WorldWideScience

Sample records for include gamma compensation

  1. Neutron monitoring systems including gamma thermometers and methods of calibrating nuclear instruments using gamma thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Meyers, Craig Glenn; Petzen, John Alexander; Foard, Adam Muhling

    2012-08-07

    A method of calibrating a nuclear instrument using a gamma thermometer may include: measuring, in the instrument, local neutron flux; generating, from the instrument, a first signal proportional to the neutron flux; measuring, in the gamma thermometer, local gamma flux; generating, from the gamma thermometer, a second signal proportional to the gamma flux; compensating the second signal; and calibrating a gain of the instrument based on the compensated second signal. Compensating the second signal may include: calculating selected yield fractions for specific groups of delayed gamma sources; calculating time constants for the specific groups; calculating a third signal that corresponds to delayed local gamma flux based on the selected yield fractions and time constants; and calculating the compensated second signal by subtracting the third signal from the second signal. The specific groups may have decay time constants greater than 5.times.10.sup.-1 seconds and less than 5.times.10.sup.5 seconds.

  2. A Study of Tissue-equivalent Compensator for 10MV X-ray and Co-60 Gamma-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Tae Jin; Hong, Young Rak; Lim, Charm Soo; Jeung, Ho Yong

    1985-01-01

    Authors describe some useful data when constructing tissue-equivalent compensators which would compensate tissue deficit in the treatment field of high energy electromagnetic radiation Tissue equivalent compensator is made of lucite. The ratio of compensator thickness to the thickness of tissue deficit depends on radiation energy, field size and the distance from the compensator to patient skin. When the compensator is separated from skin surface, the thickness ratio is always smaller than 1.0. This means that the larger the separation, the contribution to the total dose by means of scattered radiation from a tissue equivalent compensator is smaller. Authors propose that the thickness of lucite as tissue equivalent compensator is 0.57 times tissue deficit and the separation between compensator and skin is at least 15 m for Co-60 gamma ray and 25 cm for 10 MV X-ray.

  3. Compensating biodiversity loss : Dutch companies’ experience with biodiversity compensation, including their supply chain : the ‘BioCom’ project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, de S.; Schaick, van J.

    2011-01-01

    Compensation for damage to biodiversity is a relatively new topic in the business environment. Most private sector companies dealing with compensation do so because of a legal obligation. Companies are increasingly becoming aware, though, that our welfare and well-being depend on healthy ecosystems

  4. Radioactive well logging system with shale (boron) compensation by gamma ray build-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelman, H.E.; Arnold, D.M.; Pitts, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole are repetitively bombarded with bursts of high energy neutrons. A radiation detector in a sonde in the borehole senses the gamma rays induced by the capture of thermal neutrons and sends signals representative thereof to the surface. At the surface, two single channel energy analyzers, such as from 1.30 to 2.92 MeV and from 3.43 to 10.0 MeV, sense the formation thermal neutron capture gamma ray response after each neutron burst. The counts of thermal neutron capture gamma rays in these analyzers are used to distinguish between the presence of salt water and hydrocarbons, which is logged. By controlling the repetition rate of the neutron source, measured counting rates in formations with relatively large thermal neutron lifetimes are emphasized, compensating for borehole effects which could otherwise give rise to erroneous results in shale formations, which have a high boron content. 11 claims, 5 figures

  5. A tool to include gamma analysis software into a quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Christina E; McGarry, Conor K

    2016-03-01

    To provide a tool to enable gamma analysis software algorithms to be included in a quality assurance (QA) program. Four image sets were created comprising two geometric images to independently test the distance to agreement (DTA) and dose difference (DD) elements of the gamma algorithm, a clinical step and shoot IMRT field and a clinical VMAT arc. The images were analysed using global and local gamma analysis with 2 in-house and 8 commercially available software encompassing 15 software versions. The effect of image resolution on gamma pass rates was also investigated. All but one software accurately calculated the gamma passing rate for the geometric images. Variation in global gamma passing rates of 1% at 3%/3mm and over 2% at 1%/1mm was measured between software and software versions with analysis of appropriately sampled images. This study provides a suite of test images and the gamma pass rates achieved for a selection of commercially available software. This image suite will enable validation of gamma analysis software within a QA program and provide a frame of reference by which to compare results reported in the literature from various manufacturers and software versions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Sampled data CT system including analog filter and compensating digital filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, G. H.; DallaPiazza, D. G.; Pelc, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A CT scanner in which the amount of x-ray information acquired per unit time is substantially increased by using a continuous-on x-ray source and a sampled data system with the detector. An analog filter is used in the sampling system for band limiting the detector signal below the highest frequency of interest, but is a practically realizable filter and is therefore non-ideal. A digital filter is applied to the detector data after digitization to compensate for the characteristics of the analog filter, and to provide an overall filter characteristic more nearly like the ideal

  7. Automatic generation control with thyristor controlled series compensator including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Padhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the dynamic performance of Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area multi-units thermal–thermal power system with the consideration of Reheat turbine, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Time delay. Initially, the gains of the fuzzy PID controller are optimized using Differential Evolution (DE algorithm. The superiority of DE is demonstrated by comparing the results with Genetic Algorithm (GA. After that performance of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC has been investigated. Further, a TCSC is placed in the tie-line and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES units are considered in both areas. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters.

  8. 26 CFR 1.61-2 - Compensation for services, including fees, commissions, and similar items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (including Christmas bonuses), termination or severance pay, rewards, jury fees, marriage fees and other...). For the special rules relating to the includibility in an employee's gross income of an amount equal...

  9. Technical Note: Monte Carlo study of106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic plaques including the106Rh gamma spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida-López, Marcelino; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    To assess the influence of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum on the Monte Carlo simulation of 106 Ru/ 106 Rh ophthalmic plaques, which has been neglected without a quantitative estimation in all previous publications. Simulations were run with the penelope 2014 Monte Carlo code for radiation transport. Depth-dose distributions in water were simulated for the plaque models CCA, CCC, CCX and CIA. In addition to the 106 Rh beta spectrum, all gamma components from the 106 Rh gamma spectrum were included in the simulations. Depth-dose curves were compared with those obtained without considering the 106 Rh gamma spectrum. Moreover, half-value (HVL) and tenth-value layers (TVL) were estimated for the 106 Rh gamma spectrum in water, PMMA, stainless steel and lead. Some practical radiation protection applications were discussed. Parallel computing was implemented to reduce computing time. The contribution of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum on the depth-dose curves is negligible at depths of clinical interest. The HVL and TVL of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum were found to be similar to those of 137 Cs. The air-kerma rate at 1 m for a CCA plaque in typical clinical conditions was about 0.4μGym2h-1, resulting in equivalent doses at that point elow 0.05 mSv during a treatment. The air-kerma rate would be underestimated by a factor of 5 if the 106 Rh gamma spectrum were not considered. Also, a freely available software tool was developed to ease parallelization of penelope 2014 simulations that use penmain as steering main program. The influence of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum is not relevant for clinical purposes, thus validating the common assumption from the literature. However, for simulations at large distances from the plaques, such as for radiation shielding assessment and estimation of dose to personnel, the gamma spectrum from 106 Rh must be taken into account to obtain accurate results. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. High-performance control of a three-phase voltage-source converter including feedforward compensation of the estimated load current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Andres E.; Solsona, Jorge A.; Busada, Claudio; Chiacchiarini, Hector; Valla, Maria Ines

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new control strategy for voltage-source converters (VSC) is introduced. The proposed strategy consists of a nonlinear feedback controller based on feedback linearization plus a feedforward compensation of the estimated load current. In our proposal an energy function and the direct-axis current are considered as outputs, in order to avoid the internal dynamics. In this way, a full linearization is obtained via nonlinear transformation and feedback. An estimate of the load current is feedforwarded to improve the performance of the whole system and to diminish the capacitor size. This estimation allows to obtain a more rugged and cheaper implementation. The estimate is calculated by using a nonlinear reduced-order observer. The proposal is validated through different tests. These tests include performance in presence of switching frequency, measurement filters delays, parameters uncertainties and disturbances in the input voltage.

  11. High-performance control of a three-phase voltage-source converter including feedforward compensation of the estimated load current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Andres E.; Solsona, Jorge A.; Busada, Claudio; Chiacchiarini, Hector [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Electrica (IIIE) UNS-CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahia Blanca 8000 (Argentina); Valla, Maria Ines [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI) and CONICET, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata 1900 (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    In this paper a new control strategy for voltage-source converters (VSC) is introduced. The proposed strategy consists of a nonlinear feedback controller based on feedback linearization plus a feedforward compensation of the estimated load current. In our proposal an energy function and the direct-axis current are considered as outputs, in order to avoid the internal dynamics. In this way, a full linearization is obtained via nonlinear transformation and feedback. An estimate of the load current is feedforwarded to improve the performance of the whole system and to diminish the capacitor size. This estimation allows to obtain a more rugged and cheaper implementation. The estimate is calculated by using a nonlinear reduced-order observer. The proposal is validated through different tests. These tests include performance in presence of switching frequency, measurement filters delays, parameters uncertainties and disturbances in the input voltage. (author)

  12. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    2013-07-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  13. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee

    2013-01-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  14. Modeling gamma-ray burst observations by Fermi and MAGIC including attenuation due to diffuse background light

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, Rudy C.; Prada, Francisco; Primack, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma rays from extragalactic sources are attenuated by pair-production interactions with diffuse photons of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are a source of high-redshift photons above 10 GeV, and could be therefore useful as a probe of the evolving UV background radiation. In this paper, we develop a simple phenomenological model for the number and redshift distribution of gamma-ray bursts that can be seen at GeV energies with the Fermi satellite and MAGIC a...

  15. Effect of cobalt-60 {gamma} radiation and of thermal neutrons on high resistance P and N silicon. Possibility of obtaining a nuclear compensation for P type silicon; Effects du rayonnement {gamma} du cobalt 60 et de neutrons thermiques sur du silicium P et N de haute resistivite. Possibilite de realiser une compensation nucleaire d'un silicium du type P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-11-01

    Type P silicon has been compensated by the production of a controlled and uniform amount of donor atoms ({sup 31}P) using thermal neutrons to bring about a nuclear transformation. It is shown that it is possible in this way to reduce by a factor of about one hundred the overall concentration of residual ionised impurities in the purest crystals obtained by floating zone purification (2 x 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 3}). The degree compensation obtained is limited by the initial inhomogeneity of acceptor impurities which have to be compensated. Lattice defects which still remain after prolonged annealings reduce the life-time of the material to about 10 {mu}s approximately. Particle detectors having thicknesses of 2 to 5 mm have been built by this process; they give good results, particularly at low temperatures. A study has also been made of the number and of the nature of lattice defects produced by thermal neutrons in high resistivity P and N type crystals. These defects have been compared to those produced by {gamma} rays from {sup 60}Co. A discussion is given of the validity of the Wertheim model concerning pronounced recombination at low temperatures (77 deg. K - 300 deg. K) of primary defect-interstitial pairs. The nature of the defects introducing energy levels into the lower half of the forbidden band has been studied. (author) [French] On a compense du silicium de type P en produisant, au moyen de neutrons thermiques, par transmutation nucleaire une quantite controlee et uniforme d'atomes donneurs ({sup 31}P). On montre qu'on peut ainsi reduire de cent fois environ la densite nette d'impuretes ionisees residuelles subsistant dans les cristaux les plus purs obtenus par purification par zone flottante (2.10{sup 12} atomes/cm{sup 3}). Le degre de compensation obtenu est limite par i'inhomogeneite initiale des impuretes acceptrices a compenser. Des defauts de reseau qui subsistent meme apres des recuits prolonges reduisent la duree de vie du

  16. Employee Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osif, Bonnie A.; Harwood, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of selected literature about employee compensation. Highlights include the foundations of reward and recognition systems, incentive plans, problems with merit pay, a historical perspective on performance pay, evaluation criteria and processes, self-rating, job motivation and satisfaction, employee attitudes, collective…

  17. Improvement of gamma-ray Sn transport calculations including coherent and incoherent scatterings and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence: Determination of gamma-ray buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Diop, C.M.; Assad, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Ridoux, P.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of gamma-ray transport calculations in S n codes aim at taking into account the bound-electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent), coherent scattering (Rayleigh), and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. A computation scheme was developed to take into account these phenomena by modifying the angular and energy transfer matrices, and no modification in the transport code has been made. The incoherent and coherent scatterings as well as the fluorescence sources can be strictly treated by the transfer matrix change. For bremsstrahlung sources, this is possible if one can neglect the charged particles path as they pass through the matter (electrons and positrons) and is applicable for the energy range of interest for us (below 10 MeV). These improvements have been reported on the kernel attenuation codes by the calculation of new buildup factors. The gamma-ray buildup factors have been carried out for 25 natural elements up to 30 mean free paths in the energy range between 15 keV and 10 MeV

  18. The investigation of gamma and neutron shielding properties of concrete including basalt fibre for nuclear energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nulk, H.; Ipbuker, C.; Gulik, V.; Tkaczyk, A.; Biland, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we would like to draw attention to the prospect of basalt fibre as the main component for concrete reinforcement of NPP. This work describes the computational study of gamma attenuation parameters, the effective atomic number Z(eff) and the effective electron density N e (eff), of relatively light-weight concrete with chopped basalt fibre used as reinforcement in different mixture rates. We can draw the following conclusions. Basalt fibre is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement instead of metallic fibers. Basalt fibre has a similar specific gravity to that of concrete elements. Basalt fibre has high chemical and abrasion resistance. Basalt fibre has almost 10 times the tensile strength of steel re-bars. Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients increase with addition of basalt fibre into concrete in every case. The effective atomic number of the concrete increases with the addition of basalt fibre. The results show that basalt fibre reinforced concrete have improved shielding properties against gamma rays in comparison with regular concrete. This result is based on a regular concrete with only basalt fiber reinforcement. We estimate that with addition of standard aggregates for radiation shielding concrete, such as barite, magnetite or hematite, the shielding properties will increase exponentially

  19. Creative compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, D.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs

  20. Losses compensation; Compensation des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One mission of RTE (Electric Power Transportation), is to watch over the losses compensation resulting from the power transport on the electric power network. Since january 2001, RTE makes good the electric losses by the purchase of energy. To choose the marketers, a consultation has been realized by RTE. This document presents the rules concerning these losses compensation. (A.L.B.)

  1. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  2. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  3. Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Assad, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these two effects greatly increase the buildup factors for energies below a few hundred kilo-electron-volts, and thus the new results are improved relative to the experiment. This greater accuracy is due to the increase in the linear attenuation coefficient, which leads to the calculation of the buildup factors for a mean free path with a smaller shield thickness. On the other hand, for the same shield thickness, exposure increases when only incoherent scattering is included and decreases when only coherent scattering is included, so that the exposure finally decreases when both effects are included. Great care must also be taken when checking the approximations for gamma-ray deep-penetration transport calculations, as well as for the cross-section treatment and origin

  4. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those hours...

  5. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  6. Gamma-radiometer TIM-140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Is intended for in-vita determination of specific activity of cesium 137 in muscular tissues of cattle. Is used for realization of contact measurements: using the convenient in operation bar compensating the weight of detecting unit the radiometer is kept in the area of the coxofemoral part or scapula of an animal. The mode of sample-free measurements of specific activity of cesium 137 in parts of an animal carcass is provided. It can be used on cattle-breeding farms, in meat factories and personal facilities. Minimal detected specific activity (MDA) of cesium 137 in muscular tissues of cattle is 100 Bq/kg. Time of MDA measurement is 200 sec (allowable relative error is 35%). The level of gamma-background is 0,05 mR/h. The gamma-radiometer is intended for express testing and high accuracy of measurements, including the measurements in conditions of the raised radiation background

  7. Aeromagnetic Compensation for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naprstek, T.; Lee, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic data is one of the most widely collected types of data in exploration geophysics. With the continuing prevalence of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in everyday life there is a strong push for aeromagnetic data collection using UAVs. However, apart from the many political and legal barriers to overcome in the development of UAVs as aeromagnetic data collection platforms, there are also significant scientific hurdles, primary of which is magnetic compensation. This is a well-established process in manned aircraft achieved through a combination of platform magnetic de-noising and compensation routines. However, not all of this protocol can be directly applied to UAVs due to fundamental differences in the platforms, most notably the decrease in scale causing magnetometers to be significantly closer to the avionics. As such, the methodology must be suitably adjusted. The National Research Council of Canada has collaborated with Aeromagnetic Solutions Incorporated to develop a standardized approach to de-noising and compensating UAVs, which is accomplished through a series of static and dynamic experiments. On the ground, small static tests are conducted on individual components to determine their magnetization. If they are highly magnetic, they are removed, demagnetized, or characterized such that they can be accounted for in the compensation. Dynamic tests can include measuring specific components as they are powered on and off to assess their potential effect on airborne data. The UAV is then flown, and a modified compensation routine is applied. These modifications include utilizing onboard autopilot current sensors as additional terms in the compensation algorithm. This process has been applied with success to fixed-wing and rotary-wing platforms, with both a standard manned-aircraft magnetometer, as well as a new atomic magnetometer, much smaller in scale.

  8. Natural gamma-ray spectrometry, lithofacies, and depositional environments of selected upper Cretaceous marine mudrocks, western United States, including tropic shale and tununk member of Mancos shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelt, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    In-situ measurements of gamma-ray spectra provide estimates of the potassium, thorium, the pre-weathering uranium contents of outcropping marine mudrocks. Th/U is a sensitive indicator of the oxidation potential of paleoenvironments of deposition of Phanerozoic epi- and pericontinental marine deposits. High (>10 x 10 -4 ) ratios of uranium or organic carbon occur in phosphatic and cherty mudrocks; low ( -4 ) ratios occur in nonmarine mudrocks and in epicontinental marine strata that were deposited during unusual paleo-oceanographic conditions, which sometimes accompanied global extinction events. Spectrometric data compliment sedimentologic data in defining five lithologic/geochemical facies in marine mudrocks of the Cenomanian-Turonian Greenhorn marine cycle. The rock units that were studied in Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah are the Graneros Shale, Greenhorn Limestone, Garlile Shale, Mancos Shale, and Tropic Shale. Results of analyses of the different rock units are used to explain various geological structures of the area under investigation. Outcrops and geophysical well logs combine to indicate the distribution of lithologic/geochemical focus of marine mudrocks

  9. Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokemoto, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform were closely related. Nuclear damage compensation cost should be part of generation cost of nuclear power. Extend of nuclear damage compensation was limited by compensation standard of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) following guidelines of Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation. TEPCO had already paid compensation of about two trillion yen until now, which was only a part of total damage compensation cost. TEPCO had been provided more than 3.4 trillion yen by Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Cooperation, which would be put back by nuclear operators including TEPCO. TEPCO could obtain present raising funds and try to reconstruct business with restart of nuclear power, which might disturb energy reform. Present nuclear damage compensation scheme had better be reformed with learning more from Minamata disease case in Japan. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Gamma gamma technology group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The gamma gamma community are concerned that in the rush to prepare for the e+e− machine, allowance is not being made for a future upgrade of the photon linear collider. References. [1] ECFA/DESY Photon Collider Working Group: B Badelek et al, TESLA Technical. Design Report, Part VI, Chapter 1: Photon collider at ...

  11. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  12. A primer for workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Spengler, Dan M; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-07-01

    A physician's role within a workers' compensation injury extends far beyond just evaluation and treatment with several socioeconomic and psychological factors at play compared with similar injuries occurring outside of the workplace. Although workers' compensation statutes vary among states, all have several basic features with the overall goal of returning the injured worker to maximal function in the shortest time period, with the least residual disability and shortest time away from work. To help physicians unfamiliar with the workers' compensation process accomplish these goals. Review. Educational review. The streamlined review addresses the topics of why is workers' compensation necessary; what does workers' compensation cover; progression after work injury; impairment and maximum medical improvement, including how to use the sixth edition of American Medical Association's (AMA) Guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment (Guides); completion of work injury claim after impairment rating; independent medical evaluation; and causation. In the "no-fault" workers' compensation system, physicians play a key role in progressing the claim along and, more importantly, getting the injured worker back to work as soon as safely possible. Physicians should remain familiar with the workers' compensation process, along with how to properly use the AMA Guides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Straelberg, E.; Klemola, S.; Nielsen, Sven P.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  14. Gamma watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2004-05-25

    A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

  15. Gamma, radon, natural radioactivity measurements in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.

    1997-01-01

    Different natural radiation measurements, performed since 1983, are analysed and discussed regarding the average effective population dose. A decade of absorbed gamma dose measurements in air (1983-93), were carried out using compensated TLD detectors, during long periods of integration time and with a network of 11 stations, along the country, from Arica to the Antarctic territory. An indoor Rn -222 and gamma survey dwellings, in high background zones, underground mines and drinking water was started in 1988 using different kind of detectors, including electret radon chambers. The methods, dose assessments and results are presented and discussed in the frame of worldwide average effective population doses. None of the average effective doses found over the evaluated areas, exceed the comparison levels. (author)

  16. Photon Structure and $\\gamma -\\gamma$ Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The LEP experiments are making real progress in understanding the structure of the photon, though the results do not yet give such clear demonstrations of QCD in action as the proton structure has done. Other new results are reported, including QED related effects and $\\gamma \\gamma \\to Resonances$, from LEP and from CLEO II.

  17. Convulxin induces platelet activation by a tyrosine-kinase-dependent pathway and stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins, including PLC gamma 2, independently of integrin alpha IIb beta 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, I M; Ghazaleh, F A; Reis, R A; Carlini, C R; Guimarães, J A

    1998-05-15

    1Convulxin (Cvx) is a well-characterized platelet aggregating glycoprotein isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus and C. d. cascavella venoms. In the present report we show that Cvx induces tyrosine phosphorylation of human platelet proteins, including phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC gamma 2), and also stimulates [3H]arachidonic acid ([3H]AA) mobilization, pleckstrin phosphorylation, and an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]in) due to both Ca2+ entry and internal Ca2+ mobilization. Staurosporine, a potent protein kinase inhibitor, and genistein, a specific inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK), were used to evaluate the role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) in the signal transduction evoked by Cvx. Staurosporine and genistein inhibited in a dose-dependent manner platelet aggregation induced by Cvx. Both inhibitors significantly blocked to near basal levels breakdown of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate from [myo-2-3H]inositol-labeled platelets and the production of [3H]AA metabolites from [3H]AA-labeled platelets after challenge with Cvx. Cvx provokes an increase in [Ca2+]in in Fura-2-loaded platelets that was abolished by concentrations of staurosporine which also inhibited Cvx-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, Cvx stimulates a rapid increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of human platelets proteins with molecular masses of 40, 72/74, 78/80, 105, 120, and 145 kDa, followed by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, Cvx stimulates a rapid tyrosyl phosphorylation of a 145-kDa molecular mass protein that was identified as PLC gamma 2. PTP induced by Cvx was not inhibited when platelets were stimulated in the presence of indomethacin, apyrase, EDTA, or RGDS peptide. These results indicate that PTP is chronologically proximal to Cvx binding to platelets, and is independent of aggregation or fibrinogen binding to the integrin alpha IIb beta 3. On the other hand, the dephosphorylation step is inhibited by RGDS peptide or EDTA

  18. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    to motivate effort. If rewarding low outcomes is infeasible, compensation consisting of stocks and options is a near-efficient means of overcoming the manager's induced aversion to undertaking risky investments, whereas stock compensation is not. However, stock plus option compensation may induce excessively...

  19. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  20. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  1. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  2. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  3. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  4. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... information technology. We will summarize the comments that we receive and include them in the OTS request for... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by providing a common prudential foundation for incentive compensation arrangements across banking...

  5. Developing fair compensation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousdale, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of finding an effective way to incorporate Aboriginal values into the process of developing fair compensation structures was discussed. This paper discusses pricing intangible values using dollars, but it was emphasized that 'values' are whatever are important to us. Therefore, in order to achieve fair compensation, creative alternatives that are value-focused should be pursued. In addition to the more straight-forward monetary compensation, compensation could also be about avoiding losses, mitigating adverse impacts, achieving better communication, and promoting cultural understanding. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  6. US-LHC IR magnet error analysis and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Ptitsin, V.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Gelfand, N.; Wan, W.; Holt, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of the insertion-region (IR) magnet field errors on LHC collision performance. Compensation schemes including magnet orientation optimization, body-end compensation, tuning shims, and local nonlinear correction are shown to be highly effective

  7. Compensations during Unsteady Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mu; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-12-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady, but the mechanisms used by animals to power and control unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) are not well understood. We use behavioral, morphological, and impulsive perturbations to determine the compensations used during unsteady locomotion. At the level both of the whole-body and of joints, quasi-stiffness models are useful for describing adjustments to the functioning of legs and joints during maneuvers. However, alterations to the mechanics of legs and joints often are distinct for different phases of the step cycle or for specific joints. For example, negotiating steps involves independent changes of leg stiffness during compression and thrust phases of stance. Unsteady locomotion also involves parameters that are not part of the simplest reduced-parameter models of locomotion (e.g., the spring-loaded inverted pendulum) such as moments of the hip joint. Extensive coupling among translational and rotational parameters must be taken into account to stabilize locomotion or maneuver. For example, maneuvers with morphological perturbations (increased rotational inertial turns) involve changes to several aspects of movement, including the initial conditions of rotation and ground-reaction forces. Coupled changes to several parameters may be employed to control maneuvers on a trial-by-trial basis. Compensating for increased rotational inertia of the body during turns is facilitated by the opposing effects of several mechanical and behavioral parameters. However, the specific rules used by animals to control translation and rotation of the body to maintain stability or maneuver have not been fully characterized. We initiated direct-perturbation experiments to investigate the strategies used by humans to maintain stability following center-of-mass (COM) perturbations. When walking, humans showed more resistance to medio-lateral perturbations (lower COM displacement). However, when running, humans

  8. Diffractive Photon Production in $\\gamma p$ and $\\gamma \\gamma$ Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Evanson, N G

    1999-01-01

    We study the diffractive production of photons in gamma-p and gamma-gamma collisions. We specifically compute the rates for gamma*-p -> gamma-X and for gamma*-gamma* -> gamma-gamma, where X denotes the proton dissociation. We focus on the rates at large momentum transfers, -t >> Lambda^2, where we are most confident in the use of QCD perturbation theory. However, our calculations do allow us to study the -t -> 0 behaviour of the gamma*-gamma*-> gamma-gamma process in the region where the incoming photons are sufficiently virtual.

  9. Chemist's gamma-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, I.; Kraus, R.; Klein, R.; Lee, D.; Fowler, M.M.

    1977-06-01

    An edited listing of gamma-ray information has been prepared. Prominent gamma rays originating from nuclides with half lives long enough to be seen in radiochemical experiments are included. Information is ordered by nuclide in one section and by energy in a second section. This shorter listing facilitates identification of nuclides responsible for gamma rays observed in experiments

  10. Indexing Executive Compensation Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dittmann (Ingolf); E.G. Maug (Ernst); O.G. Spalt (Oliver)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the efficiency of indexing executive pay by calibrating the standard model of executive compensation to a large sample of US CEOs. The benefits from linking the strike price of stock options to an index are small and fully indexing all options would increase compensation costs

  11. Evaluation of peak-fitting software for gamma spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Moralles, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    In all applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy, one of the most important and delicate parts of the data analysis is the fitting of the gamma-ray spectra, where information as the number of counts, the position of the centroid and the width, for instance, are associated with each peak of each spectrum. There's a huge choice of computer programs that perform this type of analysis, and the most commonly used in routine work are the ones that automatically locate and fit the peaks; this fit can be made in several different ways - the most common ways are to fit a Gaussian function to each peak or simply to integrate the area under the peak, but some software go far beyond and include several small corrections to the simple Gaussian peak function, in order to compensate for secondary effects. In this work several gamma-ray spectroscopy software are compared in the task of finding and fitting the gamma-ray peaks in spectra taken with standard sources of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 133 Ba and 152 Eu. The results show that all of the automatic software can be properly used in the task of finding and fitting peaks, with the exception of GammaVision; also, it was possible to verify that the automatic peak-fitting software did perform as well as - and sometimes even better than - a manual peak-fitting software. (author)

  12. Optimal compensation for neuron loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David GT; Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-01-01

    The brain has an impressive ability to withstand neural damage. Diseases that kill neurons can go unnoticed for years, and incomplete brain lesions or silencing of neurons often fail to produce any behavioral effect. How does the brain compensate for such damage, and what are the limits of this compensation? We propose that neural circuits instantly compensate for neuron loss, thereby preserving their function as much as possible. We show that this compensation can explain changes in tuning curves induced by neuron silencing across a variety of systems, including the primary visual cortex. We find that compensatory mechanisms can be implemented through the dynamics of networks with a tight balance of excitation and inhibition, without requiring synaptic plasticity. The limits of this compensatory mechanism are reached when excitation and inhibition become unbalanced, thereby demarcating a recovery boundary, where signal representation fails and where diseases may become symptomatic. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12454.001 PMID:27935480

  13. Compensation of Disadvantages in University Examination Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Quapp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Active social participation of disabled people is one of the major tasks of modern society. That also includes access to the academic community by higher education. Universities all over the world work hard to give handicapped students a chance to graduate. In this context, compensation of disadvantages in examination procedures is an important matter. But, also chronic illness may impair the student's examination performance. To ensure equal examination opportunities for all students, responsible university officials must be creative to find individual compensation solutions. The paper analyzes examination regulations at universities in different countries and offers solutions to compensate disabled and chronic ill students' disadvantages. It discusses the necessity of compensation for different types of disability and chronic illness. Finally, an overview of current German case law and solutions for compensation problems are provided.

  14. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years beginning...

  15. Reactive Power Compensator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  16. Reactive power compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  17. Reactive power compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  18. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strålberg, Elisabeth; Klemola, Seppo; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical...

  19. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  20. Does CEO compensation impact patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingbola, Kunle; van den Berg, Herman A

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between CEO compensation and patient satisfaction in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to determine what impact hospital CEO compensation has on hospital patient satisfaction. The analyses in this study were based on data of 261 CEO-hospital-year observations in a sample of 103 nonprofit hospitals. A number of linear regressions were conducted, with patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and CEO compensation as the independent variable of interest. Controlling variables included hospital size, type of hospital, and frequency of adverse clinical outcomes. CEO compensation does not significantly influence hospital patient satisfaction. Both patient satisfaction and CEO compensation appear to be driven primarily by hospital size. Patient satisfaction decreases, while CEO compensation increases, with the number of acute care beds in a hospital. In addition, CEO compensation does not even appear to moderate the influence of hospital size on patient satisfaction. There are several limitations to this study. First, observations of CEO-hospital-years in which annual nominal CEO compensation was below $100,000 were excluded, as they were not publicly available. Second, this research was limited to a three-year range. Third, this study related the compensation of individual CEOs to a measure of performance based on a multitude of patient satisfaction surveys. Finally, this research is restricted to not-for-profit hospitals in Ontario, Canada. The findings seem to suggest that hospital directors seeking to improve patient satisfaction may find their efforts frustrated if they focus exclusively on the hospital CEO. The findings highlight the need for further research on how CEOs may, through leading and supporting those hospital clinicians and staff that interact more closely with patients, indirectly enhance patient satisfaction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no research has examined the relationship between

  1. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  2. Emittance compensation in split photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Floettmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The compensation of correlated emittance contributions is of primary importance to optimize the performance of high brightness photoinjectors. While only extended numerical simulations can capture the complex beam dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams in sufficient detail to optimize a specific injector layout, simplified models are required to gain a deeper understanding of the involved dynamics, to guide the optimization procedure, and to interpret experimental results. In this paper, a slice envelope model for the emittance compensation process in a split photoinjector is presented. The emittance term is included in the analytical solution of the beam envelope in a drift, which is essential to take the emittance contribution due to a beam size mismatch into account. The appearance of two emittance minima in the drift is explained, and the matching into the booster cavity is discussed. A comparison with simulation results points out effects which are not treated in the envelope model, such as overfocusing and field nonlinearities.

  3. [Biomechanic principles of the sagittal compensating curve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubein-Meesenburg, D; Nägerl, H; Fanghänel, J

    1990-07-01

    The alignment of the buccal teeth along the compensating curve is of functional importance. It is closely related with the functional gear system of anterior and posterior guidance. Measurements have shown that individual differences between masticatory systems are mainly attributable to functional parameters. Purely skeletal parameters are of comparatively little variability. The compensating curve may be regarded as a guiding element within a master gear systems which includes the gear system of anterior and posterior guidance.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of coal mine dust using gamma-ray backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of particulate material, particularly coal mine dust, include placing a sample of the particulate material in a container to define a pair of angularly oriented surfaces of the sample, directing an incident gamma-ray beam from a radiation source at one surface of the sample and detecting gamma-ray backscatter from the other surface of the sample with a radiation detector having an output operating a display to indicate incombustible content of the sample. The positioning of the source and detector along different surfaces of the sample permits the depth of the scattering volume defined by intersection of the incident beam and a detection cone from the detector to be selected such that variations in scattered radiation produced by variations in density of the sample are compensated by variations in the attenuation of the incident beam and the gamma-ray backscatter. 17 claims 5 figures

  5. (statcom) in synchronous compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    for adoption of advanced control technologies such as Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) with fast ... APPLICATION OF STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR (STATCOM) IN IMPROVING POWER SYSTEM PERFORMANCE, R.A Jokojeje .... supply at bus i and is the reactive power demand at.

