, lactate desidrogenase (LDH, albumin, bilirubin, total calcium, ionic calcium, sodium, potassium, chlorides, creatinine

  4. Dynamics of graded-composition and graded-doping semiconductor nanowires under local carrier modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenjuan; Zou, Jijun; Peng, Xincun; Zhang, Jianbing; Wang, Weilu; Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Daoli

    2016-10-17

    Scanning photocurrent microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating charge transfer and internal fields, which strongly influence carrier statics and dynamics in semiconductor nanowires. We performed comprehensive numerical modeling of the carrier dynamics of graded-composition and graded-doping AlGaAs nanowires to achieve a greater understanding of these nanowires. The simulation results indicated that the built-in electric field changes the shape of the scanning photocurrent microscopy profiles, which helped us to judge the dopant level, Al composition range and doping type of the material. The simulation results also assess the potential of the scanning photocurrent techniques in graded-doping and graded-composition nanowire properties.

  5. Blood magnesium, and the interaction with calcium, on the risk of high-grade prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Dai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionized calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg compete as essential messengers to regulate cell proliferation and inflammation. We hypothesized that inadequate Mg levels, perhaps relative to Ca levels (e.g. a high Ca/Mg ratio are associated with greater prostate cancer risk.In this biomarker sub-study of the Nashville Men's Health Study (NMHS, we included 494 NMHS participants, consisting of 98 high-grade (Gleason≥7 and 100 low-grade cancer cases, 133 prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN cases, and 163 controls without cancer or PIN at biopsy. Linear and logistic regression were used to determine associations between blood Ca, Mg, and the Ca/Mg ratio across controls and case groups while adjusting for potential confounding factors.Serum Mg levels were significantly lower, while the Ca/Mg ratio was significantly higher, among high-grade cases vs. controls (p = 0.04, p = 0.01, respectively. Elevated Mg was significantly associated with a lower risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR = 0.26 (0.09, 0.85. An elevated Ca/Mg ratio was also associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR = 2.81 (1.24, 6.36 adjusted for serum Ca and Mg. In contrast, blood Ca levels were not significantly associated with prostate cancer or PIN.Mg, Ca, or Ca/Mg levels were not associated with low-grade cancer, PIN, PSA levels, prostate volume, or BPH treatment.Low blood Mg levels and a high Ca/Mg ratio were significantly associated with high-grade prostate cancer. These findings suggest Mg affects prostate cancer risk perhaps through interacting with Ca.

  6. Materials and Techniques for Teaching the Esperanto Language in the Elementary Grades [and] 1996 Packet for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kent

    Materials presented here include a variety of resources for teachers of Esperanto: a brief guide to Esperanto teaching, including suggested teacher qualifications, a listing of instructional materials and resources, including serials, with details of publication, activities in preparation for teaching, grade-level class activities, notes on…

  7. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  8. Matematicas: Nivel E (Mathematics: Level E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level E manual is designed for grade 4 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  9. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  10. Matematicas: Nivel F (Mathematics: Level F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level F manual is designed for grade 5 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  11. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  12. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  13. Developing evidence-based immunization recommendations and GRADE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, P; Durrheim, D N; Reingold, A L; Bhutta, Z A; Vannice, K; Rees, H

    2012-12-17

    The Strategic Group of Advisory Experts (SAGE) on immunization is an independent advisory committee with a mandate to advise the World Health Organization (WHO) on the development of vaccine and immunization related policies. SAGE working groups are established on a time-limited basis to review and provide evidence-based recommendations, together with their implications, for open deliberation and decision-making by SAGE. In making its recommendations, SAGE takes into consideration: the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the disease; vaccine and immunization characteristics; economic analysis; health system considerations; the existence of and interaction with other intervention and control strategies; costing and social impacts; and legal and ethical concerns. Since 1998, WHO has produced evidence-based vaccine position papers for use primarily by national public health officials and immunization programme managers. Since April 2006 all new or updated position papers have been based on SAGE recommendations. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach has been adopted by WHO and, since 2008, GRADE tables that rate the quality of evidence have been produced in support of key recommendations. SAGE previously expressed concern that GRADE was not ideally suited to many immunization-specific issues such as the vaccine population level effect and the inclusion of surveillance system data, particularly for vaccine safety. Extensive productive interactions with various advisory groups including the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the European Centres for Disease Control, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO), WHO's Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety and the GRADE working group resulted in key enhancements to accommodate vaccine-relevant evidence. This facilitated integration and acceptability of the GRADE approach in the development of immunization related SAGE and WHO

  14. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  15. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural p...

  16. A Dominance Analysis Approach to Determining Predictor Importance in Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate and rank order by importance the contributions of various cognitive predictors to reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth graders. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that for third grade, the best fit was a four-factor solution including Fluency, Verbal Reasoning, Nonverbal Reasoning, and Working Memory factors. For seventh and tenth grade, three-factor solutions with Fluency, Reasoning, and Working Memory factors were the best fit. The three and four-factor models were used in separate dominance analyses for each grade to rank order the factors by predictive importance to reading comprehension. Results indicated that Fluency and Verbal Reasoning were the most important predictors of third grade reading comprehension. For seventh grade, Fluency and Reasoning were the most important predictors. By tenth grade, Reasoning was the most important predictor of reading comprehension. Working Memory was the least predictive of reading comprehension across all grade levels. These results suggest that inferential reasoning skills become an important contributor to reading comprehension at increasing grade levels. PMID:26346315

  17. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  18. Girls' Spatial Skills and Arithmetic Strategies in First Grade as Predictors of Fifth-Grade Analytical Math Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Beth M.; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Pollock, Amanda; Fineman, Bonnie; Pezaris, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal pathways leading from early spatial skills in first-grade girls to their fifth-grade analytical math reasoning abilities (N = 138). First-grade assessments included spatial skills, verbal skills, addition/subtraction skills, and frequency of choice of a decomposition or retrieval strategy on the…

  19. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of GluN3A in 46C-derived neural stem cells affects mRNA expression levels of neural genes, including known iGluR interactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilebrecht, Elke; Schöneborn, Hendrik; Neumann, Sebastian; Benecke, Arndt G.; Hollmann, Michael

    2018-01-01

    For years, GluN3A was solely considered to be a dominant-negative modulator of NMDARs, since its incorporation into receptors alters hallmark features of conventional NMDARs composed of GluN1/GluN2 subunits. Only recently, increasing evidence has accumulated that GluN3A plays a more diversified role. It is considered to be critically involved in the maturation of glutamatergic synapses, and it might act as a molecular brake to prevent premature synaptic strengthening. Its expression pattern supports a putative role during neural development, since GluN3A is predominantly expressed in early pre- and postnatal stages. In this study, we used RNA interference to efficiently knock down GluN3A in 46C-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) both at the mRNA and at the protein level. Global gene expression profiling upon GluN3A knockdown revealed significantly altered expression of a multitude of neural genes, including genes encoding small GTPases, retinal proteins, and cytoskeletal proteins, some of which have been previously shown to interact with GluN3A or other iGluR subunits. Canonical pathway enrichment studies point at important roles of GluN3A affecting key cellular pathways involved in cell growth, proliferation, motility, and survival, such as the mTOR pathway. This study for the first time provides insights into transcriptome changes upon the specific knockdown of an NMDAR subunit in NSCs, which may help to identify additional functions and downstream pathways of GluN3A and GluN3A-containing NMDARs. PMID:29438442

  20. The Museum Connection, Grade Five: Slater Print Shop. Unit IV, Draft #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Marsha; Glendenning, Owen

    This instructional unit designed to develop higher-level cognitive skills in fifth grade students focuses on a mid-nineteenth century newspaper from the Old Stater Print Shop. Purposes include: (1) to compare and contrast a century-old newspaper with a modern-day paper; (2) to begin planning for a newspaper and to organize a newspaper staff; (3)…

  1. Acid Rain. Activities for Grades 4 to 12. A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David; Bryant, Jeannette

    This teacher's guide on acid rain is divided into three study areas to explain: (1) what causes acid rain; (2) what problems acid rain has created; and (3) what teachers and students can do to help combat acid rain. Instructions for activities within the study areas include suggested grade levels, objectives, materials needed, and directions for…

  2. Mirror therapy, graded motor imagery and virtual illusion for the management of chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plumbe, Lee; Peters, Susan; Bennett, Sally; Vicenzino, Bill; Coppieters, Michel W.

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the efficacy of mirror therapy, graded motor imagery, and virtual illusion for improving pain and function levels in chronic pain states, including, but not limited to, chronic regional pain

  3. "Think Bigger about Science": Using Twitter for Learning in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ryan; Bishop, Penny

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the use of Twitter as a learning tool in a middle grades science classroom. Relevant research, the direct experience of the teacher leading this unique initiative, and the invaluable perspectives of his middle level students are included to inform interested stakeholders. Following a discussion of open versus closed digital…

  4. Disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsaed, A.A.; Adams, M. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The authors have studied the feasibility of using weapons-grade plutonium in the form of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing Westinghouse reactors. They have designed three transition Cycles from an all LEU core to a partial MOX core. They found that four-loop Westinghouse reactors such as the Vogtle power plant are capable of handling up to 45 percent weapons-grade MOX loading without any modifications. The authors have also designed two kinds of weapons-grade MOX assemblies with three enrichments per assembly and four total enrichments. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods were used in all the MOX feed assemblies, some burned MOX assemblies, and some LEU feed assemblies. Integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) was used in the rest of the LEU feed assemblies. The average discharge burnup of MOX assemblies was over 47,000 MWD/MTM, which is more than enough to meet the {open_quotes}spent fuel standard.{close_quotes} One unit is capable of consuming 0.462 MT of weapons-grade plutonium per year. Preliminary analyses showed that important reactor physics parameters for the three transitions cycles are comparable to those of LEU cores including boron levels, reactivity coefficients, peaking factors, and shutdown margins. Further transient analyses will need to be performed.

  5. Computer generated holography with intensity-graded patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Conti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer Generated Holography achieves patterned illumination at the sample plane through phase modulation of the laser beam at the objective back aperture. This is obtained by using liquid crystal-based spatial light modulators (LC-SLMs, which modulate the spatial phase of the incident laser beam. A variety of algorithms are employed to calculate the phase modulation masks addressed to the LC-SLM. These algorithms range from simple gratings-and-lenses to generate multiple diffraction-limited spots, to iterative Fourier-transform algorithms capable of generating arbitrary illumination shapes perfectly tailored on the base of the target contour. Applications for holographic light patterning include multi-trap optical tweezers, patterned voltage imaging and optical control of neuronal excitation using uncaging or optogenetics. These past implementations of computer generated holography used binary input profile to generate binary light distribution at the sample plane. Here we demonstrate that using graded input sources, enables generating intensity graded light patterns and extend the range of application of holographic light illumination. At first, we use intensity-graded holograms to compensate for LC-SLM position dependent diffraction efficiency or sample fluorescence inhomogeneity. Finally we show that intensity-graded holography can be used to equalize photo evoked currents from cells expressing different level of chanelrhodopsin2 (ChR2, one of the most commonly used optogenetics light gated channels, taking into account the non-linear dependence of channel opening on incident light.

  6. MRI features can predict EGFR expression in lower grade gliomas: A voxel-based radiomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Liu, Xing; Xu, Kaibin; Qian, Zenghui; Wang, Kai; Fan, Xing; Li, Shaowu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression level in lower grade gliomas using radiomic analysis. 270 lower grade glioma patients with known EGFR expression status were randomly assigned into training (n=200) and validation (n=70) sets, and were subjected to feature extraction. Using a logistic regression model, a signature of MRI features was identified to be predictive of the EGFR expression level in lower grade gliomas in the training set, and the accuracy of prediction was assessed in the validation set. A signature of 41 MRI features achieved accuracies of 82.5% (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.90) in the training set and 90.0% (AUC = 0.95) in the validation set. This radiomic signature consisted of 25 first-order statistics or related wavelet features (including range, standard deviation, uniformity, variance), one shape and size-based feature (spherical disproportion), and 15 textural features or related wavelet features (including sum variance, sum entropy, run percentage). A radiomic signature allowing for the prediction of the EGFR expression level in patients with lower grade glioma was identified, suggesting that using tumour-derived radiological features for predicting genomic information is feasible. • EGFR expression status is an important biomarker for gliomas. • EGFR in lower grade gliomas could be predicted using radiogenomic analysis. • A logistic regression model is an efficient approach for analysing radiomic features.

  7. Grades and Ranking: When Tenure Affects Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Filetti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how a faculty member's status-'either tenured or tenure-track-'might affect the grades assigned to students in a writing class. We begin with a brief review of the research surrounding faculty to student assessment practices and follow with specific controversies regarding faculty motivation pertaining to grading practices. We interpret the grade distributions of tenured and tenure-track faculty members teaching a sophomore-level writing course in an English Department at a small, public liberal arts university in Virginia, examine the relationship between grade distributions and faculty rank, and conclude that tenure-track faculty grade more leniently than their tenured colleagues, primarily in the number of - A- grades assigned. The results of this study suggest that tenured professors tend to award fewer - As- than tenure-track professors. We posit that at universities where emphasis is placed upon teaching, two specific patterns emerge: reciprocity may be an unspoken agreement between some faculty and students with regard to the exchange of good grades for good evaluations, or with experience comes rigor.