  6. Enthalpy–entropy compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enthalpy–entropy compensation is the name given to the correlation sometimes observed between the estimates of the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction obtained from temperature-dependence data. Although the mainly artefactual nature of this correlation has been known for many years, the subject enjoys periodical ...

  7. Coast Guard Compensation Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    allowances for quarters and subsistence (either in kind or cash), medical care, commissary and exchange priviledges , reenlistment bonuses, special...4t.17-.28] Another study indicated that women value pay less comparatively than do men. Women were found to value work atmosphere more highly than...compensation policies for active duty personnel. Specifically, policies concerning subsistence allowances, quarters allowances, commissary/exchange priviledges

  8. Teacher Compensation and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in the conceptualization of schooling over time from an organizational perspective. Explores how compensation systems might be better designed to match alternative organizational designs, considering scientific management, effective schools, content-driven schooling, and high standards/high involvement schools as organizational…

  9. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  10. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tested on a regular basis to ensure the safety of patients and medical staff. top of page This page ... Brain Tumor Treatment Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) Cerebral ... to Gamma Knife Sponsored by Please ...

  11. Gamma rays control coding moths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarris, L.

    Gamma rays are being tested as a means of controlling codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), under fruit storage conditions where fumigation will not work. Preliminary tests have shown that gamma radiation kills all exposed codling moth larvae, including larvae in the dormant stage. There is no carryover of radiation in the fruit and minimal effect on the fruit. Gamma irradiation of food is considered safe for human consumption at doses of 1 kilogray (10 kilorads) or less.

  12. Structuring competitive physician compensation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kim; Turcotte, Claire

    2010-12-01

    When developing and reviewing their physician compensation programs, healthcare organizations should: Understand the market data. Test outcomes of incentive plans for fair market value. Check total compensation for fair market value and reasonableness.

  13. Center for Worker's Compensation Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the NIOSH Center for Workers’ Compensation Studies (CWCS) is to use workers’ compensation data and systems to improve workplace safety and health....

  14. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  15. Measurement of the $e^+ e^- \\to \\gamma\\gamma (\\gamma)$ cross section at the LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerruti, C; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Konoplyannikov, A K; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rakoczy, D; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Silvestre, R; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1998-01-01

    The total and the differential cross-sections for the reaction $e^+e^-\\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma(\\gamma)$ have been measured with the DELPHI detector at LEP % with at centre-of-mass energies from 1 30 %, 136, 161, 172 and to 183 GeV for an integrated luminosity of 78.19.~pb$^{-1}$. %CR An agreement with the QED predictions was found and consequently The results agree with the QED prediction s. The lower limits (obtained including previously published results at the $\\Zzero$ energies) on the QED cutoff parameters are $\\Lambda_{+} > 253$~GeV and $\\Lambda_{-} > 225$~GeV and the lower bo und on the mass of an excited electron with an effective coupling constant $\\lambda_{\\gamma} = 1$ is 231~GeV/$c^2$. %Upper limits on the branching ratios for the decays ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow %\\gam ma\\gamma$, ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow \\pi^0\\gamma$, % ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow \\eta\\gamma$ %and ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$ have been determined to be 2.5 % $\\times$ $10^{-5}$, 2.5 $\\times$ $ 10^{-5}$, % 4.0 $\\times$ $10^{-5}$, %and...

  16. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  17. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The light pulse output of a scintillator, on which incident collimated gamma rays impinge, is detected by an array of photoelectric tubes each having a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to outputs of the phototubes develops the scintillation event position coordinate electrical signals with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as is possible to obtain less distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar photocathode gamma cameras

  18. Predictors of Energy Compensation during Exercise Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Riou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation was 18% ± 93%. The analyses indicated that 48% of the variance of energy compensation is explained by the interaction between initial fat mass, age and duration of exercise interventions. Sex, frequency, intensity and dose of exercise energy expenditure were not significant predictors of energy compensation. The fitted model suggested that for a shorter study duration, lower energy compensation was observed in younger individuals with higher initial fat mass (FM. In contrast, higher energy compensation was noted for younger individuals with lower initial FM. From 25 weeks onward, energy compensation was no longer different for these predictors. For studies of longer duration (about 80 weeks, the energy compensation approached 84%. Lower energy compensation occurs with short-term exercise, and a much higher level of energy compensation accompanies long-term exercise interventions.

  19. A Case Study Correlating Innovative Gamma Ray Scanning Detection Systems Data to Surface Soil Gamma Spectrometry Results - 13580

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Shannon; Rodriguez, Rene; Billock, Paul; Lit, Peter

    2013-01-01

    HydroGeoLogic (HGL), Inc. completed a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) study to characterize radiological contamination at a site near Canoga Park, California. The characterized area contained 470 acres including the site of a prototype commercial nuclear reactor and other nuclear design, testing, and support operations from the 1950's until 1988 [1]. The site history included radiological releases during operation followed by D and D activities. The characterization was conducted under an accelerated schedule and the results will support the project remediation. The project has a rigorous cleanup to background agenda and does not allow for comparison to risk-based guidelines. To target soil sample locations, multiple lines of evidence were evaluated including a gamma radiation survey, geophysical surveys, historical site assessment, aerial photographs, and former worker interviews. Due to the time since production and decay, the primary gamma emitting radionuclide remaining is cesium-137 (Cs-137). The gamma ray survey covered diverse, rugged terrain using custom designed sodium iodide thallium-activated (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detection systems. The survey goals included attaining 100% ground surface coverage and detecting gamma radiation as sensitively as possible. The effectiveness of innovative gamma ray detection systems was tested by correlating field Cs-137 static count ratios to Cs-137 laboratory gamma spectrometry results. As a case study, the area encompassing the former location of the first nuclear power station in the U. S. was scanned, and second by second global positioning system (GPS)-linked gamma spectral data were evaluated by examining total count rate and nuclide-specific regions of interest. To compensate for Compton scattering from higher energy naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and their progeny, and K-40), count rate ratios of anthropogenic nuclide-specific regions of interest to the total count rate were

  20. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  1. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  2. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  3. Industrial radiography. Gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, J.

    1975-01-01

    Informations are given on gamma radiodefectology regulations, entire references and main dispositions applicable to each state of the European Economic Community. The content includes previous arrangements for source acquisition, holding and use of the sources, transport, accidents, civil liability of the source holder, person insurance against radiation hazards and contamination, property insurance, penal liability of the source holder

  4. Recycler model magnet test on temperature compensation for strontium ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, R.; Foster, W.; Ostiguy, F.; Wake, M.

    1995-10-01

    The Recycler ring magnet will be made of Strontium ferrite permanent magnets. A strontium ferrite permanent magnet without compensation has a temperature coefficient of -0.2 % in dB/dT. To compensate this effect, we are utilizing 30 % Ni 70 % Fe alloy, a temperature compensation ferromagnetic material with a low Curie point. To search for optimum commercially available material and optimum condition, we made a couple of simple model magnets, and tested with several different compensating material. The test results are reported and its optimal conditions are shown. Several different configurations were tested including a possible 2 kG magnet configuration

  5. Influence of Lateral Muscle Loading in the Proximal Femur after Fracture Stabilization with a Trochanteric Gamma Nail (TGN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai; Bohez, Erik; Vander Sloten, Jos

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of lateral muscle loading on the stress/strain distributions of the trochanteric Gamma nail (TGN) fixation within the healed, trochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fractures by means of a finite element method. The effect of three muscle groups, the abductors (ABD), the vastus lateralis (VL) and the iliotibial band (ITB), were investigated. The analytical results showed that addition of lateral muscle forces, iliotibial band and vastus lateralis, produced compensation of forces and reduction of bending moments in the bone and in the trochanteric Gamma nail especially in the lateral aspect. The iliotibial band produced a higher impact as compared to the vastus lateralis. Therefore in the finite element analysis of the proximal femur with the trochanteric Gamma nail fracture fixation should include the lateral muscle forces to simulate load condition with maximal physiological relevance to the closed nailing technique.

  6. Security careers skills, compensation, and career paths

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The third edition of Security Careers is the authoritative reference for current job descriptions and pay practices of security, compliance, ethics, environmental, health and safety occupations. The job descriptions and compensation ranges in this report are drawn from research from the Foushée Group, which has been conducting this research since 1980. Security Careers includes more than 75 job descriptions for security-related positions, which range from the entry-level security guard to the top global corporate executive. It also provides four years of compensation trend data to give a th

  7. Digital, electromagnetic rod position indicator with compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilchenfeld, M.M.; Geis, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    A digital rod position indicator having discrete coils L 0 , L 1 , L 2 ..... spaced along the travel path of an elongate magnetically permeable member stores in digital form compensation signals for automatically adjusting the location relative to the coils at which a digital output signal representative of the position of the end of the elongate member transitions from one code to the next. The appropriate compensation signal is addressed using the digital output signal and a correction factor which takes into account the direction of movement including reversals. Reference is made to the positioning of the control rods in a pressurized water reactor. (author)

  8. The Compensation Act 2006 and School Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Jones, John

    2006-01-01

    The Compensation Act 2006 received its Royal Assent on 25 July 2006. The Act allows the courts to have regard to the social utility of "desirable activities", including school trips, in considering negligence claims. The article reviews the law of negligence as it affects teachers of the very young and considers the possible impact of…

  9. Defining Compensable Injury in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research provides a core social good by enabling medical progress. In the twenty-first century alone, this includes reducing transmission of HIV/AIDS, developing innovative therapies for cancer patients, and exploring the possibilities of personalized medicine. In order to continue to advance medical science, research relies on the voluntary participation of human subjects. Because research is inherently uncertain, unintended harm is an inevitable part of the research enterprise. Currently, injured research participants in the United States must turn to the “litigation lottery” of the tort system in search of compensation. This state of affairs fails research participants, who are too often left uncompensated for devastating losses, and makes the United States an outlier in the international community. In spite of forty years’ worth of Presidential Commissions and other respected voices calling for the development of a no-fault compensation system, no progress has been made to date. One of the reasons for this lack of progress is the failure to develop a coherent ethical basis for an obligation to provide compensation for research related injuries. This problem is exacerbated by the lack of a clear definition of “compensable injury” in the biomedical research context. This article makes a number of important contributions to the scholarship in this growing field. To begin, it examines compensation systems already in existence and concludes that there are four main definitional elements that must be used to define “compensable injury.” Next, it examines the justifications that have been put forth as the basis for an ethical obligation to provide compensation, and settles on retrospective nonmaleficence and distributive and compensatory justice as the most salient and persuasive. Finally, it uses the regulatory elements and the justifications discussed in the first two sections to develop a well-rounded definition of “compensable injury

  10. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  11. 16 CFR 1018.32 - Compensation and travel expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... place of business, may be allowed travel expenses including per diem in lieu of expenses as authorized... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation and travel expenses. 1018.32... MANAGEMENT Administration of Advisory Committees § 1018.32 Compensation and travel expenses. (a) A single...

  12. Re-Planning for Compensator-Based IMRT with Original Compensators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Li Weiqi; Leuthold, Susan; Springett, Gregory; Hoffe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Compared with multileaf collimator (MLC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for moving targets, compensator-based IMRT has advantages such as shorter beam-on time, fewer monitor units with potentially decreased secondary carcinogenesis risk, better optimization-to-deliverable dose conversion, and often better dose conformity. Some of the disadvantages include additional time for the compensators to be built and delivered, as well as extra cost. Patients undergoing treatment of abdominal cancers often experience weight loss. It would be necessary to account for this change in weight with a new plan and a second set of compensators. However, this would result in treatment delays and added costs. We have developed a method to re-plan the patient using the same set of compensators. Because the weight changes seen with the treatment of abdominal cancers are usually relatively small, a new 4D computed tomography (CT) acquired in the treatment position with markers on the original isocenter tattoos can be registered to the original planning scan. The contours of target volumes from the original scans are copied to the new scan after fusion. The original compensator set can be used together with a few field-in-field (FiF) beams defined by the MLC (or beams with cerrobend blocks for accelerators not equipped with a MLC). The weights of the beams with compensators are reduced so that the FiF or blocked beams can be optimized to mirror the original plan and dose distribution. Seven abdominal cancer cases are presented using this technique. The new plan on the new planning CT images usually has the same dosimetric quality as the original. The target coverage and dose uniformity are improved compared with the plan without FiF/block modification. Techniques combining additional FiF or blocked beams with the original compensators optimize the treatment plans when patients lose weight and save time and cost compared with generating plans with a new set of compensators.

  13. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.; Kotschak, O.; Conrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera with a simplified setup as compared with the state of engineering is described permitting, apart from good localization, also energy discrimination. Behind the usual vacuum image amplifier a multiwire proportional chamber filled with trifluorine bromium methane is connected in series. Localizing of the signals is achieved by a delay line, energy determination by means of a pulse height discriminator. With the aid of drawings and circuit diagrams, the setup and mode of operation are explained. (ORU) [de

  14. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  15. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation, and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.

  16. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerkt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The term compensation is widely used in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992 to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: We will (1 introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2 discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3 set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.

  17. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1987-06-01

    The mapping of gamma sources radiation emission in a nuclear plant is an important safety point. A remote gamma ray mapping process was developed in SPS/CEA/SACLAY. It uses the ''pinhole camera'' principle, precursor of photography. It mainly consists of a radiation proof box, with a small orifice, containing sensitive emulsions at the opposite. A first conventional photographic type emulsion photographs the area. A second photographic emulsion shows up the gamma radiations. The superim position of the two shots gives immediate informations of the precise location of each source of radiation in the observed area. To make easier the presentation and to improve the accuracy of the results for radiation levels mapping, the obtained films are digitally processed. The processing assigns a colours scale to the various levels of observed radiations. Taking account physical data and standard parameters, it gets possible to estimate the dose rate. The device is portable. Its compactness and fully independent nature make it suitable for use anywhere. It can be adapted to a remote automatic handling system, robot... so as to avoid all operator exposure when the local dose rate is too high [fr

  18. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  19. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  20. 31 CFR 30.16 - Q-16: What is the Office of the Special Master for TARP Executive Compensation, and what are its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determine whether the compensation structure for each SEO or most highly compensated employee of a TARP...). This requirement shall apply to any compensation accrued or paid during any period the SEO or most... compensation structure for any SEO or most highly compensated employee, including the amounts that are or may...

  1. Annual compensation for pipelines in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    The Surface Rights Board (SRB) in Alberta held a hearing in November 2007 to address three issues involving a pipeline for Enbridge Pipelines (Athabasca) Inc. as well as several land owner issues in Townships 66-68 and Ranges 17-19, all west of the 4th Meridian. The issues the SRB examined were the appropriate amount (i.e. magnitude) of compensation payable under right of entry orders under consideration; the appropriate structure of the compensation award; and to whom the compensation was payable. This document presented a review by the Farmer's Advocate Office (FAO) of the published decision of the SRB. The verbatim decision and rationale used by the SRB to award annual compensation for loss and/or ongoing nuisance and inconvenience was presented. The document could be useful to landowners as they determine their negotiation strategy when faced with considering future pipeline access agreements. The document included a discussion of the context for the decision and a case review. Specific topics that were covered included the rationale for the decision; long term effects of pipeline arguments and SRB commentary; the award and determination; and what still needs to be done. It was concluded that the SRB requires evidence in order to answer several questions regarding the magnitude of any losses, and to what degree, if any, had the nuisance, inconvenience, and loss of rights already been anticipated and factored into the operator's final offer

  2. Takeovers and (Excess) CEO Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    We study if a CEO’s equity-based compensation affects the expected value generation in takeovers. When the objectives of management and shareholders are more aligned, as proxied by the use of equity-based compensation, more value-maximizing acquisitions are expected. Whereas in widely-held firms the

  3. An overview of turbulence compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Iersel, M. van; Doelman, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification

  4. Takeovers and (excess) CEO compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Renneboog, Luc

    We study if a CEO’s equity-based compensation affects the expected value generation in takeovers. When the objectives of management and shareholders are more aligned, as proxied by the use of equity-based compensation, more value-maximizing acquisitions are expected. Whereas in widely-held firms the

  5. SU-E-T-04: 3D Dose Based Patient Compensator QA Procedure for Proton Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, W; Reyhan, M; Zhang, M; Davis, R; Jabbour, S; Khan, A; Yue, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In proton double-scattering radiotherapy, compensators are the essential patient specific devices to contour the distal dose distribution to the tumor target. Traditional compensator QA is limited to checking the drilled surface profiles against the plan. In our work, a compensator QA process was established that assess the entire compensator including its internal structure for patient 3D dose verification. Methods: The fabricated patient compensators were CT scanned. Through mathematical image processing and geometric transformations, the CT images of the proton compensator were combined with the patient simulation CT images into a new series of CT images, in which the imaged compensator is placed at the planned location along the corresponding beam line. The new CT images were input into the Eclipse treatment planning system. The original plan was calculated to the combined CT image series without the plan compensator. The newly computed patient 3D dose from the combined patientcompensator images was verified against the original plan dose. Test plans include the compensators with defects intentionally created inside the fabricated compensators. Results: The calculated 3D dose with the combined compensator and patient CT images reflects the impact of the fabricated compensator to the patient. For the test cases in which no defects were created, the dose distributions were in agreement between our method and the corresponding original plans. For the compensator with the defects, the purposely changed material and a purposely created internal defect were successfully detected while not possible with just the traditional compensator profiles detection methods. Conclusion: We present here a 3D dose verification process to qualify the fabricated proton double-scattering compensator. Such compensator detection process assesses the patient 3D impact of the fabricated compensator surface profile as well as the compensator internal material and structure changes

  6. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    To set the gamma activity cartography is an important element of safety in numerous cases: intervention in hot cell, search of a radioactive source, examination of radioactive waste circuit followed by a reprocessing definition of decontamination and decommissioning processes and for all other accidents. The device presented here is like a ''black box'' with an aperture and an emulsion photosensitive to the opposite; a classical film takes photography of the place; a X-ray type emulsion gives a spot more or less contrasted and extensive corresponding to each source. Images can be processed with a microprocessor [fr

  7. Compensating for the harms of family violence: statutory barriers in Australian victims of crime compensation schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the compensative capacity of the victims of crime statutory schemes that are present in all eight Australian jurisdictions for primary victims of family violence. It argues that the recommendations of the Final Report on Family Violence conducted jointly by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 2010, although a positive step, are insufficient to facilitate meaningful compensation to victims of family violence. In addition to the primary limitations identified by the Commissions--a requirement to report the crime to the police within a reasonable time and a requirement for multiple acts of violence to be reduced to a single act if they are related--there are other statutory barriers that disproportionately disadvantage victims of family violence. These include time limitation provisions, a requirement to report the crime to police, the restriction of compensation to prescribed categories of loss which exclude many of the social, vocational, emotional and psychological harms suffered by victims of family violence, and significant cut-backs on the non-economic component of the schemes. This article further argues that the statutory barriers cumulatively contribute to the perception of a crime as an isolated event perpetrated by a deviant individual. The article recommends that specific provisions for family violence victims should be introduced into all schemes including three categories of compensation not tied to criminal offences but rather the different forms of family violence, with a generous compensation range, and no requirement for proof of injury.

  8. A respiratory compensating system: design and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Huang, Ding-Yang; Tien, Der-Chi; Wu, Ren-Hong; Hsu, Chung-Hsien

    2014-05-08

    signals, the average dose (%) in the target area is improved by 31.8% ~ 67.7%, and improved in the 95% isodose area by 15.3% ~ 86.4% (the above rates of improvements will increase with increasing respiratory motion displacement) after compensation. The experimental results from the second method suggested that about 67.3% ~ 82.5% displacement can be offset. In addition, gamma passing rate after compensation can be improved to 100% only when the displacement of the respiratory motion is within 10 ~ 30 mm. This study proves that the proposed system can contribute to the compensation of organ displacement caused by respiratory motion, enabling physicians to use lower doses and smaller field sizes in the treatment of tumors of cancer patients.

  9. Stabilized thermally compensated mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, C. III; Tobin, R.D.; Bergstreser, N.E.; Heinz, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally compensated mirror is described that is formed by a laminated structure. The structure is comprised of a front plate having a reflective front surface and having a plurality of grooves formed in the rear surface for conducting coolant fluid in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface, a rear plate having coolant inlet and coolant outlet openings extending therethrough, a minimum temperature plate interposed between said front and rear plates and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution passageways coupled to receive coolant fluid from said coolant inlet and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a minimum temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, a temperature stabilization plate interposed between said front plate and said minimum temperature plate and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution channels coupled to receive said coolant fluid after said coolant fluid has passed in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a uniform temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, and means for circulating said coolant fluid through said structure in a predetermined path. (U.S.)

  10. Apparent compensation effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    It is shown that by linear extrapolation of low temperature Arrhenius lines to 1/T = 0 a phenomenon resembling the compensation effect is generated because the absolute position of those lines is raised by the entropy of activation energy distribution so that the lines have an intersection point. An equation first derived by O. K. Rice (Actication et Structures des Molecules, p. 304, Paris (1928); O. K. Rice and Ramsberger, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 50, 617 (1928)) and C. N. Hinshelwood (Kinetics of Chemical Change in Gaseous Systems, 3rd ed., Oxford Clarendon Press (1933)) is used. For a well documented example it is shown graphically that the construction described fits the observations. From the rate equation used an expression is derived which gives for any reaction the number of degrees of freedom contributing to the activation of the critical complex as a function of the limiting activation energies and of the apparent isocatalytic temperature. It is applied to a number of catalyses by alloys, salts, supported and inverse supported catalysts for a variety of reactions. In all cases values around 10 to 20 result for the freedom numbers. The conductivity of several doped semiconductors follows the same rule. The results are briefly discussed. 21 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  11. T1 VSAT Fade Compensation Statistical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra K.; Acosta, Roberto; Ugweje, Oke

    2000-01-01

    New satellite communication systems are steadily seeking to use higher frequency bands to accommodate the requirements for additional capacity. At these higher frequencies, propagation impairments that did not significantly affect the signal at lower frequencies begin to have considerable impact. In Ka-band. the next logical commercial frequency band to be used for satellite communication, attenuation of the signal due to rain is a primary concern. An experimental satellite built by NASA, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). launched in September 1993, is the first U.S. communication satellite operating in the Ka-band. In addition to higher carrier frequencies, a number of other new technologies, including on-board baseband processing. multiple beam antennas, and rain fade detection and compensation techniques, were designed into the ACTS. Verification experiments have been conducted since the launch to characterize the new technologies. The focus of this paper is to characterize the method used by the ACTS TI Very Small Aperture Terminal (TI VSAT) ground stations in detecting the presence of fade in the communication signal and to adaptively compensate for it by the addition of burst rate reduction and forward error correction. Measured data obtained from the ACTS program was used to validate the compensation technique. A software process was developed and demonstrated to statistically characterize the increased availability achieved by the compensation techniques in terms of the bit error rate time enhancement factor. Several improvements to the ACTS technique are discussed and possible implementations for future Ka band system are offered.

  12. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  13. Active Wireline Heave Compensation for Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D.; Liu, T.; Swain, K.; Furman, C.; Iturrino, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    The up-and-down heave motion of a ship causes a similar motion on any instruments tethered on wireline cable below it. If the amplitude of this motion is greater than a few tens of cm, significant discrepancy in the depth below the ship is introduced, causing uncertainty in the acquired data. Large and irregular cabled motions also increase the risk of damaging tethered instruments, particularly those with relatively delicate sensors. In 2005, Schlumberger and Deep Down, Inc built an active wireline heave compensator (AHC) system for use onboard the JOIDES Resolution to compensate for heave motion on wireline logging tools deployed in scientific drill holes. The goals for the new AHC system were to (1) design a reliable heave compensation system; and (2) devise a robust and quantitative methodology for routine assessment of compensation efficiency (CE) during wireline operations. Software programs were developed to monitor CE and the dynamics of logging tools in real-time, including system performance under variable parameters such as water depth, sea state, cable length, logging speed and direction. We present the CE results from the AHC system on the JOIDES Resolution during a 5-year period of recent IODP operations and compare the results to those from previous compensation systems deployed during ODP and IODP. Based on new data under heave conditions of ±0.2-2.0 m and water depths of 300-4,800 m in open holes, the system reduces 65-80% of downhole tool displacement under stationary conditions and 50-60% during normal logging operations. Moreover, down/up tool motion at low speeds (300-600 m/h) reduces the system's CE values by 15-20%, and logging down at higher speeds (1,000-1,200 m/h) reduces CE values by 55-65%. Furthermore, the system yields slightly lower CE values of 40-50% without tension feedback of the downhole cable while logging. These results indicate that the new system's compensation efficiency is comparable to or better than previous systems

  14. Administrative compensation for medical injuries: lessons from three foreign systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Kachalia, Allen; Studdert, David M

    2011-07-01

    The United States requires patients injured by medical negligence to seek compensation through lawsuits, an approach that has drawbacks related to fairness, cost, and impact on medical care. Several countries, including New Zealand, Sweden, and Denmark, have replaced litigation with administrative compensation systems for patients who experience an avoidable medical injury. Sometimes called "no-fault" systems, such schemes enable patients to file claims for compensation without using an attorney. A governmental or private adjudicating organization uses neutral medical experts to evaluate claims of injury and does not require patients to prove that health care providers were negligent in order to receive compensation. Information from claims is used to analyze opportunities for patient safety improvement. The systems have successfully limited liability costs while improving injured patients' access to compensation. American policymakers may find many of the elements of these countries' systems to be transferable to demonstration projects in the U.S.

  15. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  16. Voltage Unbalance and Harmonic Compensation in Microgrids by Cooperation of Distributed Generators and Active Power Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashempour, Mohammad M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    , selective virtual impedance and voltage/current regulators. Based on the secondary control, at first voltage harmonic compensation and voltage unbalance compensation of point of common coupling (PCC), that might includes sensitive loads, is carried out by DGs. Voltage compensation of PCC by DGs may cause...

  17. A Complete Characterization of Potential Compensation Tests of Hicksian Welfare Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Keenan; Arthur Snow

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present complete characterizations of the compensation tests for potential Pareto superiority proposed by Kaldor, Hicks, and Samuelson in terms of the aggregate Hicksian measures of income compensation, including compensating and equivalent variations. The key to obtaining these characterizations lies in recognizing that each potential compensation test entails a search over possible outcomes, rather than a comparison of only the new and original outcomes, as with s...

  18. A gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometric method for rapid characterization of uranium isotopic fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weihua Zhang; Jing Yi; Pawel Mekarski; Kurt Ungar; Barry Hauck; Kramer, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on initial efforts for uranium isotopic analysis using gamma-rays and X-ray fluorescence coincidence. In this study, a gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometry was developed. The spectrometry consists of two NaI(Tl) scintillators and XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The developed spectrometry was optimized according to the considerations of output count rate and gamma peak energy resolution. It has been demonstrated that the spectrometry provides an effective method of assessing the content of uranium isotopes for nuclear materials. The main advantages of this approach over the conventional gamma spectrometry include the fact that 235 U enrichment can be graphically characterized by its unique coincidence 'fingerprints'. The method could be further developed for fast uranium isotope verification with an established gamma-gamma coincidence spectral imaging library by various nuclear materials. (author)

  19. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, U.; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. The supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other through about 90 0 to a collimator exchange position. Each of the separate supports is swingable to a vertically aligned position, with limiting of the swinging movement and positioning of the support at the desired exchange position. The collimators are carried on the supports by means of a series of vertically disposed coil springs. Projections on the camera are movable from above into grooves of the collimator at the exchange position, whereupon the collimator is turned so that it is securely prevented from falling out of the camera head

  20. Compensative hypertrophy of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    Several measurement methods are available to practitioners to reveal a compensative hypertrophy. Mensuration of the kidney has the advantage of simplicity but is in fact an unreliable and inaccurate method. Separate clearances in their traditional form have never entered into routine use because of the disadvantages of ureteral catheterism. The use of radioactive tracers avoids this drawback, but clearances calculated in this way are only valid in the absence of obstructive urinary disorders. Solutions have been proposed, but the values obtained are no longer identical with the clearances. The Hg uptake test quantifies quite accurately the function of each kidney. From the results obtained a complete compensative hypertrophy developed on a healthy kidney and an incomplete compensative hypertrophy developed on the diseased kidney have been described. In each of these situations the degree to which compensative hypertrophy develops seems to be fixed at a given level peculiar to each patient [fr

  1. Motion Compensation on DCT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ray Liu

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fully DCT-based video codec architectures have been proposed in the past to address the shortcomings of the conventional hybrid motion compensated DCT video codec structures traditionally chosen as the basis of implementation of standard-compliant codecs. However, no prior effort has been made to ensure interoperability of these two drastically different architectures so that fully DCT-based video codecs are fully compatible with the existing video coding standards. In this paper, we establish the criteria for matching conventional codecs with fully DCT-based codecs. We find that the key to this interoperability lies in the heart of the implementation of motion compensation modules performed in the spatial and transform domains at both the encoder and the decoder. Specifically, if the spatial-domain motion compensation is compatiable with the transform-domain motion compensation, then the states in both the coder and the decoder will keep track of each other even after a long series of P-frames. Otherwise, the states will diverge in proportion to the number of P-frames between two I-frames. This sets an important criterion for the development of any DCT-based motion compensation schemes. We also discuss and develop some DCT-based motion compensation schemes as important building blocks of fully DCT-based codecs. For the case of subpixel motion compensation, DCT-based approaches allow more accurate interpolation without any increase in computation. Furthermore, a scare number of DCT coefficients after quantization significantly decreases the number of calculations required for motion compensation. Coupled with the DCT-based motion estimation algorithms, it is possible to realize fully DCT-based codecs to overcome the disadvantages of conventional hybrid codecs.

  2. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world

  3. Density gamma gamma logging of oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, Yu.A.

    1974-01-01

    The application of gamma-gamma density logging for the evaluation of the volume weight and porosity of terrigenous and carbonate rocks in oil and gas boreholes is discussed. A two-probe (155 and 360 mm) apparatus has been developed for this purpose and has been in serial production since 1970. It is designed for use in boreholes between 190 and 300 mm in diameter and down to 4.000 metres deep at a maximum temperature of up to 120 deg C. The radiation source is 137 Cs with an activity of up to 100 kg-eq Ra. To interpret the results, measuring grids have been compiled in accordance with the experimental measurements taken on models of the strata. For carbonate sections combination of gamma-gamma density logging and epithermal-neutron-neutron logging is recommended. A combination of gamma-gamma density logging and neutron-gamma logging is used to evaluate the clayness of terrigenous deposits

  4. Self-Compensating Excitation of Fluxgate Sensors for Space Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Alec; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of the new self-compensating excitation circuitry to the new generation of high-precise space vector magnetometers. The application starts with complex study including design of new robust model of the non-linear inductor leading to investigation...... of the most crucial points, continuous by design of the self-compensating excitation unit and concludes with unit complex testing and application to the magnetometer. The application of the self-compensation of the excitation decreases temperature drift of the magnetometer offset caused by the temperature...

  5. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... the active filter is responsible for the correction of the system unbalance and the cancellation of the remaining harmonics. The paper also analyzes the effects of the circuit configuration on the system impedance characteristics and consequently the effectiveness of the filter system. Simulation studies...... are performed for a power system including the dispersed generation units connected into the system through power electronic converters and diode rectifier loads, which produce the distorted waveforms. The simulation results have demonstrated that good compensation effects can be achieved by using the combined...

  6. Doppler Shift Compensation Schemes in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nyongesa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication has received a lot of attention as it is a crucial issue in intravehicle communication as well as in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In ITS the focus is placed on integration of communication between mobile and fixed infrastructure to execute road safety as well as nonsafety information dissemination. The safety application such as emergence alerts lays emphasis on low-latency packet delivery rate (PDR, whereas multimedia and infotainment call for high data rates at low bit error rate (BER. The nonsafety information includes multimedia streaming for traffic information and infotainment applications such as playing audio content, utilizing navigation for driving, and accessing Internet. A lot of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET research has focused on specific areas including channel multiplexing, antenna diversity, and Doppler shift compensation schemes in an attempt to optimize BER performance. Despite this effort few surveys have been conducted to highlight the state-of-the-art collection on Doppler shift compensation schemes. Driven by this cause we survey some of the recent research activities in Doppler shift compensation schemes and highlight challenges and solutions as a stock-taking exercise. Moreover, we present open issues to be further investigated in order to address the challenges of Doppler shift in VANETs.

  7. Self-compensation in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Y.; Riess, I.

    1999-09-01

    The problem of self-compensation of charged dopants is analyzed. Special emphasis is given to dopants in binary oxides. It is shown that one can determine the degree of self-compensation from the properties of the host material and dopant concentration alone. It is further shown that for a native p-type semiconductor, donors are compensated, mostly, by native ionic defects. On the other hand, doping with acceptors allows us to increase significantly the hole concentration, i.e., self-compensation is low under high doping levels. For a native n-type semiconductor the opposite is true, namely, extrinsic acceptors are mainly compensated by native ionic defects. It is shown that the changes in concentration of all the charged defects are simply related by a single factor, the doping factor f, or its power fk where k depends solely on the defect's charge. Quantitative calculations of f and defect concentrations are presented for Cu2O, which was used as a model material. It is found that for p-type Cu2O doping with donors results in f within the range of 1-10, depending on the dopant concentration and P(O2). This means that the hole concentration decreases and the electron concentration increases at most by a factor of 10. Therefore one does not expect to obtain a changeover from p- to n-type cuprous oxide by doping, under equilibrium conditions. Most of the donors are compensated by negative ionic defects. Self-compensation in the presence of amphoteric defects and Fermi level stabilization are discussed, using the former formalism.

  8. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to the...

  9. Workers' compensation in Pennsylvania: the effects of delayed contested cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S E

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of delayed workers' compensation cases in the Pennsylvania system. Forty-five claimants of a workers' compensation support group responded to interviews. Delay periods averaged two years with a 68.4% drop in income. Results indicate that claimants endured financial and emotional stress, exhausted personal assets, relied on assistance from relatives, and received public assistance. Implications for social work practice include educating workers about benefits, counseling claimants with delayed claims, and advocating for administrative reforms.

  10. Crime victims‘ right to compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.

  11. Managers' Compensation in a Mixed Ownership Industry: Evidence from Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sean Shenghsiu; Hirth, Richard A; Smith, Dean G

    2016-01-01

    An extensive literature is devoted to differences between for-profit and non-profit health-care providers' prices, utilization, and quality. Less is known about for-profit and non-profit managers' compensation and its relationship with financial and quality performance. The aim of this study is to examine whether for-profit and non-profit nursing homes place differential weights on financial and quality performance in determining managers' compensation. Using a unique 8-year dataset on Ohio nursing homes, fixed-effect regression models of managers' compensation include financial and quality performance as well as other explanatory variables concerning firm and market characteristics and manager qualifications. Among for-profit nursing homes, compensation of owner-managers and non-owner managers are compared. Compensation of for-profit managers is significantly positively associated with profit margin and return-on-assets, while compensation of non-profit managers does not exhibit any consistent relationship with financial measures. Compensation of neither for-profit nor non-profit managers is significantly related to quality measures. Nursing home size and managers' years of experience are the only consistent determinants of compensation. Owner-managers earn significantly higher compensation than non-owner managers and their compensation is less related to nursing home performance. Finding that home size and experience are strong determinants of compensation, and the association with ownership and financial performance for for-profit nursing homes are as expected. The insignificant relationship between compensation and quality performance is potentially troublesome.

  12. Compensation of the flux modulation distortion using an additional coil in a loudspeaker unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonello, Niccoló; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2014-01-01

    the compensation coil is derived. The compensation technique consists on feeding the compensation coil and voice coil with filtered versions of the wanted audio signal. Simulations show that a significant reduction in flux modulation distortion can be achieved with this technique. A simple magnetic circuit has......Flux modulation is one of the main causes of distortion in electrodynamic loudspeaker units. A new compensation technique that eliminates this type of non-linearity using an additional compensation coil in the speaker unit is presented. An equivalent circuit model of the device including...

  13. Fabrication of gamma sources using the neutron-gamma reactions of 238Pu13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solinhac, I.; Maillard, C.; Donnet, L.

    2004-01-01

    A production campaign for 238 Pu 13 C sources with gamma fluence ranging from 2500 to 4500 gamma/s/4π at 6.13 MeV was carried out in 2002 in Atalante. An experimental study was undertaken to prepare the 238 PuC mixture, which is the most delicate step. This procedure is described together with the other steps in the source fabrication process: purification of a plutonium oxide batch, preparation of a nitric solution of 238 Pu, measurement of the gamma fluence of the PuC mixture before and after insertion into each of the two stainless steel capsules that constitute a PuN 2 O package, welding of the second envelope followed by leak testing, final measurement of the gamma fluence of the sealed source. This PuC sources fabrication procedure is effective: all the sources include the required gamma activity with an uncertainty on the gamma fluence of less than 10%. (authors)

  14. gamma-Glutamyl dipeptides in Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, Roman; Musah, Rabi A

    2005-10-01

    Three gamma-glutamyl dipeptides have been isolated from Petiveria alliacea L. roots. These dipeptides include (S(C2)R(C7))-gamma-glutamyl-S-benzylcysteine together with two diastereomeric sulfoxides, namely (S(C2)R(C7)R(S))- and (S(C2)R(C7)R(S))-gamma-glutamyl-S-benzylcysteine S-oxides (gamma-glutamyl-petiveriins A and B, respectively). Their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR, MALDI-HRMS, IR and CD spectroscopy, and confirmed by comparison with authentic compounds obtained by synthesis.

  15. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  16. Thermal lensing compensation for AIGO high optical power test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degallaix, Jerome; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David

    2004-01-01

    We present finite element modelling of thermal lensing occurring in an interferometer test mass. Our simulations include the thermo-optic effect and mechanical expansion of the optics. For the High Optical Power Test Facility (HOPTF) operated by the Australian International Gravitational Observatory (AIGO), the optical path length measured across the laser beam radius is 45 nm for 1.2 W absorbed power for the input sapphire test mass. The AIGO thermal lens is much stronger than the one in Advanced LIGO and will degrade the interferometer performance. Direct thermal compensation and the use of an external compensation plate were investigated to minimize thermal lensing consequences in the interferometer. For the AIGO situation, a fused silica external plate is the most practical solution to correct thermally induced wavefront distortions. The compensation plate requires lower thermal power than direct compensation and does not increase the test mass temperature

  17. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  18. AGATA - Advanced GAmma Tracking Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkoyun, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Algora, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Alikhani, B. [IKP, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ameil, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Angelis, G. de [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, IT-35020 Padova (Italy); Arnold, L. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR 7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Astier, A. [CSNSM, CNRS, IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Atac, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Aubert, Y. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay (France); Aufranc, C. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS-IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Austin, A. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Aydin, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, IT-35131 Padova (Italy); Azaiez, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay (France); Badoer, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, IT-35020 Padova (Italy); Balabanski, D.L. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Barrientos, D. [IFIC, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); and others

    2012-03-11

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation {gamma}-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of {gamma}-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a {gamma} ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realisation of {gamma}-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterisation of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorithms, to extract energy, time and position, to be employed. In addition, tracking algorithms for event reconstruction were developed. The first phase of AGATA is now complete and operational in its first physics campaign. In the future AGATA will be moved between laboratories in Europe and operated in a series of campaigns to take advantage of the different beams and facilities available to maximise its science output. The paper reviews all the achievements made in the AGATA project including all the necessary infrastructure to operate and support the spectrometer.

  19. Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, various classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei have been established as sources of high-energy radiation extending over a very broad range from soft gamma-rays (photon energies E~MeV) up to very-high-energy gamma-rays (E>100 GeV). These include blazars of different types, as well as young and evolved radio galaxies. The observed gamma-ray emission from such implies efficient particle acceleration processes taking place in highly magnetized and relativistic jets produced by supermassive black holes, processes that have yet to be identified and properly understood. In addition, nearby starforming and starburst galaxies, some of which host radio-quiet Seyfert-type nuclei, have been detected in the gamma-ray range as well. In their cases, the observed gamma-ray emission is due to non-thermal activity in the interstellar medium, possibly including also a contribution from accretion disks and nuclear outflows. Finally, the high-energy emission from clusters of galaxies remains elusive...

  20. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  1. Optical telescope BIRT in ORIGIN for gamma ray burst observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, Robert; Sharples, Ray; Page, Mathew J.; Cole, Richard; Walton, David M.; Winter, Berend; Pedersen, Kristian; Hjorth, Jens; Andersen, Michael; Hornstrup, Allan; den Herder, Jan-Willem A.; Piro, Luigi

    2012-09-01

    The ORIGIN concept is a space mission with a gamma ray, an X-ray and an optical telescope to observe the gamma ray bursts at large Z to determine the composition and density of the intergalactic matter in the line of sight. It was an answer to the ESA M3 call for proposal. The optical telescope is a 0.7-m F/1 with a very small instrument box containing 3 instruments: a slitless spectrograph with a resolution of 20, a multi-imager giving images of a field in 4 bands simultaneously, and a cross-dispersed Échelle spectrograph giving a resolution of 1000. The wavelength range is 0.5 μm to 1.7 μm. All instruments fit together in a box of 80 mm x 80 mm x 200 mm. The low resolution spectrograph uses a very compact design including a special triplet. It contains only spherical surfaces except for one tilted cylindrical surface to disperse the light. To reduce the need for a high precision pointing, an Advanced Image Slicer was added in front of the high resolution spectrograph. This spectrograph uses a simple design with only one mirror for the collimator and another for the camera. The Imager contains dichroics to separate the bandwidths and glass thicknesses to compensate the differences in path length. All 3 instruments use the same 2k x 2k detector simultaneously so that telescope pointing and tip-tilt control of a fold mirror permit to place the gamma ray burst on the desired instrument without any other mechanism.

  2. Addressing inadequate compensation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-12

    Aug 12, 2016 ... Communities' land and land use need to be fairly valuated for them to receive equitable compensation and a fair share of benefits and risks in land deals. Researchers in some projects are using “participatory valuation” processes with communities to help them appraise their lands' value and strengthening ...

  3. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.

  4. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations

  5. Neuromuscular compensation mechanisms in vocal fold paralysis and paresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Karuna; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew; Soofer, Donna; Chhetri, Dinesh K

    2017-07-01

    Vocal fold paresis and paralysis are common conditions. Treatment options include augmentation laryngoplasty and voice therapy. The optimal management for this condition is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess possible neuromuscular compensation mechanisms that could potentially be used in the treatment of vocal fold paresis and paralysis. In vivo canine model. In an in vivo canine model, we examined three conditions: 1) unilateral right recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) paresis and paralysis, 2) unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) paralysis, and 3) unilateral vagal nerve paresis and paralysis. Phonatory acoustics and aerodynamics were measured in each of these conditions. Effective compensation was defined as improved acoustic and aerodynamic profile. The most effective compensation for all conditions was increasing RLN activation and decreasing glottal gap. Increasing RLN activation increased the percentage of possible phonatory conditions that achieved phonation onset. SLN activation generally led to decreased number of total phonation onset conditions within each category. Differential effects of SLN (cricothyroid [CT] muscle) activation were seen. Ipsilateral SLN activation could compensate for RLN paralysis; normal CT compensated well in unilateral SLN paralysis; and in vagal paresis/paralysis, contralateral SLN and RLN displayed antagonistic relationships. Methods to improve glottal closure should be the primary treatment for large glottal gaps. Neuromuscular compensation is possible for paresis. This study provides insights into possible compensatory mechanisms in vocal fold paresis and paralysis. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1633-1638, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  7. Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Seo, J.H.; Ahn, H.J; Byun, M.W; Kim, Y.H.; Choi, J.M.; Yook, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy

  8. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  9. Eco-compensation in multi-district river networks in north Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Ninghong; Hu, Fenjuan

    2013-04-01

    Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes.

  10. Eco-Compensation in Multi-District River Networks in North Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Ninghong; Hu, Fenjuan

    2013-04-01

    Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes.

  11. SU-E-T-357: Electronic Compensation Technique to Deliver Total Body Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakeman, T; Wang, I; Podgorsak, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient’s immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has conventionally been used to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Methods: Treatment plans utilizing electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two, specifically weighted, pair of opposed fields. One pair of open, large fields (collimator=45°), to encompass the patient’s entire anatomy, and one pair of smaller fields (collimator=0°) focused only on the thicker midsection of the patient. The optimal fluence for each one of the smaller fields was calculated at a patient specific penetration depth. Irregular surface compensators provide a more uniform dose distribution within the smaller opposed fields. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In one case, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 195.8% to 165.3% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the region of electronic compensation. The mean body doses calculated from the DVH were also reduced from the non-compensated 120.6% to 112.7% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more accurate delivery of the prescription dose. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not substantially increase the beam on time while it can significantly reduce the compensator

  12. 18 CFR 367.4573 - Account 457.3, Compensation for use of capital-associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Compensation for use of capital-associate companies. 367.4573 Section 367.4573 Conservation of Power and Water..., Compensation for use of capital-associate companies. This account must include only the portion of compensation... properly allocable to services rendered to each associate company. ...

  13. Kinesthetic compensation for sensorimotor rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R; Adelstein, Bernard D

    2009-11-01

    The authors report a new sensorimotor phenomenon in which participants use hand-sensed kinesthetic information to compensate for rotational sensorimotor rearrangements. This compensation benefits from conscious awareness and is related to hand posture. The technique can reduce control inefficiency with some misalignments by as much as 64%. The results support Y. Guiard's (1987) suggestion that in bimanual tasks one hand provides an operational frame of reference for the other hand as in a closed kinematic chain. Results with right-handed participants show that the right and left hands are equally effective at providing such a cue. A constant-angular-targeting-error model, similar to that used for hand movements by H. Cunningham and I. Vardi (1990) and for walking by S. K. Rushton, J. M. Harris, M. R. Lloyd, and J. P. Wann (1998), is used to model the trajectories of targeting hand movements demonstrating the phenomenon. The model provides a natural parameter of the error.

  14. Frequency Compensation of an Audio Power Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; van Heeswijk, R.

    2006-01-01

    A car audio power amplifier is presented that uses a frequency compensation scheme which avoids large compensation capacitors around the MOS power transistors, while retaining the bandwidth and stable load range of nested miller compensation. THD is 0.005%@(1kHz, 10W), SNR is 108dB, and the

  15. Trends in VBA Disability Compensation Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Unemployability MCRMC Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission PTSD Post -Traumatic Stress Disorder US United States VA...Defense Authorization Act of 2013 established the Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission (MCRMC) to conduct a review of...military compensation and retirement systems and to make recommendations to modernize such programs. The Commission asked the Institute for Defense

  16. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...

  17. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...

  18. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...

  19. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT General Procedure § 136.113 Other compensation. A... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113...

  20. Global Compensation Specialist | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary. The Global Compensation Specialist provides advice and guidance regarding compensation and benefits by analysing trends, conducting studies, keeping up-to-date on new legislation, and developing strategies and tools to support corporate global compensation program. The incumbent supports the HR ...

  1. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modules...

  2. Compensating Differentials for Sexual Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Joni Hersch

    2011-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...

  3. Peace/Williston fish and wildlife compensation program: 1992-1993 public compensation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemister, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    The Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program is a joint initiative by British Columbia Hydro and the provincial environment ministry to enhance and protect fish and wildlife resources and their habitat in the Williston watershed affected by the construction of the WAC Bennett and Peace Canyon dams on the Peace River. The interest from a fund of $11 million, established by BC Hydro in 1988, is used to maintain the compensation programs. Public input to the ongoing fish and wildlife programs is provided by a public consultation program. To date, the Peace/Williston compensation program has undertaken 93 projects to either conserve or enhance fish and wildlife through habitat improvement and protection. A summary is presented of the activities undertaken by the public consultation program in 1992/93 and public attitudes toward the consultation program. Activities undertaken in the fish and wildlife enhancement program are summarized in appendices. Fisheries programs included stocking, stream fertilization, small lake surveys, preparation of a side channel in Carbon Creek for multi-species spawning, and creation of an artificial spring at Windy Point for spawning purposes. Wildlife programs included channel clearance and vegetation supply improvements to enhance muskrat and beaver habitat; radio monitoring of sheep and elk; studying the feasibility of transplanting elk herds; and purchase of critical ungulate winter habitat lands. 13 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  5. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design

  6. Excess density compensation of island herpetofaunal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.; Dean-Bradley, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim Some species reach extraordinary densities on islands. Island assemblages have fewer species, however, and it is possible that island species differ from their mainland counterparts in average mass. Island assemblages could be partitioned differently (fewer species or smaller individuals) from mainland sites without differing in aggregate biomass (density compensation). Our objective was to determine the generality of excess density compensation in island herpetofaunal assemblages.Location Our bounded removal plot data were obtained from Pacific Island sites (Guam, Saipan and Rota), the West Indies (British Virgin Islands), and the Indian Ocean (Ile aux Aigrettes off Mauritius). The literature values were taken from several locales. Other island locations included Barro Colorado Island, Bonaire, Borneo, Philippine Islands, Seychelle Islands, Barrow Island (Australia), North Brother Island (New Zealand), Dominica and Puerto Rico. Mainland sites included Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Australia, Thailand, Peru, Brazil, Panama and the USA.Method We added our thirty-nine bounded total removal plots from sixteen island habitats to fifteen literature records to obtain seventy-five venues with estimable density and biomass of arboreal or terrestrial herpetofaunal assemblages. These biomass estimates were evaluated geographically and in relation to sampling method, insularity, latitude, disturbance regime, seasonality, community richness, vegetative structure and climate. Direct data on trophic interactions (food availability, parasitism and predation pressure) were generally unavailable. Sampling problems were frequent for arboreal, cryptic and evasive species.Results and main conclusions We found strong evidence that herpetofaunal assemblages on small islands (mostly lizards) exhibit a much greater aggregate density of biomass (kg ha−1) than those of larger islands or mainland assemblages (small islands show excess density compensation). High aggregate biomass

  7. 38 CFR 21.3023 - Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. 21.3023 Section 21.3023 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Child; age 18. A child who...

  8. Phase error compensation for a 3-D shape measurement system based on the phase-shifting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Huang, Peisen S.

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes a novel phase error compensation method for reducing the measurement error caused by non-sinusoidal waveforms in the phase-shifting method. For 3D shape measurement systems using commercial video projectors, the non-sinusoidal nature of the projected fringe patterns as a result of the nonlinear gamma curve of the projectors causes significant phase measurement error and therefore shape measurement error. The proposed phase error compensation method is based on our finding that the phase error due to the non-sinusoidal waveform of the fringe patterns depends only on the nonlinearity of the projector's gamma curve. Therefore, if the projector's gamma curve is calibrated and the phase error due to the nonlinearity of the gamma curve is calculated, a look-up-table (LUT) that stores the phase error can be constructed for error compensation. Our experimental results demonstrate that by using the proposed method, the measurement error can be reduced by 10 times. In addition to phase error compensation, a similar method is also proposed to correct the nonsinusoidality of the fringe patterns for the purpose of generating a more accurate flat image of the object for texture mapping. While not relevant to applications in metrology, texture mapping is important for applications in computer vision and computer graphics.

  9. Librarian driven analysis of gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashov, V.; Petersone, I.

    2002-01-01

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates of their errors to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma ray line(s). The identification of a given radionuclide is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of a database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma ray energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by the ICRP. (author)

  10. Compensating Victims of Personal Injury in Tort: The Nigerian Experience So Far

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwakemi ADEKILE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a critical evaluation of the compensation system for personal injury tort in Nigeria. The present compensation system under the law of tort leaves many victims of personal injury uncompensated in Nigeria. This stems from many factors, including the fact that traditional tort theory of no liability without fault has continued to be the principal basis for liability. This is in spite of the heavy criticisms of the tort regime as an ineffective mode of compensation. Through an anal...

  11. Gamma scanner conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1979-11-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will include several stations for the nondestructive examination of irradiated fuels. One of these stations will be the gamma scanner which will be employed to detect gamma radiation from the irradiated fuel pins. The conceptual design of the gamma scan station is described. The gamma scanner will use a Standard Exam Stage (SES) as a positioner and transport mechanism for the fuel pins which it will obtain from a magazine. A pin guide mechanism mounted on the face of the collimator will assure that the fuel pins remain in front of the collimator during scanning. The collimator has remotely adjustable tungsten slits and can be manually rotated to align the slit at various angles. A shielded detector cart located in the operating corridor holds an intrinsic germanium detector and associated sodium-iodide anticoincidence detector. The electronics associated with the counting system consist of standard NIM modules to process the detector signals and a stand-alone multichannel analyzer (MCA) for counting data accumulation. Data from the MCA are bussed to the station computer for analysis and storage on magnetic tape. The station computer controls the collimator, the MCA, a source positioner and the SES through CAMAC-based interface hardware. Most of the electronic hardware is commercially available but some interfaces will require development. Conceptual drawings are included for mechanical hardware that must be designed and fabricated

  12. Protein Transfer Free Energy Obeys Entropy-Enthalpy Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Eric A; Plotkin, Steven S

    2015-11-05

    We have found significant entropy-enthalpy compensation for the transfer of a diverse set of two-state folding proteins from water into water containing a diverse set of cosolutes, including osmolytes, denaturants, and crowders. In extracting thermodynamic parameters from experimental data, we show the potential importance of accounting for the cosolute concentration-dependence of the heat capacity change upon unfolding, as well as the potential importance of the temperature-dependence of the heat capacity change upon unfolding. We introduce a new Monte Carlo method to estimate the experimental uncertainty in the thermodynamic data and use this to show by bootstrapping methods that entropy-enthalpy compensation is statistically significant, in spite of large, correlated scatter in the data. We show that plotting the data at the transition midpoint provides the most accurate experimental values by avoiding extrapolation errors due to uncertainty in the heat capacity, and that this representation exhibits the strongest evidence of compensation. Entropy-enthalpy compensation is still significant at lab temperature however. We also find that compensation is still significant when considering variations due to heat capacity models, as well as typical measurement discrepancies lab-to-lab when such data is available. Extracting transfer entropy and enthalpy along with their uncertainties can provide a valuable consistency check between experimental data and simulation models, which may involve tests of simulated unfolded ensembles and/or models of the transfer free energy; we include specific applications to cold shock protein and protein L.

  13. Research on the critical parameters initialization of optical PMD compensator in high bit-rate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Zhang, Haiyi; Ji, Yuefeng; Xu, Daxiong

    2004-05-01

    Based on the proposed polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation simulation model and statistical analysis method (Monte-Carlo), the critical parameters initialization of two typical optical domain PMD compensators, which include optical PMD method with fixed compensation differential group delay (DGD) and that with variable compensation DGD, are detailedly investigated by numerical method. In the simulation, the line PMD values are chosen as 3ps, 4ps and 5ps and run samples are set to 1000 in order to achieve statistical evaluation for PMD compensated systems, respectively. The simulation results show that for the PMD value pre-known systems, the value of the fixed DGD compensator should be set to 1.5~1.6 times of line PMD value in order to reach the optimum performance, but for the second kind of PMD compensator, the DGD range of lower limit should be 1.5~1.6 times of line PMD provided that of upper limit is set to 3 times of line PMD, if no effective ways are chosen to resolve the problem of local minimum in optimum process. Another conclusion can be drawn from the simulation is that, although the second PMD compensator holds higher PMD compensation performance, it will spend more feedback loops to look up the optimum DGD value in the real PMD compensation realization, and this will bring more requirements on adjustable DGD device, not only wider adjustable range, but rapid adjusting speed for real time PMD equalization.

  14. Redesigning reservoir compensation releases for ecological beenfit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Carly

    2010-05-01

    been a change in flow regime and in ecological community structure since impoundment. The flow regime of the River Derwent has become less flashy with fewer extreme events, while macroinvertebrate richness and diversity have increased. The new flow regimes that were designed by CRAB, based on the depth and velocity requirements of brown trout, grayling and Atlantic salmon were predicted through CRAM to have minimal benefits for the fish populations of the River Derwent and it was concluded that no changes to flow regime should be made based solely on the assessment of habitat for fish. Impacts for the macroinvertebrate communities must also be considered as well as the impacts on other aspects of fish habitat including temperature, substrate and cover. A more detailed, micro-scale investigation into the effects of changing flow regime would be required to warrant a change in compensation release regime from Derwent Reservoir.

  15. Gamma ray interaction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Gamma ray detection in the energy region above 1 keV involves measurements of the energy exchange or energy loss between the gamma ray and the mass of the detector. In most cases of interest, it is the kinetic energy imparted to charged particles by the gamma ray which is lost in the detector and measured in order to obtain spectral knowledge between the incident gamma ray photon and the direction of the secondary particles contains important energy information. The interaction gamma ray removal processes in matter are considered. This interaction removal process is characterized by the fact that each gamma ray is removed individually from the incident beam. The number of photons removed in this manner is proportional to the thickness of matter traversed

  16. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,α), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,#betta#) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide

  17. Modification of an RBF ANN-Based Temperature Compensation Model of Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianhua; Qi, Bing; Chen, Daidai; Landry, René

    2015-05-13

    This paper presents modification of Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBF ANN)-based temperature compensation models for Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscopes (IFOGs). Based on the mathematical expression of IFOG output, three temperature relevant terms are extracted, which include: (1) temperature of fiber loops; (2) temperature variation of fiber loops; (3) temperature product term of fiber loops. Then, the input-modified RBF ANN-based temperature compensation scheme is established, in which temperature relevant terms are transferred to train the RBF ANN. Experimental temperature tests are conducted and sufficient data are collected and post-processed to form the novel RBF ANN. Finally, we apply the modified RBF ANN based on temperature compensation model in two IFOGs with temperature compensation capabilities. The experimental results show the proposed temperature compensation model could efficiently reduce the influence of environment temperature on the output of IFOG, and exhibit a better temperature compensation performance than conventional scheme without proposed improvements.

  18. Reliability improvement for anisotropic biased compensated α/β contamination meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R., E-mail: romain.coulon@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Montagu, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation des Systèmes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Schoepff, V. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Menaa, N.; Ulmann, A. Gallozzi; Blanc de Lanaute, N. [CANBERRA France, F-78182 St Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    2016-11-21

    Nuclear instruments such as alpha/beta contamination meter are frequently used in a compensated mode where the contribution of gamma radiation background is compensated by a guard detector. The signal of interest is then the subtraction of counting from both channels. In practice, the noise signal measured by the guard detector is not strictly equal to the noise contribution into the first detector due to anisotropic biases. The random error (under Poisson assumption) is taken into account to build a hypothesis test. The system is also designed to minimize the systematic error but in some cases, this bias could not be completely removed. The measurement system then shows different behavior when the surrounding environment changes exhibiting inopportune false alarms. A method allowing the false alarms to be suppressed is addressed in this study for compensated measurement. An improvement in terms of reliability has been proven.

  19. Reliability improvement for anisotropic biased compensated α/β contamination meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Montagu, T.; Schoepff, V.; Menaa, N.; Ulmann, A. Gallozzi; Blanc de Lanaute, N.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear instruments such as alpha/beta contamination meter are frequently used in a compensated mode where the contribution of gamma radiation background is compensated by a guard detector. The signal of interest is then the subtraction of counting from both channels. In practice, the noise signal measured by the guard detector is not strictly equal to the noise contribution into the first detector due to anisotropic biases. The random error (under Poisson assumption) is taken into account to build a hypothesis test. The system is also designed to minimize the systematic error but in some cases, this bias could not be completely removed. The measurement system then shows different behavior when the surrounding environment changes exhibiting inopportune false alarms. A method allowing the false alarms to be suppressed is addressed in this study for compensated measurement. An improvement in terms of reliability has been proven.

  20. Compensation of the ux modulation distortion using an additional coil in a loudspeaker unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonello, Niccoló; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2014-01-01

    Flux modulation is one of the main causes of distortion in electrodynamic loudspeaker units. A new com- pensation technique that eliminates this type of non-linearity using an additional compensation coil in the speaker unit is presented. An equivalent circuit model of the device including...... the compensation coil is de- rived. The compensation technique consists on feeding the compensation coil and voice coil with ltered versions of the wanted audio signal. Simulations show that a signicant reduction in ux modulation distor- tion can be achieved with this technique. A simple magnetic circuit has been...

  1. Entropy-enthalpy Compensation of Biomolecular Systems in Aqueous Phase: a Dry Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movileanu, Liviu; Schiff, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    We survey thermodynamic measurements on processes involving biological macromolecules in aqueous solution, which illustrate well the ubiquitous phenomenon of entropy-enthalpy compensation. The processes include protein folding/unfolding and ligand binding/unbinding, with compensation temperatures varying by about 50 K around an average near 293 K. We show that incorporating both near-exact entropy-enthalpy compensation (due to solvent relaxation) and multi-excitation entropy (from vibrational quanta) leads to a compensation temperature in water of about 230 K. We illustrate a general procedure for subtracting solvent and environment-related terms to determine the bare Gibbs free energy changes of chemical processes.

  2. Selective Compensation of Voltage Harmonics in a Grid-Connected Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, M.; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method for selective voltage harmonic compensation in a grid-connected microgrid is presented. Harmonic compensation is done through proper control of distributed generators (DGs) interface converters. In order to achieve proper sharing of compensation effort among the DGs, a power...... named “Harmonic Distortion Power (HDP)” is defined. In the proposed method, active and reactive power control loops are considered to control the powers injected by the DGs. Also, a virtual impedance loop and voltage and current proportional-resonant controllers are included. Simulation results show...... the effectiveness of the proposed method for compensation of voltage harmonics to an acceptable level....

  3. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  4. Pre-surgery Disability Compensation Predicts Long-Term Disability among Workers with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T.; Turner, Judith A.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Franklin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to identify early risk factors for work disability compensation prior to and after carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) surgery, and to determine whether pre-surgery disability compensation is associated with long-term disability. Methods Washington State workers’ compensation administrative data and data from interviews with workers 18 days (median) after submitting new workers’ compensation claims for CTS were examined. Baseline risk factors for pre-surgery disability compensation and for long-term disability (≥365 days of work disability compensation prior to two years after claim filing) were evaluated for workers who underwent CTS surgery and had at least one day of disability compensation (N=670). Results After adjustment for baseline long-term disability risk factors, workers with pre-surgery disability compensation had over five times the odds of long-term disability. Baseline factors in multiple domains, including job, psychosocial, clinical, and worker pain and function, were associated with both pre-surgery disability compensation and long-term disability. Conclusions Risk factors for work disability prior to and after CTS surgery are similar, and early work disability is a risk factor for long-term CTS-related disability. An integrated approach to CTS-related disability prevention could include identifying and addressing combined risk factors soon after claim filing, more efficient use of conservative treatments and appropriate work modifications to minimize early work loss, and, when indicated, timely surgical intervention. PMID:22392804

  5. A CT-based software tool for evaluating compensator quality in passively scattered proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Lei; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a quantitative computed tomography (CT)-based quality assurance (QA) tool for evaluating the accuracy of manufactured compensators used in passively scattered proton therapy. The thickness of a manufactured compensator was measured from its CT images and compared with the planned thickness defined by the treatment planning system. The difference between the measured and planned thicknesses was calculated with use of the Euclidean distance transformation and the kd-tree search method. Compensator accuracy was evaluated by examining several parameters including mean distance, maximum distance, global thickness error and central axis shifts. Two rectangular phantoms were used to validate the performance of the QA tool. Nine patients and 20 compensators were included in this study. We found that mean distances, global thickness errors and central axis shifts were all within 1 mm for all compensators studied, with maximum distances ranging from 1.1 to 3.8 mm. Although all compensators passed manual verification at selected points, about 5% of the pixels still had maximum distances of >2 mm, most of which correlated with large depth gradients. The correlation between the mean depth gradient of the compensator and the percentage of pixels with mean distance based compensator QA tool can be used to quantitatively evaluate manufactured compensators.

  6. Examining the Gap: Compensation Disparities between Male and Female Physician Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Noël; Cawley, James F; McCall, Timothy C

    Compensation disparities between men and women have been problematic for decades, and there is considerable evidence that the gap cannot be entirely explained by nongender factors. The current study examined the compensation gap in the physician assistant (PA) profession. Compensation data from 2014 was collected by the American Academy of PAs in 2015. Practice variables, including experience, specialty, and hours worked, were controlled for in an ordinary least-squares sequential regression model to examine whether there remained a disparity in total compensation. In addition, the absolute disparity in compensation was compared with historical data collected by American Academy of PAs over the previous 1.5 decades. Without controlling for practice variables, a total compensation disparity of $16,052 existed between men and women in the PA profession. Even after PA practice variables were controlled for, a total compensation disparity of $9,695 remained between men and women (95% confidence interval, $8,438-$10,952). A 17-year trend indicates the absolute disparity between men and women has not lessened, although the disparity as a percent of male compensation has decreased in recent years. There remain challenges to ensuring pay equality in the PA profession. Even when compensation-relevant factors such as experience, hours worked, specialty, postgraduate training, region, and call are controlled for, there is still a substantial gender disparity in PA compensation. Remedies that may address this pay inequality include raising awareness of compensation disparities, teaching effective negotiation skills, assisting employers as they develop equitable compensation plans, having less reliance on past salary in position negotiation, and professional associations advocating for policies that support equal wages and opportunities, regardless of personal characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Financial compensation for deceased organ donation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoliang; Fang, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    In March 2010, China launched a pilot programme of deceased donor organ donation in 10 provinces and cities. However, the deceased donor donation rate in China remains significantly lower than in Spain and other Western countries. In order to provide incentive for deceased donor organ donation, five pilot provinces and cities have subsequently launched a financial compensation policy. Financial compensation can be considered to include two main forms, the 'thank you' form and the 'help' form. The 'thank you' form is an expression of gratitude on behalf of the Red Cross Society of China for consenting to donation. The 'help' form is social welfare support for needy families.

  8. Gamma radiation and HZE treatment of seedlings in Arabidopsis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plants exhibit a robust transcriptional response to gamma radiation which includes the induction of transcripts required for homologous recombination and the...

  9. QKD system with fast active optical path length compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung Kwon; Lee, Min Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2017-06-01

    We develop a quantum key distribution (QKD) system with fast active optical path length compensation. A rapid and reliable active optical path length compensation scheme is proposed and applied to a plug-and-play QKD system. The system monitors changes in key rates and controls it is own operation automatically. The system achieves its optimal performance within three seconds of operation, which includes a sifted key rate of 5.5 kbps and a quantum bit error rate of less than 2% after an abrupt temperature variation along the 25 km quantum channel. The system also operates well over a 24 h period while completing more than 60 active optical path length compensations.