  8. Self-Esteem of Children in Fourth through Sixth Grades with Working and Non-Working Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Mary

    Many factors have been associated with the varying levels of self-esteem among children. Researchers disagree on the relative importance of many factors, including maternal employment, anxiety, family happiness, and family structure. This study was conducted to investigate associations between the above-mentioned factors and gender, grade level,…

  9. Making the GRADE: CHEST Updates Its Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekemper, Rebecca L; Patel, Sheena; Mette, Stephen A; Ornelas, Joseph; Ouellette, Daniel R; Casey, Kenneth R

    2018-03-01

    The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) has been at the forefront of evidence-based clinical practice guideline development for more than 2 decades. In 2006, CHEST adopted a modified system of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) to support their rigorous guideline development methodology. The evolution of CHEST's Living Guidelines Model, as well as their collaborative efforts with other organizations, has necessitated improvements in their guideline development methodology. CHEST has made the decision to transition to the standard GRADE method for rating the certainty of evidence and grading recommendations in their evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, a deviation from the modified approach that was adopted in 2006. The standard GRADE approach will be used to grade recommendations in all CHEST guidelines, including updates to previously published guidelines. CHEST's adoption of a standard GRADE approach will ensure that its guideline development methodology is more consistent with that used by other organizations, will better align evidence synthesis methods, and will result in more explicit and easy to understand recommendations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  10. PREVENTION OF SPINAL DISORDERS IN CHILDRENI- IV GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejаn Gojković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem physical activities children younger school-age children, with the basic tasks research is construction kinesitherapy adequate prevention and avoid postural disorders spinal column, optimal ontogenetic level morphological( anthropological development.The main objective research is contents teaching physical education as well as and content that can be put in regular program teaching physical education with the basic task prevention potential and eliminate disorders spinal column, with auxiliary a harmonious biological development. The entities from which he was carried out sample size for this research is defined as population students male primary schools I- IV grade.The first and basic condition was that they are included in teaching physical education in the course of this research sample is taked 400 respondents.-according to the manner elections respondents sample was targeted selected.were taken I- IV grade elementary schools in Bijeljina, Teslic, Foca and Pale.

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of Grading Practices: How Pre-Service Training Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the enduring problem of inconsistent K-12 grading practices by exploring the relationship between teachers' perceptions of various grading practices, such as factoring student behavior in academic grades, as related to grade level, district locale, and training. Survey responses from 2,996 K-12 teachers from one suburban and…

  12. MOOC and mechanized grading

    OpenAIRE

    Queinnec, Christian

    2013-01-01

    4 pages; As many others, we too are developping a Massive Online Open Course or MOOC. This MOOC will teach recursive programming for beginnners and makes an heavy use of an already existing infrastructure for mechanical grading. This paper presents some ideas on how to combine these two components along with some (untested) incentives in order to increase students' involvement.

  13. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  14. Purpose-Driven Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  15. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  16. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  17. Grading Classroom Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, John C.; Peterson, Dean

    1998-01-01

    Grading class participation can send positive signals to college students about the kind of learning and thinking an instructor values. Various structures for participation (whole-class discussion, cold-calling on students, collaborative learning, electronic mail, journals, student-faculty conferences) call for different approaches to assessment.…

  18. Concrete manufacture with un-graded recycled aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Alan; Coventry, Kathryn; Graham, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether concrete that includes un-graded recycled aggregates can be manufactured to a comparable strength to concrete manufactured from virgin aggregates. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A paired comparison test was used to evaluate the difference between concrete made with virgin aggregates (plain control) and concrete including recycled waste. Un-graded construction demolition waste and un-graded ground glass were used as aggregate...

  19. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  20. [Formation and evolution of commodity specification and grade of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Ying; Wang, Hai-Yang; Li, Jian; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Yang, Guang

    2016-03-01

    As an important reference index to evaluate the quality of Chinese medicinal materials, the commodity specification and grade of traditional Chinese medicine has an effect on the medicinal material's price, can promote "high quality and high price" of the traditional Chinese medicine, prompt market transactions more convenient and standard, and has a great significance to the development of the whole traditional Chinese medicine industry. The formation of traditional Chinese medicine specifications and grades experienced a long historical development process. In order to provide the reference for modification of the product specifications and grades standards and management of traditional Chinese medicine products, the author consulted a large number of materia medica books and related references, sorted and analyzed the historical development process. The author divided the formation and development process into four stages, including germination stage before the Southern and Northern Dynasties, development stage of Tang and Song Dynasty, mature period of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the inheritance development stage since the foundation of the People's Republic. The author believes that the clinical curative effect is the driving force to promote the development of commodity specifications and grades. In addition, the national pharmaceutical policy, international status, the level of science and technology also influence the development of commodity specifications and grades in some extents. Finally, the author provides three piece of suggestions for the modification of the product specifications and grades standards, according to the historical development rule. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Open grade III fractures of femoral shaft: Outcome after early reamed intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Garg, R; Bassi, J L; Tripathi, S K

    2011-09-01

    Open grade III fractures of femur are a challenging therapeutic problem as most of them are associated with multiple trauma. Method used for skeletal stabilization of these fractures should limit further soft tissue damage, bacterial spread and morbidity in addition to its ease of application, providing mechanical support and restoring normal alignment. Forty-six patients with open grade III fractures of femoral shaft were included in the study. There were 10 grade IIIA, 34 grade IIIB and two grade IIIC fractures that were treated with early reamed intramedullary nailing with adequate management of soft tissue. Patients were reviewed retrospectively. Mean time of union was 27 weeks. Infection rate was 4% and non-union rate was 9%. There were two cases (4%) with limb shortening. No case of angular or rotational deformity was noted. Early reamed intramedullary nailing for open grade III fractures of femoral shaft, after giving due respect to the soft tissue injury, gives satisfactory results with proper alignment, good range of motion, short rehabilitation period and low infection rate. Level IV. Retrospective therapeutic study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Grading and disease management in national screening for diabetic retinopathy in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, S; Greenwood, R; Aldington, S; Gibson, J; Owens, D; Taylor, R; Kohner, E; Scanlon, P; Leese, G

    2003-12-01

    A National Screening Programme for diabetic eye disease in the UK is in development. We propose a grading and early disease management protocol to detect sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy and any retinopathy, which will allow precise quality assurance at all steps while minimizing false-positive referral to the hospital eye service. Expert panel structured discussions between 2000 and 2002 with review of existing evidence and grading classifications. Principles of the protocol include: separate grading of retinopathy and maculopathy, minimum number of steps, compatible with central monitoring, expandable for established more complex systems and for research, no lesion counting, no 'questionable' lesions, attempt to detect focal exudative, diffuse and ischaemic maculopathy and fast track referral from primary or secondary graders. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy is defined as: preproliferative retinopathy or worse, sight-threatening maculopathy and/or the presence of photocoagulation. In the centrally reported minimum data set retinopathy is graded into four levels: none (R0), background (R1), preproliferative (R2), proliferative (R3). Maculopathy and photocoagulation are graded as absent (M0, P0) or present (M1, P1). The protocol developed by the Diabetic Retinopathy Grading and Disease Management Working Party represents a new consensus upon which national guidelines can be based leading to the introduction of quality-assured screening for people with diabetes.

  3. Voxel-based clustered imaging by multiparameter diffusion tensor images for glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inano, Rika; Oishi, Naoya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Shibata, Sumiya; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common intra-axial primary brain tumour; therefore, predicting glioma grade would influence therapeutic strategies. Although several methods based on single or multiple parameters from diagnostic images exist, a definitive method for pre-operatively determining glioma grade remains unknown. We aimed to develop an unsupervised method using multiple parameters from pre-operative diffusion tensor images for obtaining a clustered image that could enable visual grading of gliomas. Fourteen patients with low-grade gliomas and 19 with high-grade gliomas underwent diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before tumour resection. Seven features including diffusion-weighted imaging, fractional anisotropy, first eigenvalue, second eigenvalue, third eigenvalue, mean diffusivity and raw T2 signal with no diffusion weighting, were extracted as multiple parameters from diffusion tensor imaging. We developed a two-level clustering approach for a self-organizing map followed by the K-means algorithm to enable unsupervised clustering of a large number of input vectors with the seven features for the whole brain. The vectors were grouped by the self-organizing map as protoclusters, which were classified into the smaller number of clusters by K-means to make a voxel-based diffusion tensor-based clustered image. Furthermore, we also determined if the diffusion tensor-based clustered image was really helpful for predicting pre-operative glioma grade in a supervised manner. The ratio of each class in the diffusion tensor-based clustered images was calculated from the regions of interest manually traced on the diffusion tensor imaging space, and the common logarithmic ratio scales were calculated. We then applied support vector machine as a classifier for distinguishing between low- and high-grade gliomas. Consequently, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic

  4. Initial Comparison of Baseline Physical and Mechanical Properties for the VHTR Candidate Graphite Grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Mark C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). VHTR Program

    2014-09-01

    process. An analysis of the comparison between each of these grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in the overall variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for predicting in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear-grade graphites will naturally continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized with regard to strength, physical properties, and thermal performance from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

  5. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    OpenAIRE

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.; Unemo, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) curren...

  6. Cranial Chordoma: A New Preoperative Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito da Silva, Harley; Straus, David; Barber, Jason K; Rostomily, Robert C; Ferreira, Manuel; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2017-11-03

    Chordomas are rare but challenging neoplasms involving the skull base. A preoperative grading system will be useful to identify both areas for treatment and risk factors, and correlate to the degree of resection, complications, and recurrence. To propose a new grading system for cranial chordomas designed by the senior author. Its purpose is to enable comparison of different tumors with a similar pathology to clivus chordoma, and statistically correlate with postoperative outcomes. The numerical grading system included tumor size, site of the tumor, vascular encasement, intradural extension, brainstem invasion, and recurrence of the tumor either after surgery or radiotherapy with a range of 2 to 25 points; it was used in 42 patients with cranial chordoma. The grading system was correlated with number of operations for resection, degree of resection, number and type of complications, recurrence, and survival. We found 3 groups: low-risk 0 to 7 points, intermediate-risk 8 to 12 points, and high-risk ≥13 points in the grading system. The 3 groups were correlated with the following: extent of resection (partial, subtotal, or complete; P system itself correlated with the outcome (P = .005). The proposed chordoma grading system can help surgeons to predict the difficulty of the case and know which areas of the skull base will need attention to plan further therapy. © Congress of Neurological Surgeons 2017.

  7. DESCRIPTIVE GRADES IN INITIAL MATHEMATICAL TEACHING PARENTS' ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dževad Burgić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation is very sensitive process in up bring-education work and it is important for comprehensive development of student. More often are fears of different kind, certain forms of unacceptable behavior, are connected with students failure in school and with school evaluation.Grade is feedback on achievements whose purpose is to provide timely information of current level and the steps that are ahead. Numerical grade reflects level of achievements, but there is no indication about elements that makes that grade. Descriptive grade contains key information's about the progress and for that kind of grade you need a lot of words. For student to be descriptively graded, teacher needs to be professionally educated and ready for detailed monitoring and evaluation of student's achievements. Teacher, using appropriate terminology, should successfully describe achievements of student's progress. The school is expected to teach students how to learn and to prepare them for lifelong learning. One of the important factors is also parents. During the time spent with teachers and parents a need has be shown to examine parent's attitudes about descriptive grades in nine-year elementary school. One of the courses that a descriptive grade cannot fully characterize the overall progress of students is mathematics. This course has been chosen because of the problems that parents have when their kids are in first two grades of nine-year elementary school, their attitudes about descriptive grades and difficulties they have when they try to understand student's achievements.

  8. DESCRIPTIVE GRADES IN INITIAL MATHEMATICAL TEACHING PARENT'S ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dževad Burgić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation is very sensitive process in up bring-education work and it is important for comprehensive development of student. More often are fears of different kind, certain forms of unacceptable behavior, are connected with students failure in school and with school evaluation.Grade is feedback on achievements whose purpose is to provide timely information of current level and the steps that are ahead. Numerical grade reflects level of achievements, but there is no indication about elements that makes that grade. Descriptive grade contains key information's about the progress and for that kind of grade you need a lot of words. For student to be descriptively graded, teacher needs to be professionally educated and ready for detailed monitoring and evaluation of student's achievements. Teacher, using appropriate terminology, should successfully describe achievements of student's progress. The school is expected to teach students how to learn and to prepare them for lifelong learning. One of the important factors is also parents. During the time spent with teachers and parents a need has be shown to examine parent's attitudes about descriptive grades in nine-year elementary school. One of the courses that a descriptive grade cannot fully characterize the overall progress of students is mathematics. This course has been chosen because of the problems that parents have when their kids are in first two grades of nine-year elementary school, their attitudes about descriptive grades and difficulties they have when they try to understand student's achievements.

  9. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  10. In vitro activity of the new fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) against a large collection of clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and international reference strains, including those with high-level antimicrobial resistance: potential treatment option for gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S; Unemo, Magnus

    2012-05-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea.

  11. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  12. Developing Middle Grades Students' MP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassell, Janet; Stobaugh, Rebecca; Sheffield, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Middle grades are a critical time for capturing the interest and imagination and developing the potential of mathematically promising students. This is a time for students to make sense of mathematics, build a solid foundation and enthusiasm, and set the course for the highest levels of mathematics in the future. This is a time to explore their…

  13. When Wrong Answers Receive Top Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur; Eisenkraft, Noah

    2011-01-01

    To find out whether the education community shares a collective understanding about how students should be evaluated, we surveyed 202 educators (from all grade levels) and scientists attending assessment workshops (Pennsylvania, California, and Massachusetts) or judging a national student competition (Washington, DC). The educators and scientists…

  14. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  15. Handicraft (Industrial Arts). Grades 4-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Xuan Thuy

    This is the second of two textbooks covering the elementary program in Vietnam on handicrafts and industrial arts. It is written for Vietnamese children at the fourth and fifth grade level. The four chapters are: (1) clay moulding, (2) use of ordinary carpentry tools, (3) book binding, and (4) miscellaneous. The course is designed to offer…

  16. 2015 Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 31 wells at the West Hackberry site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill and Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites.