  10. International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund was established under a 1971 Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization Convention to supplement the 1969 Civil Liability Convention (CLC) under which shipowners were held liable for damage caused by oil spills up to $18 million per incident; the new fund increases the amount payable per incident to $57 million as of April 1979. A further increase up to about $76 million is now under consideration. During 1979, the Fund has been concerned in particular with claims arising out of oil spills in Japan and the Baltic Sea. In the former case, some 540 tons of oil was lost by Miya Maru No. 8 after a collision in March 1979 in the Japanese Inland Sea; cleanup costs and compensation to fishermen were about (pound sterling)400,000. In the latter phase, crude oil apparently coming from the Russian tanker Antonio Gramsci, which grounded off Ventspils in February 1979, drifted across the Baltic and was trapped in or under the ice. After the ice melted, it spread to more than 2000 islands in the Swedish Archipelaso; cleanup measures may result in claims as high as (pound sterling) 8 million.

  11. Risk compensation and bicycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ross Owen; Fyhri, Aslak; Sagberg, Fridulv

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated risk compensation by cyclists in response to bicycle helmet wearing by observing changes in cycling behavior, reported experience of risk, and a possible objective measure of experienced risk. The suitability of heart rate variability (HRV) as an objective measure of experienced risk was assessed beforehand by recording HRV measures in nine participants watching a thriller film. We observed a significant decrease in HRV in line with expected increases in psychological challenge presented by the film. HRV was then used along with cycling pace and self-reported risk in a field experiment in which 35 cyclist volunteers cycled 0.4 km downhill, once with and once without a helmet. Routine helmet users reported higher experienced risk and cycled slower when they did not wear their helmet in the experiment than when they did wear their helmet, although there was no corresponding change in HRV. For cyclists not accustomed to helmets, there were no changes in speed, perceived risk, or any other measures when cycling with versus without a helmet. The findings are consistent with the notion that those who use helmets routinely perceive reduced risk when wearing a helmet, and compensate by cycling faster. They thus give some support to those urging caution in the use of helmet laws. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. 28 CFR 345.62 - Inmate accident compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.62 Inmate accident... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate accident compensation. 345.62... work-related injuries (including occupational disease or illnesses directly caused by the worker's job...

  13. Academic Compensation: Professoren, Pooh-Bahs, Parents, and Proles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, W. Todd

    In common industrial policy, the elements of a compensation plan are selected with two conflicting principles in mind: to be generous enough to attract and keep workers who will give good service making a product that will sell, and to do this economically enough so the price customers will pay includes a good profit for those who provide the…

  14. Persistent failure of the COIDA system to compensate occupational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases of occupational disease, solvent encephalopathy and occupational asthma are used to exemplify failings of the workers' compensation system in South Africa, that include delays in processing claims, non-response to requests for information, and inadequate assessment of disability. These and other systemic ...

  15. The cost of making compensation payments to local forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion projects in Madagascar, including the one analysed in this pa- ... The cost of making compensation payments to local forest populations in a REDD+ pilot project in. Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation & Development 1 2, 1 : xx–xx. http://dx.doi.org/1 ... maining natural forest of the island (S. Desbureaux 2014, pers.

  16. CEO compensation and hospital financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Sandoval, Guillermo A; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Pink, George H

    2009-12-01

    Growing interest in pay-for-performance and the level of chief executive officers' (CEOs') pay raises questions about the link between performance and compensation in the health sector. This study compares the compensation of nonprofit hospital CEOs in Ontario, Canada to the three longest reported and most used measures of hospital financial performance. Our sample consisted of 132 CEOs from 92 hospitals between 1999 and 2006. Unbalanced panel data were analyzed using fixed effects regression. Results suggest that CEO compensation was largely unrelated to hospital financial performance. Inflation-adjusted salaries appeared to increase over time independent of hospital performance, and hospital size was positively correlated with CEO compensation. The apparent upward trend in salary despite some declines in financial performance challenges the fundamental assumption underlying this article, that is, financial performance is likely linked to CEO compensation in Ontario. Further research is needed to understand long-term performance related to compensation incentives.

  17. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  18. Compensation for nuclear damage: a comparison among the international regime, Japan and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Faure, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Following the Fukushima disaster in Japan in 2011, how the compensation system for nuclear damage should be improved has obtained broad attention. The compensation system, including liability rules, insurance and government involvement, does not only concern to what extent the victims can be

  19. Current controller considering harmonics compensation for grid connected converter in DPGS applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barote, L.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    including a LC filter, a compensation technique for low-order harmonics and to examine the grid current harmonic content with and without harmonic compensation. A comparative study in terms of current harmonic distortion between two different values of PR proportional gain running in steady state condition...

  20. 75 FR 64717 - Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost... Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (``CSC'') including its obligation to contribute to an international supplementary fund in the event of certain nuclear incidents. The NOI provided a September 27...

  1. Gamma-ray triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon...

  2. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Gamma irradiation of onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, D.

    1975-01-01

    Technological and economic feasibility of gamma irradiation of onions and garlic on an industrial scale are studied. Statistical data on production, consumption, exportation and losses during storage are analyzed. Traditional methods of food preservation are reviewed and gamma irradiation techniques are presented as an alternative to sprout inhibition. Requirements for the irradiation of onions and garlic on a commercial scale including a cost benefit analysis are discussed. Some conclusions are formulated on licensing and prospects

  4. Compensated takings and negotiated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    More than 30 year ago, the USA began protecting its environment with regulatory laws. However, this approach has progressed to the point where our economic health may have needlessly incurred long-term damage. The article explores the implications of a resurgent demand for legal guarantees for compensation when environmental regulations take individual property. What will happen when a price tag is attached to new or existing environmental laws? Some predict dire results; however, a more balanced and efficient policy may lie ahead. The discussion explores the implications of recent rulings, describes possible outcomes, and offers several alternatives to the traditional lobby-and-appeal tactics used in setting environmental policy. The authors conclude that as the concept of a regulatory taking is restored, more innovative negotiated solutions will take place between competing interests as they are given more equal legal footing

  5. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo [KEK, High Energy Alccelerator Research Organization (Japan); Tsuneya, Tsubokawa [National Astronomical Observatory, Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory (Japan); Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1999-07-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10{sup 33} to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  6. Design of OLED gamma correction system based on the LUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yonghang; Yun, Lijun; Shi, Junsheng; Chen, Zaiqing; Li, Qiong

    2011-11-01

    Gamma correction is an important processing in reproduce images information realizing of video source. In order to improve the image sharpness of the OLED micro-display, a Gamma correction system was established to compensate for the gray scale distortion of the micro-display which is caused by the difference between the optical and electrical characteristic property. Based on the North OLEiD Company's 0.5 inch OLED, We proposed a Gamma correction system to converts 8 bits input signal into 9 bits displayed on the OLED. It used Microchip as the MCU and the master of the I2C serial bus, Development of the hardware system measurement verified the correction of VGA and CVBS video input and the picture quality also apparently improved.

  7. 38 CFR 3.351 - Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension...

  8. Springback Compensation: Fundamental Topics and Practical Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingbeek, R.A.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Ohnimus, S.; Petzoldt, M.; Weiher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Now that the simulation of deep drawing processes has become more reliable the virtual compensation of the forming tools has become reality. In literature, the Displacement Adjustment (DA) algorithm has proved to be most effective. In this article it is shown how the compensation factor, required

  9. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation... that amount required to accomplish the activities for which the claim was paid. Real or Personal...

  10. Compensation of oscillation coupling induced by solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for construction of various schemes of oscillation coupling compensation, induced by solenoids in charged particle storage rings, are described. Peculiarities of magnetic structure, enabling to localize oscillation coupling in wide energy range are discussed. Results of calculation of compensation schemes for design of NR-2000 storage ring spin rotation are presented

  11. 47 CFR 32.24 - Compensated absences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... shall record a liability and charge the appropriate expense accounts for compensated absences (vacations... liability that exists for compensated absences which is not yet recorded on the books as of the effective...

  12. 23 CFR 751.15 - Just compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonconforming junkyard as provided in § 751.11 must pertain at the time of the taking or removal in order to establish a right to just compensation. ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Just compensation. 751.15 Section 751.15 Highways...

  13. The gamma function

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers

  14. Peace/Williston fish and wildlife compensation program: 1991-1992 Public compensation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    The Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program is a joint initiative by British Columbia Hydro and the provincial environment ministry to enhance and protect fish and wildlife resources and their habitat in the Williston watershed affected by the construction of the WAC Bennett and Peace Canyon dams on the Peace River. The interest from a fund of $11 million, established by BC Hydro in 1988, is used to maintain the compensation programs. Public input to the ongoing fish and wildlife programs is provided by a public consultation program. A summary is presented of the activities undertaken by the public consultation program in 1991/92 and public attitudes toward the consultation program. Activities undertaken in the fish and wildlife enhancement program are summarized in appendices. Fisheries programs included stocking, stream fertilization, small lake surveys, preparation of a side channel in Carbon Creek for multi-species spawning, and creation of an artificial spring at Windy Point for spawning purposes. Wildlife programs included channel clearance and vegetation supply improvements to enhance muskrat and beaver habitat; radio monitoring of sheep and elk; studying the feasibility of transplanting elk herds; and purchase of critical ungulate winter habitat lands. 1 fig., 12 tabs

  15. Renormalization Group Scaling of Higgs Operators and \\Gamma(h -> \\gamma \\gamma)

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, Christophe; Manohar, Aneesh V; Trott, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We compute the renormalization of dimension six Higgs-gauge boson operators that can modify \\Gamma(h -> \\gamma \\gamma) at tree-level. Operator mixing is shown to lead to an important modification of new physics effects which has been neglected in past calculations. We also find that the usual formula for the S oblique parameter contribution of these Higgs-gauge boson operators needs additional terms to be consistent with renormalization group evolution. We study the implications of our results for Higgs phenomenology and for new physics models which attempt to explain a deviation in \\Gamma(h -> \\gamma \\gamma). We derive a new relation between the S parameter and the \\Gamma(h -> \\gamma \\gamma) and \\Gamma(h ->Z \\gamma) decay rates.

  16. Ownership Concentration, Top Management and Board Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of ownership concentration may influence executive and board compensation (Bebchuk & Fried, 2003. This article analyzes this relationship. Detailed information about top management and board compensation became available starting in 2010 through new Securities Commission filings. Linear regression models applied to a sample of 315 Brazilian companies traded on the national exchange indicate a negative and statistically significant economic correlation between executive compensation and the degree of ownership concentration. Ceteris paribus, companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration pay higher compensation to top executives. Family controlled companies pay more to their chief executive, but not to the managerial team as a whole, and the compensation of directors increases with a greater proportion of control group members or their relatives on the board. There was support for the Managerial Power Hypothesis in companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration and for the extraction of private benefits in companies where it is greater.

  17. Comprehensive Monitor-Oriented Compensation Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Colombo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compensation programming is typically used in the programming of web service compositions whose correct implementation is crucial due to their handling of security-critical activities such as financial transactions. While traditional exception handling depends on the state of the system at the moment of failure, compensation programming is significantly more challenging and dynamic because it is dependent on the runtime execution flow — with the history of behaviour of the system at the moment of failure affecting how to apply compensation. To address this dynamic element, we propose the use of runtime monitors to facilitate compensation programming, with monitors enabling the modeller to be able to implicitly reason in terms of the runtime control flow, thus separating the concerns of system building and compensation modelling. Our approach is instantiated into an architecture and shown to be applicable to a case study.

  18. New gamma cameras in nuclear cardiology: D-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzet, F.; Bechara, T.; Ben Ali, K.; Nassar, P.; Grellier, J.F.; Burg, S.; Hyafil, F.; Le Guludec, D.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, advances in nuclear medicine aimed at decreasing both the duration and dosimetry of exams, without decreasing image quality. In this setting, Spectrum Dynamics (D-Spect) is a new generation gamma camera dedicated to cardiac scintigraphy. Its technology includes solid-state detectors based on pixelated semiconductors, region-centric (cardiac area) scanning, high-sensitivity collimators and resolution recovery. An additional particularity is the patient position during scanning. Phantom studies showed an improvement of sensitivity compared to conventional cameras, at the price of a loss in geometric resolution, which is compensated by resolution recovery. Semiconductors detectors provide a better energy resolution than conventional detectors suited to double isotope acquisitions, and a high count rate allowing dynamic acquisitions. Only few clinical studies are available so far, they suggest performances similar to that of conventional cameras obtained with acquisitions duration reduced to few minutes. The next step is to establish a trade-off between acquisition duration and dosimetry reduction. (authors)

  19. Veterans Affairs: Presumptive Service Connection and Disability Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    exposure in numerous epidemiologic studies.25 This law also established a program to provide disability compensation to radiation-exposed veterans who...to include a “medically unexplained chronic multisymptom illness (such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia , and irritable bowel syndrome) that...conduct an epidemiological study of the possible health effects in veterans who served in Vietnam of exposure to dioxin as found in herbicides including

  20. Basics of Gamma Ray Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venkataraman, Ram [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this training is to explain the origin of x-rays and gamma rays, gamma ray interactions with matter, detectors and electronics used in gamma ray-spectrometry, and features of a gamma-ray spectrum for nuclear material that is safeguarded.

  1. Mechanical design of deformation compensated flexural pivots structured for linear nanopositioning stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Kearney, Steven P.; Preissner, Curt A.

    2015-02-17

    A method and deformation compensated flexural pivots structured for precision linear nanopositioning stages are provided. A deformation-compensated flexural linear guiding mechanism includes a basic parallel mechanism including a U-shaped member and a pair of parallel bars linked to respective pairs of I-link bars and each of the I-bars coupled by a respective pair of flexural pivots. The basic parallel mechanism includes substantially evenly distributed flexural pivots minimizing center shift dynamic errors.

  2. Structure and content of the galaxy and galactic gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The conference included papers on ..gamma..-ray pulsars, galactic diffuse flux and surveys, radio surveys of external galaxies, galactic distribution of pulsars, and galactic gamma emission. Galactic structure drawing on all branches of galactic astronomy is discussed. New and unpublished material is included. (JFP)

  3. Productivity cost calculations in health economic evaluations: correcting for compensation mechanisms and multiplier effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner B F; Severens, Johan L; Kaper, Janneke; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2012-12-01

    Productivity costs related to paid work are commonly calculated in economic evaluations of health technologies by multiplying the relevant number of work days lost with a wage rate estimate. It has been argued that actual productivity costs may either be lower or higher than current estimates due to compensation mechanisms and/or multiplier effects (related to team dependency and problems with finding good substitutes in cases of absenteeism). Empirical evidence on such mechanisms and their impact on productivity costs is scarce, however. This study aims to increase knowledge on how diminished productivity is compensated within firms. Moreover, it aims to explore how compensation and multiplier effects potentially affect productivity cost estimates. Absenteeism and compensation mechanisms were measured in a randomized trial among Dutch citizens examining the cost-effectiveness of reimbursement for smoking cessation treatment. Multiplier effects were extracted from published literature. Productivity costs were calculated applying the Friction Cost Approach. Regular estimates were subsequently adjusted for (i) compensation during regular working hours, (ii) job dependent multipliers and (iii) both compensation and multiplier effects. A total of 187 respondents included in the trial were useful for inclusion in this study, based on being in paid employment, having experienced absenteeism in the preceding six months and completing the questionnaire on absenteeism and compensation mechanisms. Over half of these respondents stated that their absenteeism was compensated during normal working hours by themselves or colleagues. Only counting productivity costs not compensated in regular working hours reduced the traditional estimate by 57%. Correcting for multiplier effects increased regular estimates by a quarter. Combining both impacts decreased traditional estimates by 29%. To conclude, large amounts of lost production are compensated in normal hours. Productivity costs

  4. Gamma-ray spectrum data library of fission product nuclides and its assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katakura, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Tadashi.

    1988-03-01

    A gamma-ray spectrum data library of fission product nuclides was prepared on the same basis as the JNDC library which is used for the decay heat prediction. The gamma-ray spectrum data were compiled with both measured and theoretically estimated spectra. For nuclides with no or insufficient gamma-ray transition data, the estimated spectra were applied to compensate the defect of the measured data. By introducing the estimated spectra, it becomes possible to calculate the gamma-ray spectra which are consistent with integral decay heat predictions by the JNDC library. By using the spectrum data library, calculations of gamma-ray spectra from aggregate fission product nuclides were carried out. The calculated spectra were compared with the measured ones performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the University of Tokyo. The spectrum calculations showed reasonable agreement with the measured data for a wide range of cooling time. (author) 18 refs., 11 tabs., 245 figs

  5. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: sluan@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: nate@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: zchen@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: lijunma@radonc.ucsf.edu

    2009-03-21

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can

  6. IMEF gamma scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs.

  7. Shaping the gamma curtain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early 1996 saw the start up in Ukraine and Belarus of the Gamma-1 pilot radiation early warning system - the first phase of the Gamma Curtain, a network of monitors stretching from the Black Sea to the Baltic to enable rapid detection of any future nuclear accidents. In setting up the system, the experience of monitoring around Chernobyl was invaluable, and has implications for the west as well. (UK)

  8. The law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Basic terms are defined, such as: operation of reactors; nuclear damage; nuclear enterpriser; nuclear ship; measure for compensation; amount of compensation and liability insurance contract. The government may conclude with nuclear enterprisers indemnity agreements, in which in the case of reparation responsibilities of the enterprisers coming into being, the government agrees to make for losses of the enterprisers not possible to be compensated by liability insurance contracts, etc., and the enterprisers comply to pay indemnity charges. Losses indemnified by the government with the said agreements (indemnity agreement) shall be losses of the enterprisers (indemnity loss) which occur from reparation of nuclear damages due to earthquakes or eruptions, or regular operation of reactors or damages to be compensated by the insurance contracts, which are not demanded by the sufferers for 10 years from the day of events, and others. The term of indemnity agreements is from the time of the conclusion to the date of suspension of the operation of reactors. Indemnity charges, amount of indemnity, limit of conclusion of indemnity agreements, notice, prescription and others are prescribed respectively. The government may dissolute indemnity agreements in specified particular cases, including violation of the provisions of the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage by the enterprisers, etc. (Okada, K.)

  9. Evaluation of compensation formulae to measure natural resource damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilliard, G.A.; Fischel, M.; Desvousges, W.H.; Dunford, R.W.; Mathews, K.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the oil spills in marine, estuarine, or freshwater environments of the United States are small (less than 1,000 gallons) and result in minimal injury to natural resources or little to no loss of services. However, federal, state, and Indian tribe trustees for natural resources are entitled under a variety of laws, including the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, to collect damages (money) from responsible parties to compensate for the foregone services and restoration of the services provided by the natural resources. Alaska, Washington, and Florida have developed a formula-based approach to calculating natural resource damages resulting from most spills; the federal National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and several other states are considering developing a compensation formula. The ideal compensation formula is a simplified assessment process that (a) can be applied rapidly, (b) requires relatively small transaction or assessment costs, (c) requires minimal site- and spill-specific data as inputs, (d) is based on generally accepted scientific and economic principles and methods, and (e) results in damage values acceptable to both the trustees and the responsible party. In theory, a compensation formula could be applied to most small oil spills in United States waters

  10. A practical attenuation compensation method for cone beam spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manglos, S.H.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Floyd, C.E.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    An algorithm for attenuation compensation of cone beam SPECT images has been developed and implemented. The algorithm is based on a multiplicative post-processing method previously used for parallel and fan beam geometries. This method computes the compensation from the estimated average attenuation of photons originating from each image pixel. In the present development, a uniform attenuation coefficient inside of the body contour is assumed, although the method could be extended to include a non-uniform attenuation map. The algorithm is tested with experimental projections of a phantom obtained using a cone beam collimator. Profiles through the reconstructed images are presented as a quantitative test of the improvement due to the compensation. The algorithm provides adequate compensation for attenuation in a simple uniform cylindrical phantom, and the computational time is short compared to that expected for iterative reconstruction techniques. Also observed are image distortions in some reconstructed slices when the source distribution extends beyond the edge of the cone beam axial field-of-view

  11. Gamma irradiation of Fabry-Perot interband cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Kim, Chul Soo; Kim, Mijin; Merritt, Charles D.; Bewley, William W.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on Fabry-Perot interband cascade lasers (ICLs) were investigated. Two ICLs were exposed to cobalt-60 gamma rays for a total dose of 500 krad(Si) each. The ICLs do not show any evidence of changes in performance, including output power, threshold current, slope efficiency, or spectral frequency. These results demonstrate that ICLs are insensitive to gamma irradiation up to exposure rates above those normally encountered within a shielded spacecraft.

  12. Analysis and Control of STATCOM/SMES Compensator in a Load Variation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza Shakarami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS devices in a power system can potentially overcome limitations of the present mechanically controlled transmission system. Also, the advanced technology makes it possible to include new energy storage devices in the electrical power system. The integration of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES into Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM can lead to increase their flexibility to improve power system dynamic behavior by exchanging both active and reactive powers with power grids. This paper describes structure and behavior of STATCOM/SMES compensator in power systems. A control strategy based on direct Lyapanov method for compensator is used. Moreover, the performance of the STATCOM/SMES compensator in a load variation condition is evaluated by PSCAD/EMTDC software in test system. Also, SMES capacity effects on integrated compensator are investigated.

  13. Resistance of a gamma/gamma prime - delta directionally solidified eutectic alloy to recrystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S. N.; Scheuermann, C. M.; Andrews, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    The lamellar directionally solidified nickel-base eutectic alloy gamma/gamma prime-delta has potential as an advanced turbine blade material. The microstructural stability of this alloy was investigated. Specimens were plastically deformed by uniform compression or Brinell indentation, then annealed between 705 and 1120 C. Microstructural changes observed after annealing included gamma prime coarsening, pinch-off and spheroidization of delta lamellae, and the appearance of an unidentified blocky phase in surface layers. All but the first of these was localized in severely deformed regions, suggesting that microstructural instability is not a serious problem in the use of this alloy.

  14. High rate of awarding compensation for claims of injuries related to clinical trials by pharmaceutical companies in Japan: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Chieko; Kusuoka, Hideo; Ono, Shunsuke; Kakee, Naoko; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takehara, Kenji; Tsujide, Kiyokazu; Nabeoka, Yuzo; Sakuhiro, Takuya; Aoki, Hiroshi; Morishita, Noriko; Suzuki, Chieko; Kachi, Shigeo; Kondo, Emiko; Komori, Yukiko; Isobe, Tetsu; Kageyama, Shigeru; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    International norms and ethical standards have suggested that compensation for research-related injury should be provided to injured research volunteers. However, statistical data of incidence of compensation claims and the rate of awarding them have been rarely reported. Questionnaire surveys were sent to pharmaceutical companies and medical institutions, focusing on industry-initiated clinical trials aiming at new drug applications (NDAs) on patient volunteers in Japan. With the answers from pharmaceutical companies, the incidence of compensation was 0.8%, including 0.06% of monetary compensation. Of the cases of compensation claims, 99% were awarded. In turn, with the answers from medical institutions, the incidence of compensation was 0.6%, including 0.4% of serious but not death cases, and 0.04% of death cases. Furthermore, most claims for compensation were initiated by medical institutions, rather than by the patients. On the other hand, with the answers from clinical trial volunteers, 3% of respondents received compensations. These compensated cases were 25% of the injuries which cannot be ruled out from the scope of compensation. Our study results demonstrated that Japanese pharmaceutical companies have provided a high rate of compensation for clinical trial-related injuries despite the possibility of overestimation. In the era of global clinical development, our study indicates the importance of further surveys to find each country's compensation policy by determining how it is being implemented based on a survey of the actual status of compensation coming from statistical data.

  15. 38 CFR 3.708 - Federal Employees' Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Concurrent Benefits and Elections..., hospitalization or hospital care, training, or compensated work therapy program. See §§ 3.358 and 3.361. (b...

  16. Effective reduction of the phase error for gamma nonlinearity in phase measuring profilometry by BLPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaxia; Mo, Rong; Chang, Zhiyong; Lu, Jin

    2018-01-01

    In phase measuring profilometry, the system gamma nonlinearity makes the captured fringe patterns non-sinusoidal, which causes the computed phase to exist a non-ignorable error and seriously affects the 3D reconstruction accuracy. Based on the detailed study of the existing gamma nonlinearity compensation and phase error reduction technique, a method based on low-pass frequency domain filtering is proposed. It mainly filters out higher than one-order harmonic components induced by the gamma nonlinearity in conditions of holding as much power as possible in the power spectrum, thus improves sinusoidal waveform of the fringe images. Compared to other compensation methods, the complex mathematic model is not needed in the proposed method. The simulation and experiments confirm that the higher-order harmonic components are significantly reduced, the phase precision can be effectively improved and a certain accuracy requirement can be reached.

  17. Inductive voltage compensation in superconducting magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.; Goddard, J.S.; Shen, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper details several techniques of inductive voltage compensation developed for quench detection in superconducting magnet systems with multiple coils and power supplies, with particular application for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF). Sources of noise, their magnitudes, and the sensitivity required for normal zone detection to avoid damage to the magnets are discussed. Two passive compensation schemes (second difference and central difference) are introduced and illustrated by parameters of LCTF; these take advantage of coil symmetries and other system characteristics. An active compensation scheme based on current rate input fom pickup coils and utilizing theory on ac loss voltage for calibration was tested, and the experimental setup and test results are discussed

  18. Health Insurance Costs and Employee Compensation: Evidence from the National Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Priyanka

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines the relationship between rising health insurance costs and employee compensation. I estimate the extent to which total compensation decreases with a rise in health insurance costs and decompose these changes in compensation into adjustments in wages, non-health fringe benefits, and employee contributions to health insurance premiums. I examine this relationship using the National Compensation Survey, a panel dataset on compensation and health insurance for a sample of establishments across the USA. I find that total hourly compensation reduces by $0.52 for each dollar increase in health insurance costs. This reduction in total compensation is primarily in the form of higher employee premium contributions, and there is no evidence of a change in wages and non-health fringe benefits. These findings show that workers are absorbing at least part of the increase in health insurance costs through lower compensation and highlight the importance of examining total compensation, and not just wages, when examining the relationship between health insurance costs and employee compensation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645 ns 'mini' bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have <1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1%/ms. This places a significant design burden on the current transformer; such a design is almost impossible to achieve. Extremely large expensive cores are needed to meet the low droop, while leakage inductance increases with size, thereby reducing the achievable rise time. In this paper, I discuss a digital compensation approach [M. Kesselman, Spallation neutron source beam current monitor electronics, PAC2001 June 18-22, 2001, Chicago, IL.] that extends the lower cut-off frequency of the current transformer, optimized for high frequency response, so that it can be used in this application with improvements in droop of the order of 1000:1. Transformer saturation (current-time product) is a separate issue and the transformer must be designed to handle the current-time product of the signal to assure it does not saturate

  20. Gamma-ray measurements with the segmented gamma scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.R.; Jones, D.F.; Parker, J.L.

    1977-12-01

    A revised and updated operation and maintenance manual for the segmented gamma-scan instrument is presented, which describes routine assay techniques as well as the theory of operation in sufficient depth that an experienced assayist can make nonroutine assays on a wide variety of materials and samples. In addition, complete electronic and electrical schematics of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL)-designed portions of the system are presented, along with sufficient system and circuit description to facilitate maintenance and troubleshooting. Complete software system descriptions are included, although detailed listings would have to be obained from LASL in order to make machine-language code changes

  1. Influence of compensator thickness, field size, and off-axis distance on the effective attenuation coefficient of a cerrobend compensator for intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghparast, Abbas [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (μ{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the μ{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 × 4 to 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.5–6 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the μ{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.7–6.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}, the μ{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.5–6 cm. However, the variation of the μ{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator μ{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the μ{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 × 25 cm{sup 2}.

  2. Synchronization of two chaotic systems: Dynamic compensator approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-K.; Lai, T.-W.; Yan, J.-J.; Liao, T.-L.

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the identical synchronization problem for a class of chaotic systems. A dynamic compensator is proposed to achieve the synchronization between master and slave chaotic systems using only the accessible output variables. A sufficient condition is also proposed to ensure the global synchronization. Furthermore, the strictly positive real (SPR) restriction, which is normally required in most of the observer-based synchronization schemes, is released in our approach. Two numerical examples are included to illustrate the proposed scheme.

  3. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  4. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  5. 29 CFR 36.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and... that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  6. 7 CFR 15a.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and... which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  7. 36 CFR 1211.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that... basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment...

  8. 44 CFR 19.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort... or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation...

  9. 10 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and..., on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the...

  10. Accuracy in gamma spectrometry: Pileup, dead time, and fast electornics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An important source of inaccuracy in neutron activation analysis is the nonlinear throughput of the counting system, especially at high counting rates. Losses, due to the finite time needed for events to happen, occur in all parts of the spectrometer system: the germanium detector crystal, preamplifier, amplifier, analog-digital converter (ADC), and MCA or computer. The slowest unbuffered units are the ADC and the amplifier, followed by the crystal. Even with modern fast electronics, losses can be important, although compensating circuits can greatly improve accuracy if they are used correctly. The ADC dead time is less of a problem than it was a decade ago. For example, a modern successive-approximation ADC in the author's laboratory takes 6 μs to digitize a gamma ray in the middle of an 8192-channel spectrum, compared with 60 μs for the Wilkinson device that it replaced. Dead-time circuits in MCAs for many years have compensated very well for this dead time. Pulse pileup is as important as ADC dead time. Random coincidence, the accidental arrival of the signal from two nonrelated gamma rays at the amplifier in a time short compared to the shaping time, results in a composite pulse that distorts the spectrum. For accurate spectrometry, each such random-sum pulse should be excluded from the spectrum (pileup rejection), and the system dead time must be adjusted to compensate for the time the system is busy analyzing this rejected event (pileup live-time correction)

  11. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlíček, V.; Pokorný, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper.

  12. Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

  13. Reactive power compensation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Just, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive resource on reactive power compensation, presenting the design, application and operation of reactive power equipment and installations The area of reactive power compensation is gaining increasing importance worldwide. If suitably designed, it is capable of improving voltage quality significantly, meaning that losses in equipment and power systems are reduced, the permissible loading of equipment can be increased, and the over-all stability of system operation improved. Ultimately, energy use and CO2 emisson are reduced. This unique guide discusses the

  14. Radiotherapy dose compensation for lung patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyaratna, N.; Arnold, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a more homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume from compensated anterior and posterior fields while the healthy lung is spared by de-weighting the lateral fields. A compensation computation which used linear iterations to compute the most homogeneous dose distribution across the target volume was applied to produce optimum compensator designs. The equivalent tissue-air ratio (E-TAR) inhomogeneity correction was applied for the computations using a GE target series 11 planning computer. The compensators designed were tested for accuracy in a modified water/lung phantom using a scanning diode and an anthropomorphic phantom using thermoluminescent dosimeters. A comparison has been made between the compensated and uncompensated plans for the first nine patients who we have treated with this technique. The dose profiles produced by the computation agreed with the prediction of the computed isodose plans to within ± 2% at the target depth. The thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-measured results in the anthropomorphic phantom agreed with the planning computer within ± 3%. A comparison of nine compensated plans of radiotherapy patients for large-volume targets in the lung region showed a maximum variation in the target to be 19% uncompensated versus 10% compensated. By providing compensated treatment fields from anterior and posterior treatment portals, a homogeneous dose that conforms well to the target volume is provided. As an added bonus, this enables the lateral lung fields to be significantly de-weighted and the healthy lung is spared considerable dose. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  15. Fair compensation and the boomtown problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hare, M.

    1976-11-01

    While a variety of government responses to the boomtown problem (too-rapid growth due to energy facilities in rural communities) may be appropriate, those that pay subsidies to the residents or to local governments are likely to compensate the wrong parties. In particular, new arrivals should not be compensated for suffering boomtown conditions and conventional relief programs will probably benefit them at the expense of those who have a good claim to payments.

  16. Factors that determine energy compensation: a systematic review of preload studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiron-Roig, Eva; Palla, Luigi; Guest, Kathryn; Ricchiuti, Cassandra; Vint, Neil; Jebb, Susan A; Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-07-01

    Insufficient energy compensation after a preload (meal, snack, or beverage) has been associated with excess energy intake, but experimental studies have used heterogeneous methodologies, making energy compensation difficult to predict. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the relative contributions of two key variables, preload physical form and intermeal interval (IMI), to differences in energy compensation. Forty-eight publications were included, from which percent energy compensation (%EC) data were extracted for 253 interventions (121 liquid, 69 semisolid, 20 solid, and 43 composite preloads). Energy compensation ranged from -370% (overconsumption, mostly of liquids) to 450% (overcompensation). A meta-regression analysis of studies reporting positive energy compensation showed that IMI (as the predominant factor) together with preload physical form and energy contributed significantly to %EC differences, accounting for 50% of the variance, independently from gender and BMI. Energy compensation was maximized when the preload was in semisolid/solid form and the IMI was 30-120 min. These results may assist in the interpretation of studies assessing the relative efficacy of interventions to enhance satiety, including functional foods and weight management products. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  17. Plasma driven neutron/gamma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Antolak, Arlyn

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for the generation of neutron/gamma rays is described including a chamber which defines an ion source, said apparatus including an RF antenna positioned outside of or within the chamber. Positioned within the chamber is a target material. One or more sets of confining magnets are also provided to create a cross B magnetic field directly above the target. To generate neutrons/gamma rays, the appropriate source gas is first introduced into the chamber, the RF antenna energized and a plasma formed. A series of high voltage pulses are then applied to the target. A plasma sheath, which serves as an accelerating gap, is formed upon application of the high voltage pulse to the target. Depending upon the selected combination of source gas and target material, either neutrons or gamma rays are generated, which may be used for cargo inspection, and the like.