  17. 2015 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bayou Choctaw Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Park, Byoung; Rudeen, D.K.; Eldredge, L.L.; Wynn, K.; Checkai, D.; Osborne, G.; Moore, D.

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 15 wells at the Bayou Choctaw site, with each active well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites.

  18. 2014 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 47 wells at the Bryan Mound site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site.

  19. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  20. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral...

  1. Textural analysis of pre-therapeutic [18F]-FET-PET and its correlation with tumor grade and patient survival in high-grade gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyka, Thomas; Hiob, Daniela; Wester, Hans-Juergen [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Neurosurgic Department, Munich (Germany); Schlegel, Juergen [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Munich (Germany); Bette, Stefanie [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Neuroradiologic department, Munich (Germany); Foerster, Stefan [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Munich (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine (FET) is well established in the diagnostic work-up of malignant brain tumors. Analysis of FET-PET data using tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) has been shown to be highly valuable for the detection of viable hypermetabolic brain tumor tissue; however, it has not proven equally useful for tumor grading. Recently, textural features in 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET have been proposed as a method to quantify the heterogeneity of glucose metabolism in a variety of tumor entities. Herein we evaluate whether textural FET-PET features are of utility for grading and prognostication in patients with high-grade gliomas. One hundred thirteen patients (70 men, 43 women) with histologically proven high-grade gliomas were included in this retrospective study. All patients received static FET-PET scans prior to first-line therapy. TBR (max and mean), volumetric parameters and textural parameters based on gray-level neighborhood difference matrices were derived from static FET-PET images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and discriminant function analyses were used to assess the value for tumor grading. Kaplan-Meier curves and univariate and multivariate Cox regression were employed for analysis of progression-free and overall survival. All FET-PET textural parameters showed the ability to differentiate between World Health Organization (WHO) grade III and IV tumors (p < 0.001; AUC 0.775). Further improvement in discriminatory power was possible through a combination of texture and metabolic tumor volume, classifying 85 % of tumors correctly (AUC 0.830). TBR and volumetric parameters alone were correlated with tumor grade, but showed lower AUC values (0.644 and 0.710, respectively). Furthermore, a correlation of FET-PET texture but not TBR was shown with patient PFS and OS, proving significant in multivariate analysis as well. Volumetric parameters were predictive for OS, but this correlation did not

  2. MRI features can predict EGFR expression in lower grade gliomas. A voxel-based radiomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yiming; Liu, Xing; Qian, Zenghui; Fan, Xing; Li, Shaowu; Jiang, Tao [Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Xu, Kaibin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai [Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing (China); Wang, Yinyan [Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing (China); Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing (China)

    2018-01-15

    To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression level in lower grade gliomas using radiomic analysis. 270 lower grade glioma patients with known EGFR expression status were randomly assigned into training (n=200) and validation (n=70) sets, and were subjected to feature extraction. Using a logistic regression model, a signature of MRI features was identified to be predictive of the EGFR expression level in lower grade gliomas in the training set, and the accuracy of prediction was assessed in the validation set. A signature of 41 MRI features achieved accuracies of 82.5% (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.90) in the training set and 90.0% (AUC = 0.95) in the validation set. This radiomic signature consisted of 25 first-order statistics or related wavelet features (including range, standard deviation, uniformity, variance), one shape and size-based feature (spherical disproportion), and 15 textural features or related wavelet features (including sum variance, sum entropy, run percentage). A radiomic signature allowing for the prediction of the EGFR expression level in patients with lower grade glioma was identified, suggesting that using tumour-derived radiological features for predicting genomic information is feasible. (orig.)

  3. A longitudinal analysis of science teaching and learning in kindergarten and first-grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgan, Refika

    This study attempted to determine how often science is taught in the early grades as well as the science topics taught in these grades. A related purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between science teaching and students' science achievement. In doing so, the analyses took into consideration the influence of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and race/ethnicity on children's academic performance in science. By using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K) kindergarten and first-grade data files, children's science Item Response Theory Scores (IRT) and Academic Rating Scores (ARS) were examined to measure the relationship between children's early science experiences in schools and their achievement on the "General Knowledge Assessment Battery". According to this study's findings science teaching and learning in kindergarten level is somewhat limited. Additionally, the science content taught in kindergarten is narrow. The results of cross-sectional and longitudinal multilevel analyses revealed that several student and school level factors can influence young children's science achievement in kindergarten and first-grade. Although there were inconsistent conclusions about male and female students' science achievement as assessed by direct and indirect assessment batteries, there was no association between children's science scores and their gender and the amount or degree of science practices in school. While results of the analyses clearly showed that socioeconomic status (SES) had the most influence on both kindergarten and first-grade children's science achievement, the findings related to the effects of different science practices on science achievement were inconsistent. The results showed that science instruction effects some children's science achievement more than others. The findings have important implications for policies governing the teaching of science in the early grades. A clear demand exist for

  4. [Influence of storage period and grading standards on quality of Prunella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang; Guo, Qiaosheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chengya

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the influence of storage period and grading standards on the quality of Prunella vulgaris in order to provide a theoretical basis for standardized cultivation. The spices of P. vulgaris in different storage period (including current year, first-year and second-year) were collected from Lujiang base in Anhui Province. The samples were randomized, with the methods of morphologic characteristics and commercial size on P. vulgaris, the samples were graded into three grades; according to the methods from the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, water-soluble extracts, ethanol-soluble extracts, total ash and acid insoluble ash were measured, respectively, utilizing the UV spectrophotometry to detection the contents of total flavonoids and polysaccharides, the levels of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and rosmarinic acid were adopted by HPLC. The total ash and acid insoluble ash of P. vulgaris showed significantly increase during prolonged storage; however, the content of water-soluble extracts, ethanol-soluble, total flavonoids, polysaccharides, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid,rosmarinic acid showed significantly decrease during prolonged storage. The spica of P. vulgaris exhibited no rules differences between the quality and grading standards, The second-degree belongs to high content of total flavonoids; the high content of polysaccharides was first-degree; the total ash and acid insoluble ash of spicas exhibited gradually decreased from first-degree to third-grade, and the content of water-soluble extracts, ethanol-soluble extracts,ursolic acid,oleanolic acid, rosmarinic acid showed gradually increased from first-degree to third-grade. The current year was a suitable storage time of spicas from P. vulgaris could be selected; and the main bioactive components highest level of P. vulgaris spicas was third-degree, second-grade next, first-degree minimum.

  5. Effect of retention in elementary grades on transition to middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N; Kwok, Oi-man; Puckett, Stevie; Cerda, Carissa Analise

    2013-06-01

    The authors investigated the effects of retention in grades 1 to 5 on students' reading and math achievement, teacher-rated engagement, and student-reported school belonging in middle school. From a multiethnic sample (N=784) of children who scored below the median on a test of literacy in grade 1, an average of 75 students subsequently retained in grades 1 to 5 were matched with an average of 299 continuously promoted students on the basis of propensity to be retained in the elementary grades. A total of 20 imputed datasets were analyzed, all of which showed good balance across the 67 baseline covariates used to calculate propensity scores. The hypothesis that retained students, who are "old for grade" when they make the transition to middle school, would have a more difficult transition to middle school than promoted peers was tested with 3-level, piecewise growth modeling. Piece 1 included assessments prior to the transition to middle school, and piece 2 included assessments after the transition. Retained and continuously promoted students did not differ on any of the outcome measures during the year prior to transition, nor did they differ in their post-transition trajectories. Discrepancies between these results and results of prior research are discussed in terms of demographic and generational differences as well as differences in methodological rigor. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The molecular biology of WHO grade I astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Nicholas F; Weil, Robert J

    2012-12-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytomas include pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). As technologies in pharmacologic neo-adjuvant therapy continue to progress and as molecular characteristics are progressively recognized as potential markers of both clinically significant tumor subtypes and response to therapy, interest in the biology of these tumors has surged. An updated review of the current knowledge of the molecular biology of these tumors is needed. We conducted a Medline search to identify published literature discussing the molecular biology of grade I astrocytomas. We then summarized this literature and discuss it in a logical framework through which the complex biology of these tumors can be clearly understood. A comprehensive review of the molecular biology of WHO grade I astrocytomas is presented. The past several years have seen rapid progress in the level of understanding of PA in particular, but the molecular literature regarding both PA and SEGA remains nebulous, ambiguous, and occasionally contradictory. In this review we provide a comprehensive discussion of the current understanding of the chromosomal, genomic, and epigenomic features of both PA and SEGA and provide a logical framework in which these data can be more readily understood.

  7. Eating Attitudes in Fourth-, Sixth-, and Eighth-Grade Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne-Winkler, Martha C.

    1994-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes of fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade girls (n=379) and relationship between those attitudes and achievement scores, school ability, absenteeism, family income, grade level, family size, age, height/weight ratio, diet history, weight satisfaction, appearance satisfaction, and school anxiety. Found that eating-disordered…

  8. Clinical and molecular features of high-grade osteosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anninga, Jakob Klaas

    2013-01-01

    It can be concluded from this thesis that high-grade osteosarcoma is at clinical, pathological and molecular level a heterogeneous disease. To treat high-grade osteosarcoma, neo-adjuvant chemotherapy should be combined with radical surgery, irrespective the localization. There are only 4 effective

  9. Urinary protein thiols in different grades of proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Mungli; Shetty, Jeevan K; Dash, Sambit; Barik, Bijay K; Sarkar, Abhirup; Awanti, Sharanabasappa M; Prabhu, Ravindra

    2008-10-01

    Total thiol status of plasma, especially thiol groups over protein contributes maximum to the plasma antioxidant status of the body. Serum protein thiols were found to be decreased in various disease conditions including chronic renal failure patients. Only few studies determined the levels of urinary protein thiols in disease conditions. The current study was designed to know the levels of urinary protein thiols in patients with different grades of proteinuria. The study was conducted on urine of 40 healthy controls and 61 cases with proteinuria. Based on proteinuria cases were further divided into two groups; group I - microproteinuria (150-300 mg protein/d), 32 cases, group II - frank proteinuria (>300 mg protein/d), 29 cases. Urinary thiol levels were determined by spectrophotometric method using dithionitrobenzoic acid. A significant decrease (pproteinuria.

  10. ‘Big Books’ as Mother Tongue-Based Instructional Materials in Bicol for Grade One Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M. Ocbian,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Language experts claim that it is easier for pupils to learn when the mother tongue is used in the teaching learning process including the learning of a second language. This study determined the reading comprehension level of Grade I pupils in Bulusan Central School for school year 2013-2014 as input in developing big books written in the vernacular that can be used as reading materials for Grade 1 pupils. Results of the evaluation revealed that they belong to the frustration and instructional levels in the literal skill; mostly are frustration readers along interpretative and evaluative skills; but are independent readers along applied skills; hence, they have low level of reading comprehension. Based on the result of the study, three big books as MTB-MLE instructional materials in Bicol were produced to develop or enhance Grade 1 pupils’ reading comprehension. Teaching guides were likewise developed.

  11. Evaluation of the Standard Setting on the 2005 Grade 12 National Assessment of Educational Progress Mathematics Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Hauger, Jeffrey B.; Wells, Craig S.; Shea, Christine; Zenisky, April L.

    2009-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board used a new method to set achievement level standards on the 2005 Grade 12 NAEP Math test. In this article, we summarize our independent evaluation of the process used to set these standards. The evaluation data included observations of the standard-setting meeting, observations of advisory committee meetings…

  12. Xbox Kinect Gaming Systems as a Supplemental Tool within a Physical Education Setting: Third and Fourth Grade Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmake, Cole J.; Merrie, Michael D.; Calleja, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Literature indicates that technology, including exergaming, is popular among adolescents and can be used as a supplemental tool in the physical education classroom. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine third and fourth grade students' perceived enjoyment and exertion levels toward exergaming in relation to traditional physical…

  13. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 4 Units: Conservation, The World of Work, and This is My Life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    The three curriculum units for the fourth grade level focus on: (1) conservation careers, systems, and needs; (2) occupational variety and qualifications; and (3) self awareness. Behavioral objectives range from helping students to become more aware of careers in a variety of occupations, including conservation. A chart format is used to list…

  14. Policy Statement on Grade Configuration. Issue 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, several large urban districts, including Cincinnati, Cleveland, Milwaukee, New York City, Philadelphia, Portland, and Kansas City, Missouri have converted their middle schools (generally grades 6-8) to K-8 schools in the hope of improving student achievement, attendance, and behavior, while also enhancing parental involvement. The…

  15. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  16. Changes in verbal and visuospatial working memory from Grade 1 to Grade 3 of primary school: Population longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, E; Quach, J; Lum, J; Roberts, G; Spencer-Smith, M; Gathercole, S; Anderson, P J; Mensah, F K; Wake, M

    2017-12-11

    Adaptive working memory training is being implemented without an adequate understanding of developmental trajectories of working memory. We aimed to quantify from Grade 1 to Grade 3 of primary school (1) changes in verbal and visuospatial working memory and (2) whether low verbal and visuospatial working memory in Grade 1 predicts low working memory in Grade 3. The study design includes a population-based longitudinal study of 1,802 children (66% uptake from all 2,747 Grade 1 students) at 44 randomly selected primary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Backwards Digit Recall (verbal working memory) and Mister X (visuospatial working memory) screening measures from the Automated Working Memory Assessment (M = 100; SD = 15) were used to assess Grades 1 and 3 (ages 6-7 and 8-9 years) students. Low working memory was defined as ≥1 standard deviation below the standard score mean. Descriptive statistics addressed Aim 1, and predictive parameters addressed Aim 2. One thousand seventy (59%) of 1802 Grade 1 participants were reassessed in Grade 3. As expected for typically developing children, group mean standard scores were similar in Grades 1 and 3 for verbal, visuospatial, and overall working memory, but group mean raw scores increased markedly. Compared to "not low" children, those classified as having low working memory in Grade 1 showed much larger increases in both standard and raw scores across verbal, visuospatial, and overall working memory. Sensitivity was very low for Grade 1 low working memory predicting Grade 3 low classifications. Although mean changes in working memory standard scores between Grades 1 and 3 were minimal, we found that individual development varied widely, with marked natural resolution by Grade 3 in children who initially had low working memory. This may render brain-training interventions ineffective in the early school year ages, particularly if (as population-based programmes usually mandate) selection occurs within a screening

  17. Graded associative conformal algebras of finite type

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider graded associative conformal algebras. The class of these objects includes pseudo-algebras over non-cocommutative Hopf algebras of regular functions on some linear algebraic groups. In particular, an associative conformal algebra which is graded by a finite group $\\Gamma $ is a pseudo-algebra over the coordinate Hopf algebra of a linear algebraic group $G$ such that the identity component $G^0$ is the affine line and $G/G^0\\simeq \\Gamma $. A classification of simple...