  18. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  19. Goniometer crosstalk compensation for knee joint applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil

    2010-01-01

    Electrogoniometers are prone to crosstalk errors related to endblocks rotation (general crosstalk) and to the characteristics of each sensor (individual crosstalk). The aim of this study was to assess the crosstalk errors due to endblock misalignments and to propose a procedure to compensate for these errors in knee applications. A precision jig was used to simulate pure ± 100° flexion/extension movements. A goniometer was mounted with various degrees of valgus/varus (± 20°) and rotation (± 30°) misalignments. For valgus/varus misalignments, although offset compensation eliminated the error in the valgus/varus recordings for 0° of flexion/extension and reduced it to a few degrees for small (± 30°) flexion/extension angles (root mean square error = 1.1°), the individual crosstalk caused pronounced errors for large (± 100°) angles (18.8°). Subsequent compensation for this crosstalk reduced these errors to 0.8° and 4.5°, respectively. For rotational misalignment, compensation for the general crosstalk by means of coordinate system rotation, in combination with compensation for the individual crosstalk, reduced the errors for small (± 30°) and large (± 100°) flexion/extension angles from 3.6° to 0.5° and from 15.5° to 2.4°, respectively. Crosstalk errors were efficiently compensated by the procedures applied, which might be useful in preprocessing of knee functional data, thereby substantially improving goniometer accuracy.

  20. System for gamma-gamma formation density logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paske, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    The patent relates to a system for logging subterranean formations for the determination of formation density by using gamma radiation. Gamma ray source and detection means are disposed within a housing adapted for positioning within a borehole for the emission and detection of gamma rays propagating through earth formations and borehole drilling fluid. The gamma ray detection means comprises first and second gamma radiation sensors geometrically disposed within the housing, the same longitudinal distance from the gamma ray source and diametrically opposed in a common plane. A formation matrix density output signal is produced in proportion to the output signal from each of the gamma ray sensors and in conjunction with certain constants established by the geometrical configuration of the sensors relative to the gamma ray source and the borehole diameter. Formation density is determined without regard to the radial position of the logging probe within the borehole in a measuring while drilling mode. 6 figs

  1. Exploring gamma radiation effect on exoelectron emission properties of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, M.; Dekhtyar, Y.; Bogucharska, T.; Noskov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used for radiation therapy to treat carcinogenic diseases including bone cancer. Ionising radiation kills carcinogenic calls. However, there are side effects of the gamma radiation on the bone surface electron structure. One of the effects is in the form of altering electron density of states of bone that, with time, influences biomedical reactions on bone life condition. (authors)

  2. Hypernuclear gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of hypernuclear ..gamma.. rays pprovides a method of determining the spin dependence of the ..lambda..-nucleon interaction with a sensitivity not approachable by other means in the forseeable future. The transitions of primary interest are those between states that differ only in the orientation of the spin of the ..lambda.. particle with respect to the angular momentum of the nuclear core. The effective ..lambda..-nucleon interaction can be specified by a small number of ..gamma..-ray measurements. A program of experiments directed at this goal is in progress at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This paper reviews the status of the subject with emphasis on the recent experiment to measure ground state doublet splittings using germanium ..gamma..-ray detectors.

  3. Board oversight of executive performance and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Connie R; Totten, Mary K

    2010-01-01

    Making sure the relative roles of the board and management are clear and agreed upon is becoming more important as market and regulatory forces compel boards to govern at levels of detail once considered micromanagement, but are now required and necessary in the current environment of heightened governance accountability. A clear understanding of each other's roles and responsibilities is step one in building a solid partnership between the board and chief executive. A second element of building a strong foundation for the board-CEO relationship is taking time early on to establish mutual expectations about working together. The board's responsibilities in CEO performance management and compensation include setting performance expectations and goals that are clear and measurable and coaching and motivating the CEO. When a CEO fails, one of the most important steps for the board to take is to look in the mirror and commit to the rigorous due diligence needed to avoid future mistakes. Boards should always have CEO succession on their agenda.

  4. Compensations to Local Communities in the Krsko NPP Decommissioning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanat, I.; Knapp, A.; Lokner, V.

    2010-01-01

    In Slovenia, direct financial compensations (for 'limited land use') to local communities hosting nuclear facilities were initially specified by a government Decree from 2003. In Croatia, a possibility of direct financial compensations had been indicated in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository siting about a decade earlier, but the topic was subsequently abandoned together with the repository project. In 2004, the joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 (the 1st revision of the joint Program) conservatively included the compensation amounts from the Slovenian Decree into the cost estimates of LILW and SF repositories, although their location was entirely unspecified ('in Slovenia or in Croatia'). Shortly before the 2nd revision of the joint Program started in the fall of 2008, the Slovenian government had amended its Decree, practically doubling the amounts of the repository compensations. Assuming that some (or possibly all) nuclear facilities and waste, dealt with in the Program, may be located in Slovenia, the revision has adopted a conservative approach to include all compensations to local communities that may be required by the Slovenian regulations into the Program costs. This paper discusses the Slovenian government Decree, its impact on the joint Program costs, and its implications on RW and SF management in the region. The Decree suffers from the lack of self-consistency, clarity, and consistency with the more general legal provisions on which it should have been based, but it may have an important supporting role in the process of RW and SF management facilities siting. The Decree introduced significant additional costs into the joint Program, which have grown from about one hundred million eur in the 1st revision to about half a billion in this revision (depending on the Program scenario). Besides, application of the Decree in the joint Program has set a precedent

  5. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... contralateral to stimulus side and additionally an unexpected 20 Hz activity was observed slightly lateralized in the frontal central region. The gamma phase locking may be a manifestation of early somatosensory feature integration. The analyses suggest that the high frequency activity consists of two distinct...

  6. Gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

    2012-08-24

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow.

  7. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  8. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this section...

  9. Gamma spectrometry of EFTTRA T2BIS R280.2. Gamma scan wires 6 through 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    In the frame work of the EFTTRA programme on recycling of actinides and fission products, five gamma scan wires which were included in the experiment R280.2 T2bis have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  10. Study of static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report, May 12, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byerly, R.T.; Bennon, R.J.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Poznaniak, D.T.

    1981-05-12

    A general study of the application of static VAR compensators (SVC's) to high-voltage transmission systems has been performed. Considerable emphasis has been placed on improvements to synchronous stability, and it is shown that SVC's can provide significant benefits in terms of damping for unstable modes of oscillation and increases in transient stability limits. This report includes descriptions of static VAR compensators, technical and economic comparisons of different compensators, compensator models for system studies, comprehensive study procedures, study results for two small-scale systems, and guidelines for SVC application.

  11. CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Results of the latest $\\gamma$ combination from LHCb are presented, along with the six LHCb measurements used as inputs. In addition, the anticipated precision attainable for measuring $\\gamma$ after the LHCb Upgrade is outlined

  12. Gamma knife surgery for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, D.; Steiner, M.; Steiner, L.

    1995-01-01

    We present our results of Gamma Knife surgery for craniopharyngioma in nine patients. The current status of surgery, radiation therapy, intracavitary instillation of radionuclides and Gamma Knife surgery in the management of craniopharyngiomas is discussed. (author)

  13. Compensation of Imperfections for Vibratory Gyroscope Systems Using State Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu CHI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach that can compensate errors resulting from the imperfections of mechanical structures and interface circuits for MEMS gyroscope systems. Different from most of existing researches on gyroscopes wherein the mechanical structure and interface circuit are either assumed to be ideal or optimized individually, this approach uses state estimation techniques to compensate all those errors and to obtain correct angular rates in real time. The mechanical structure errors discussed in this paper may come from structure designs and fabrication imperfections. The interface circuit errors include: mismatch of differential capacitors, parasitic capacitance, offset voltage of operation amplifiers, and circuit noise. Simulation results indicates that, with the presence of those errors and a signal-to-noise ratio around 20, the proposed method can measure time-varying angular rates with a bandwidth up to 30 Hz and a sensing accuracy of 1×10-2 rad/sec.

  14. Electrochemical energy storage devices comprising self-compensating polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul; Bautista-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Friesen, Cody; Switzer, Elise

    2018-01-30

    The disclosed technology relates generally to devices comprising conductive polymers and more particularly to electrochemical devices comprising self-compensating conductive polymers. In one aspect, electrochemical energy storage device comprises a negative electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device additionally comprises a positive electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device further comprises an electrolyte material interposed between the negative electrode and positive electrode and configured to conduct mobile counterions therethrough between the negative electrode and positive electrode. At least one of the negative electrode redox-active polymer and the positive electrode redox-active polymer comprises a zwitterionic polymer unit configured to reversibly switch between a zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has first and second charge centers having opposite charge states that compensate each other, and a non-zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has one of the first and second charge centers whose charge state is compensated by mobile counterions.

  15. Ten years' experience using an integrated workers' compensation management system to control workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, Edward J; Tsai, Shan P

    2003-05-01

    This work presents 10 years of experience using an Integrated Workers' Compensation Claims Management System that allows safety professionals, adjusters, and selected medical and nursing providers to collaborate in a process of preventing accidents and expeditiously assessing, treating, and returning individuals to productive work. The hallmarks of the program involve patient advocacy and customer service, steerage of injured employees to a small network of physicians, close follow-up, and the continuous dialogue between parties regarding claims management. The integrated claims management system was instituted in fiscal year 1992 servicing a population of approximately 21,000 individuals. The system was periodically refined and by the 2002 fiscal year, 39,000 individuals were managed under this paradigm. The frequency of lost-time and medical claims rate decreased 73% (from 22 per 1000 employees to 6) and 61% (from 155 per 1000 employees to 61), respectively, between fiscal year 1992 and fiscal year 2002. The number of temporary/total days paid per 100 insureds decreased from 163 in fiscal year 1992 to 37 in fiscal year 2002, or 77%. Total workers' compensation expenses including all medical, indemnity and administrative, decreased from $0.81 per $100 of payroll in fiscal year 1992 to $0.37 per $100 of payroll in fiscal year 2002, a 54% decrease. More specifically, medical costs per $100 of payroll decreased 44% (from $0.27 to $0.15), temporary/total, 61% (from $0.18 to $0.07), permanent/partial, 63% (from $0.19 to $0.07) and administrative costs, 48% ($0.16 to $0.09). These data suggests that workers' compensation costs can be reduced over a multi-year period by using a small network of clinically skilled health care providers who address an individual workers' psychological, as well as physical needs and where communication between all parties (e.g., medical care providers, supervisors, and injured employees) is constantly maintained. Furthermore, these results

  16. 28 CFR 104.21 - Filing for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “Personal Injury Compensation Form” or a “Death Compensation Form.” A claim shall be deemed “filed” for... filing either a “Personal Injury Compensation Form” or a “Death Compensation Form,” the claim shall be..., when a Claims Evaluator determines that both the Eligibility Form and either a Personal Injury...

  17. 50 CFR 296.4 - Claims eligible for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compensation. (a) Claimants. Damage or loss eligible for Fund compensation must be suffered by a commercial fisherman. (b) Damage or loss of fishing gear. Damage or loss is eligible for Fund compensation if it was... is not eligible for Fund compensation: (1) If the damage or loss was caused by the negligence or...

  18. 28 CFR 104.41 - Amount of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of compensation. 104.41 Section 104.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.41 Amount of compensation. As...

  19. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is...

  20. Range compensation for backscattering measurements in the difference-frequency nearfield of a parametric sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth G

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of acoustic backscattering properties of targets requires removal of the range dependence of echoes. This process is called range compensation. For conventional sonars making measurements in the transducer farfield, the compensation removes effects of geometrical spreading and absorption. For parametric sonars consisting of a parametric acoustic transmitter and a conventional-sonar receiver, two additional range dependences require compensation when making measurements in the nonlinearly generated difference-frequency nearfield: an apparently increasing source level and a changing beamwidth. General expressions are derived for range compensation functions in the difference-frequency nearfield of parametric sonars. These are evaluated numerically for a parametric sonar whose difference-frequency band, effectively 1-6 kHz, is being used to observe Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in situ. Range compensation functions for this sonar are compared with corresponding functions for conventional sonars for the cases of single and multiple scatterers. Dependences of these range compensation functions on the parametric sonar transducer shape, size, acoustic power density, and hydrography are investigated. Parametric range compensation functions, when applied with calibration data, will enable difference-frequency echoes to be expressed in physical units of volume backscattering, and backscattering spectra, including fish-swimbladder-resonances, to be analyzed.

  1. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...

  2. Gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yohsimasa; Kida, Yoshihisa

    2003-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery has become a new treatment modality in the field of neurosurgery since the first gamma knife was brought into Japan in 1990. Advances in applications of new indications and long-term results have been continued to evolve during the past 12 years. Based on the experience of more than 4,500 cases treated by gamma knife at Komaki City Hospital, long-term results of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), metastatic brain tumors, acoustic neurinomas, meningiomas and trigeminal neuralgias are presented. Radiosurgery has become a novel treatment modality, especially for AVM, acoustic neurinoma and meningioma, which were once only treatable by conventional surgery, and shows a high cure rate in AVM cases and high control rate in benign tumors without major complications. The effects of radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors have been thought to be superior to fractionated radiotherapy due to high response and control rates, and patients showed improved quality of life although no prolongation of the life span was obtained. Gamma knife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia has been shown to be effective and less invasive than microvascular decompression, and is useful for cases resistant to conventional therapies and as an initial treatment as well. (author)

  3. Introscopy using gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Yu.V.; Leonov, B.I.; Najorov, A.N.; Smirnov, N.N.; Firstov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described of working with standard 170 Tm, 75 Se, 192 Ir, 137 Cs and 60 Co sources at the activity of 1-4000 Ci, during television gamma introscopy of steel products. Experiments involving the RI-10T introscope are carried out to determine prospects of using various radiation sources. The results of using X-ray instruments for control of steel products are also shown for comparison. In introscopy of X-rayed steel products over 25 mm thick, spreading of the edge of the detected groove image is shown to be comparable when using X radiation and gamma radiation of standard sources. Sensitivity of control by fluorographic introscope in X-raying and gamma irradiation of products over 25 mm thick will presumably be the same owing to the detector storage capacity. The use of commercial gamma flaw detecting instruments together with a television introscope permits to reliably reveal defects of 0.5-2.0 mm in size, eliminating possible instability of operation of X-ray instruments, particularly in field conditions

  4. Gamma apparatuses for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul'kin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific and technical achievements in development and application of gamma therapeutic apparatuses for external and intracavity irradiations are generalized. Radiation-physical parameters of apparatuses providing usability of progressive methods in radiotherapy of onclogical patients are given. Optimization of main apparatus elements, ensurance of its operation reliability, reduction of errors of irradiation plan reproduction are considered. Attention is paid to radiation safety

  5. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  6. Gamma ray calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.; Flaherty, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is in the field of gamma ray inspection devices for tubular products and the like employing an improved calibrating block which prevents the sensing system from being overloaded when no tubular product is present, and also provides the operator with a means for visually detecting the presence of wall thicknesses which are less than a required minimum. (author)

  7. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  8. Two gamma dose evaluation methods for silicon semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Faguo; Jin Gen; Yang Yapeng; Xu Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Silicon PIN diodes have been widely used as personal and areal dosimeters because of their small volume, simplicity and real-time operation. However, because silicon is neither a tissue-equivalent nor an air-equivalent material, an intrinsic disadvantage for silicon dosimeters is that a significant over-response occurs at low-energy region, especially below 200 keV. Using a energy compensation filter to flatten the energy response is one method overcoming this disadvantage. But for dose compensation method, the estimated dose depends only on the number of the detector pulses. So a weight function method was introduced to evaluate gamma dose, which depends on pulse number as well as its amplitude. (authors)

  9. Radiation gamma-background at Kurtovo resort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloslavov, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the difference between the measured values of the radiation gamma-background at Kurtovo resort (located at Rila National Park). The measurements are comparative and are carried out together with the Institute for Nuclear Research (Sofia) and various equipment from the National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (Sofia). Obtained results are compared according to the precessing method. The advantages of the method for real-time computer precessing of the flowing experimental data on the values of the natural gamma-background are underlined, including the use for early detection of dose increase, due to technological dose implements

  10. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  11. Study on APD real time compensation methods of laser Detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Feng; He, Zhang; Xiangjin, Zhang; Kun, Liu

    2011-02-01

    With the monochromatic and the directional capability of the laser, laser detection system is confidential in anti-jamming. Detection accuracy is improved significantly as the result of laser's good orientation ability. Sensitivity is enhanced as laser's high-brightness characteristic. With the development of laser technology and laser devices, laser detections are developed both in civilian and military areas. In the military field, laser detection system has been widely applied in various types of tactical missiles, the technique is more mature. Because photo detectors receive the backscattering echo signal of target in laser detection system, they are required sensitive enough to weak signal. With APD's salient features of high sensitivity, rapid response speed, high response frequency and low noise equivalent power, etc.; PIN is replaced by APD to improve sensitivity of laser detection system in recent years. The signal magnification is inadequate in laser detection system, the detector output is usually amplified by multistage amplifiers. And then the system noise includes detector noise and latter amplifiers noise. With its high internal gain, APD becomes the primary noise source of receiving system. This point can be attested by analyzing the transfer function of laser detection system receiver. To ensure the system detecting ability, APD noise must be mitigated as low as possible. According to a large number of experiments, the power signal-to-noise (SNR) and the best multiplication factor of APD are mostly affected by background radiation and temperature. In order to make APD operate at state of the best multiplication factor, the optimum bias must be selected due to the actual operating circumstance. Therefore, APD realtime compensation must be adopted. The existing APD compensation includes the constant false alarm rate compensation, the noise compensation and the temperature compensation. The features of these compensations are obtained by analyzing

  12. Health care facilities management compensation comparison. American Society for Hospital Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Periodically, ASHE undertakes a study of its membership in order to collect demographic member information, gauge its service to the membership, and track member perception of association activities. The 1992 membership survey included a strong emphasis on job function, which produced information on compensation by job function. What follows in this document are the results of that survey--the average compensation by job function within various other factors such as geographic location, organization type/size, experience, education, and several other criteria.

  13. (n,{gamma}) Experiments on tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Rusev, G. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O' Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J. [Charles University of Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Erdenehuluun, B.; Tsend-Ayush, T. [MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2013-04-19

    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched {sup 117,119}Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,{gamma}) reaction on {sup 117,119}Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step {gamma}-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  14. Managerial Stock Compensation and Risky Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana Nastasescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the mix of CEO equity-based compensation, namely stock options and restricted stock, and firms' risky investment. In general, the theory suggests that long-term compensation aligns CEOs' and shareholders' interests by inducing the managers to undertake risky investment, which has a positive impact on longterm well-being of the firm. However, as my results show, it is important to distinguish between types of awards since they can have different effects on the riskiness of the firm. In this respect, I answer the question how are different types of stock based compensation related to the executives' determination to increase or not the intensity of the firm's risky investment? I find that awarding the CEOs preponderantly with stock options positively affects the firm's level of R&D investment. Conversely, a higher proportion of restricted stock in the CEO's compensation is related to lower investment in (risky R&D. The inverse relation of causality also holds. Firms that make intensive R&D investments are more likely to award their CEOs with more stock options relative to restricted stock. Overall, the results are consistent with the theoretical prediction, in that the managerial compensation scheme plays an important role in determining the level of R&D investment.

  15. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  16. 78 FR 28441 - Executive Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... FHFA incorporate the notice, hearing, and decision principles that the Finance Board included in the... Vol. 78 Tuesday, No. 93 May 14, 2013 Part IV Federal Housing Finance Agency 12 CFR Parts 1230 and...; [[Page 28442

  17. 18 CFR 367.4583 - Account 458.3, Compensation for use of capital-Non-associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Compensation for use of capital-Non-associate companies. 367.4583 Section 367.4583 Conservation of Power and..., Compensation for use of capital—Non-associate companies. This account must include only the portion of... properly allocable to services rendered to non-associate utility companies. A statement to support the...

  18. Is clinician refusal to treat an emerging problem in injury compensation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijnath, Bianca; Mazza, Danielle; Kosny, Agnieszka; Bunzli, Samantha; Singh, Nabita; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Collie, Alex

    2016-01-20

    The reasons that doctors may refuse or be reluctant to treat have not been widely explored in the medical literature. To understand the ethical implications of reluctance to treat there is a need to recognise the constraints of doctors working in complex systems and to consider how these constraints may influence reluctance. The aim of this paper is to illustrate these constraints using the case of compensable injury in the Australian context. Between September and December 2012, a qualitative investigation involving face-to-face semistructured interviews examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs) facilitating return to work in people with compensable injuries. Compensable injury management in general practice in Melbourne, Australia. 25 GPs who were treating, or had treated a patient with compensable injury. The practice of clinicians refusing treatment was described by all participants. While most GPs reported refusal to treat among their colleagues in primary and specialist care, many participants also described their own reluctance to treat people with compensable injuries. Reasons offered included time and financial burdens, in addition to the clinical complexities involved in compensable injury management. In the case of compensable injury management, reluctance and refusal to treat is likely to have a domino effect by increasing the time and financial burden of clinically complex patients on the remaining clinicians. This may present a significant challenge to an effective, sustainable compensation system. Urgent research is needed to understand the extent and implications of reluctance and refusal to treat and to identify strategies to engage clinicians in treating people with compensable injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Institutional directors and board compensation: Spanish evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix López-Iturriaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We address the influence of directors who represent institutional investors in three aspects of board compensation policies: level of compensation, composition, and performance sensitivity. We differentiate pressure-sensitive directors (i.e., with business links and pressure-resistant directors (i.e., without business links. Our results show that pressure-resistant directors decrease total board compensation and its fixed proportion, whereas they increase the variable proportion of total remuneration and the pay-for-performance sensitivity. By contrast, pressure-sensitive directors offer the opposite results. These findings are consistent with the view that institutional investors are not a homogeneous group and that pressure-resistant directors fulfill a more thorough monitoring role.

  20. 'Compensation neurosis': a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weighill, V E

    1983-01-01

    This review examines the literature on psychological reactions, often referred to as 'compensation neurosis', which occur after an accident and which are thought to be produced or maintained by a compensation claim. Theories and research are examined. The area is complicated and research so far is limited in scope and design. Few accident cases involve compensation claims and the incidence of psychological difficulties across the whole range of cases is unknown. Researchers have considered a number of background factors--severity of injury, pre-existing neurotic traits, social class, sex and age--but there has been little investigation of attitudinal, family, social and employment factors or of progress of the condition and follow-up after settlement. The review identifies a major research need for more adequate screening and sampling of cases and for more systematic investigation of personal and family factors.

  1. (Crime Victims’ Compensation: The Emergence of Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée S.B. Kool

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime victims’ compensation has become a major issue within Dutch criminal policy. Legal procedures have been subject to change, leading towards the convergence of tort law and criminal law. Such a convergence calls for a reflection (on the application of the core concepts of responsibility, accountability and liability. Moreover, the current pursuit of victims’ compensation affects procedural issues, specifically with regard to the issue of enforcement. Leaving aside the issue of the legitimacy of victims’ compensation, this convergence raises the question of how to preserve the delicate balance that flows from the use of the law as an instrument to preserve social order. The topical question is not whether convergence is occurring, but how we must deal with it in order to find a (new equilibrium between the public interest and the interest of the individual who has experienced a harmful wrong.

  2. Software compensation in Particle Flow reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Lan Tran, Huong; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The Particle Flow approach to calorimetry requires highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analog energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in Particle Flow reconstruct...

  3. Incomplete and imperfect information for sales compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Valeanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales force compensation represents the fix and / or variable payment by the company. To compensate agents based on the results, the company set a goal which is brought to their attention through the compensation plan. Applying the model of moral hazard, where the agent behavior cannot be verified, it cannot be specified in the contract what is the expected behavior of the agent. In order to make an offer to contract principal should know the effort that the agent will submit it to define the payment and the contract is determined optimally in trade between the two conflicting objectives of the two participants in the contract. Although agent behavior cannot be verified, the result of this behavior should be measurable at the end of the contract so that the employer may make the contract contingent on effort commission agent for sale of which is measured by the amount of earnings to the company.

  4. Compensation: Will it provide a waste site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Offering an attractive compensation package to persuade a community to voluntarily accept an otherwise undesirable facility may work in some cases, but it's not likely to work for high-level nuclear-waste disposal. The public perception of the risks involved and the public distrust of the institutions responsible for managing those risks are just too great. Much of the controversy stems from public perceptions that the site-selection process itself is unfair. Resentment builds when this occurs, and offers of compensation come to be labeled bribes or blood money. The driving force behind current nuclear-waste policy is intergenerational equity - the moral concept that the generation that produced the waste should dispose of it, permanently. Regardless of the moral appeal, doubts have been raised about the technical feasibility of this approach. Alternatives featuring intergenerational monetary compensation may better honor the commitment hor-ellipsis and reduce pressure to try to do what may be impossible

  5. Temperature-compensated aluminum nitride lamb wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Yen, Ting-Ta; Lai, Yun-Ju; Felmetsger, Valery V; Hopcroft, Matthew A; Kuypers, Jan H; Pisano, Albert P

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, the temperature compensation of AlN Lamb wave resonators using edge-type reflectors is theoretically studied and experimentally demonstrated. By adding a compensating layer of SiO2 with an appropriate thickness, a Lamb wave resonator based on a stack of AlN and SiO2 layers can achieve a zero first-order temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF). Using a composite membrane consisting of 1 microm AlN and 0.83 microm SiO2, a Lamb wave resonator operating at 711 MHz exhibits a first-order TCF of -0.31 ppm/degrees C and a second-order TCF of -22.3 ppb/degrees C(2) at room temperature. The temperature-dependent fractional frequency variation is less than 250 ppm over a wide temperature range from -55 degrees C to 125 degrees C. This temperature-compensated AlN Lamb wave resonator is promising for future applications including thermally stable oscillators, filters, and sensors.

  6. Four-Wire Delta Service Sinusoidal Operation and Compensation Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente León-Martínez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An off-line simulator based on Excel used to evaluate the operation of four-wire delta (4WD services as well as the effects of reactive and imbalance compensators in sinusoidal steady-state conditions is described in this paper. Voltages, currents and powers in the primary and secondary windings of the transformer as well as in the high voltage (HV and low voltage (LV lines and in the loads are calculated through that simulator. The apparent powers in the mains, transformer and loads are determined applying Buchholz’s and unified power measurement (UPM formulations in both scalar and vector notations. The effects of the neutral current are especially examined, in order to minimize them, and the optimal wye load distribution is determined by the simulator. The simulator provides the necessary elements of passive reactive and unbalanced compensators that optimize the 4WD transformer operation too. Those compensators are determined for each load, and they can be separately selected and included in the simulation process or not. An application example is finally used to step by step explain how the simulator runs.

  7. Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianyong; Germain, Ronald N; Cui, Meng

    2012-05-29

    Biological tissues are rarely transparent, presenting major challenges for deep tissue optical microscopy. The achievable imaging depth is fundamentally limited by wavefront distortions caused by aberration and random scattering. Here, we report an iterative wavefront compensation technique that takes advantage of the nonlinearity of multiphoton signals to determine and compensate for these distortions and to focus light inside deep tissues. Different from conventional adaptive optics methods, this technique can rapidly measure highly complicated wavefront distortions encountered in deep tissue imaging and provide compensations for not only aberration but random scattering. The technique is tested with a variety of highly heterogeneous biological samples including mouse brain tissue, skull, and lymph nodes. We show that high quality three-dimensional imaging can be realized at depths beyond the reach of conventional multiphoton microscopy and adaptive optics methods, albeit over restricted distances for a given correction. Moreover, the required laser excitation power can be greatly reduced in deep tissues, deviating from the power requirement of ballistic light excitation and thus significantly reducing photo damage to the biological tissue.

  8. Precise measurement of {gamma}(K{yields}e {nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu} {nu}({gamma})) and study of K{yields}e {nu} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Jacewicz, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Archilli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Beltrame, P.; Denig, A.; Mueller, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Bini, C.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Capriotti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); Di Donato, C. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); State University of New York, Physics Department, Stony Brook (United States); Martini, M.; Patera, V.; Versaci, R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Valente, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present a precise measurement of the ratio R{sub K}={gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu}{nu}({gamma})) and a study of the radiative process K{yields}e{nu}{gamma}, performed with the KLOE detector. The results are based on data collected at the Frascati e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA {phi}NE for an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. We find R{sub K}=(2.493{+-}0.025{sub stat}{+-}0.019{sub syst}) x 10{sup -5}, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. This result is used to improve constraints on parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with lepton flavor violation. We also measured the differential decay rate d {gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}{gamma})/dE{sub {gamma}} for photon energies 10gamma}}<250 MeV. Results are compared with predictions from theory. (orig.)

  9. Handheld dual thermal neutron detector and gamma-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Burger, Arnold; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Tupitsyn, Yevgeniy

    2017-05-02

    A combined thermal neutron detector and gamma-ray spectrometer system, including: a first detection medium including a lithium chalcopyrite crystal operable for detecting neutrons; a gamma ray shielding material disposed adjacent to the first detection medium; a second detection medium including one of a doped metal halide, an elpasolite, and a high Z semiconductor scintillator crystal operable for detecting gamma rays; a neutron shielding material disposed adjacent to the second detection medium; and a photodetector coupled to the second detection medium also operable for detecting the gamma rays; wherein the first detection medium and the second detection medium do not overlap in an orthogonal plane to a radiation flux. Optionally, the first detection medium includes a .sup.6LiInSe.sub.2 crystal. Optionally, the second detection medium includes a SrI.sub.2(Eu) scintillation crystal.

  10. Cloning, sequencing and expression of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the production of rhinoceros IFN-gamma specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, D; Tijhaar, E; Negrea, A; Hendriks, J; van Haarlem, D; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Rutten, V P M G

    2007-01-15

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park (KNP). In addition to buffalo, Mycobacterium bovis has been found in at least 14 other mammalian species in South Africa, including kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) and lion (Panthera leo). This has raised concern about the spillover into other potentially susceptible species like rhinoceros, thus jeopardising breeding and relocation projects aiming at the conservation of biodiversity. Hence, procedures to screen for and diagnose BTB in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) need to be in place. The Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay is used as a routine diagnostic tool to determine infection of cattle and recently African buffalo, with M. bovis and other mycobacteria. The aim of the present work was to develop reagents to set up a rhinoceros IFN-gamma (RhIFN-gamma) assay. The white rhinoceros IFN-gamma gene was cloned, sequenced and expressed as a mature protein. Amino acid (aa) sequence analysis revealed that RhIFN-gamma shares a homology of 90% with equine IFN-gamma. Monoclonal antibodies, as well as polyclonal chicken antibodies (Yolk Immunoglobulin-IgY) with specificity for recombinant RhIFN-gamma were produced. Using the monoclonals as capture antibodies and the polyclonal IgY for detection, it was shown that recombinant as well as native white rhinoceros IFN-gamma was recognised. This preliminary IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has the potential to be developed into a diagnostic assay for M. bovis infection in rhinoceros.

  11. Phase alteration compensation in reflection digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, O; Amezquita, R; Monroy, F

    2011-01-01

    The phase maps obtained from digital holographic microscopy techniques carry information about the axial lengths of the object under study. Additionally, these phase maps have information of tilt and curvatures with origin in the off-axis geometry and the magnification lenses system, respectively. Only a complete compensation of these extra phases allows a correct interpretation of the phase information. In this article a numerical strategy to compensate for these alterations is designed, using a phase mask located in different planes. This strategy is applied in the measurement of a phase steps plate using a digital holography setup.

  12. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully...... account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  13. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  14. Adaptive motion compensation without blocking artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terriberry, Timothy B.

    2015-03-01

    The Block Matching Algorithms used in most popular video codec standards introduce blocking artifacts which must be removed via residual coding or deblocking filters. Alternative transform stages that do not cause blocking artifacts, such as lapped transforms or wavelets, require motion compensation methods that do not produce blocking artifacts, since they are expensive to remove. We design a new Overlapped Block Motion Compensation (OBMC) scheme that avoids these artifacts while allowing adaptive blending window sizes. This has the potential to show significant visual quality improvements over traditional OBMC.

  15. Compensation systems for low temperature applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skoczen, Balzej T

    2004-01-01

    The book is dedicated to the behaviour of ductile materials at cryogenic temperatures, structural stability issues and reliability oriented parametric optimisation of compensation systems containing the corrugated bellows. The problems of local and global stability of systems containing bellows, coupling between the low-cycle fatigue and stability as well as evolution of plastic strain fields, micro-damage and strain induced phase transformation in the corrugated shells at cryogenic temperatures are presented. As a special feature reliability oriented optimum design of compensation systems under strength, stability, fatigue and geometrical constraints is discussed. The relevant applications in the particle accelerators and cryogenic transfer lines are shown.