  18. Comparative study of histopathological Marsh grading with clinical and serological parameters in celiac iceberg of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Kalhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder caused by the ingestion of wheat gluten and related proteins in genetically susceptible individuals. It is characterized by anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG antibodies. Duodenal biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis. Correlation of clinical, serologic, and histological features is essential for a definitive diagnosis. The ratio of diagnosed versus undiagnosed cases is quite high. Aims: This study aimed to correlate the degree of mucosal damage with anti-tTG levels, mean baseline hemoglobin and endoscopic findings. Setting and Design: Two hundred twenty six adults suspected to have celiac disease were studied. Marsh grades were compared with anti-tTG levels, hemoglobin, endoscopy, and clinical presentations. Materials and Methods: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, serum levels of anti-tTG, complete hematologic work-up, and duodenal biopsy were performed in all 226 cases (including three siblings of confirmed patients with well-defined symptom groups. Histopathological grading was done as per modified Marsh system. Correlation of all the parameters was performed with Marsh grades. Statistical Analysis : Performed on SPSS version 15.0. Tests applied include one way ANOVA, Chi-square test, repeated measure analysis, and Bonferroni′s method for comparison. Results were considered significant when P<0.05. Results and Conclusions: Anti-tTG levels, mean baseline hemoglobin, and endoscopic findings were found to correlate with increasing severity of mucosal damage with P<0.001 for all. Anti-tTG levels of grades 1+2 and those of grade 3a were significantly different from levels of grades 3b and 3c+4 with P<0.001 for each. Varied clinical presentations of celiac disease were seen in the adult wheat eaters of North India.

  19. Perfusion CT can predict tumoral grading of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Onofrio, M., E-mail: mirko.donofrio@univr.it [Department of Radiology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Gallotti, A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Mantovani, W. [Department of Medicine and Public Health, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Crosara, S. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Manfrin, E. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Falconi, M. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Ventriglia, A.; Zamboni, G.A.; Manfredi, R.; Pozzi Mucelli, R. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Objectives: To describe perfusion CT features of locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and to evaluate correlation with tumor grading. Methods: Thirty-two patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included in this study. Lesions were evaluated by P-CT and biopsy after patient's informed consent. P-CT parameters have been assessed on a large single and on 6 small intratumoral ROIs. Values obtained have been compared and related to the tumor grading using Mann–Whitney U test. Sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy in predicting tumor grading have been calculated for cut-off values chosen by using ROC curves. Results: Out of 32 lesions, 12 were classified as low grade and 20 as high grade. A statistically significant difference between high and low grade neoplasms were demonstrated for PEI and BV parameters. PEI and BV cut-off values were respectively 17.8 HU and 14.8 ml/100 g. PEI identified high grade neoplasms with a 65% sensitivity, 92% specificity, 93% PPV, 61% NPV and 75% accuracy. BV identified high grade neoplasms with a 80% sensitivity, 75% specificity, 84% PPV, 69% NPV, 78% accuracy. Considering both PEI and BV, P-CT identified high grade lesions with a 60% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV, 60% NPV and 75% accuracy. Conclusions: PEI and BV perfusion CT parameters proved their efficiency in identifying high grade pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  20. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.304 Grades and grade requirements for canola. Grading factors Grades, U.S. Nos...

  1. ECHM Consensus Conference and levels of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Susannah

    2017-06-01

    The ECHM Consensus Conference on indications for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) was a welcome update of the evidence for HBOT use. However, clarification is requested in relation to how the GRADE system (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was modified and how levels of evidence were applied in the case of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). GRADE has a low kappa value for inter-observer agreement, so is modification valid? The original GRADE criteria, using consensus, grades evidence (defined as high, low and very low) and uses this to adjust the strength of recommendations. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) score highly. The ECHM have modified the GRADE system without explanation, assigning grades as levels 1 to 4 and have asserted that RCTs which are double-blinded constitute level 1 or 2 evidence. This has important implications for HBOT research. The term double-blinded is not used in the abstract, which leads the reader to wonder; where do RCTs which are not double-blinded fit in? The ECHM, by including the term double blinded as a requirement for level 1 or 2, has lifted the evidence bar. Does this constitute a form of research "bracket creep"? Double-blinding is viewed by many to require a 'sham' treatment in hyperbaric research. Many conditions require multiple doses requiring daily hospital attendance with associated costs of lost time from work and daily transport costs. Even with a crossover after the sham, a requirement of many ethics committees, the lost time for a patient is a considerable burden. Delaying HBOT until crossover in those randomised to the control group in a disease that has a narrow therapeutic temporal window, such as idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL), may affect the chance of recovery. Double blinding is logistically difficult with HBOT. A sham treatment may be achieved by using air instead of oxygen; however, this exposes the non-intervention group to a risk

  2. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date, at Edgemont, South Dakota are given. Using past and present experience setting forth the major problem as viewed by the author, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility are presented. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are included. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  3. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five grades of Xihulongjing tea (grade: AAA, AA, A, B and C, from the same region and processed with the same processing method) were discriminated using -Astree II electronic tongue (e-tongue) coupled with pattern recognition methods including principal component analysis (PCA), canonical discriminant analysis ...

  4. The Changing Landscape of Grading Systems in US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven B.; Leidman, Mary Beth; Longcore, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The following study explores the landscape of grading systems utilised in higher education, focusing on the frequency of different types of assessment scales (including Straight Letter, Plus/Minus, and other alternative policies). Although numerous studies have explored the relationship between university grading system and student behaviour,…

  5. Guide for Teaching Physical Education, Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical education, including team sports, stunts, tumbling and gymnastics, track and field, swimming, individual and dual sports, physical education for the handicapped, outdoor education, and rhythmic activities. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 16 chapters, each of…

  6. Butt-log grade distributions for five Appalachian hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; Gary W. Miller; Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Joseph E. Barnard; Joseph E. Barnard

    1986-01-01

    Tree quality is an important factor in determining the market value of hardwood timber stands, but many forest inventories do not include estimates of tree quality. Butt-log grade distributions were developed for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, and yellow-poplar using USDA Forest Service log grades on more than 4,700 trees in West Virginia. Butt-...

  7. Talent Development Middle Grades Program. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Talent Development Middle Grades Program" is a comprehensive reform model that transforms the structure and curriculum of large urban middle schools with the aim of improving student achievement and raising teacher and student expectations. Key features of the "Talent Development Middle Grades Program" include small…

  8. Omani Twelfth Grade Students' Most Common Misconceptions in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Shuaili, Ali H.; Taylor, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The current study, undertaken in the Sultanate of Oman, explored twelfth grade students' common misconceptions in seven chemistry conceptual areas. The sample included 786 twelfth grade students in Oman while the instrument was a two-tier test called Chemistry Misconceptions Diagnostic Test (CMDT), consisting of 25 items with 12 items…

  9. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Five grades of Xihulongjing tea (grade: AAA, AA, A, B and C, from the same region and processed with the same processing method) were discriminated using α-Astree II electronic tongue (e-tongue) coupled with pattern recognition methods including principal component analysis (PCA), canonical.

  10. Just Chillin' on the Quad: Middle Grades Students in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Mary Beth; Rivera, Lourdes M.

    2014-01-01

    The middle grades years has a profound and lasting impact on student achievement, including opportunities for college and career access and readiness. It is important that students at this age understand college and college life. Such understanding can help middle grades students focus on career goals and postsecondary planning, and this awareness…

  11. Tlif Versus Plif In Management Of Low Grade Spondylolisthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Spinal fusion is commonly performed together with rigid instrumentation to treat low-grade spondylolisthesis. Several fusion methods have been reported for low-grade spondylolisthesis via various approaches including posterolateral fusion (PLF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar ...

  12. Technical criteria for terminating or reducing domestic safeguards on low-grade special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    A graded table for terminating or reducing domestic safeguards has been developed for use by programs and facilities within the Department of Energy in decisions regarding the need for or levels of protection of low-grade nuclear materials. Contained in this table are technical criteria which can allow for complete removal of safeguards over many special nuclear material forms and concentrations of typical low-grade materials either currently located at generating or processing sites and materials which may arise from processing operations related to stabilization and disposition activities. In addition, these criteria include higher concentration levels which may warrant maintaining some level of (albeit reduced) security on low-grade materials while allowing reductions in materials control and accountability requirements. These reductions can range from complete removal of these materials from materials control and accountability requirements such as measurements, physical inventories and recordkeeping, to deferring these measurements and physical inventories until a time that either the material is removed from the site or resubmitted for processing. It is important to note that other conditions contained in current Departmental safeguards and security policy be met prior to safeguards termination or reduction

  13. Mechanics of Graded Wrinkles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; Boyce, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Shark skin is known for its anti-fouling and self-cleaning properties. In attempts to mimic this pattern for getting similar properties, different surface patterns such as Sharklet and wrinkles have been previously introduced. Wrinkled patterns have gained importance in applications such as microfluidics, wetting and adhesion. Through buckling of a thin film of stiff material on a substrate of softer material, and maintaining symmetric geometries, ordered wrinkled patterns can be created. However, it can be shown that using the same principle, by changing the geometry of the surface, the dimensions of the wrinkles can be altered. This alteration turns ordered wrinkles into graded wrinkles which have more resemblance to shark skin than the ordered wrinkles, maintaining the same wave length while each wave having different amplitude. Here using finite element models, experiments and analytical solutions, the relations between different geometries and the resulting patterns were investigated.

  14. Zn graded differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of differential algebras generated by an operator d satisfying the property d N = 0 instead of d 2 = 0 as in the usual case were investigated. The commutation relations for the generalized differentials ensuring the desired property can be put into the cyclic form a 1 a 2 a 3 ... a N = q a N a 1 a 2 ... a N-1 , where q is a primitive N-th root of unity. Examples of realizations of such differential algebras are given, either in the space of Z N -graded N x N matrix algebras, or as generalized differential calculus on manifolds. A generalization of gauge theories based on such differential calculus is briefly discussed. (author). 10 refs

  15. Quantitative genome-wide methylation analysis of high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Mark O; Bryan, Richard T; Emes, Richard D; Glossop, John R; Luscombe, Christopher; Cheng, K K; Zeegers, Maurice P; James, Nicholas D; Devall, Adam J; Mein, Charles A; Gommersall, Lyndon; Fryer, Anthony A; Farrell, William E

    2016-03-03

    High-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HG-NMIBC) is a clinically unpredictable disease with greater risks of recurrence and progression relative to their low-intermediate-grade counterparts. The molecular events, including those affecting the epigenome, that characterize this disease entity in the context of tumor development, recurrence, and progression, are incompletely understood. We therefore interrogated genome-wide DNA methylation using HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays in 21 primary HG-NMIBC tumors relative to normal bladder controls. Using strict inclusion-exclusion criteria we identified 1,057 hypermethylated CpGs within gene promoter-associated CpG islands, representing 256 genes. We validated the array data by bisulphite pyrosequencing and examined 25 array-identified candidate genes in an independent cohort of 30 HG-NMIBC and 18 low-intermediate-grade NMIBC. These analyses revealed significantly higher methylation frequencies in high-grade tumors relative to low-intermediate-grade tumors for the ATP5G2, IRX1 and VAX2 genes (P<0.05), and similarly significant increases in mean levels of methylation in high-grade tumors for the ATP5G2, VAX2, INSRR, PRDM14, VSX1, TFAP2b, PRRX1, and HIST1H4F genes (P<0.05). Although inappropriate promoter methylation was not invariantly associated with reduced transcript expression, a significant association was apparent for the ARHGEF4, PON3, STAT5a, and VAX2 gene transcripts (P<0.05). Herein, we present the first genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in a unique HG-NMIBC cohort, showing extensive and discrete methylation changes relative to normal bladder and low-intermediate-grade tumors. The genes we identified hold significant potential as targets for novel therapeutic intervention either alone, or in combination, with more conventional therapeutic options in the treatment of this clinically unpredictable disease.