  16. Radiation damage effects on calorimeter compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Handler, T.

    1990-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of a detector that is to be used at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the response of the calorimeter to electromagnetic and hadronic particles and the equality of those responses for different types of particles at equal incident energies, i.e. compensation. However, as the simulations that are reported show, the compensation characteristics of a calorimeter can be seriously compromised over a relatively short period of time due to the large radiation levels that are expected in the SSC environment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  17. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  18. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1997-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  19. OLT-centralized sampling frequency offset compensation scheme for OFDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zhou, Hui; Zheng, Zhiwei; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Peng, Miao; Liu, Cuiwei; He, Jing; Chen, Lin; Tang, Xionggui

    2017-08-07

    We propose an optical line terminal (OLT)-centralized sampling frequency offset (SFO) compensation scheme for adaptively-modulated OFDM-PON systems. By using the proposed SFO scheme, the phase rotation and inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by SFOs between OLT and multiple optical network units (ONUs) can be centrally compensated in the OLT, which reduces the complexity of ONUs. Firstly, the optimal fast Fourier transform (FFT) size is identified in the intensity-modulated and direct-detection (IMDD) OFDM system in the presence of SFO. Then, the proposed SFO compensation scheme including phase rotation modulation (PRM) and length-adaptive OFDM frame has been experimentally demonstrated in the downlink transmission of an adaptively modulated optical OFDM with the optimal FFT size. The experimental results show that up to ± 300 ppm SFO can be successfully compensated without introducing any receiver performance penalties.

  20. Efficient compensation of inter-channel nonlinear effects via digital backward propagation in WDM optical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Eduardo F; Yaman, Fatih; Li, Guifang

    2010-07-05

    An advanced split-step method is employed for the digital backward-propagation (DBP) method using the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations for the compensation of inter-channel nonlinearities. Compared to the conventional DBP, cross-phase modulation (XPM) can be efficiently compensated by including the effect of the inter-channel walk-off in the nonlinear step of the split-step method (SSM). While self-phase modulation (SPM) compensation is inefficient in WDM systems, XPM compensation is able to increase the transmission reach by a factor of 2.5 for 16-QAM-modulated signals. The advanced SSM significantly relaxes the step size requirements resulting in a factor of 4 reduction in computational load.

  1. Design of compensators for patients with hip prostheses undergoing pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alecu, R.; Feldmeier, J.; He, T.; Alecu, M.; Court, W.; Orton, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    The perturbations in the dose distribution caused by a hip prosthesis when treating pelvic cancers have been evaluated and found to be significant by several investigators. Treatment techniques not including the prosthesis are often not the best choice. The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility and usefulness of design of compensators in routine clinical practice for any kind of hip prosthesis. The calculation procedures and the algorithms developed by the authors for generating the compensators are described for two systems: one based on a locally developed 3-D computerized treatment planning system and an other one practicable in any institution which does not have access to a 3D treatment planning system or CT. The methodology to create the compensators for a patient is explained. To evaluate the constructed compensators in phantom and in vivo measurements were performed. The results are presented along with a comparison between the two methods

  2. Induction motor IFOC based speed-controlled drive with asymptotic disturbance compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Đorđe M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of digitally controlled speed electrical drive, with the asymptotic compensation of external disturbances, implemented by using the IFOC (Indirect Field Oriented Control torque controlled induction motor. The asymptotic disturbance compensation is achieved by using the DOB (Disturbance Observer with the IMP (Internal Model Principle. When compared to the existing IMP-based DOB solutions, in this paper the robust stability and disturbance compensation are improved by implementing the minimal order DOB filter. Also, the IMP-based DOB design is improved by employing the asymptotic compensation of all elemental or more complex external disturbances. The dynamic model of the IFOC torque electrical drive is, also, included in the speed-controller and DOB section design. The simulation and experimental measurements presented in the paper illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme.

  3. Compensator design using the par scientific miller and ADAC Pinnacle tps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, G.; White, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Ideal compensators are designed so that a uniform dose is given to a specific plane within the treatment volume despite variation in surface contour and non-homogeneity within the volume. Traditionally our department has designed compensators based on missing tissue alone and using lead sheet. We have now acquired a Par Scientific compensator miller and ADAC Pinnacle compensator design software. This poster sets out the investigations carried out to design compensators using this equipment. The investigation consisted of four parts. Part one was an evaluation of the Par Scientific miller's ability to accurately and to reproducibly mill various shapes from foam and cerrobend. It also included an examination of the effects due to varying the parameter options available in the software and the use of substitute milling bits. The second part was the choice of material to be used for the compensator. The following were investigated for moulds: steel grit; steel shot and cerrobend and for direct milling: cerrobend. Part three consisted of an investigation into the effects on compensator design with changes in the many parameter options available in ADAC software. For the final part compensators were designed using the ADAC software for both a Head and Neck, and a Mantle case. The compensators were made using the Par Scientific miller. This consisted of milling the required shape in foam and then filling it with cerrobend. TLDs were used to evaluate the compensators. Evaluation consisted of examining the uniformity of dose in the selected plane. The compensators were also compared to the traditional method for the same cases. Finally a comparison was made of the measured dose with that calculated by the ADAC Pinnacle planning system. The Par Scientific was found to be accurate and consistent, however not suitable for milling solid cerrobend directly. Investigations so far have shown that the use of molten cerrobend poured into milled foam moulds is the most

  4. Routine check and annual maintenance for industrial radiography gamma projector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharudin Sayuti; Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Sukhri Ahmad; Arshad Yassin; Mohd Junaidi Jaapar; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to share some experience pertaining to gamma projector maintenance programme. In Malaysia there are more than 100 gamma projectors, which need to be maintenance annually. Most of these projectors are Tech-Ops 660 series portable gamma radiography systems, which are used primarily for industrial radiography. The portability feature of the system provides both a safe means of transporting the radioactive source and operating flexibility, particularly useful in areas where access is limited. Generally, the national authorised service centre carries out the annual inspection of this system. In Malaysia, Malaysian Nuclear Agency has been recognised as the National Gamma Projector Maintenance Centre by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). In this paper, a brief review of the design and operation is included in the discussion of the maintenance procedure, limitations and improvements of the gamma projector maintenance programme. (author)

  5. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  6. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  7. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.; Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  8. Apparatus for gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the present standard is to fix the rules for the construction of gamma radiography instrumentation without prejudice to the present regulations. These apparatus have to be fitted with only sealed sources conformable to the experimental standard M 61-002. The present standard agrees with the international standard ISO 3999 of 1977 dealing with the same subject. Nevertheless, it is different on the three main following points: it does not accept the same limits of absorbed dose rates in the air calculated on the external surface of projectors; it precribes tightness, bending, crushing and tensile tests for some components of the gamma radiography it prescribes tests of endurance and resistance to breaking for the locking systems of the gamma radiography apparatus. The present standard also specifies the following points: symbols and indications to put on projectors and on the source-holder; identification of the source contained in the projector; and, accompanying documents. The regulation references are given in annexe [fr

  9. Gamma surgery for hemangiopericytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.R.; Prasad, D.; Steiner, M.; Steiner, L.

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 12 patients with 15 intracranial hemangiopericytomas treated at the University of Virginia using gamma surgery is presented. Clinical and radiographic follow up of 3 to 56 months is available for 10 patients with 12 tumors. There was one tumor present at the time of initial gamma surgery in each patient. Two new tumors occurred in patients previously treated. Nine of the tumors decreased in volume and three remained stable. Four of the nine tumors that shrank later progressed at an average of 22 months after treatment. Of the tumors that decreased in volume and have not progressed, the response has been for an average of 11 months. The follow-up for two tumors that remained unchanged was 10 and 34 months (average 22 months). A third tumor was unchanged at 42 months but the patient died of new disease adjacent to the treated area in the anterior skull base. There were no complications and the quality of life following the procedure was maintained or improved in every case. Gamma surgery is effective in palliating the patients by decreasing tumor volume and delaying recurrence. (author)

  10. Pulser injection with subsequent removal for gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Goodwin, S.G.; Johnson, L.O.; Killian, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a module for use with a gamma-ray spectroscopy system. The system includes a gamma-ray detector for detecting gamma-ray events and producing a signal representing the gamma-ray events, a converter responsive to the detector and capable of converting the signal to a spectrum, a storage memory responsive to the converter and capable of storing the spectrum at address locations in memory, and a pulser capable of injecting pulses into the signal produced by the detector. The module comprises: means for generating a logic pulse for controlling the pulser, the controlling means adapted for coupling to the pulser; means for generating separation of events logic to isolate the components of a combined gamma-ray---pulse spectrum, the separation of events logic means adapted for coupling to the converter and the storage memory with the capability of storing pulses at address locations in the storage memory separate from the gamma-ray events; means for receiving an imitating signal from the converter to generate a plurality of operations by the module; means for tracking variations in a gamma-ray---pulse spectrum brought on by external parameter changes; and means for interfacing with commercially developed gamma-ray spectrometry equipment

  11. Compensation scheme for online neutron detection using a Gd-covered CdZnTe sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumazert, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.dumazert@cea.fr; Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim

    2017-06-11

    The development of portable and personal neutron dosimeters requires compact and efficient radiation sensors. Gd-157, Gd-155 and Cd-113 nuclei present the highest cross-sections for thermal neutron capture among natural isotopes. In order to allow for the exploitation of the low and medium-energy radiative signature of the said captures, the contribution of gamma background radiation, falling into the same energy range, needs to be cancelled out. This paper introduces a thermal neutron detector based on a twin-dense semiconductor scheme. The neutron-sensitive channel takes the form of a Gd-covered CdZnTe crystal, a high density and effective atomic number detection medium. The background compensation will be carried out by means of an identical CdZnTe sensor with a Tb cover. The setting of a hypothesis test aims at discriminating the signal generated by the signature of thermal neutron captures in Gd from statistical fluctuations over the compensation of both independent channels. The measurement campaign conducted with an integrated single-channel chain and two metal Gd and Tb covers, under Cs-137 and Cf-252 irradiations, provides first quantitative results on gamma-rejection and neutron sensitivity. The described study of concept gives grounds for a portable, online-compatible device, operable in conventional to controlled environments.

  12. Advanced system for Gamma Cameras modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Arista Romeu, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Analog and digital gamma cameras still largely used in developing countries. Many of them rely in old hardware electronics, which in many cases limits their use in actual nuclear medicine diagnostic studies. Consequently, there are different worldwide companies that produce medical equipment engaged into a partial or total Gamma Cameras modernization. Present work has demonstrated the possibility of substitution of almost entire signal processing electronics placed at inside a Gamma Camera detector head by a digitizer PCI card. this card includes four 12 Bits Analog-to-Digital-Converters of 50 MHz speed. It has been installed in a PC and controlled through software developed in Lab View. Besides, there were done some changes to the hardware inside the detector head including redesign of the Orientation Display Block (ODA card). Also a new electronic design was added to the Microprocessor Control Block (MPA card) which comprised a PIC micro controller acting as a tuning system for individual Photomultiplier Tubes. The images, obtained by measurement of 99m Tc point radioactive source, using modernized camera head demonstrate its overall performance. The system was developed and tested in an old Gamma Camera ORBITER II SIEMENS GAMMASONIC at National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology (INOR) under CAMELUD project supported by National Program PNOULU and IAEA . (Author)

  13. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule. SUMMARY: We are... Washington, DC, this 17th day of September 2012. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

  14. Compensation-device for a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to compensation device for a magnetic field generated through electric traction in a tram or train transport system that comprises an overhead line and rails, the overhead line and rails during operation being live, wherein a predetermined section of the overhead line and rails

  15. A brief history of dosage compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    know that the random X inactivation system of placental mammals likely evolved from the nonrandom paternal X in- activation dosage compensation system characteristic of marsupials (Brown and Chandra 1973) and that the XIST gene evolved from a marsupial protein coding gene (Duret et al. 2006). It seems likely that ...

  16. Compensation of coupling in the SSC complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, F.; Bourianoff, G.

    1991-10-01

    This paper will describe a study of the coupling effects and their compensation by means of local depending techniques for some of the accelerators in the SSC Complex. Results concerning corrections and decoupling for the Low Energy and Medium Energy Boosters will be compared to results obtained for the Collider Ring. Some preliminary experimental data about measurement of coupling quantities will also be presented

  17. Evaluation of the implementation of Employees Compensation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the passage into law of the Employees Compensation Act in 2011, countless cases of workplace accidents have occurred in Nigeria. Yet there seems to be no succour for the Nigerian worker as many state governments have either refused to register with or do not have the will power to implement the legislation in ...

  18. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Simon, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed. (orig.)

  19. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Simon, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed.

  20. Arc -furnace Flicker Compensation in Ethiopia.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    series capacitors nor the translater scheme is appli- cable where more ... The arc furnace is of conventional design. The furnace ... power of the furnace. This reactor had three tappings and a short-circuiting switch. REQUIREMENTS OF THE COMPENSATOR. The fluctuations could be caused by the furnace on whichever ...

  1. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...

  2. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shareholder who holds an insurance agent's license from agreeing to compensate the bank for the use of its... be credited to an affiliate operating under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, 12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq., or to a trust for the benefit of all shareholders, provided that the bank receives reasonable...

  3. Compensation techniques for operational amplifier bias current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two techniques are proposed for the compensation of the input current on operational amplifiers that can be used on inverting and non-inverting configurations. A qualitative analysis of temperature drift problems is made, and as a practical application, the construction of a voltage follower for high impedance measurements is presented. (Author) [pt

  4. ARCC Teacher Compensation Initiative: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, the Tennessee State Board of Education (SBE) requested that the Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center (ARCC) provide assistance to the SBE's Basic Education Program (BEP) Review Committee. The SBE requested additional information on the use and effectiveness of market-based teacher compensation and market-based incentives by…

  5. Granulate of stainless steel as compensator material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.C. van Santvoort (J. P C)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCompensators produced with computer controlled milling devices usually consist of a styrofoam mould, filled with an appropriate material. We investigated granulate of stainless steel as filling material. This cheap, easy to use, clean and re-usable material can be obtained with an

  6. A brief history of dosage compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In 1914, H. J. Muller postulated the origin of the Y chromosome as having resulted from restricted recombination between homologous sex chromosomes in the male and the accumulation of deleterious mutations. This evolutionary process leads to dosage compensation. This article lays out a brief history of dosage ...

  7. Women's Experience in the Workers' Compensation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robert; Jansz, Janis

    2006-09-01

    Gender differences is a question of major importance within workers' compensation given the increased role of women in the workforce over the past several decades. This article reviews literature relating to women's experiences following work injury. An Australian study is used as background to exploring the broad issue of the question of gender equity in workers' compensation. In doing so it takes account of historical, legal and medical issues. Women's experience in the workers' compensation system is different to that of men due to a range of factors. It is heavily influenced by the industrial environment in which they work. Women are paid less than men in many instances and work in gender-segregated circumstances, which often reduces their industrial bargaining power. Women also suffer different forms of injury and disease to men because of the different nature of their work. The Australian experience suggests that as a consequence of the combination of lesser industrial bargaining power, lower wages and differing forms of injury and disease women often receive less than men in compensation payments, struggle to obtain equity in the dispute resolution process and experience greater difficulties in returning to work following injury or disease.

  8. 28 CFR 54.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar working conditions. ...

  9. 38 CFR 23.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar...

  10. 24 CFR 3.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar...

  11. 45 CFR 86.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and which are performed under similar working conditions...

  12. 45 CFR 2555.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar...

  13. 34 CFR 106.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and which are performed...

  14. 14 CFR 1253.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar working...

  15. 32 CFR 196.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar...

  16. 15 CFR 8a.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar working conditions. ...

  17. 40 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar working conditions. ...

  18. 6 CFR 17.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar working conditions. ...

  19. 13 CFR 113.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar...

  20. 18 CFR 1317.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar...

  1. 41 CFR 101-4.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar working conditions. ...

  2. 45 CFR 618.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar...

  3. 31 CFR 28.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar...

  4. 43 CFR 41.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar working conditions. ...

  5. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    Abstract. The Ethiopian Commercial Code recognizes mandatory compensation if agency agreement for an indefinite period of time is terminated due to the fault of the principal; and the Draft Commercial Code is likely to maintain this approach. This comment examines the status and functions of a commercial agent as well ...

  6. 76 FR 27959 - Investment Adviser Performance Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... 3235-AK71 Investment Adviser Performance Compensation AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 that permits investment advisers to charge performance based..., Office of Regulatory Policy, Division of Investment Management, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F...

  7. Disclosed Values of Option-Based Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Hjortshøj, Toke Lilhauge

    New accounting standards require firms to expense the costs of option-based compensation (OBC), but the associated valuations offer many challenges for firms. Earlier research has documented that firms in the U.S. generally underreport the values of OBC by manipulating the inputs used for valuation...

  8. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  9. 1979-1980 Administrative Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, James; And Others

    Results of the 1979-80 Administrative Compensation Survey Report conducted by the College and University Personnel Association are presented. The survey is based on 1,383 responses and covers 77 positions. Salary data are indicated for the median and interquartile range for each position. Data are provided by type of institution, by size of…

  10. 1981-1982 Administrative Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan P.; And Others

    Results of the College and University Personnel Association's 1981-1982 Administrative Compensation Survey, which provides data on 94 positions, is presented. Questionnaires were sent to 2,770 higher education institutions, and 1,391 usable responses were obtained. Salary data indicate the median and the interquartile range for each position and…

  11. Administrative Compensation Survey, 1983-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Forest C.; And Others

    Results of the College and University Personnel Association's 1983-1984 Administrative Compensation Survey, which provides data on 99 positions, is presented. Questionnaires were sent to 2,856 higher education institutions, and 1,515 usable responses were obtained. Salary data indicate the median and the interquartile range for each position and…

  12. Manager, Global Compensation | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Provide corporate HR leadership with regards to strategy, policy, design, development, implementation and continuous improvement of the areas related to the mandate of the work unit, ensuring that the frameworks, ... Develop, plan and evaluate IDRC's benefit program and its integration with the cash compensation policy.

  13. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-10-01

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed.

  14. 77 FR 5381 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... United States where plum pox has been detected and restrict the interstate movement of regulated articles... articles within the nursery in order to control plum pox. The compensation provisions of Sec. 301.74-5 were... panel composed of APHIS and State representatives, industry representatives, and university scientists...

  15. On the compensation effect in heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bligaard; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Logadottir, Ashildur

    2003-01-01

    For a class of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, we explain the compensation effect in terms of a switching of kinetic regimes leading to a concomitant change in the apparent activation energy and in the prefactor for the overall rate of the reaction. We first use the ammonia synthesis...

  16. A brief history of dosage compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to dosage compensation and their citation numbers would therefore not be relevant. Also supportive of the lack of interest in dosage compensa- tion at the time is the fact ..... Received 4 October 2013, in revised form 28 November 2013; accepted 3 December 2013. Published on the Web: 11 July 2014. Journal of Genetics ...

  17. Attitudes toward the dubious compensation claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEGGO, C

    1951-07-01

    Laws providing for compensation of workmen for occupational injury are a powerful socio-economic force. In settlement of compensation claims the goal, difficult to achieve, is fairness to employee, employer and insurance carrier. Often, medical, legal, economic and social considerations conflict with one another. A "fact" in one field may not be considered so in another. Since medical data and testimony often guide the ultimate decision of a compensation claim, the physician's attitude is a large factor not only immediately and directly in determination of the case at hand but, perhaps more important, in the ultimate direction of the socio-economic forces which spring from the sum of all such determinations. To perpetuate the good in workmen's compensation laws, the next generation of physicians-and of lawyers and business administrators as well, for they, too, are involved-ought to have basic training in the social sciences in order that they may have a broad rather than a segmental view of the problems with which they deal.

  18. Temperature-Compensated Clock Skew Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Olivares

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes several drift compensation mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (WSN. Temperature is an environmental factor that greatly affects oscillators shipped in every WSN mote. This behavior creates the need of improving drift compensation mechanisms in synchronization protocols. Using the Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol (FTSP, this work demonstrates that crystal oscillators are affected by temperature variations. Thus, the influence of temperature provokes a low performance of FTSP in changing conditions of temperature. This article proposes an innovative correction factor that minimizes the impact of temperature in the clock skew. By means of this factor, two new mechanisms are proposed in this paper: the Adjusted Temperature (AT and the Advanced Adjusted Temperature (A2T. These mechanisms have been combined with FTSP to produce AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP. Both have been tested in a network of TelosB motes running TinyOS. Results show that both AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP improve the average synchronization errors compared to FTSP and other temperature-compensated protocols (Environment-Aware Clock Skew Estimation and Synchronization for WSN (EACS and Temperature Compensated Time Synchronization (TCTS.

  19. New nuclear medicine gamma camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villacorta, Edmundo V.

    1997-01-01

    with the existing three gamma cameras, one with fixed opposed dual-head, these new gamma cameras are capable of entire patient coverage for general imaging procedures as well as for SPECT and anterior/posterior whole body scanning using low, medium, and high energies such as Technetium 99m, Gallium 67 and Iodine 131. Imaging procedures done in MMC include thyroid, bone, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, brain, and others: hepatobiliary, parathyroid, testicles, detection for gastrointestinal bleeding and abscesses, etc. An added new equipment in the nuclear laboratory is a Packard COBRA single detector automatic gamma well counter as a backup for our 5 detector counter of the same brand

  20. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy: the effects of hydrogen absorption cross-section of the gamma-ray spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapides, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy of planet surfaces is one of several possible methods that are useful in determining the elemental composition of planet surfaces from orbiting spacecraft. This has been demonstrated on the Apollos 15 and 16 missions as well as the Soviet Mars-5 mission. Planetary gamma-ray emission is primarily the result of natural radioactive decay and cosmic-ray and solar-flare-induced nuclear reactions. Secondary neutron reactions play a large role in the more intense gamma-ray emission. The technique provides information on the elemental composition of the top few tens of centimeters of the planet surface. Varying concentrations of hydrogen and compositional variations that alter the macroscopic thermal-neutron absorption cross section have a significant effect on the neutron flux in the planet surface and therefore also on the gamma-ray emission from the surface. These effects have been systematically studied for a wide range of possible planetary compositions that include Mercury, the moon, Mars, the comets, and the asteroids. The problem of the Martian atmosphere was also investigated. The results of these calculations, in which both surface neutron fluxes and gamma-ray emission fluxes were determined, were used to develop general procedures for obtaining planet compositions from the gamma-ray spectrum. Several changes have been suggested for reanalyzing the Apollos 15 and 16 gamma-ray results. In addition, procedures have been suggested that can be applied to neutron-gamma techniques in mineral and oil exploration

  1. Dynamic compensation in the central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Juan Homero; Marsh, Bruce D.

    1988-01-01

    The intermediate-wavelength geoid (lambda similar to 2000 km) and sea-floor topography fields in the central Pacific Ocean were studied in terms of static and dynamic compensation models. Topographic features on the sea-floor with lambda less than 1000 km were found to be compensated both regionally, by the elastic strength of the lithosphere, and locally, by displacing mantle material to reach isostatic adjustment. The larger-scale sea-floor topography and the corresponding geoid anomalies with lambda similar to 2000 km cannot be explained by either local or regional compensation. The topography and the resulting geoid anomaly at this wavelength were modeled by considering the dynamic effects arising from viscous stresses in a layer of fluid with a highly temperature-dependent viscosity for the cases of: (1) surface cooling, and (2) basal heating. In this model, the mechanical properties of the elastic part of the lithosphere were taken into account by considering an activation energy of about 520 kJ/mol in the Arrhenius law for the viscosity. Numerical predictions of the topography, total geoid anomaly, and admittance were obtained, and the results show that the thermal perturbation in the layer, which accounts for the mass deficit, must be located close to the surface to compensate the gravitational effect of the surface deformation. For the case of basal heating, the temperature dependence of viscosity results in a separation of the upper, quasi-rigid lid from the lower mobile fluid, hence inhibiting the development of a compensating thermal perturbation at shallow depths. The results clearly rule out small-scale, upper-mantle convection as the source of these anomalies. Instead, the geophysical observables can be well explained by a shallow, transient thermal perturbation.

  2. Exploring the importance of different items as reasons for leaving emergency medical services between fully compensated, partially compensated, and non-compensated/volunteer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan; Gibson, Gregory; Bentley, Melissa A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the importance of different items as reasons for leaving the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) profession. An exit survey was returned by three distinct EMS samples: 127 full compensated, 45 partially compensated and 72 non-compensated/volunteer respondents, who rated the importance of 17 different items for affecting their decision to leave EMS. Unfortunately, there were a high percentage of "not applicable" responses for 10 items. We focused on those seven items that had a majority of useable responses across the three samples. Results showed that the desire for better pay and benefits was a more important reason for leaving EMS for the partially compensated versus fully compensated respondents. Perceived lack of advancement opportunity was a more important reason for leaving for the partially compensated and volunteer groups versus the fully compensated group. Study limitations are discussed and suggestions for future research offered.

  3. Workers' compensation status: does it affect orthopaedic surgery outcomes? A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Ynoe de Moraes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous reviews have demonstrated that patient outcomes following orthopaedic surgery are strongly influenced by the presence of Workers' Compensation. However, the variability in the reviews' methodology may have inflated the estimated strength of this association. The main objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the influence of Workers' Compensation on the outcomes of orthopaedic surgical procedures. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature published in this area from 1992-2012, with no language restrictions. The following databases were used MEDLINE (Ovid, Embase (Ovid, CINAHL, Google Scholar, LILACS and Pubmed. We also hand-searched the reference sections of all selected papers. We included all prospective studies evaluating the effect of compensation status on outcomes in adult patients who had undergone surgery due to orthopaedic conditions or diseases. Outcomes of interest included disease specific, region specific and/or overall quality of life scales/questionnaires and surgeons' personal judgment of the results. We used an assessment tool to appraise the quality of all included studies. We used Review Manager to create forest plots to summarize study data and funnel plots for the assessment of publication bias. RESULTS: Twenty studies met our eligibility criteria. The overall risk ratio for experiencing an unsatisfactory result after orthopaedic surgery for patients with compensation compared to non-compensated patients is 2.08 (95% CI 1.54-2.82. A similar association was shown for continuous data extracted from the studies using assessment scales or questionnaires (Standard Mean Difference = -0.70 95% CI -0.97- -0.43. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who undergo orthopaedic surgical procedures, those receiving Workers' Compensation experience a two-fold greater risk of a negative outcome. Our findings show a considerably lower estimate of risk compared to previous reviews that include retrospective

  4. Lunar based gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymes, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy represents the study of the universe on the basis of the electromagnetic radiation with the highest energy. Gamma ray astronomy provides a crucial tool for the understanding of astronomical phenomena, taking into account nucleosynthesis in supernovae, black holes, active galaxies, quasars, the sources of cosmic rays, neutron stars, and matter-antimatter annihilation. Difficulties concerning the conduction of studies by gamma ray astronomy are related to the necessity to perform such studies far from earth because the atmosphere is a source of gamma rays. Studies involving the use of gamma ray instruments in earth orbit have been conducted, and more gamma ray astronomy observations are planned for the future. Imperfections of studies conducted in low earth orbit could be overcome by estalishing an observatory on the moon which represents a satellite orbiting at 60 earth radii. Details concerning such an observatory are discussed. 5 references

  5. Hierarchical Control Scheme for Voltage Unbalance Compensation in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    The concept of microgrid hierarchical control is presented, recently. In this paper, a hierarchical scheme which includes primary and secondary control levels is proposed for islanded microgrids. The primary control level consists of DG local controllers. Local controller of each DG comprises...... active and reactive power controllers, virtual impedance loop and voltage and current controllers. The secondary level is designed to compensate the voltage unbalance at the load bus (LB) of the islanded microgrid. Also, restoration of LB voltage amplitude and microgrid frequency to the rated values...

  6. Sequential Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez-Hassan, M.; Hella, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how easy one can deal with a huge number of gamma spectra. The method can be used for radiation monitoring. It is based on the macro feature of the windows XP connected to QBASIC software. The routine was used usefully in generating accurate results free from human errors. One hundred measured gamma spectra were fully analyzed in 10 minutes using our fast and automated method controlling the Genie 2000 gamma acquisition analysis software.

  7. The Gamma Factory proposal for CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold

    2015-01-01

    This year, 2015, marks the centenary of the publication of Einsteins Theory of General Relativity and it has been named the International Year of Light and light-based technologies by the UN General Assembly. It is thus timely to discuss the possibility of broadening the present CERN research program by including a new component based on a novel concept of the light source which could pave a way towards a multipurpose Gamma Factory. The proposed light source could be realized at CERN by using the infrastructure of the existing accelerators. It could push the intensity limits of the presently operating light-sources by at least 7 orders of magnitude, reaching the flux of the order of 10^17 photons/s, in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain of 1 < Ephoton < 400 MeV. This domain is out of reach for the FEL-based light sources. The energy-tuned, quasi-monochromatic gamma beams, together with the gamma-beam-driven, high intensity secondary beams of polarized positrons, polarized muons, neutro...

  8. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Hin T. Tam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs. Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  9. Torque compensation technology for the geostationary meteorological satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Lusha; Chen, Shilu; Li, Qing

    2009-12-01

    To acquire high quality image, the new generation Geostationary Meteorological Satellite in China (GMSC) adopts three-axis stabilized attitude control mode, besides an advanced control system is required to be designed to get higher pointing precision and degree of stability of the satellite. However, the ability of the control system is limited. Torque compensation technology is studied in this paper aiming at rejecting the disturbance factors, which cannot be absorbed by the control system. In the research of torque compensation technology, the main factors that influence the degree of stability of satellite are analyzed; the objects compensated are confirmed through analysis of simulation; the system technical concept of torque compensation is designed; the mathematical models of the compensated objects and compensation devices are founded; the torque compensation arithmetic is designed; the valid arithmetic of torque compensation is proved through simulation. The research provides theoretical principles to develop the new generation GMSC.

  10. Alleged B. anthracis exposure claims in a workers' compensation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Gregory; Dunning, Kari; Lockey, James E

    2006-01-01

    Workers' compensation insurance in some states may not provide coverage for medical evaluation costs of workplace exposures related to potential bioterrorism acts if there is no diagnosed illness or disease. Personal insurance also may not provide coverage for these exposures occurring at the workplace. Governmental entities, insurers, and employers need to consider how to address such situations and the associated costs. The objective of this study was to examine characteristics of workers and total costs associated with workers' compensation claims alleging potential exposure to the bioterrorism organism B. anthracis. We examined 192 claims referred for review to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (OBWC) from October 10, 2001, through December 20, 2004. Although some cases came from out-of-state areas where B. anthracis exposure was known to exist, no Ohio claim was associated with true B. anthracis exposure or B. anthracis-related illness. Of the 155 eligible claims, 126 included medical costs averaging dollar 219 and ranging from dollar 24 to dollar 3,126. There was no difference in mean cost for government and non-government employees (p = 0.202 Wilcoxon). The number of claims and associated medical costs for evaluation and treatment of potential workplace exposure to B. anthracis were relatively small. These results can be attributed to several factors, including no documented B. anthracis exposures and disease in Ohio and prompt transmission of recommended diagnostic and prophylactic treatment protocols to physicians. How employers, insurers, and jurisdictions address payment for evaluation and treatment of potential or documented exposures resulting from a potential terrorism-related event should be addressed proactively.

  11. Determination of the $e^+ e^- \\to \\gamma \\gamma (\\gamma)$ cross-section at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    A test of the benchmark QED process e+e- -> gamma gamma (gamma) is reported, using the data collected with the DELPHI detector at LEP 2. The data analysed were recorded at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 161 GeV to 208 GeV and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 656.4 pb^{-1}. The Born cross-section for the process e+e- -> gamma gamma (gamma) was determined, confirming the validity of QED at the highest energies ever attained in electron-positron collisions. Lower limits on the parameters of a number of possible deviations from QED, predicted within theoretical frameworks expressing physics beyond the Standard Model, were derived.

  12. Gamma rays for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear gamma radiation does not have many of the properties taken for granted in atomic or molecular radiation and necessary for lasers. The basic science and technology underlying these differences and the proposed methods of overcoming difficulties resulting from them are not properly understood. Considerable illumination in this interdisciplinary problem could be provided by some back-of-the-envelope calculations and simple experimental surveys by small groups of students and postdocs with an elementary knowledge of the nuclear and solid state physics which is evidently not familiar these days to laser physicists. 3 refs

  13. The Ormin software for the optimization of reactive energy compensation; Logiciel Ormin ou comment optimiser la compensation d`energie reactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.

    1994-12-31

    The Ormin software allows for the determination of capacitor batteries to be installed in order to optimize the reactive energy compensation in an industrial plant, at the lowest cost; it gives also a compatibility diagnosis between capacitor batteries and harmonic current generating equipment. Cost estimation and calculation of investment payback periods are included

  14. Lightweight High Temperature Beta Gamma Alloy/Process Development for Disk and Blade Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary material and manufacturing limitations of gamma TiAl alloys include processing difficulties, requiring costly non-conventional processing requirements,...

  15. Lightweight High Temperature Beta Gamma Alloy/Process Development for Disk and Blade Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary material and manufacturing limitations of gamma TiAl alloys include processing difficulties, requiring costly non-conventional processing requirements,...