  16. Neuropathic pain: an updated grading system for research and clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerup, Nanna B.; Haroutounian, Simon; Kamerman, Peter; Baron, Ralf; Bennett, David L.H.; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Freeman, Roy; Hansson, Per; Nurmikko, Turo; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Serra, Jordi; Smith, Blair H.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Jensen, Troels S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The redefinition of neuropathic pain as “pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system,” which was suggested by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Special Interest Group on Neuropathic Pain (NeuPSIG) in 2008, has been widely accepted. In contrast, the proposed grading system of possible, probable, and definite neuropathic pain from 2008 has been used to a lesser extent. Here, we report a citation analysis of the original NeuPSIG grading paper of 2008, followed by an analysis of its use by an expert panel and recommendations for an improved grading system. As of February, 2015, 608 eligible articles in Scopus cited the paper, 414 of which cited the neuropathic pain definition. Of 220 clinical studies citing the paper, 56 had used the grading system. The percentage using the grading system increased from 5% in 2009 to 30% in 2014. Obstacles to a wider use of the grading system were identified, including (1) questions about the relative significance of confirmatory tests, (2) the role of screening tools, and (3) uncertainties about what is considered a neuroanatomically plausible pain distribution. Here, we present a revised grading system with an adjusted order, better reflecting clinical practice, improvements in the specifications, and a word of caution that even the “definite” level of neuropathic pain does not always indicate causality. In addition, we add a table illustrating the area of pain and sensory abnormalities in common neuropathic pain conditions and propose areas for further research. PMID:27115670

  17. The exploration of relationship between the surgery grading management and the ICD-9-CM-3 coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-yu FAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgery grading management is one of the key aspects of medical technology access and medical quality management. Surgical classification is graded by risk level, the degree of difficulty of the process and the technology; however, surgery coding is mainly classified by the surgical site. Therefore, the grading of the ICD coding surgical name encounters some difficulties. Our hospital uses the “Jiangsu Province set of medical information classification and coding standards” and “Jiangsu Province surgery hierarchical directory”, which is issued by Jiangsu Provincial Commission of Health and Family Planning, as the basis. We are practicing and exploring about the correspondence between the surgery which has graded and ICD-9-CM-3 encoding, including six categories problems, such as different types of the same operation, different surgeries of the same parts. We carry out the surgical grading and coding intelligent management into hospital management, which will regulate the management of hospital surgery more effectively, ensure the safety of medical quality, and reduce the incidence of adverse events in health care.

  18. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses...... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...... the causal effect of blind grading, exploiting two separate identification strategies. The first derives from a unique full cohort natural experiment with a grading reform, providing exogenous variation in blind grading. The other strategy derives from a field experiment where the exact same exam papers...

  19. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross

  20. Grade Retention and Unobserved Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Gary-Bobo; Marion Gousse; Jean-Marc Robin

    2014-01-01

    We study the treatment effect of grade retention using a panel of French junior high-school students, taking unobserved heterogeneity and the endogeneity of grade repetitions into account. We specify a multistage model of human-capital accumulation with a finite number of types representing unobserved individual characteristics. Class-size and latent student-performance indices are assumed to follow finite mixtures of normal distributions. Grade retention may increase or decrea...

  1. Formative value of descriptive grades in mathematics instruction for beginners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive grading has been implemented in the first grade of primary school in the Republic of Serbia from 2003. The monitoring of this system novelty has been absent since research community most often dealt with teachers’ attitudes and their self-evaluation of the competences for descriptive grading. This form of grading, which stems from the social constructivist paradigm, is observed as the trigger of development of the formative approach in assessment, which has been in the focus of theoreticians and practitioners in the past thirty years, especially in the United States of America and Great Britain. The method of content analysis was applied to 316 descriptive grades in mathematics given to first grade primary students. The quality of three key elements was assessed: the description of academic achievement, the description of students’ engagement and the recommendations to achieve further progress, as well as the balance of quality between the elements of the same descriptive grade. Research results have shown that descriptive grades mostly lack the necessary formative capacity. This means that the majority of students this sample of grades was prepared for did not receive quality and comprehensive feedback, which would be conducive for their further education. Formative assessment, as one of the implications of the constructivist theoretical grounding, demands a high level of development of teacher competences for monitoring the progress and assessing the students, which has not been confirmed in the present research.

  2. A score of low-grade inflammation and risk of mortality: prospective findings from the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Pounis, George; De Curtis, Amalia; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2016-11-01

    Low-grade inflammation is associated with an increased risk of chronic degenerative disease, but its relationship with mortality is less well explored. We aimed at evaluating, at a large epidemiological level, the possible association of low-grade inflammation, as measured by a composite score, with overall mortality risk. We conducted a population-based prospective investigation on 20,337 adult subjects free from major hematological disease and acute inflammatory status, randomly recruited from the general population of the Moli-sani study. A low-grade inflammation score was obtained from the sum of 10-tiles of plasmatic (C-reactive protein) and cellular (leukocyte and platelet counts, granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio) biomarkers of low-grade inflammation; higher levels indicated increased low-grade inflammation. Hazard ratios were calculated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models with 95% confidence intervals. At the end of follow-up (median 7.6 years), 837 all-cause deaths were recorded. As compared to subjects in the lowest quartile of the low-grade inflammation score, those in the highest category had a significantly increased risk in overall mortality (HR=1.44; 1.17-1.77), independently of possible confounders, including the presence of chronic diseases and a number of health-related behaviors. The magnitude of the association of low-grade inflammation with mortality was relatively higher in type 2 diabetic patients (HR=2.90; 1.74-4.84) and in individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease (HR=2.48; 1.50-4.11) as compared to their counterparts who were free from the disease. In conclusion, an elevated degree of low-grade inflammation, as measured by a composite score of inflammatory biomarkers, is an independent risk factor for total mortality in an apparently healthy adult general population. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Grades of 43 Fish Species in Japan Based on IgE-binding Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Koyama

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: A correlation was observed between IgE levels and expression of symptoms after fish ingestion. High consumption of salmon, tuna, scad (including saurel, skipper, yellowtail, sardine, bonita and mackerel in Japan might be the cause of the high IgE-binding activity of these species. The grades of fish species consumed widely in Japan are likely to be useful for nutritional instruction of fish-allergic patients.

  4. Identifying patients at risk for high-grade intra-abdominal hypertension following trauma laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Steven G; Van Imhoff, Diederik L; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; D'Amours, Scott K; Van Waes, Oscar J F

    2015-05-01

    Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) is an uncommon but deleterious complication after trauma laparotomy. Early recognition of patients at risk of developing ACS is crucial for their outcome. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of patients who developed high-grade intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) (i.e., grade III or IV; intra-abdominal pressure, IAP >20 mm Hg) following an injury-related laparotomy versus those who did not (i.e., IAP ≤20 mm Hg). A retrospective analysis of consecutive trauma patients admitted to a level 1 trauma centre in Australia between January 1, 1995 and January 31, 2010 was performed. A comparison was made between characteristics of patients who developed high-grade IAH following trauma laparotomy versus those who did not. A total of 567 patients (median age 31 years) were included in this study. Of these patients 10.2% (58/567) developed high-grade IAH of which 51.7% (30/58) developed ACS. Patients with high-grade IAH were older (pgrade IAH received larger volumes of crystalloids (pgrade IAH suffered higher mortality rates (25.9% (15/58) vs. 12.2% (62/509); p=0.012). Of all patients who underwent a trauma laparotomy, 10.2% developed high-grade IAH, which increases the risk of mortality. Patients with acidosis, coagulopathy, and hypothermia were especially at risk. In these patients, the abdomen should be left open until adequate resuscitation has been achieved, allowing for definitive surgery. This is a level III retrospective study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for high-grade envenomations after French viper bites in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Isabelle; Maréchal, Céline; Gurrera, Emmanuel; Cordier, Laurie; Honorat, Raphaele; Grouteau, Erick

    2012-07-01

    Viper bites and subsequent evolution to severe envenomations are more frequent in children. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical, biological, and therapeutic characteristics of children bitten by vipers in France and to identify risk factors associated with severe envenomations. A retrospective study was conducted between 2001 and 2009 in the pediatric emergency department of a tertiary-level children hospital. Collected data were age and sex of children; day and time of admission; day, time, and circumstances of the accident; snake identification; bite location; envenomation severity; presence of fang marks; prehospital care; use of specific immunotherapy and associated treatments; length of stay; and hospital course. Fifty-eight children were included (43 boys, 15 girls). The mean age was 7.8 ± 4.1 years. Bites were most often located on the lower extremities (77%). The classification of envenomation was: 83% low grade (absence or minor envenomation) and 17% high-grade (moderate to severe envenomations). All high-grade envenomations received specific immunotherapy (Viperfav). Being bitten on an upper extremity (P level (P = 0.016) were associated with a significant risk of high-grade envenomation. In the multivariate analysis, 3 factors remained significant: upper-extremity location (relative risk [RR], 60.5 [3.5-1040]; P = 0.005), immediate violent pain (RR, 21.5 [1.3-364.5]; P = 0.03), and female sex (RR, 17.5 [0.9-320.3]; P = 0.053). A certain number of criteria seem related to more significant risk of progression to high-grade envenomation. Bites to the upper extremities should be carefully observed because of the risk of evolution to a high-grade envenomation.

  6. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (design of miniature filters and power converters.

  7. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  8. Nonpunitive Grading Practices and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Paul A.; Brydon, Charles W.

    Information pertaining to the overall grading standards and practices within the five Peralta Colleges is compiled and analyzed here. The report is presented in three parts. The first part deals with the historical background of traditional and non-punitive grading, the national trends toward innovation and experimentation with various forms of…

  9. Multirater agreement for grading the femoral and tibial cartilage surface lesions at CT arthrography and analysis of causes of disagreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoumi, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.omoumi@chuv.ch [Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc − UC Louvain, Hippocrate Avenue 10/2942, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital, Bugnon 46, CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Michoux, Nicolas; Larbi, Ahmed; Lacoste, Laure; Lecouvet, Frédéric E.; Perlepe, Vasiliki; Vande Berg, Bruno C. [Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc − UC Louvain, Hippocrate Avenue 10/2942, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • The multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system is only fair when readers of varying levels of experience are taken into account. • Inter- and intra-observer agreement increase with readers experience. • Interobserver agreement is substantial for grade 4 lesions. • Knowledge of normal variations of cartilage thickness is required to help avoid pitfalls and improve interobserver agreement in reporting cartilage lesions. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system for the grading of predefined areas of femorotibial cartilage at CT arthrography with multiple readers, with varying experience. Design: Five readers with varying experience (two junior radiologists, three musculoskeletal radiologists including two experts in cartilage imaging) separately analyzed 962 cartilage sectors from pre-divided knee CT arthrograms with femorotibial osteoarthritis (Kellgren/Lawrence = 3). Each cartilage area was graded twice by each reader, at a three-month interval, according to the modified 5-grade Outerbridge system. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement were assessed. After the second reading, 121 areas exhibiting the highest interobserver disagreement were reviewed in consensus to determine the sources of disagreement. Results: The global interobserver agreement was fair (k = 0.35), and increased with the grade (from k = 0.14 to k = 0.76 from grade 0–4). The intraobserver agreement varied with the readers’ experience from moderate (k = 0.59) to almost perfect (k = 0.92). The majority of cases of disagreement (44%) was due to difficulties in assessing the normal variations of cartilage thickness, including diffuse cartilage thinning (23%) and normal variants of cartilage thickness (22%). 32% of cases of disagreement were due to retrospectively avoidable interpretation errors. Conclusions: The multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system is only fair when readers of different

  10. Multirater agreement for grading the femoral and tibial cartilage surface lesions at CT arthrography and analysis of causes of disagreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoumi, Patrick; Michoux, Nicolas; Larbi, Ahmed; Lacoste, Laure; Lecouvet, Frédéric E.; Perlepe, Vasiliki; Vande Berg, Bruno C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system is only fair when readers of varying levels of experience are taken into account. • Inter- and intra-observer agreement increase with readers experience. • Interobserver agreement is substantial for grade 4 lesions. • Knowledge of normal variations of cartilage thickness is required to help avoid pitfalls and improve interobserver agreement in reporting cartilage lesions. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system for the grading of predefined areas of femorotibial cartilage at CT arthrography with multiple readers, with varying experience. Design: Five readers with varying experience (two junior radiologists, three musculoskeletal radiologists including two experts in cartilage imaging) separately analyzed 962 cartilage sectors from pre-divided knee CT arthrograms with femorotibial osteoarthritis (Kellgren/Lawrence = 3). Each cartilage area was graded twice by each reader, at a three-month interval, according to the modified 5-grade Outerbridge system. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement were assessed. After the second reading, 121 areas exhibiting the highest interobserver disagreement were reviewed in consensus to determine the sources of disagreement. Results: The global interobserver agreement was fair (k = 0.35), and increased with the grade (from k = 0.14 to k = 0.76 from grade 0–4). The intraobserver agreement varied with the readers’ experience from moderate (k = 0.59) to almost perfect (k = 0.92). The majority of cases of disagreement (44%) was due to difficulties in assessing the normal variations of cartilage thickness, including diffuse cartilage thinning (23%) and normal variants of cartilage thickness (22%). 32% of cases of disagreement were due to retrospectively avoidable interpretation errors. Conclusions: The multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system is only fair when readers of different

  11. Analysis of DTI-Derived Tensor Metrics in Differential Diagnosis between Low-grade and High-grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Chao-Yong; Xu, Quan; Sun, Jun; Chen, Huiyou; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yin, Xindao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: It is critical and difficult to accurately discriminate between high- and low-grade gliomas preoperatively. This study aimed to ascertain the role of several scalar measures in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas, especially the axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), planar tensor (Cp), spherical tensor (Cs), and linear tensor (Cl) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with pathologically confirmed brain gliomas (21 low-grade and 32 high-grade) were included. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and DTI were performed in all patients. The AD, RD, Cp, Cs, and Cl values in the tumor zone, peritumoral edema zone, white matter (WM) adjacent to edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were calculated. The DTI parameters and tumor grades were statistically analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed. Results: The DTI metrics in the affected hemisphere showed significant differences from those in the NAWM, except for the AD values in the tumor zone and the RD values in WM adjacent to edema in the low-grade groups, as well as the Cp values in WM adjacent to edema in the high-grade groups. AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema revealed significant differences between the low- and high-grade gliomas. The areas under the curve (Az) of all three metrics were greater than 0.5 in distinguishing low-grade from high-grade gliomas by ROC curve analysis, and the best DTI metric was Cs in WM adjacent to edema (Az: 0.692). Conclusion: AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema will provide additional information to better classify gliomas and can be used as non-invasive reliable biomarkers in glioma grading.