  16. Sales compensation governance: the last frontier of corporate reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy, Peter R; Gaeta, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    The area of sales compensation has remained relatively untouched by recent pressures for compensation reform. This article highlights some of the ways that sales organizations stumble in managing their compensation programs, and why it takes more than a simple tactical fix to address these problems effectively. The authors describe a more structured governance framework that not only identifies and resolves key sales compensation issues, but ultimately safeguards the effectiveness and financial integrity of the sales organization itself.

  17. Predictions for $B \\to K \\gamma \\gamma$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hiller, G; Hiller, Gudrun

    2005-01-01

    We present a phenomenological study of the rare double radiative decay $B\\to K \\gamma\\gamma$ in the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. Using the operator product expansion (OPE) technique, we estimate the short-distance (SD) contribution to the decay amplitude in a region of the phase space which is around the point where all decay products have energy $\\sim m_b/3$ in the rest frame of the $B$-meson. At lowest order in 1/Q, where $Q$ is of order $m_b$, the $B\\to K \\gamma\\gamma$ matrix element is then expressed in terms of the usual $B\\to K$ form factors known from semileptonic rare decays. The integrated SD branching ratio in the SM in the OPE region turns out to be $\\Delta {\\cal{B}}(B \\to K \\gamma \\gamma)_{SM}^{OPE} \\simeq 1 \\times 10^{-9}$. We work out the di-photon invariant mass distribution with and without the resonant background through $B\\to K \\{\\eta_c,\\chi_{c0}\\}\\to K\\gamma \\gamma$. In the SM, the resonance contribution is dominant in the region of phase space where the OPE is valid. The present experim...

  18. Calibration of nuclides by gamma-gamma sum peak coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of extending sum peak coincidence counting to the direct calibration of gamma-ray emitters having particular decay schemes was investigated, also checkings of the measurement accuracy, by comparing with more precise beta-gamma coincidence counting have been performed. New theoretical studies and experiments were developed, demonstrating the reliability of the procedure. Uncertainties of less than one percent were obtained when certain radioactive sources were measured. The application of the procedure to 60 Co, 22 Na, 47 Ca and 148 Pm was studied. Theoretical bases of sum peak coincidence counting were set in order to extend it as an alternative method for absolute activity determination. In this respect, theoretical studies were performed for positive and negative beta decay, and electron capture, either accompanied or unaccompanied by coincident gamma rays. They include decay schemes containing up to three daughter nuclide excited levels, for different geometrical configurations. Equations are proposed for a possible generalization of the procedure. (M.E.L.) [es

  19. Phase Noise Compensation for OFDM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Amir; Yemini, Michal

    2017-11-01

    We describe a low complexity method for time domain compensation of phase noise in OFDM systems. We extend existing methods in several respects. First we suggest using the Karhunen-Lo\\'{e}ve representation of the phase noise process to estimate the phase noise. We then derive an improved datadirected choice of basis elements for LS phase noise estimation and present its total least square counterpart problem. The proposed method helps overcome one of the major weaknesses of OFDM systems. We also generalize the time domain phase noise compensation to the multiuser MIMO context. Finally we present simulation results using both simulated and measured phased noise. We quantify the tracking performance in the presence of residual carrier offset.

  20. Compensating for telecommunication delays during robotic telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoni, Leonardo J; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation robotic systems may afford better care and telerehabilitation may extend the use and benefits of robotic therapy to the home. Data transmissions over distance are bound by intrinsic communication delays which can be significant enough to deem the activity unfeasible. Here we describe an approach that combines unilateral robotic telerehabilitation and serious games. This approach has a modular and distributed design that permits different types of robots to interact without substantial code changes. We demonstrate the approach through an online multiplayer game. Two users can remotely interact with each other with no force exchanges, while a smoothing and prediction algorithm compensates motions for the delay in the Internet connection. We demonstrate that this approach can successfully compensate for data transmission delays, even when testing between the United States and Brazil. This paper presents the initial experimental results, which highlight the performance degradation with increasing delays as well as improvements provided by the proposed algorithm, and discusses planned future developments.

  1. An EMTDC Model of a Three Level four MVAR Compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the dynamic characteristics of a three level ±4mvar solid state var compensator which is built and will be used for dynamic reactive power compensation in a wind farm. An investigation has been carried out of the influence of the compensator reactor, the DC intermediate voltag...

  2. 31 CFR 30.0 - Executive compensation and corporate governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Executive compensation and corporate governance. 30.0 Section 30.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.0 Executive compensation and corporate governance...

  3. Wildlife Damage and Agriculture: A Dynamic Analysis of Compensation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Rondeau, D.

    2007-01-01

    We study the environmental and economic consequences of introducing a program to compensate peasants for damages caused by wildlife. We show that the widely held belief that compensation induces wildlife conservation may be erroneous. In a partially open economy, compensation can lower the wildlife

  4. Critical Issues in Assessing Teacher Compensation. Backgrounder. No. 2638

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    A November 2011 Heritage Foundation report--"Assessing the Compensation of Public-School Teachers"--presented data on teacher salaries and benefits in order to inform debates about teacher compensation reform. The report concluded that public-school teacher compensation is far ahead of what comparable private-sector workers enjoy, and that…

  5. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in accordance...

  6. 38 CFR 3.701 - Elections of pension or compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elections of pension or compensation. 3.701 Section 3.701 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Concurrent Benefits and Elections...

  7. 39 CFR 3.2 - Compensation of Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation of Board. 3.2 Section 3.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.2 Compensation of Board. Section 202(a)(1) of title 39 provides for the compensation of...

  8. Assessment of Wetland Valuation Processes for Compensation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of compensation has been debated in various fora; however compensation on wetland resources has not been given the primary place. Wetland valuation like any other type of valuation requires going through stages, which may be more complex than real estate valuation for compensation. This study therefore ...

  9. 14 CFR 250.8 - Denied boarding compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denied boarding compensation. 250.8 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS OVERSALES § 250.8 Denied boarding compensation. (a) Every carrier shall tender to a passenger eligible for denied boarding compensation, on the day and place the denied boarding...

  10. 34 CFR 75.519 - Dual compensation of staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dual compensation of staff. 75.519 Section 75.519... by a Grantee? Project Staff § 75.519 Dual compensation of staff. A grantee may not use its grantee to pay a project staff member for time or work for which that staff member is compensated from some other...

  11. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai; Shu, De-ming; Li, Aiguo

    2017-01-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  12. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shu, De-ming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguo.li@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  13. Environmental Regulation, Industrial Heterogeneity and Value Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Lisha; Ding Changqing

    2017-01-01

    This article divided environmental regulation tools into market-oriented environmental regulation, environmental administrative control and environmental pollution regulation, divided enterprises into pollution intensive and clean production enterprises. Take Chinese manufacturing listed companies as research object, through panel data analysis, this article measured short-term and long-term value compensation effect and the possible existence of the threshold effect and cumulative effect of ...

  14. Compensation for Combat Deaths: Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    receive $100,000 if the 10-percent risk of a loss of $100,000 actually came to pass. Tort law generally uses an ex post approach to compensation and...through the courts for deaths resulting from other parties’ negligence or criminal behavior; a key difference between the tort system and many other...Bookstore Make a charitable contribution Limited Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law

  15. Compensation and Honesty: Gender Differences in Lying

    OpenAIRE

    Nieken, Petra; Dato, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We compare gender differences in lying under two incentive schemes that are widely used in companies: individual performance-pay and tournament incentives. While we do not observe significantly different behavior of males and females given individual performance-pay, females lie significantly less than males if the compensation scheme is switched to tournament incentives. This result is mainly driven by a decrease in the propensity to lie of females in a competitive environment. The gender ga...

  16. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  17. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimati......, 3D predictors, prediction using one or multiple (k) previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. We treat the problem of precision of the motion field as one of choosing among a number of predictors. This way, we can incorporate 3D......-predictors and intra-frame predictors as well. As proposed by Ribas-Corbera (see PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1996), we use bi-linear interpolation in order to achieve sub-pixel precision of the motion field. Using more reference images is another way of achieving higher accuracy of the match. The motion...... information is coded with the same algorithm as is used for the data. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images perform up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better than coding that does not utilize motion compensation...

  18. Installation of the sag compensator for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Jung, H. S.; Ahn, G. H.; Lim, I. C.

    2008-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plants and also for nuclear facilities. HANARO is a research reactor which produces a 30MW thermal power. HANARO is designed to be tripped automatically when interruptions or some extents of sags occur. HANARO has the reactor regulation system (RRS) and reactor protection system (RPS). HANARO is designed so as to tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods (CAR) and shut-off rods (SOR). When voltage or momentary interruption occurs, the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs even though the process systems are still in operation. HANARO was experienced in a nuisance trip as often as the unexpected voltage sag and/or momentary interruption occurs. We installed the voltage sag compensator on the power supply for CARs and SORs so as to prevent an unwanted trip. We undertook voltage sag assessment of the AC coil contactor which is a component of the power supply unit for the SORs. The compensation time is determined to be less than 1 sec in consideration of the reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator

  19. Installation of the sag compensator for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyoo; Jung, Hoan Sung; Lim, In Cheol; Ahn, Guk Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plants and also for nuclear facilities. HANARO is a research reactor which produces a 30MW thermal power. HANARO is designed to be tripped automatically when interruptions or some extent of sags occur. HANARO has the reactor regulation system(RRs) and reactor protection system(RPS). HANARO is designed so as to be tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods(CAR) and shut off rods(SOR). When voltage sag or momentary interruption occurs, the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs even though the process systems are still in operation. HANARO was experienced in a nuisance trip as often as the unexpected voltage sag and/or momentary interruption occurs. We installed the voltage sag compensator voltage sag assessment of the AC coil contactor which is a component of the power supply unit for the SORs. The compensation time is determined to be less than 1 sec in consideration of the reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator

  20. Installation of the sag compensator for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungkyoo; Jung, Hoansung; Lim, Incheol; Ahn, Gukhoon

    2008-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plants and also for nuclear facilities. HANARO is a research reactor which produces a 30 MW thermal power. HANARO is designed to be tripped automatically when interruptions or some extent of sags occur. HANARO has the reactor regulation system(RRS) and reactor protection system(RPS). HANARO is designed so as to be tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods(CAR) and shut-off rods(SOR). When voltage sag or momentary interruption occurs, the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs even though the process systems are still in operation. HANARO was experienced in a nuisance trip as often as the unexpected voltage sag and/or momentary interruption occurs. We installed the voltage sag compensator on the power supply for CARs and SORs so as to prevent an unwanted trip. We undertook voltage sag assessment of the AC coil contactor which is a component of the power supply unit for the SORs. The compensation time is determined to be less than 1 sec in consideration of the reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator. (author)

  1. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyan, S.; Froehlich, Th.

    2014-01-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10 6  S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations

  2. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyan, S., E-mail: suren.vasilyan@tu-ilmenau.de; Froehlich, Th. [Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6 }S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  3. Gravity compensation of an upper extremity exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarak, S; Pham, M T; Moreau, R; Redarce, T

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new gravity compensation method for an upper extremity exoskeleton mounted on a wheel chair. This new device is dedicated to regular and efficient rehabilitation training for post-stroke and injured people without the continuous presence of a therapist. The exoskeleton is a wearable robotic device attached to the human arm. The user provides information signals to the controller by means of the force sensors around the wrist and the arm, and the robot controller generates the appropriate control signals for different training strategies and paradigms. This upper extremity exoskeleton covers four basic degrees of freedom of the shoulder and the elbow joints with three additional adaptability degrees of freedom in order to match the arm anatomy of different users. For comfortable and efficient rehabilitation, a new heuristic method have been studied and applied on our prototype in order to calculate the gravity compensation model without the need to identify the mass parameters. It is based on the geometric model of the robot and accurate torque measurements of the prototype's actuators in a set of specifically chosen joint positions. The weight effect has been successfully compensated so that the user can move his arm freely while wearing the exoskeleton without feeling its mass.

  4. The Future of Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, gamma ray astrophysics has entered the astrophysical mainstream. Extremely successful space-borne (GeV) and ground-based (TeV) detectors, combined with a multitude of partner telescopes, have revealed a fascinating “astroscape" of active galactic nuclei, pulsars, gamma ray bursts, supernova remnants, binary stars, star-forming galaxies, novae much more, exhibiting major pathways along which large energy releases can flow. From  a basic physics perspective, exquisitely sensitive measurements have constrained the nature of dark matter, the cosmological origin of magnetic field and the properties of black holes. These advances have motivated the development of new facilities, including HAWC, DAMPE, CTA and SVOM, which will further our understanding of the high energy universe. Topics that will receive special attention include merging neutron star binaries, clusters of galaxies, galactic cosmic rays and putative, TeV dark matter.

  5. Waste Tire Particles and Gamma Radiation as Modifiers of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In polymer reinforced concrete, the Young’s modulus of both polymers and cement matrix is responsible for the detrimental properties of the concrete, including compressive and tensile strength, as well as stiffness. A novel methodology for solving such problems is based on use of ionizing radiation, which has proven to be a good tool for improvement on physical and chemical properties of several materials including polymers, ceramics, and composites. In this work, particles of 0.85 mm and 2.80 mm obtained from waste tire were submitted at 250 kGy of gamma radiation in order to modify their physicochemical properties and then used as reinforcement in Portland cement concrete for improving mechanical properties. The results show diminution on mechanical properties in both kinds of concrete without (or with irradiated tire particles with respect to plain concrete. Nevertheless such diminutions (from 2 to 16% are compensated with the use of high concentration of waste tire particles (30%, which ensures that the concrete will not significantly increase the cost.

  6. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  7. History of gamma-ray telescopes and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkau, Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy is devoted to study nuclear and elementary particle astrophysics and astronomical objects under extreme conditions of gravitational and electromagnetic forces, and temperature. Because signals from gamma rays below 1 TeV cannot be recorded on ground, observations from space are required. The photoelectric effect is dominant discovery of gamma rays from the galactic plane with its successor OSO-3 in 1968. The first solar flare gamma ray lines were seen with OSO-7 in 1972. In the 1980’s, the Solar Maximum Mission observed a multitude of solar gamma ray phenomena for 9 years. Quite unexpectedly, gamma ray bursts were detected by the Vela-satellites in 1967. It was 30 years later, that the extragalactic nature of the gamma ray burst phenomenon was finally established by the Beppo-Sax satellite. Better telescopes were becoming available, by using spark chambers to record pair production at photon energies >30 MeV, and later by Compton telescopes for the 1-10 MeV range. In 1972, SAS-2 began to observe the Milky Way in high energy gamma rays, but, unfortunately, for a very brief observation time only due to a failure of tape recorders. COS-B from 1975 until 1982 with its wire spark chamber, and energy measurement by a total absorption counter, produced the first sky map, recording galactic continuum emission, mainly from interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar matter, and point sources (pulsars and unidentified objects). An integrated attempt at observing the gamma ray sky was launched with the Compton Observatory in 1991 which stayed in orbit for 9 years. This large shuttle-launched satellite carried a wire spark chamber “Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope” EGRET for energies >30 MeV which included a large Cesium Iodide crystal spectrometer, a “Compton Telescope” COMPTEL for the energy range 1-30 MeV, the gamma ray “Burst and Transient Source Experiment” BATSE, and the “Oriented Scintillation-Spectrometer Experiment” OSSE

  8. Evaluation and Compensation of Detector Solenoid Effects in the JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Guohui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pilat, Fulvia C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The JLEIC detector solenoid has a strong 3 T field in the IR area, and its tails extend over a range of several meters. One of the main effects of the solenoid field is coupling of the horizontal and vertical betatron motions which must be corrected in order to preserve the dynamical stability and beam spot size match at the IP. Additional effects include influence on the orbit and dispersion caused by the angle between the solenoid axis and the beam orbit. Meanwhile it affects ion polarization breaking the figure-8 spin symmetry. Crab dynamics further complicates the picture. All of these effects have to be compensated or accounted for. The proposed correction system is equivalent to the Rotating Frame Method. However, it does not involve physical rotation of elements. It provides local compensation of the solenoid effects independently for each side of the IR. It includes skew quadrupoles, dipole correctors and anti-solenoids to cancel perturbations to the orbit and linear optics. The skew quadrupoles and FFQ together generate an effect equivalent to adjustable rotation angle to do the decoupling task. Details of all of the correction systems are presented.

  9. UTN's gamma irradiation facility: design and concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Noor Mohamad Yunus

    1986-01-01

    UTN is building a multipurpose gamma irradiation facility which compromises of research and pilot scale irradiation cells in The Fifth Malaysia Plan. The paper high-lights the basic futures of the facility in terms of its design and selection including layout sketches. Plant performances and limitations are discussed. Plants safety is briefly highlighted in block diagrams. Lastly, a typical specification brief is tabled in appendix for reference purposes. (author)

  10. Factors influencing mode of claims settlement in workers' compensation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D L; Wood, G A; MacDonald, S

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that influence the means by which 10,192 injured workers settled their compensation claims during 1990. The data on which this study is based come from a state in Australia where there are three means by which workers' compensation claims can be settled by lump sum payment: settlement following a specific injury payment, early settlement payment and settlement following a common law payment. This paper is specifically concerned with identifying the variables that determine whether the claim will be settled by a lump sum payment and whether different modes of claims settlement by lump sum are unique and predictable from a range of variables that include injury characteristics and demographics. The results of logistic regression modelling revealed that those who received a lump sum settlement could be reliably distinguished from those who did not receive such a payment. Each mode of settlement varied in the extent to which it could be predicted. Contrary to expectations, the most difficult form of settlement mode to predict was that of specific injury payments (4% accurate) with the most predictive being early settlement payments (81% accurate). Common law payments were also highly predictable (48% accurate). The form of lump sum payment received by injured workers was found to depend on a range of injury characteristics, indices of severity and for common law payments, gender and potential income loss. It is argued that although injury characteristics play a part in the process of claims settlement, personal circumstances and insurance company policies are influential in dictating the form by which workers compensation cases are finalized.

  11. Application of gamma-irradiation to cereals and cereals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation may be used on cereals and cereal products to control insect infestation and microbiological problems. Such problems include mould growth, mycotoxin production, pathogens, spore-forming organisms and total microbial load. Deleterious effects of gamma-irradiation arise only at relatively high dose levels with consequences on germination rate, wheat flour dough properties, and cake and noodle quality. Radiation-induced changes to starch have greater impact on behaviour of cereal products than such changes to other cereal components

  12. Computers in activation analysis and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, B. S.; D' Agostino, M. D.; Yule, H. P. [eds.

    1979-01-01

    Seventy-three papers are included under the following session headings: analytical and mathematical methods for data analysis; software systems for ..gamma..-ray and x-ray spectrometry; ..gamma..-ray spectra treatment, peak evaluation; least squares; IAEA intercomparison of methods for processing spectra; computer and calculator utilization in spectrometer systems; and applications in safeguards, fuel scanning, and environmental monitoring. Separate abstracts were prepared for 72 of those papers. (DLC)

  13. Portable multifunctional scintillation gamma spectrometer for nondestructive radiation monitoring of ambient objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, Evgenij; Dauzhuk, Mikhail; Kazhamiakin, Valery; Shulhovich, Heorhi; Zhukovsky, Aliaksandr

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We have developed spectrometer AT6101D, which allows to perform direct measurement of ambience contamination with 137 Cs radionuclide, measure 137 Cs specific activity in agricultural raw materials and foodstuff, forestry products and, as well, to conduct express measurement of effective specific activity from natural radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in construction materials, raw stock, products, industrial waste and mine rock without sampling. The spectrometer is designed as a portable multifunctional device, which consists of spectrometric scintillation detection unit with NaI(T1) crystal (diameter and height 63 mm) in sealed container, and data processing and display unit. The spectrometer is designed for measurement of gamma radiation energy distribution of 40 - 3000 keV energy, and measurement of ambient dose rate equivalent within 0.01-100 μSv/h range. To ensure high stability of measurement, the spectrometer is equipped with integrated continuous LED stabilization of energy scale and digital thermal compensation of measurement path. Relative energy resolution for 661.7 keV gamma radiation energy of 137 Cs radionuclide is below 9 %. Simple use, multi functionality, visual estimation of radionuclide composition of objects under examination by displayed instrumental spectrum during measurement are the advantage features of AT6101D spectrometers as compared to its current equivalents. Spectrometer hardware and software allow to implement up to eight activity measurement geometries for specific radiation control objectives. Each geometry may contain up to seven supposed compositions of radionuclides in objects under examination. Radionuclide composition may include one - four isotope items. The spectrometer can be used for dosimetry, spectrometry and radiation monitoring by various ministries and departments, both in laboratory and in field, within temperature range from minus 20 to plus 50 C degrees. (author)

  14. Measurement system of gamma, X, thermal and/or fast neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siffert, P.; Regal, R.; Koebel, J.M.; Teissier, C.

    1987-01-01

    The system includes detection means of gamma or/and X radiation, detection means of gamma and/or X radiation from thermal neutrons, detection means of gamma and/or X radiation from thermal and/or fast neutrons. It includes also processing devices of the signals given by the detection means able to get a linear combination of the detected signals. These processing devices give a signal selectively representative of photon, thermal or fast neutron rate [fr

  15. Executive compensation and firm performance: Evidence from Indian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Raithatha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between executive compensation and firm performance among Indian firms. The evidence suggests that firm performance measured by accounting, as well as market-based measures, significantly affects executive compensation. We also test for the presence of persistence in executive compensation by employing the system-generalised methods of moments (GMM estimator. We find significant persistence in executive compensation among the sample firms. Further, we report the absence of pay–performance relationship among the smaller sample firms and business group affiliated firms. Thus, our findings cast doubts over the performance-based executive compensation practices of Indian business group affiliated firms.

  16. VA Disability Compensation and Money Spent on Substance Use Among Homeless Veterans: A Controversial Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    There has long been concern that public support payments are used to support addictive behaviors. This study examined the amount of money homeless veterans spend on alcohol and drugs and the association between public support income, including VA disability compensation, and expenditures on alcohol and drugs. Data were from 1,160 veterans from 19 sites on entry into the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric analyses were conducted. About 33% of veterans reported spending money on alcohol and 22% reported spending money on drugs in the past month. No significant association was found between public support income, VA disability compensation, and money spent on alcohol and drugs. A substantial proportion of homeless veterans spend some income on alcohol and drugs, but disability income, including VA compensation, does not seem to be related to substance use or money spent on addictive substances.

  17. A novel error compensation algorithm for three-current transformer connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Qing-quan; Dou, Chun-xia; Wang, Chun; Wang, Ning; Tian, Jie [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Bo, Zhi-qian [AREVA Protect/Control Ltd., Stafford ST17 4LX (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Under fault condition, primary current of a current transformer (CT) has high magnitude and may include decaying dc offset. This can result in saturation of magnetizing core of the CT and the secondary current is thus distorted. The distorted current is likely to cause malfunction of protection relays or control devices. Therefore error compensation methods are studied. Most attentions are paid to a single CT. However, CTs are usually connected together for different protections and control devices. For example, three CTs are linked for three-phase current protection and zero-sequence current protection of transmission lines. This paper proposes a novel error compensation algorithm for 3-CT connection. Due to the existence of neutral circuit, the three CTs are affected each other and error compensation methods for a single CT cannot be applied. The error compensation algorithm is derived based on the physical configuration of the 3-CT connection. It is evaluated by EMTP simulation data and case studies are included. Protection relays and control devices can achieve better performance using the compensated current measurements. (author)

  18. Compensation method for the alignment angle error of a gear axis in profile deviation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Suping; Liu, Yongsheng; Wang, Huiyi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Ryuhei

    2013-01-01

    In the precision measurement of involute helical gears, the alignment angle error of a gear axis, which was caused by the assembly error of a gear measuring machine, will affect the measurement accuracy of profile deviation. A model of the involute helical gear is established under the condition that the alignment angle error of the gear axis exists. Based on the measurement theory of profile deviation, without changing the initial measurement method and data process of the gear measuring machine, a compensation method is proposed for the alignment angle error of the gear axis that is included in profile deviation measurement results. Using this method, the alignment angle error of the gear axis can be compensated for precisely. Some experiments that compare the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis after compensation for the initial alignment angle error were performed to verify the accuracy and feasibility of this method. Experimental results show that the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis included in the profile deviation measurement results is decreased by more than 85% after compensation, and this compensation method significantly improves the measurement accuracy of the profile deviation of involute helical gear. (paper)

  19. Skeletal muscle-specific ablation of gamma(cyto-actin does not exacerbate the mdx phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt W Prins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously documented a ten-fold increase in gamma(cyto-actin expression in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle and hypothesized that increased gamma(cyto-actin expression may participate in an adaptive cytoskeletal remodeling response. To explore whether increased gamma(cyto-actin fortifies the cortical cytoskeleton in dystrophic skeletal muscle, we generated double knockout mice lacking both dystrophin and gamma(cyto-actin specifically in skeletal muscle (ms-DKO. Surprisingly, dystrophin-deficient mdx and ms-DKO mice presented with comparable levels of myofiber necrosis, membrane instability, and deficits in muscle function. The lack of an exacerbated phenotype in ms-DKO mice suggests gamma(cyto-actin and dystrophin function in a common pathway. Finally, because both mdx and ms-DKO skeletal muscle showed similar levels of utrophin expression and presented with identical dystrophies, we conclude utrophin can partially compensate for the loss of dystrophin independent of a gamma(cyto-actin-utrophin interaction.

  20. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  1. Population Studies of Radio and Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K; Gonthier, Peter; Coltisor, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are one of the most promising candidates for at least some of the 40-50 EGRET unidentified gamma-ray sources that lie near the Galactic plane. Since the end of the EGRO mission, the more sensitive Parkes Multibeam radio survey has detected mere than two dozen new radio pulsars in or near unidentified EGRET sources, many of which are young and energetic. These results raise an important question about the nature of radio quiescence in gamma-ray pulsars: is the non-detection of radio emission a matter of beaming or of sensitivity? The answer is very dependent on the geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We present results of a population synthesis of pulsars in the Galaxy, including for the first time the full geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We use a recent empirically derived model of the radio emission and luminosity, and a gamma-ray emission geometry and luminosity derived theoretically from pair cascades in the polar slot gap. The simulation includes characteristics of eight radio surveys of the Princeton catalog plus the Parkes MB survey. Our results indicate that EGRET was capable of detecting several dozen pulsars as point sources, with the ratio of radio-loud to radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars increasing significantly to about ten to one when the Parkes Survey is included. Polar cap models thus predict that many of the unidentified EGRET sources could be radio-loud gamma- ray pulsars, previously undetected as radio pulsars due to distance, large dispersion and lack of sensitivity. If true, this would make gamma-ray telescopes a potentially more sensitive tool for detecting distant young neutron stars in the Galactic plane.

  2. Gamma spectrometry on MANITU 271-01 gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Minkema, J.

    1994-08-01

    A series of irradiation experiments (271-series) is being performed of the sustain programme for material development and characterization of the NET (Next European Torus). In the framework of the first irradiation experiment 271-01, with irradiation up to 0.2 dpa, four gamma scan wires have been examined by gamma scanning. The purpose of the gamma scan wires (GSW) is to get information about the neutron fluence distribution in the capsules during irradiation. In the stainless steel wires the nuclides Co-58, Mu-54, Fe-59 and Co-60 are produced, are characteristic for fast and thermal neutron reactions. (orig./HP)

  3. "No compensation" or "pro compensation": Moore v. Regents and default rules for human tissue donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The much studied case of Moore v. Regents of the University of California is often considered important in property law for denying property rights in human tissue. This widespread misunderstanding of Moore has not only misplaced the legal emphasis of human tissue donations on property law instead of contract law, but has also hindered the creation of a much-needed default rule governing the issue of compensation for donated tissue. While it is possible that the majority of donors rarely consider compensation as an incentive to donate, without a legally recognized default rule the law remains blurred as to what contractual provisions apply to the exchange between donor and researcher. This Article argues that the solution is a weak default rule of no compensation that may be overridden by evidence that the parties intended otherwise.

  4. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  5. Compensation for oil pollution damage caused by oil spills from ships and the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1994-01-01

    Liability and compensation for pollution damage caused by oil spills from laden tankers is governed by two international conventions: the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability Convention established a system of strict liability for tanker owners and introduced compulsory liability insurance. The Fund Convention created a system of supplementary compensation administered by an intergovernmental organization, the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund), which at present has 56 member states (August 1993). The IOPC Fund pays compensation to victims of oil pollution in member states when the compensation from the ship owner and his insurer is insufficient. (author)

  6. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical composition of a planet can be inferred from the gamma rays escaping from its surface and can be used to study its origin and evolution. The measured intensities of certain gamma rays of specific energies can be used to determine the abundances of a number of elements. The major sources of these gamma-ray lines are the decay of natural radionuclides, reactions induced by energetic galactic-cosmic-ray particles, capture of low energy neutrons, and solar-proton-induced radioactivities. The fluxes of the more intense gamma-ray lines emitted from 30 elements were calculated using current nuclear data and existing models. The source strengths for neutron-capture reactions were modified from those previously used. The fluxes emitted from a surface of average lunar composition are reported for 288 gamma-ray lines. These theoretical fluxes have been used elsewhere to convert the data from the Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers to elemental abundances and can be used with results from future missions to map the concentrations of a number of elements over a planet's surface. Detection sensitivities for these elements are examined and applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy for future orbiters to Mars and other solar-system objects are discussed

  7. The big bang? An eventful year in workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2006-01-01

    Workers' compensation in the past two years has been dominated by events in California, which have been so fundamental as to merit the term big bang. Passage of Senate Bill 899 has led to a comprehensive program of reform in access to medical care, access to rehabilitation services, temporary and permanent disability, evidence-based management, dispute resolution, and system innovation. Two noteworthy developments thus arose: a new requirement for apportionment by cause in causation analysis, and the adoption of evidence-based criteria for impairment assessment, treatment guidelines, and, soon, utilization review. Elsewhere in the United States, changes were modest, but extensive legislative activity in Texas suggests that Texas will be next to make major changes. In Canada, the Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia has adopted an ambitious strategic initiative, and there is a Canadawide movement to establish presumption for certain diseases in firefighters. Suggestions for future directions include an increased emphasis on prevention, integration of programs, worker participation, enhancing the expertise of health care professionals, evidence-based management, process evaluation, and opportunities for innovation.

  8. Invisible losses and the logics of resettlement compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Rebecca; Satterfield, Terre

    2014-10-01

    The necessity of compensating people negatively affected by conservation and other development projects has been widely acknowledged. It is less widely acknowledged that because conventional compensation assessments focus on material resources and their economic equivalents, many important losses incurred by resettlers are invisible to project authorities. Through ethnographic observations and interviews, we documented losses identified by people facing resettlement from Mozambique's Limpopo National Park. We also examined resettlement planning documents to determine why decision makers' assessments of natural resource use and value neglect losses residents identified as critical. Identifying, preventing, and mitigating invisible losses in resettlement planning necessitates a better understanding of intangible benefits residents derive from resources, which are often as or more important than their readily apparent material properties. These benefits include but are not limited to decision-making authority linked to owning land versus having the use of fields; ancestral identity and social belonging linked to gravesites; the importance of tree roots that provide a powerful sense of security because they suppress hunger in periods of scarcity; and the importance of people's location within social networks and hierarchies as they determine the benefits versus risks that will be incurred through resettlement. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Compensations for increased rotational inertia during human cutting turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mu; Brown, Brian; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-02-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady state, but unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) is not well understood. We investigated the strategies used by humans to perform sidestep cutting turns when running. Previous studies have argued that because humans have small yaw rotational moments of inertia relative to body mass, deceleratory forces in the initial velocity direction that occur during the turning step, or 'braking' forces, could function to prevent body over-rotation during turns. We tested this hypothesis by increasing body rotational inertia and testing whether braking forces during stance decreased. We recorded ground reaction force and body kinematics from seven participants performing 45 deg sidestep cutting turns and straight running at five levels of body rotational inertia, with increases up to fourfold. Contrary to our prediction, braking forces remained consistent at different rotational inertias, facilitated by anticipatory changes to body rotational speed. Increasing inertia revealed that the opposing effects of several turning parameters, including rotation due to symmetrical anterior-posterior forces, result in a system that can compensate for fourfold changes in rotational inertia with less than 50% changes to rotational velocity. These results suggest that in submaximal effort turning, legged systems may be robust to changes in morphological parameters, and that compensations can involve relatively minor adjustments between steps to change initial stance conditions.

  10. Calibration and control modules for gamma-ray borehole loggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A calibration pad for quantitative evaluation of gamma-ray logs, developed and constructed by CNEA is described. The facility is composed of a set of mineralized modules with which it is intended to reproduce the natural variable conditions found in boreholes drilled for uranium mineral exploration, such as the ore concentration, rock's density and porosity, water content, etc. The facility is able to operate under different radiometric models, as follow: 1) gross-count gamma-ray models; 2) gamma-spectrometer models; 3) neutronic-fission models, and 4) models for determination of magnetic susceptibility, density, neutron-neutron, etc. The gathered information allows the adequate quantitative radiometric evaluation of the ore bodies crossed by exploration holes, and also allows the correlation of gamma-ray logs obtained by different logger-equipments. The paper includes the description of the project development and the standards established for the facility's operation. (M.E.L.) [es

  11. Determination of gamma ray shielding parameters of rocks and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Shamsan S.; Gaikwad, Dhammajyot K.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2018-03-01

    Gamma shielding parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Neff) have been measured and calculated for rocks and concrete in the energy range 122-1330 keV. The measurements have been carried out at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275, 1330 keV gamma ray energies using a gamma spectrometer includes a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and MCA card. The atomic and electronic cross sections have also been investigated. Experimental and calculated (WinXCom) values were compared, and good agreement has been observed within the experimental error. The obtained results showed that feldspathic basalt, compact basalt, volcanic rock, dolerite and pink granite are more efficient than the sandstone and concrete for gamma ray shielding applications.