  12. Japanese Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…

  13. Contrasting Grading Approaches in Introductory Physics and Quantum Mechanics: The Case of Graduate Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Sayer, Ryan; Henderson, Charles; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    At large research universities, physics graduate teaching assistants (TAs) are often responsible for grading in courses at all levels. However, few studies have focused on TAs' grading practices in introductory and advanced physics courses. This study was designed to investigate whether physics graduate TAs grade students in introductory physics…

  14. Technological Studies at Thomas Edison Middle School. Grades 6-7-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Patrick N.

    This technology studies curriculum for grades 6-8 is a plan for each middle school student to experience technology education for approximately 60 days (1 trimester of a 180-day school year) in each grade. Section A provides definitions; structure or content for grade-level programs with science and technology unifiers (unifying curricular…

  15. The Better Beginnings, Better Futures project: findings from grade 3 to grade 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ray DeV; Bradshaw, Alison J; Petrunka, Kelly; Nelson, Geoffrey; Herry, Yves; Craig, Wendy M; Arnold, Robert; Parker, Kevin C H; Khan, Shahriar R; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Pancer, S Mark; Loomis, Colleen; Bélanger, Jean-Marc; Evers, Susan; Maltais, Claire; Thompson, Katherine; Rossiter, Melissa D

    2010-12-01

    Although comprehensive and ecological approaches to early childhood prevention are commonly advocated, there are few examples of long-term follow-up of such programs. In this monograph, we investigate the medium- and long-term effects of an ecological, community-based prevention project for primary school children and families living in three economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Ontario, Canada. The Better Beginnings, Better Futures (BBBF) project is one of the most ambitious Canadian research projects on the long-term impacts of early childhood prevention programming to date. Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development informed program planning, implementation, and evaluation. Using a quasi-experimental design, the BBBF longitudinal research study involved 601 children and their families who participated in BBBF programs when children were between 4 and 8 years old and 358 children and their families from sociodemographically matched comparison communities. We collected extensive child, parent, family, and community outcome data when children were in Grade 3 (age 8–9), Grade 6 (age 11–12), and Grade 9 (age 14–15). The BBBF mandate was to develop programs that would positively impact all areas of child's development; our findings reflect this ecological approach. We found marked positive effects in social and school functioning domains in Grades 6 and 9 and evidence of fewer emotional and behavioral problems in school across the three grades. Parents from BBBF sites reported greater feelings of social support and more positive ratings of marital satisfaction and general family functioning, especially at the Grade 9 follow-up. Positive neighborhood-level effects were also evident. Economic analyses at Grade 9 showed BBBF participation was associated with government savings of $912 per child. These findings provide evidence that an affordable, ecological, community-based prevention program can promote long-term development of children living

  16. Functionally graded biomimetic energy absorption concept development for transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Mechanics of a functionally graded cylinder subject to static or dynamic axial loading is considered, including a potential application as energy absorber. The mass density and stiffness are power functions of the radial coordinate as may be the case...

  17. Ongoing trials in low-grade lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Burchardt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many therapies available for the management of low-grade lymphoma. With follicular lymphoma, for example, combination of chemotherapy and rituximab (immuno-chemo - therapy and consecutive maintenance therapy for 2 years is the current standard of care. To date, the most widely used regimen seems to be rituximab combined with cyclo phosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP. Substitution of liposomal doxorubicin in place of conventional doxorubicin may improve outcomes in this indication, although evidence for its use in low-grade lymphoma is not as relevant as in aggressive lymphoma. Bendamustine, in combination with rituximab, has shown very good efficacy and tolerability in several lymphoma types, particularly follicular lymphoma and other low-grade lymphomas. Other combinations, such as those including bortezomib and lenalidomide, are under investigation in low-grade lymphoma, and the duration of rituximab maintenance therapy following bendamustine−rituximab-containing induction is being researched by the German Study Group for Indolent Lymphoma (StiL.

  18. Are the current chronic allograft nephropathy grading systems sufficient to predict renal allograft survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Moscoso-Solorzano

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A major problem in renal transplantation is identifying a grading system that can predict long-term graft survival. The present study determined the extent to which the two existing grading systems (Banff 97 and chronic allograft damage index, CADI correlate with each other and with graft loss. A total of 161 transplant patient biopsies with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN were studied. The samples were coded and evaluated blindly by two pathologists using the two grading systems. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the best predictor index for renal allograft loss. Patients with higher Banff 97 and CADI scores had higher rates of graft loss. Moreover, these measures also correlated with worse renal function and higher proteinuria levels at the time of CAN diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses showed that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, hepatitis C virus (HCV, tubular atrophy, and the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF were associated with graft loss in the CADI, while the use of ACEI, HCV, moderate interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and the use of MMF were associated in the Banff 97 index. Although Banff 97 and CADI analyze different parameters in different renal compartments, only some isolated parameters correlated with graft loss. This suggests that we need to review the CAN grading systems in order to devise a system that includes all parameters able to predict long-term graft survival, including chronic glomerulopathy, glomerular sclerosis, vascular changes, and severity of chronic interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy.

  19. Are the current chronic allograft nephropathy grading systems sufficient to predict renal allograft survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Moscoso-Solorzano

    Full Text Available A major problem in renal transplantation is identifying a grading system that can predict long-term graft survival. The present study determined the extent to which the two existing grading systems (Banff 97 and chronic allograft damage index, CADI correlate with each other and with graft loss. A total of 161 transplant patient biopsies with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN were studied. The samples were coded and evaluated blindly by two pathologists using the two grading systems. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the best predictor index for renal allograft loss. Patients with higher Banff 97 and CADI scores had higher rates of graft loss. Moreover, these measures also correlated with worse renal function and higher proteinuria levels at the time of CAN diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses showed that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, hepatitis C virus (HCV, tubular atrophy, and the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF were associated with graft loss in the CADI, while the use of ACEI, HCV, moderate interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and the use of MMF were associated in the Banff 97 index. Although Banff 97 and CADI analyze different parameters in different renal compartments, only some isolated parameters correlated with graft loss. This suggests that we need to review the CAN grading systems in order to devise a system that includes all parameters able to predict long-term graft survival, including chronic glomerulopathy, glomerular sclerosis, vascular changes, and severity of chronic interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy.

  20. Examining School-Level Reading and Math Proficiency Trends and Changes in Achievement Gaps for Grades 3-8 in Florida, Mississippi, and North Carolina. REL 2017-235

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sarah; Zhou, Chengfu; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    The 2001 authorization of the No Child Left Behind Act and its standards and accountability requirements generated interest among state education agencies in Florida, Mississippi, and North Carolina, which are served by the Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, in monitoring changes in student reading and math proficiency at the school level.…

  1. Is male factor infertility associated with midlife low-grade inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore...... to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection...... in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6...

  2. Modeling Erlang's Ideal Grading with Multirate BPP Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Glabowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete methodology for modeling gradings (also called non-full-availability groups servicing single-service and multi-service traffic streams. The methodology worked out by the authors makes it possible to determine traffic characteristics of various types of gradings with state-dependent call arrival processes, including a new proposed structure of the Erlang’s Ideal Grading with the multirate links. The elaborated models of the gradings can be used for modeling different systems of modern networks, for example, the radio interfaces of the UMTS system, switching networks carrying a mixture of different multirate traffic streams, and video-on-demand systems. The results of the analytical calculations are compared with the results of the simulation data for selected gradings, which confirm high accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  3. Nuclear grade and necrosis predict prognosis in malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lauren E; Karrison, Theodore; Ananthanarayanan, Vijayalakshmi; Gallan, Alexander J; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Alchami, Fouad S; Attanoos, Richard; Brcic, Luka; Butnor, Kelly J; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Kadota, Kyuichi; Klampatsa, Astero; Stang, Nolween Le; Lindenmann, Joerg; Litzky, Leslie A; Marchevsky, Alberto; Medeiros, Filomena; Montero, M Angeles; Moore, David A; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Roggli, Victor L; Sauter, Jennifer L; Sharma, Anupama; Sheaff, Michael; Travis, William D; Vigneswaran, Wickii T; Vrugt, Bart; Walts, Ann E; Tjota, Melissa Y; Krausz, Thomas; Husain, Aliya N

    2018-04-01

    A recently described nuclear grading system predicted survival in patients with epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. The current study was undertaken to validate the grading system and to identify additional prognostic factors. We analyzed cases of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma from 17 institutions across the globe from 1998 to 2014. Nuclear grade was computed combining nuclear atypia and mitotic count into a grade of I-III using the published system. Nuclear grade was assessed by one pathologist for three institutions, the remaining were scored independently. The presence or absence of necrosis and predominant growth pattern were also evaluated. Two additional scoring systems were evaluated, one combining nuclear grade and necrosis and the other mitotic count and necrosis. Median overall survival was the primary endpoint. A total of 776 cases were identified including 301 (39%) nuclear grade I tumors, 354 (45%) grade II tumors and 121 (16%) grade III tumors. The overall survival was 16 months, and correlated independently with age (P=0.006), sex (0.015), necrosis (0.030), mitotic count (0.001), nuclear atypia (0.009), nuclear grade (<0.0001), and mitosis and necrosis score (<0.0001). The addition of necrosis to nuclear grade further stratified overall survival, allowing classification of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma into four distinct prognostic groups: nuclear grade I tumors without necrosis (29 months), nuclear grade I tumors with necrosis and grade II tumors without necrosis (16 months), nuclear grade II tumors with necrosis (10 months) and nuclear grade III tumors (8 months). The mitosis-necrosis score stratified patients by survival, but not as well as the combination of necrosis and nuclear grade. This study confirms that nuclear grade predicts survival in epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma, identifies necrosis as factor that further stratifies overall survival, and validates the grading system across multiple

  4. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...... size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect...

  5. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available material is needed that will serve the purpose of the original bio-tissue. The ideal candidate for this application is functionally graded material. FGM has find wide range of application in dental [36] and orthopedic applications for teeth and bone... of Aluminium/Steel functionally graded material,? Materials Sciences and Applications, vol. 2, (2011), pp. 1708-1718. [15] F. Watari, A. Yokoyama, H. Matsuno, R. Miyao, M. Uo, T. Kawasaki, M. Omori, and T. Hirai, ?Fabrication of functionally graded implant...

  6. Axisymmetrical analysis of functionally graded circular piezoelectric plate by graded element using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, B. L.; Xu, R. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Circular piezoelectric bimorph has been successfully used in numerous types of microdevices, such as actuators for flowcontrol applications, transducers for acoustic applications, and in locomotion of robotic systems, energy harvesting and active structural health monitoring applications. Recently, the concept of the functionally graded material (FGM) is introduced to improve properties and increase lifetime by selectively grading the elastic, piezoelectric, and/or dielectric properties along the thickness of a piezoceramic. However, even for the simple case of homogeneous circular piezoelectric geometry, analytical treatments are severely limited. This study established an axisymmetric and isoparametric graded element to model the functionally graded circular piezoelectric plates. All the material properties including elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, dielectric parameters and mass density are graded in the element and interpolated using the shape functions, which is also used to render the displacements and electric potential distribution in the element. Both static and dynamic cases can be considered in this element. MATLAB is used to implement the whole FEM code and gives some numerical examples to demonstrate the presented method.

  7. Magnetic resonance perfusion for differentiating low-grade from high-grade gliomas at first presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrigo, Jill M; Fountain, Daniel M; Provenzale, James M; Law, Eric K; Kwong, Joey Sw; Hart, Michael G; Tam, Wilson Wai San

    2018-01-22

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability. Occasionally, high-grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO Grade III and IV) may have the same MRI appearance as LGGs. Taking a watch-and-wait approach could be detrimental for the patient if the tumour progresses quickly. Advanced imaging techniques are increasingly used in clinical practice to predict the grade of the tumour and to aid clinical decision of when to intervene surgically. One such advanced imaging technique is magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion, which detects abnormal haemodynamic changes related to increased angiogenesis and vascular permeability, or "leakiness" that occur with aggressive tumour histology. These are reflected by changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) expressed as rCBV (ratio of tumoural CBV to normal appearing white matter CBV) and permeability, measured by K trans . To determine the diagnostic test accuracy of MR perfusion for identifying patients with primary solid and non-enhancing LGGs (WHO Grade II) at first presentation in children and adults. In performing the quantitative analysis for this review, patients with LGGs were considered disease positive while patients with HGGs were considered disease negative.To determine what clinical features and methodological features affect the accuracy of MR perfusion. Our search strategy used two concepts: (1) glioma and the various histologies of interest, and (2) MR perfusion. We used structured search strategies appropriate for each database searched, which included: MEDLINE

  8. Perinatal origins of first-grade academic failure: role of prematurity and maternal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryan L; Dunlop, Anne Lang; Kramer, Michael; Dever, Bridget V; Hogue, Carol; Jain, Lucky

    2013-04-01

    We examined the relationships among gestational age at birth, maternal characteristics, and standardized test performance in Georgia first-grade students. Live births to Georgia-resident mothers aged 11 to 53 years from 1998 through 2003 were deterministically linked with standardized test results for first-grade attendees of Georgia public schools from 2005 through 2009. Logistic models were used to estimate the odds of failure of the 3 components of the first-grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). The strongest risk factor for failure of each of the 3 components of the first-grade CRCT was level of maternal education. Child race/ethnicity and maternal age at birth were also associated with first-grade CRCT failure irrespective of the severity of preterm birth, but these factors were more important among children born moderately preterm than for those born on the margins of the prematurity distribution. Adjusting for maternal and child characteristics, there was an increased odds of failure of each component of the CRCT for children born late preterm versus term, including for math (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.22), reading (aOR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18), and English/language arts, for which there was an important interaction with being born small for gestational age (aOR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.29). Preterm birth and low maternal education increase children's risk of failure of first-grade standardized tests. Promoting women's academic achievement and reduce rates of preterm birth may be important to achieving gains in elementary school performance.

  9. Pass-fail grading: laying the foundation for self-regulated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Casey B; Fantone, Joseph C

    2010-10-01

    Traditionally, medical schools have tended to make assumptions that students will "automatically" engage in self-education effectively after graduation and subsequent training in residency and fellowships. In reality, the majority of medical graduates out in practice feel unprepared for learning on their own. Many medical schools are now adopting strategies and pedagogies to help students become self-regulating learners. Along with these changes in practices and pedagogy, many schools are eliminating a cornerstone of extrinsic motivation: discriminating grades. To study the effects of the switch from discriminating to pass-fail grading in the second year of medical school, we compared internal and external assessments and evaluations for a second-year class with a discriminating grading scale (Honors, High Pass, Pass, Fail) and for a second-year class with a pass-fail grading scale. Of the measures we compared (MCATs, GPAs, means on second-year examinations, USMLE Step 1 scores, residency placement, in which there were no statistically significant changes), the only statistically significant decreases (lower performance with pass fail) were found in two of the second-year courses. Performance in one other course also improved significantly. Pass-fail grading can meet several important intended outcomes, including "leveling the playing field" for incoming students with different academic backgrounds, reducing competition and fostering collaboration among members of a class, more time for extracurricular interests and personal activities. Pass-fail grading also reduces competition and supports collaboration, and fosters intrinsic motivation, which is key to self-regulated, lifelong learning.

  10. A reduced grade of liver fibro-steatosis after raltegravir, maraviroc and fosamprenavir in an HIV/HCV co-infected patient with chronic hepatitis, cardiomyopathy, intolerance to nelfinavir and a marked increase of serum creatine phosphokinase levels probably related to integrase inhibitor use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Antoni, A; Weimer, L E; Manfredi, R; Fragola, V; Ferrari, C

    2012-12-01

    The use of new antiretroviral drugs in HIV infection is particularly important in patients with intolerance or resistance to other antiretroviral agents. Raltegravir and maraviroc represent new, important resources in salvage regimens. A reduced grade of liver fibro-steatosis after a combination of raltegravir and maraviroc (second-line) has not been studied and the mechanism by which these new drug classes induced a marked reduction of grade of liver diseases is currently unknown. In the present case report, nested in an ongoing multicentre observational study on the use of new antiretroviral inhibitors in heavy treatment-experienced HIV patients, we evaluated the correlation between a "short therapeutic regimen" raltegravir maraviroc and fosamprenavir and liver diseases. The aim of this report is to describe the use of a three-drug regimen based on two novel-class antiretroviral agents (raltegravir and maraviroc) plus the protease inhibitor fosamprenavir, in an experienced HIV-infected patient with chronic progressive hepatitis C complicated by liver fibrosis; an overwhelming increased serum creatine kinase level occurred during treatment, and is probably related to integrase inhibitor administration. At present no information is available regarding this correlation.

  11. p53 autoantibodies, cytokine levels and ovarian carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai-Turton, Miyun; Santillan, Antonio; Lu, Dan; Bristow, Robert E; Chan, Kwun C; Shih, Ie-Ming; Roden, Richard B S

    2009-07-01

    To address the hypothesis that type II ovarian carcinoma, mutation of p53 and plasma levels of particular cytokines are associated with the generation of p53-specific serum autoantibody (AAb) responses in patients. Levels of CA125, 17 cytokines and AAbs to tumor-associated antigens including p53 were measured in plasma of 130 gynecologic tumor patients and 84 healthy controls. TP53 exons 4-9 were sequenced in tumor specimens. p53 AAbs are associated with high grade, but not low grade ovarian carcinoma. Seropositivity for p53 AAb occurred only in those ovarian carcinoma patients whose tumors contained mutated TP53, regardless of the exon targeted. Higher p53 AAb levels were detected in ovarian carcinoma patients who had higher stage disease, but p53 AAb levels were not correlated with CA125 levels. Among high-grade carcinoma patients, there was no relationship between p53 AAb seropositivity and seropositivity to other tumor-associated antigens tested, CA125 level or survival outcome. Both high and low grade ovarian carcinoma patients exhibited elevated levels of IL6, IL8 and IL10 as compared to healthy volunteers, although increased levels of IL5, MCP1, MIP1 and TNFalpha were associated only with high grade and advanced disease. Higher levels of p53AAb responses were correlated with elevated circulating IL4 and IL12, but reduced IL8 levels. Type II, but not type I, ovarian carcinoma patients had elevated serum levels of p53 AAb. P53 AAb is associated with mutation of TP53, higher plasma IL4 and IL12 but lower plasma IL8 levels and no survival advantage.

  12. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  13. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  14. Relative contribution of health-related behaviours and chronic diseases to the socioeconomic patterning of low-grade inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Pounis, George; De Curtis, Amalia; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-06-01

    To test the association of low-grade inflammation with socioeconomic status (SES) and determine the relative contribution of prevalent chronic diseases and health-related behaviours in explaining such association. Cross-sectional analysis on 19,867 subjects (age ≥35, 48.1% men) recruited within the Moli-sani study from 2005 to 2010 (Italy). A score of low-grade inflammation, including platelet and leukocyte counts, the granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, and C-reactive protein was applied. SES was measured by education, household income, and occupational social class. Low SES was associated with elevated levels of low-grade inflammation. Health behaviours (including adiposity, smoking, physical activity, and Mediterranean diet adherence) explained 53.5, 53.9, and 84.9% of the association between social class, income, and education with low-grade inflammation, respectively. Adiposity and body mass index showed a prominent role, while prevalent chronic diseases and conditions only marginally attenuated SES inequalities in inflammation. Low-grade inflammation was socioeconomically patterned in a large Mediterranean population. Potentially modifiable behavioural factors explained the greatest part of this association with a leading contribution of adiposity, body mass index, and physical activity.

  15. Zn3-graded colored supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy, B.

    1997-01-01

    Generalizations of the Grassmann algebras are built based on a few simple assumptions as follows: the algebras are graded, maximally symmetric, and contain an ordinary Grassmann algebra as a subalgebra. These algebras are graded by Z n 3 and display surprising properties that indicate their possible application to the modeling of quark fields. The generalized supersymmetry generators are built based on these algebras and their derivation operators. These generators are cubic roots of the usual supersymmetry generators. (author). 1 tab., 9 refs

  16. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  17. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades U.S...

  18. Health Grades K-6. Skills-Based Scope and Sequence Guide. Target Skills and Sample Assessment Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Anne; Beegle, Jenny; Gilbert, Lisa; Safaii, SeAnne; Eck, Paul; Remaley, Renea; Hasselquist, Claudia; Hatch, Kathy C.; Thompson, Kay

    This guide is organized around a suggested list of health skills that all students should know and be able to do at each grade level from kindergarten through grade 6. The guide will help provide parents, teachers, and students with knowledge of what is being taught in a logical scope and sequence by grade level. It is designed to help build a…

  19. Grade Inflation in Nursing Education: Proposed Solutions for an Ongoing Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Magalie

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of assigning grades at the conclusion of a course is to convey the level of achievement of learners. However, with the presence of grade inflation in nursing education, it poses a great threat to the evaluation process. The purpose of this article is to highlight the factors that influence grade inflation and to explore possible solutions to minimize the incidence of grade inflation in nursing education. A review of the literature revealed that a variety of factors influenced grade inflation and educators were indeed lenient with their grading practices, which hence attenuates the purpose of grading and evaluation. While it may be an arduous task for nursing faculty to evaluate nursing students, nursing faculty have the obligation to preserve academic integrity and must devise appropriate solutions to address the incidence of grade inflation in nursing education. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Metal recovery from high-grade WEEE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Based on available data in the literature the recovery of aluminium, copper, gold, iron, nickel, palladium and silver from high-grade WEEE was modeled by LCA. The pre-treatment of WEEE included manual sorting, shredding, magnetic sorting, Eddy-current sorting, air classification and optical sorting...... and refining of ore. The resource recovery per tonne of high-grade WEEE ranged from 2 g of palladium to 386 kg of iron. Quantified in terms of person-equivalents the recovery of palladium, gold, silver, nickel and copper constituted the major environmental benefit of the recovery of metals from WEEE...... effect compared to the metallurgical treatment. However only 12-26% of silver, gold and palladium are recovered during pre-treatment, which suggest that the reduction of the apparent losses of precious metals as palladium, gold and silver during pre-treatment of WEEE is of environmental importance. Our...

  1. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades `4' and `5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each...... of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease...

  2. Upper Grades Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Offers such teaching activities as a one-line program contest, field trips, examining job openings in newspapers, and a writing activity speculating what would happen if robots did not follow Isaac Asimov's "Three Laws of Robotics." Includes "Logo Goes to High School" by E. Paul Goldenberg, discussing problem-solving tasks…

  3. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    health equity: 1) Include health equity as an outcome; 2) Consider patient-important outcomes relevant to health equity; 3) Assess differences in the relative effect size of the treatment; 4) Assess differences in baseline risk and the differing impacts on absolute effects; and 5) Assess indirectness...

  4. Interactive whiteboards in third grade science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Grier

    Strategies have been put into place to affect improvement in science achievement, including the use of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in science instruction. IWBs enable rich resources, appropriate pacing, and multimodal presentation of content deemed as best practices. Professional development experiences, use of resources, instructional practices, and changes in professional behavior in science teachers were recorded. Also recorded were differences in the engagement and motivation of students in IWB classrooms versus IWB-free classrooms and observed differences in students' problem solving, critical thinking, and collaboration. Using a mixed-method research design quantitative data were collected to identify achievement levels of the target population on the assumption that all students, regardless of ability, will achieve greater mastery of science content in IWB classrooms. Qualitative data were collected through observations, interviews, videotapes, and a survey to identify how IWBs lead to increased achievement in third grade classrooms and to develop a record of teachers' professional practices, and students' measures of engagement and motivation. Comparative techniques determined whether science instruction is more effective in IWB classroom than in IWB-free classrooms. The qualitative findings concluded that, compared to science teachers who work in IWB-free settings, elementary science teachers who used IWBs incorporated more resources to accommodate learning objectives and the varied abilities and learning styles of their students. They assessed student understanding more frequently and perceived their classrooms as more collaborative and interactive. Furthermore, they displayed willingness to pursue professional development and employed different engagement strategies. Finally, teachers who used IWBs supported more instances of critical thinking and problem-solving. Quantitative findings concluded that students of all ability levels were more motivated

  5. Health Curriculum Materials: Grades 7, 8, and 9. Strand IV, Environmental and Community Health; Consumer Health Education. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooft, Gordon E.; And Others

    This publication contains curriculum suggestions for teaching Environmental and Community Health-Consumer Health, for grades seven, eight, and nine. Outcomes desired at this level include: 1) being aware of the practice of health quackery and being able to recognize those traits that characterize the health fraud, his techniques, and his products;…

  6. Analysis of Critical Characteristics for Safety Graded Personnel Computers in the KNICS Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Dong Young

    2009-01-01

    Critical characteristics analysis of a safety related item is to identify characteristics to be verified to replace an original item with the dedicated item. It is sure that the dedicated item meeting critical characteristics would perform its intended safety function instead of the specified item. KNICS project developed two safety systems: IDiPS RPS (Reactor Protection System) and IDiPS ESF-CCS (Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System). Two safety systems of IDiPS are equipped with personnel computers, so-called COMs (Cabinet Operator Modules), in their cabinets. The personnel computers, COMs, are responsible for safety system monitoring, testing, and maintaining. Even though two safety systems are safety critical system, the personnel computers of two systems, i.e. COMs, are not graded as safety-graded items. Regulation requirements are expected to be strengthened, and the functions of the personnel computer may be enhanced to include safety-related functions and safety functions, it would be necessary that the grade of the personnel computers is adjusted to a higher level, the safety grade. To try to upgrade a non safety system, i.e. COMs, to a safety system, its safety functions and requirements, i.e. critical characteristics, must be identified and verified. This paper describes the process of the identification of critical characteristics and the results of analysis

  7. Contemporary management of high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hao-Wen; Morgan, Erin R; Mason, Warren P

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gliomas, including glioblastoma, are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults. Despite intensive efforts to develop new therapies for these diseases, treatment options remain limited and prognosis is poor. Recently, there have been important advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of glioma, leading to refinements in our diagnostic and management approach. There is new evidence to guide the treatment of elderly patients. A multitude of new agents have been investigated, including targeted therapies, immunotherapeutics and tumor-treating fields. This review summarizes the key findings from this research, and presents a perspective on future opportunities to advance the field.