  12. Impact of spectral smoothing on gamma radiation portal alarm probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.; Hamada, M.; Hengartner, N.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma detector counts are included in radiation portal monitors (RPM) to screen for illicit nuclear material. Gamma counts are sometimes smoothed to reduce variance in the estimated underlying true mean count rate, which is the 'signal' in our context. Smoothing reduces total error variance in the estimated signal if the bias that smoothing introduces is more than offset by the variance reduction. An empirical RPM study for vehicle screening applications is presented for unsmoothed and smoothed gamma counts in low-resolution plastic scintillator detectors and in medium-resolution NaI detectors. - Highlights: → We evaluate options for smoothing counts from gamma detectors deployed for portal monitoring. → A new multiplicative bias correction (MBC) is shown to reduce bias in peak and valley regions. → Performance is measured using mean squared error and detection probabilities for sources. → Smoothing with the MBC improves detection probabilities and the mean squared error.

  13. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S., E-mail: luanaigraz@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Krambrock, Klaus, E-mail: klaus@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  14. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Krambrock, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  15. Gamma Ray Bursts Observations and Theoretical Conjectures

    CERN Document Server

    Alagoz, E; Carrillo, C; Golup, G T; Grimes, M; Herrera, Mora C; Gallo, Palomino J L; López, Vega A; Wicht, J

    2008-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short bursts of very high energy photons which were discovered in the late 1960s. Ever since their discovery, scientists have wondered about their origin. Nowadays it is known that they originate outside the Milky Way because of their high red shift rst measured in the afterglows thanks to the Beppo-SAX satellite and ground-based observations. However, theoreticians still do not agree about the mechanism that generates the bursts, and different competing models are animatedly debated. Current GRB experiments include the Swift satellite and the Pierre Auger Observatory that could detect GRBs with an increase of the background. A forthcoming dedicated experiment is GLAST, a satellite observatory for detecting gamma rays with energies up to 300 GeV, whose launch is scheduled for early 2008.

  16. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  17. Electric vehicle drive train with rollback detection and compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C.E.

    1994-12-27

    An electric vehicle drive train includes a controller for detecting and compensating for vehicle rollback, as when the vehicle is started upward on an incline. The vehicle includes an electric motor rotatable in opposite directions corresponding to opposite directions of vehicle movement. A gear selector permits the driver to select an intended or desired direction of vehicle movement. If a speed and rotational sensor associated with the motor indicates vehicle movement opposite to the intended direction of vehicle movement, the motor is driven to a torque output magnitude as a nonconstant function of the rollback speed to counteract the vehicle rollback. The torque function may be either a linear function of speed or a function of the speed squared. 6 figures.

  18. Electric vehicle drive train with rollback detection and compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    An electric vehicle drive train includes a controller for detecting and compensating for vehicle rollback, as when the vehicle is started upward on an incline. The vehicle includes an electric motor rotatable in opposite directions corresponding to opposite directions of vehicle movement. A gear selector permits the driver to select an intended or desired direction of vehicle movement. If a speed and rotational sensor associated with the motor indicates vehicle movement opposite to the intended direction of vehicle movement, the motor is driven to a torque output magnitude as a nonconstant function of the rollback speed to counteract the vehicle rollback. The torque function may be either a linear function of speed or a function of the speed squared.

  19. DC-Compensated Current Transformer †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  20. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... filter system consisting of distributed passive filters and an active filter....... the active filter is responsible for the correction of the system unbalance and the cancellation of the remaining harmonics. The paper also analyzes the effects of the circuit configuration on the system impedance characteristics and consequently the effectiveness of the filter system. Simulation studies...

  1. $\\gamma\\gamma$ physics with the KLOE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Archilli, F.; Badoni, D.; Balwierz, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Bulychjev, S.A.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Dané, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gonnella, F.; Graziani, E.; Happacher, F.; Höistad, B.; Iarocci, E.; Jacewicz, M.; Johansson, T.; Kulikov, V.; Kupsc, A.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Loddo, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moricciani, D.; Moskal, P.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Ranieri, A.; Santangelo, P.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Silarski, M.; Taccini, C.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wolke, M.; Zdebik, J.

    2011-01-01

    The processes $e^+e^-\\to e^+e^-X$, with $X$ being either the $\\eta$ meson or $\\pi^0\\pi^0$, are studied at DA$\\Phi$NE, with $e^+e^-$ beams colliding at $\\sqrt{s}\\simeq1$ GeV, below the $\\phi$ resonance peak. The data sample is from an integrated luminosity of 240 pb$^{-1}$, collected by the KLOE experiment without tagging of the outgoing $e^+e^-$. Preliminary results are presented on the observation of the $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\eta$ process, with both $\\eta\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ and $\\eta\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0$ channels, and the evidence for $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0$ production at low $\\pi^0\\pi^0$ invariant mass.

  2. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  3. Spatial computation with gamma oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, Ben; Vaadia, Eilon

    2014-01-01

    Gamma oscillations in cortex have been extensively studied with relation to behavior in both humans and animal models; however, their computational role in the processing of behaviorally relevant signals is still not clear. One oft-overlooked characteristic of gamma oscillations is their spatial distribution over the cortical space and the computational consequences of such an organization. Here, we advance the proposal that the spatial organization of gamma oscillations is of major importance for their function. The interaction of specific spatial distributions of oscillations with the functional topography of cortex enables select amplification of neuronal signals, which supports perceptual and cognitive processing. PMID:25249950

  4. Advanced HEDL gamma scan system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.C.; Olson, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    The design of an advanced state-of-the-art gamma scan system built for the purpose of measuring the point-by-point gamma activity of irradiated fuel rods is described. The emphasis of the system design was to achieve the highest rate of throughput with the minimum per rod cost while maintaining system accuracy and reliability. Preliminary tests demonstrate that all system requirements were met or exceeded. The system provides improved throughput, precision, automation, flexibility, and data processing capability over previous gamma scan systems

  5. Gamma spectrometry of 285-04 ILAS gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    In the frame work of their on-going sustain programme for the material development and characterization of fusion reactors, ECN is investigating the irradiation behaviour of ferritic/martensitic steels. In the fourth irradiation experiment 285-04, 55 steel tensile samples have been irradiated up to 2.5 dpa. Four gamma scan wires from this experiment have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  6. Digital gamma-gamma coincidence HPGe system for environmental analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a new gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer system for environmental samples analysis at the Center for Nuclear Technologies of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is reported. Nutech Coincidence Low Energy Germanium Sandwich (NUCLeGeS) system consists of two HPGe detector...... in a surface laboratory with a digital acquisition system used to collect the data in time-stamped list mode with 10. ns time resolution. The spectrometer is used in both anticoincidence and coincidence modes....

  7. Gamma-gamma angular correlation measurement in the 100 Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchian, G.

    1990-01-01

    An angular correlation automatic spectrometer with two Ge(Li) detectors has been developed. The spectrometer moves automatically, controlled by a microcomputer. The gamma-gamma directional angular correlations of coincidence transitions have been measured in 100 Ru nuclide, following the β + and electron capture of 100 Rh. The 100 Rh source has been produced with 100 Ru(p,n) 100 Rh reaction, using the proton beam of the Cyclotron Accelerator insiding in 100 Ru isotope. (author)

  8. High angular resolution diffusion imaging with stimulated echoes: compensation and correction in experiment design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Henrik; Alexander, Daniel C; Dyrby, Tim B

    2014-08-01

    Stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) diffusion MRI can be advantageous over pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) for diffusion times that are long compared with T2 . It therefore has potential for biomedical diffusion imaging applications at 7T and above where T2 is short. However, gradient pulses other than the diffusion gradients in the STEAM sequence contribute much greater diffusion weighting than in PGSE and lead to a disrupted experimental design. Here, we introduce a simple compensation to the STEAM acquisition that avoids the orientational bias and disrupted experiment design that these gradient pulses can otherwise produce. The compensation is simple to implement by adjusting the gradient vectors in the diffusion pulses of the STEAM sequence, so that the net effective gradient vector including contributions from diffusion and other gradient pulses is as the experiment intends. High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data were acquired with and without the proposed compensation. The data were processed to derive standard diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) maps, which highlight the need for the compensation. Ignoring the other gradient pulses, a bias in DTI parameters from STEAM acquisition is found, due both to confounds in the analysis and the experiment design. Retrospectively correcting the analysis with a calculation of the full B matrix can partly correct for these confounds, but an acquisition that is compensated as proposed is needed to remove the effect entirely. © 2014 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Criminal Law Reform Through The Application Of The Compensation Concept In The Settlement Of Corruption Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erianto N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research reviews the essence of compensation concept as an additional penalty in the Indonesian criminal system as well as the extent of their impact on the effectiveness of financial indemnification of the state and aims to provide an overview of the construction of the compensation concept in criminal law reform. The outcomes of the research indicate that there are the difference between perspective and point of view of the demands of the public prosecutor and the judges decision concerning additional penalty for the compensation. The intention of the law makers to include additional criminal threats that everything is the same namely in an effort to restore the countrys financial losses arising out of the corruption cases. As it turns out in practice however it has certain weaknesses particularly in view of the forming of criminal law which has no sticking to the principle that adds to other criminal types on the types of crime that have been specified in the Indonesian Criminal Code it is forbidden. Therefore to realize the main purpose of law enforcement concerning corruption case in order to save as much as possible the financial loss of the state criminal compensation payments should be made as a main penalty not an additional penalty. Based on such view the compensation concept appears to be the ideal approach to be applied in the settlement of corruption cases.

  10. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish Patient Compensation Association database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilma J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jens Tilma,1 Mette Nørgaard,1 Kim Lyngby Mikkelsen,2 Søren Paaske Johnsen1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Danish Patient Compensation Association, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Any patient in the Danish health care system who experiences a treatment injury can make a compensation claim to the Danish Patient Compensation Association (DPCA free of charge. The aim of this paper is to describe the DPCA database as a source of data for epidemiological research. Data to DPCA are collected prospectively on all claims and include information on patient factors and health records, system factors, and administrative data. Approval of claims is based on injury due to the principle of treatment below experienced specialist standard or intolerable, unexpected extensiveness of injury. Average processing time of a compensation claim is 6–8 months. Data collection is nationwide and started in 1992. The patient's central registration system number, a unique personal identifier, allows for data linkage to other registries such as the Danish National Patient Registry. The DPCA data are accessible for research following data usage permission and make it possible to analyze all claims or specific subgroups to identify predictors, outcomes, etc. DPCA data have until now been used only in few studies but could be a useful data source in future studies of health care-related injuries. Keywords: public health care, treatment injuries, no-fault compensation, registries, research, Denmark

  11. Development of a pressurizer level compensator for use on N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, J.H.

    1985-07-01

    The instrument described in this report has been developed to compensate the measured water level in the N Reactor pressurizer for temperature effects. N Reactor is a pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR). The instrument is defined as a pressurizer level compensator (PLC). A pressurizer is used in a PWR to control the primary coolant pressure and provide a surge volume for primary coolant expansion and contraction. A means of compensating for water and steam density is required because of the wide range of pressure and temperature that result from different steady state and transient reactor power levels. The uncompensated level is determined by measurement of differential pressure between the top of the level measurement zone and the bottom of the level measurement zone. Temperature of the water in the pressurizer is the parameter that is used to determine the proper level compensation since water and steam density are primarily functions of temperature in this case. The PLC uses a microprocessor to calculate the compensated level from temperature and differential pressure measurements. This report includes a description of the design, development, and implementation of software and hardware that are in the PLC. 9 refs., 51 figs., 17 tabs

  12. Demographic compensation does not rescue populations at a trailing range edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Seema Nayan; Angert, Amy Lauren

    2018-03-06

    Species' geographic ranges and climatic niches are likely to be increasingly mismatched due to rapid climate change. If a species' range and niche are out of equilibrium, then population performance should decrease from high-latitude "leading" range edges, where populations are expanding into recently ameliorated habitats, to low-latitude "trailing" range edges, where populations are contracting from newly unsuitable areas. Demographic compensation is a phenomenon whereby declines in some vital rates are offset by increases in others across time or space. In theory, demographic compensation could increase the range of environments over which populations can succeed and forestall range contraction at trailing edges. An outstanding question is whether range limits and range contractions reflect inadequate demographic compensation across environmental gradients, causing population declines at range edges. We collected demographic data from 32 populations of the scarlet monkeyflower ( Erythranthe cardinalis ) spanning 11° of latitude in western North America and used integral projection models to evaluate population dynamics and assess demographic compensation across the species' range. During the 5-y study period, which included multiple years of severe drought and warming, population growth rates decreased from north to south, consistent with leading-trailing dynamics. Southern populations at the trailing range edge declined due to reduced survival, growth, and recruitment, despite compensatory increases in reproduction and faster life-history characteristics. These results suggest that demographic compensation may only delay population collapse without the return of more favorable conditions or the contribution of other buffering mechanisms such as evolutionary rescue.

  13. Compensation programs after withdrawal of the recommendation for HPV vaccine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuji, Koichiro; Nakada, Haruka

    2016-05-03

    HPV vaccinations were recommended with the backing of a Japanese government subsidy program in 2010, and were included in the National Immunization Program in April 2013. However, the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare withdrew the recommendation for the HPV vaccination in June 2013. We investigated HPV vaccine injury compensation programs for both the national and local governments. Approximately 3.38 million girls were vaccinated, and 2,584 complained of health problems. The majority of these received the vaccine shot as a non-routine vaccination. In total, 98 people developed health problems and applied for assistance from 2011 to 2014, but no cases have been processed since October 2014. Several local governments are providing their own compensation program for cases of vaccine adverse reactions, but the number is extremely low (16 of 1,741 municipalities and 1 of 47 prefectures). The local governments that are providing compensation are largely those where HPV vaccine victim support groups are prominent. The confusion regarding the national program for HPV vaccine injury was caused by the discrepancy between the compensation programs for those vaccinated under the immunization law and for those who received voluntary vaccinations. The establishment of a new compensation program might be key to finding a lasting resolution.

  14. Methods for calculation of compensation for expropriation of a foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A legal expropriation of a foreign investment without exception includes an obligation of the host state to pay the investor an appropriate compensation for the taking. Bilateral treaties for protection and encouragement of investments which usually serve as a normative basis for arbitration of expropriation disputes contain provisions instructing contracting states to provide 'adequate', 'just' compensation or to pay the compensation in 'full' or 'genuine' value of the expropriated investment etc. However, the sole existence of the standard for payment of compensation is not by itself enough for establishing the precise sum of compensation in particular cases. This purpose is served by mathematical methods of calculation employed used in judicial and arbitral practice. The paper contains an overview of the most important methods for calculation in practice: the market value method, the discounted cash flow method and the book value method. It also identifies the differences between situations in which different methods are used and explains how the nature of an investment and circumstances of particular case affect the choice of a particular method by the arbitral tribunal.

  15. Atomic scale interface engineering for strain compensated epitaxially grown InAs/AlSb superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A; Dallner, M; Herrmann, A; Lehnhardt, T; Kamp, M; Höfling, S; Worschech, L; Forchel, A

    2010-11-12

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of strain compensation schemes for InAs/AlSb superlattices (SLs) on GaSb substrates. Short growth interruptions (soak times) under varying arsenic and/or antimony beam equivalent pressures in InAs/AlSb SLs with exemplary dimensions of about ((2.4/2.4) ± 0.2) nm were investigated to achieve strain compensation. When using uncracked As(4), strain compensation was found to be unaccomplishable unless sub-monolayer AlAs spikes were inserted at the InAs → AlSb interface. In contrast, the supply of cracked As(2) dimers leads directly to the formation of strain compensating AlAs-like interfaces. This mechanism allows various growth sequences for strain compensated superlattices, including soak-time-free and Sb-soak-only SL growth. Each of the two latter approaches yields layers with excellent crystal quality and minimal intermixing at the heterointerfaces as verified by high resolution x-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Atomic scale interface engineering for strain compensated epitaxially grown InAs/AlSb superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A; Dallner, M; Herrmann, A; Lehnhardt, T; Kamp, M; Hoefling, S; Worschech, L; Forchel, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of strain compensation schemes for InAs/AlSb superlattices (SLs) on GaSb substrates. Short growth interruptions (soak times) under varying arsenic and/or antimony beam equivalent pressures in InAs/AlSb SLs with exemplary dimensions of about ((2.4/2.4) ± 0.2) nm were investigated to achieve strain compensation. When using uncracked As 4 , strain compensation was found to be unaccomplishable unless sub-monolayer AlAs spikes were inserted at the InAs→AlSb interface. In contrast, the supply of cracked As 2 dimers leads directly to the formation of strain compensating AlAs-like interfaces. This mechanism allows various growth sequences for strain compensated superlattices, including soak-time-free and Sb-soak-only SL growth. Each of the two latter approaches yields layers with excellent crystal quality and minimal intermixing at the heterointerfaces as verified by high resolution x-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy.

  17. The color-radius interactions, GAMMA(D0 →K+K-)/GAMMA(D0 → π+π-) and violations of the ΔI = 1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukugita, M.; Hagiwara, T.; Sanda, A.I.

    1979-06-01

    A non-leptonic Hamiltonian is considered which includes the color-radius interaction in addition to the ordinary current-current interaction. It successfully explains widely different magnitudes of branching ratios GAMMA(D 0 → K + K - )/GAMMA(D 0 → π + π - ) approximately 3.4 +- 1.8, GAMMA(Ksub(s) →π + π - )/GAMMA(K + → π + π 0 )approximately 450 and [GAMMA(Ksub(s) →π + π - ) + 2GAMMA(Ksub(s) → π 0 π 0 )]/[GAMMA(Ksub(s) → π + π - ) - 2GAMMA(Ksub(s) → π 0 π 0 )] approximately 23 +- 3. This offers an unified understanding of the Cabibbo suppressed D decays and violations of ΔI = 1/2 rule in K decays. (author)

  18. Report of the working group for nuclear damage compensation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Working Group for Nuclear Damage Compensation System was established within the Atomic Energy Commision of Japan on August 2, 1988. The Group has held five meetings to make a study on the revision of the reserve for nuclear damage compensation. The nuclear damage compensation system in Japan has been established under the Law Concerning Compensation for Nuclear Damages and the Law Concerning Contract for Compensation for Nuclear Damages. The former law requires the nuclear power plant operators to set up a reserve for damage compensation to ensure positive and quick payment of compensation in the event of an accident. The reserve is currently rely on liability insurance and a government compensation contract. The Working Group has concluded that the total reserve should be increased from the current yen10 bill. to yen30 bill. The amount of the reserve specified in the enforcement law for the Law Concerning Compensation for Nuclear Damages should also be increased accordingly. The Law Concerning compensation for Nuclear damage will also be applied to damage which occurs overseas as a result of an accident in Japan. (N.K.)

  19. Astrophysical constraints from gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Roland; Prantzos, Nikos; Ballmoos, Peter von

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray lines from cosmic sources provide unique isotopic information, since they originate from energy level transitions in the atomic nucleus. Gamma-ray telescopes explored this astronomical window in the past three decades, detecting radioactive isotopes that have been ejected in interstellar space by cosmic nucleosynthesis events and nuclei that have been excited through collisions with energetic particles. Astronomical gamma-ray telescopes feature standard detectors of nuclear physics, but have to be surrounded by effective shields against local instrumental background, and need special detector and/or mask arrangements to collect imaging information. Due to exceptionally-low signal/noise ratios, progress in the field has been slow compared with other wavelengths. Despite the difficulties, this young field of astronomy is well established now, in particular due to advances made by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in the 90ies. The most important achievements so far concern: short-lived radioactivities that have been detected in a couple of supernovae ( 56 Co and 57 Co in SN1987A, 44 Ti in Cas A), the diffuse glow of long-lived 26 Al that has been mapped along the entire plane of the Galaxy, several excited nuclei that have been detected in solar flares, and, last but not least, positron annihilation that has been observed in the inner Galaxy since the 70ies. High-resolution spectroscopy is now being performed: since 2002, ESAs INTEGRAL and NASAs RHESSI, two space-based gamma-ray telescopes with Ge detectors, are in operation. Recent results include: imaging and line shape measurements of e - -e + annihilation emission from the Galactic bulge, which can hardly be accounted for by conventional sources of positrons; 26 Al emission and line width measurement from the inner Galaxy and from the Cygnus region, which can constrain the properties of the interstellar medium; and a diffuse 60 Fe gamma-ray line emission which appears rather weak, in view of current

  20. Secondary Control Scheme for Voltage Unbalance Compensation in an Islanded Droop-Controlled Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Jalilian, Alireza; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The concept of microgrid hierarchical control is presented recently. In this paper, a hierarchical scheme is proposed which includes primary and secondary control levels. The primary level comprises distributed generators (DGs) local controllers. The local controllers mainly consist of power......, voltage and current controllers, and virtual impedance control loop. The central secondary controller is designed to manage the compensation of voltage unbalance at the point of common coupling (PCC) in an islanded microgrid. Unbalance compensation is achieved by sending proper control signals to the DGs...

  1. A dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) with selective harmonic compensation at medium voltage level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, M.J.; Holmes, D.G.; Nielsen, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) are now becoming more established in industry to reduce the impact of voltage sags to sensitive loads. However, DVRs spend most of their time in standby mode, since voltage sags occur very infrequently, and hence their utilization is low. In principle, it would...... voltage harmonic compensation capabilities with minimal effect on the sag compensation performance of the basic DVR. The proposed controller has been experimentally verified on a medium-voltage (10 kV) three-phase DVR prototype under a range of conditions, including distorted supply voltages, nonlinear...... loads, and operation during distorted voltage sags....

  2. Secondary Control for Compensation of Voltage Harmonics and Unbalance in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Jalilian, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    of these controllers includes a selective virtual impedance loop which is considered to improve sharing of fundamental and harmonic components of load current among the DG units. The sharing improvement is provided at the expense of increasing voltage unbalance and harmonic distortion. Thus, the secondary control...... level is applied to manage the compensation of SLB voltage unbalance and harmonics by sending proper control signals to the primary level. DGs compensation efforts are controlled locally at the primary level. The system design procedure for selecting proper control parameters is discussed. Simulation...

  3. A 4-8GHz CMOS active balun using a compensated single-FET topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Leigh

    2007-12-01

    A single-FET active balun has been developed with a phase imbalance of less than +/-1.5° and amplitude imbalance less than +/-0.6dB from 4 to 8 GHz using 0.25μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS. The source terminal of the transistor has been compensated with a shunt capacitance to ground and increased value for the source resistance. The compensation network has improved the phase imbalance by 29° at 8 GHz. The circuit dissipates 15mW and is 260×300μm including AC coupling capacitors.

  4. Catalogue of gamma rays from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, L.P.; Andersson, P.

    1983-10-01

    A catalogue of almost 11000 gamma rays is presented. The gamma rays are sorted by energy. In addition to the gamma-ray intensity per 100 decays of the parent, the decay half-life and associated gamma rays are given. All data are from a computer processing of a recent ENSDF file. (author)

  5. $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ and $\\gamma$-p events at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, Gerhard A.; Gerhard A Schuler; Torbjorn Sjostrand

    1994-01-01

    A real photon has a complicated nature, whereby it may remain unresolved or fluctuate into a vector meson or a perturbative q-qbar pair. Based on this picture, we previously presented a model for gamma-p events that is based on the presence of three main event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. In gamma-gamma events, a natural generalization gives three-by-three combinations of the nature of the two incoming photons, and thus six distinct event classes. The properties of these classes are constrained by the choices already made, in the gamma-p model, of cut-off procedures and other aspects. It is therefore possible to predict the energy-dependence of the cross section for each of the six components separately. The total cross section thus obtained is in good agreement with data, and also gives support to the idea that a simple factorized ansatz with a pomeron and a reggeon term can be a good approximation. Event properties undergo a logical evolution from p-p to gamma-p to gamma-gamma events, with larger cha...

  6. Research on the compensation of laser launch optics to improve the performance of the LGS spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Yuning; Tian, Donghe; Zheng, Quan; Lin, Xudong; Wang, Liang; Yang, Qingyun

    2018-02-01

    To improve the beam quality of the uplink laser, a 37 channel piezo-ceramic deformable mirror was inserted into the laser launch optics to compensate the static aberrations. An interferometer was used as the calibration light source as well as the wavefront sensor to perform closed-loop correction for the moment. About 0.38λ root mean square (rms) aberrations, including the deformable mirror's initial figure error, were compensated, and the residual error was less than 0.07λ rms. Field observations with a 2 m optical telescope demonstrated that the peak intensity value of the laser guide star (LGS) spot increased from 5650 to 7658, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) size reduced from 4.07 arcseconds to 3.52 arcseconds. With the compensation, an improved guide star spot can be obtained, which is crucial for the adaptive optics systems of ground-based large telescopes.

  7. Atmospheric turbulence compensation in orbital angular momentum communications: Advances and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhui; Chen, Shi; Gao, Chunqing; Willner, Alan E.; Wang, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM)-carrying beams have recently generated considerable interest due to their potential use in communication systems to increase transmission capacity and spectral efficiency. For OAM-based free-space optical (FSO) links, a critical challenge is the atmospheric turbulence that will distort the helical wavefronts of OAM beams leading to the decrease of received power, introducing crosstalk between multiple channels, and impairing link performance. In this paper, we review recent advances in turbulence effects compensation techniques for OAM-based FSO communication links. First, basic concepts of atmospheric turbulence and theoretical model are introduced. Second, atmospheric turbulence effects on OAM beams are theoretically and experimentally investigated and discussed. Then, several typical turbulence compensation approaches, including both adaptive optics-based (optical domain) and signal processing-based (electrical domain) techniques, are presented. Finally, key challenges and perspectives of compensation of turbulence-distorted OAM links are discussed.

  8. Study on A Control Method of PAPF for Resonance Damping and Harmonics Compensation in Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fang; Wu, Longhui; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    In power system, capacitors are widely used to compensate reactive power, which generally cause resonance problems in harmonic distorted network. In this paper, A method of using a parallel active power filter (PAPF) to damp the resonances is proposed. The proposed method is compound with traditi......In power system, capacitors are widely used to compensate reactive power, which generally cause resonance problems in harmonic distorted network. In this paper, A method of using a parallel active power filter (PAPF) to damp the resonances is proposed. The proposed method is compound...... with traditional method, it shows that whether the capacitor current is included in the detecting current of PAPF or not. Also the PAPF with proposed method has strong ability in harmonic compensation. Finally, the experiment results are presented to verify the analysis....

  9. Instability of compensated beam-beam collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Autin, B.; Chen, Pisin.

    1989-01-01

    The beam-beam disruption phenomena in linear colliders are increasingly seen as a source of serious problems for these machines. A plasma compensation scheme, in which the motion of the plasma electrons in the presence of the colliding beams provides neutralizing charge and current densities, has been proposed and studied. But natural alternative to this scheme is to consider the overlapping of nearly identical high energy e + and e/sup /minus// bunches, and the collision of two such pairs - in other words, collision of two opposing relativistic positronium plasmas. It should be noticed that while the luminosity for all collisions is increased by a factor of four in this scheme, the event rate for e + e/sup /minus// collisions is only increased by a factor of two. The other factor of two corresponds to the addition of e + e + and e/sup /minus//e/sup /minus// collisions to the interaction point. This beam compensation scheme, which has been examined through computer simulation by Balakin and Solyak in the Soviet Union, promises full neutralization of beam charges and currents. These numerical investigations have shown that plasma instabilities exist in this nominally neutral system. Although the implementation of this idea seems technically daunting, the potential benefits (beamstrahlung and disruption suppression, relaxation of final focus system constraints) are such that we should consider the physics of these collisions further. In the remainder of this paper, we theoretically analyze the issues of stability and bunch parameter tolerances in this scheme. 11 refs

  10. Modelling, Measuring and Compensating Color Weak Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  11. Observation of the doubly radiative decay eta ' -> gamma gamma pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, Z.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Löhner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Tiemens, M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on a sample of 1.31 billion J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector, we report the study of the doubly radiative decay eta' -> gamma gamma pi(0) for the first time, where the eta' meson is produced via the J/psi -> gamma eta' decay. The branching fraction of eta' -> gamma gamma pi(0)

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(q)-1T - Highly compensated employee (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... During 1990, C leaves C's 40 hour a week position as director of the actuarial division of Z and starts working as an actuary for the same division, producing actuarial reports approximately 15 to 20 hours a... pursuant to a salary reduction agreement, without regard to section 403(b). Thus, compensation includes...

  13. 17 CFR 240.14a-20 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies... an annual (or special meeting in lieu of the annual) meeting of security holders for which proxies... to include a compensation discussion and analysis in their proxy statements in order to comply with...

  14. 17 CFR 256.457-3 - Compensation for use of capital-associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... capital-associate companies. 256.457-3 Section 256.457-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Compensation for use of capital-associate companies. This account shall include only the portion of... properly allocable to services rendered to each associate company. ...

  15. Teachers' Unions and Compensation: The Impact of Collective Bargaining on Salary Schedules and Performance Pay Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Kristine Lamm; Mykerezi, Elton

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact that collective bargaining has on multiple dimensions of teacher compensation, including average and starting salaries, early and late returns to experience, returns to graduate degrees, and the incidence of different pay for performance schemes. Using data from the School and Staffing Survey (SASS) and a more recent…

  16. Acting on Observed Social Exclusion: Developmental Perspectives on Punishment of Excluders and Compensation of Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A.; van den Bos, Wouter; Güroglu, Berna

    2013-01-01

    This study examined punishment of excluders and compensation of victims after observing an instance of social exclusion at various phases of adolescent development. Participants (n = 183; age 9 to 22 years) were first included in a virtual ball-tossing game, Cyberball, and then "observed" the exclusion of a peer. Subsequently, they…

  17. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.; Peabody, C.O.

    1961-09-01

    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

  18. Line positions and intensities for the gamma 1 + gamma 2 and gamma 2 + gamma 3 bands of (16)O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Flaud, J.-M.; Canypeyret, C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.

    1988-01-01

    Using 0.005 cm-resolution Fourier transform spectra of (16)O3, generated by electric discharge from a greater than 99.98 percent pure sample of (16)O3, an extensive analysis of the gamma 1 + gamma 2 and the gamma 2 + gamma 3 bands in the 5.7 micron region was performed. The rotational energy levels of the upper (110) and (011) vibrational states of (16)O3 were reproduced within their experimental uncertainties using a Hamiltonian which takes explicitly into account the Coriolis-type interaction occurring between the rotational energy levels of both states. Improved vibrational energies and rotational and coupling constants were also derived for the (110) and (011) states. Precise transition moment constants for these two bands were deduced from analysis of 220 measured line intensities. Finally, a complete list of line positions, intensities, and lower state energies for both bands has been generated.

  19. Distinguishing 'Higgs' spin hypotheses using $\\gamma \\gamma$ and $W W^*$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Hwang, Dae Sung; Sanz, Veronica; You, Tevong

    2013-01-01

    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations in searches for the Higgs boson has been observed to decay into gamma gamma, ZZ* and WW*, but its spin and parity, J^P, remain a mystery, with J^P = 0^+ and 2^+ being open possibilities. We use PYTHIA and Delphes to simulate an analysis of the angular distribution of gg to X to gamma gamma decays in a full 2012 data set, including realistic background levels. We show that this angular distribution should provide strong discrimination between the possibilities of spin zero and spin two with graviton-like couplings: ~ 3 sigma if a conservative symmetric interpretation of the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) test statistic is used, and ~ 6 sigma if a less conservative asymmetric interpretation is used. The WW and ZZ couplings of the Standard Model Higgs boson and of a 2^+ particle with graviton-like couplings are both expected to exhibit custodial symmetry. We simulate the present ATLAS and CMS search strategies for X to WW* using PYTHIA and De...

  20. On the Interpretation of a Possible $\\sim 750$ GeV Particle Decaying into $\\gamma \\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Quevillon, Jérémie; Sanz, Veronica; You, Tevong

    2016-01-01

    We consider interpretations of the recent $\\sim 3 \\sigma$ reports by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations of a possible $X(\\sim 750~{\\rm GeV})$ state decaying into $\\gamma \\gamma$ final states. We focus on the possibilities that this is a scalar or pseudoscalar electroweak isoscalar state produced by gluon-gluon fusion mediated by loops of heavy fermions. We consider several models for these fermions, including a single vector-like charge $2/3$ T quark, a doublet of vector-like quarks $(T, B)$, and a vector-like generation of quarks, with or without leptons that also contribute to the $X \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ decay amplitude. We also consider the possibility that $X(750)$ is a dark matter mediator, with a neutral vector-like dark matter particle. These scenarios are compatible with the present and prospective direct limits on vector-like fermions from LHC Runs 1 and 2, as well as indirect constraints from electroweak precision measurements, and we show that the required Yukawa-like couplings between the $X$ particle...