  8. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades `4' and `5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each...... of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease......, with an intermediate grade between `4' and `5', in circumstances where such a grade would seem appropriate. The present study examined the hypothesis, that a modified MRC-scale which included the commonly used `4+' option, resulted in greater agreement between clinicians compared to the standard MRC-scale....

  9. Quartet cards as the media of career exploration for lower-grade primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Ayriza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A career developed through the optimization of one’s potentials will irrevocably play a role in the development of self-identity as well as the psychological well-being of the individual. When children are introduced and allowed to explore as many career options as possible during their developmental stage, they are more likely to have a fruitful career development in the future. The preceding study showed that the career interests and knowledge of lower-grade primary students fit the Holland Career Categories: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional (RIASEC. It was also found that the students’ career interest and knowledge levels varied, with most in the low level. This second-year study aims to expand the results of the previous study by developing the use of Quartet cards as the media of career exploration for lower-grade primary students. By using the research and development method, this study develops Quartet Career Cards into three difficulty levels: low, medium, and high. The Quartet cards media have undergone feasibility tests conducted by experts in theory and media, as well as a series of field testing consisting of preliminary, main, and operational stages among a total of 266 primary students of grades 1, 2, and 3. A revision was made on several components including the images, information, colors, font sizes, illustration styles, and card sizes. The findings show that Quartet Career Cards meet the feasibility standards for the media of career exploration

  10. Discrimination between glioma grades II and III in suspected low-grade gliomas using dynamic contrast-enhanced and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Anna; Fahlström, Markus; Rostrup, Egill

    2014-01-01

    that could best discriminate between grade II and III gliomas. METHODS: MRI (3 T) including morphological ((T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted (T1W)+Gd)) and perfusion (DCE and DSC) sequences was performed in 39 patients with newly diagnosed suspected low-grade glioma after...... written informed consent in this review board-approved study. Regions of interests (ROIs) in tumour area were delineated on FLAIR images co-registered to DCE and DSC, respectively, in 25 patients with histopathological grade II (n = 18) and III (n = 7) gliomas. Statistical analysis of differences between...... grade II and grade III gliomas in histogram perfusion parameters was performed, and the areas under the curves (AUC) from the ROC analyses were evaluated. RESULTS: In DCE, the skewness of transfer constant (k(trans)) was found superior for differentiating grade II from grade III in all gliomas (AUC 0...

  11. Correlation between CT perfusion parameters and Fuhrman grade in pTlb renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Kang, Qinqin; Wei, Qiang; Xu, Bing; Ye, Hui; Wang, Tiegong; Lu, Yayun; Lu, Jianping

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the correlation of CT perfusion parameters with the Fuhrman grade in pT1b (4-7 cm) renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CT perfusion imaging and Fuhrman pathological grading of pT1b RCC were performed in 48 patients (10 grade 1, 27 grade 2, 9 grade 3, and 2 grade 4). Equivalent blood volume (BV Equiv ), permeability surface area product (PS), and blood flow (BF) of tumors were measured. Grade 1 and 2 were defined as low-grade group (n = 37), meanwhile high-grade group (n = 11) included grade 3 and 4. Comparisons of CT perfusion parameters and tumor size of the two different groups were performed. Correlations between CT perfusion parameters, Fuhrman grade (grade 1, 2, 3, and 4), and tumor size were assessed. PS was significantly lower in high grade than in low-grade pT1b RCC (P = 0.004). However, no significant differences were found in BV Equiv and BF between the two groups (P > 0.05 for both). The optimal threshold value, sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the ROC curve for distinguishing the two groups using PS were 68.8 mL/100 g/min, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.8, respectively. Negative significant correlation was observed between PS and Fuhrman grade (r = -0.338, P = 0.019). The PS of pT1b RCC had negative significant correlation with Fuhrman grade. CT perfusion appeared to be a non-invasive means to predict high Fuhrman grade of pT1b RCC preoperatively and guide the optimal treatment for the patient.

  12. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  13. The development of learning competency and skills for the 21st century to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in students grade 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedaman, Pornchai; Kinboon, Nittayaporn; Suksup, Chareon; Kinboon, Wutcharapong

    2018-01-01

    The teaching strategies of append were the technological pedagogical content knowledge; TPCK. This description knowledge in a content to corresponds of a effective teaching. This article aims to address the relevance of; 1) the learning competency and skills for the 21st Century to integrate "TPCK" of a world life with local environment in the students grade 11, 2) the effective achievement of the learning competency and skills to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in the students grade 11 were the passing score of a percentage 80 upwards (EI.), and 3) the attitudes for learning activities in the students grade 11. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches for 9teachers of third schools were the participatory action research (PAR) in collecting data including a instructional, a testing, and a questionnaire surveywith 33 students grade 11 of Phuwiengwittayakom school. The participants werecluster random sampling. The data analysis of descriptive statistical, percentage, mean average, standard deviation. The findings in the study were to learning competency and skills for the 21st Century to integrate "TPCK" of a world life with local environment on TK, PK, CK, and TCK at a excellent levels (X¯ = 3.62, 3.57, 3.54, 3.51) respectively, and PCK, TPK,TPCK at a good levels (X¯ = 3.36, 3.23, 3.17) respectively. The effective achievement of the learning competency and skills to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in 30 students grade 11 were the passing score (EI.) of a percentage at 90.91. The attitudes for learning activities in the students grade 11 at a high levels (X¯ =3.29). In addition of the students grade 11 to understanding of the importance were a local learning resources including the value integrating technology of the knowledge technology and to choose the right were create of an effective information.

  14. Comparison of Reading Levels of Pharmacy Students and Reading Level of Primary Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy H Ficzere

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The project purpose was to evaluate pharmacy students’ reading levels using the Nelson-Denney Reading Test (NDRT and compare these results with the reading level of primary literature to investigate incongruities between student’s comprehension ability and the readability level of assigned reading in the curriculum. Methods: The NDRT was administered to first- through third-year student pharmacists to determine grade equivalents (GE for vocabulary and reading comprehension. Twenty articles previously identified as Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEMs were analyzed to determine the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Gunning-Fog Score. Student demographics, information regarding language spoken, and reading habits, were also assessed. Pearson product moment correlations, t-tests, ANOVA, and descriptive statistics were used to assess relationships between demographic data and NDRT scores. Results: One hundred students participated. The mean NDRT total grade equivalent (±SD was 16.95 ± 2.1 (median = 17.3. NDRT grade equivalents were statistically different for students with different racial or ethnic backgrounds (t(98=3.74, p=0.026, English as a second language (ESL students (t(98=5.19, p=0.021, and students that read works of fiction for pleasure (t(98=4.31, p=0.002. The average Gunning-Fog Score for all primary literature articles was 11.48, with the introduction section being the most complex. The average Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was 17.04, with the results section scoring the lowest average grade level. Implications: While the overall reading grade level of our pharmacy students suggests that they are capable of comprehending reading assigned in the pharmacy curriculum, minority students and students for whom English is a second language may struggle with comprehending complex text. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have

  15. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  16. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  17. Assessment of work-integrated learning: comparison of the usage of a grading rubric by supervising radiographers and teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgour, Andrew J; Kilgour, Peter W; Gerzina, Tania; Christian, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional work-integrated learning (WIL) that integrates the academic experience with off-campus professional experience placements is an integral part of many tertiary courses. Issues with the reliability and validity of assessment grades in these placements suggest that there is a need to strengthen the level of academic rigour of placements in these programmes. This study aims to compare the attitudes to the usage of assessment rubrics of radiographers supervising medical imaging students and teachers supervising pre-service teachers. Methods: WIL placement assessment practices in two programmes, pre-service teacher training (Avondale College of Higher Education, NSW) and medical diagnostic radiography (Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW), were compared with a view to comparing assessment strategies across these two different educational domains. Educators (course coordinators) responsible for teaching professional development placements of teacher trainees and diagnostic radiography students developed a standards-based grading rubric designed to guide assessment of students’ work during WIL placement by assessors. After ∼12 months of implementation of the rubrics, assessors’ reaction to the effectiveness and usefulness of the grading rubric was determined using a specially created survey form. Data were collected over the period from March to June 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data found that assessors in both programmes considered the grading rubric to be a vital tool in the assessment process, though teacher supervisors were more positive about the benefits of its use than the radiographer supervisors. Results: Benefits of the grading rubric included accuracy and consistency of grading, ability to identify specific areas of desired development and facilitation of the provision of supervisor feedback. The use of assessment grading rubrics is of benefit to assessors in WIL placements from two very different

  18. Assessment of work-integrated learning: comparison of the usage of a grading rubric by supervising radiographers and teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgour, Andrew J, E-mail: akilgour@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW (Australia); Kilgour, Peter W [Avondale College of Higher Education, Cooranbong, NSW (Australia); Gerzina, Tania [Dental Educational Research, Faculty of Dentistry, Jaw Function and Orofacial Pain Research Unit, Westmead Centre for Oral Health, C24- Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006 (Australia); Christian, Beverly [Avondale College of Higher Education, Cooranbong, NSW (Australia); Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Professional work-integrated learning (WIL) that integrates the academic experience with off-campus professional experience placements is an integral part of many tertiary courses. Issues with the reliability and validity of assessment grades in these placements suggest that there is a need to strengthen the level of academic rigour of placements in these programmes. This study aims to compare the attitudes to the usage of assessment rubrics of radiographers supervising medical imaging students and teachers supervising pre-service teachers. Methods: WIL placement assessment practices in two programmes, pre-service teacher training (Avondale College of Higher Education, NSW) and medical diagnostic radiography (Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW), were compared with a view to comparing assessment strategies across these two different educational domains. Educators (course coordinators) responsible for teaching professional development placements of teacher trainees and diagnostic radiography students developed a standards-based grading rubric designed to guide assessment of students’ work during WIL placement by assessors. After ∼12 months of implementation of the rubrics, assessors’ reaction to the effectiveness and usefulness of the grading rubric was determined using a specially created survey form. Data were collected over the period from March to June 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data found that assessors in both programmes considered the grading rubric to be a vital tool in the assessment process, though teacher supervisors were more positive about the benefits of its use than the radiographer supervisors. Results: Benefits of the grading rubric included accuracy and consistency of grading, ability to identify specific areas of desired development and facilitation of the provision of supervisor feedback. The use of assessment grading rubrics is of benefit to assessors in WIL placements from two very different

  19. Assessment of work-integrated learning: comparison of the usage of a grading rubric by supervising radiographers and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Andrew J; Kilgour, Peter W; Gerzina, Tania; Christian, Beverly

    2014-02-01

    IntroductionProfessional work-integrated learning (WIL) that integrates the academic experience with off-campus professional experience placements is an integral part of many tertiary courses. Issues with the reliability and validity of assessment grades in these placements suggest that there is a need to strengthen the level of academic rigour of placements in these programmes. This study aims to compare the attitudes to the usage of assessment rubrics of radiographers supervising medical imaging students and teachers supervising pre-service teachers. MethodsWIL placement assessment practices in two programmes, pre-service teacher training (Avondale College of Higher Education, NSW) and medical diagnostic radiography (Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW), were compared with a view to comparing assessment strategies across these two different educational domains. Educators (course coordinators) responsible for teaching professional development placements of teacher trainees and diagnostic radiography students developed a standards-based grading rubric designed to guide assessment of students' work during WIL placement by assessors. After ∼12 months of implementation of the rubrics, assessors' reaction to the effectiveness and usefulness of the grading rubric was determined using a specially created survey form. Data were collected over the period from March to June 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data found that assessors in both programmes considered the grading rubric to be a vital tool in the assessment process, though teacher supervisors were more positive about the benefits of its use than the radiographer supervisors. ResultsBenefits of the grading rubric included accuracy and consistency of grading, ability to identify specific areas of desired development and facilitation of the provision of supervisor feedback. The use of assessment grading rubrics is of benefit to assessors in WIL placements from two very different teaching

  20. Perceived Demands of Schooling, Stress and Mental Health: Changes from Grade 6 to Grade 9 as a Function of Gender and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giota, Joanna; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2017-08-01

    The link between perceived demands of school, stress and mental health in relation to gender is complex. The study examined, with two waves of longitudinal data at age 13 and age 16, how changes in perceived academic demands relate to changes in perceived stress, taking into account gender and cognitive ability, and to investigate how these factors affect the level of psychosomatic and depressive symptoms at the age of 16. A nationally representative sample including about 9000 individuals from the Swedish longitudinal Evaluation Through Follow up database born in 1998 was included. A growth modelling approach was applied to examine relations over time. The results show girls to have a considerably higher self-reported level of mental health problems at the end of compulsory school than boys. This gender difference is entirely accounted for by perceived school demands and stress in grades 6 and 9. Students who were stronger in inductive than vocabulary ability reported lower levels of perceived academic demands and less stress in grade 6. There is a need to develop interventions for minimizing the consequences of stress among adolescents and modify those particular aspects of academic demands which cause stress and poor mental health, especially among girls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.