WorldWideScience

Sample records for include gamma compensation

  1. New lithology compensated capture gamma ray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peatross, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the HYDROCARBON* log after a series of field tests in which gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture were measured utilizing an energy analyzer and a scintillation counter of unique construction are reported. A brief discussion covers the nuclear physics required for an understanding of gamma spectral logging. Included in the explanation will be the effects of different atoms on neutrons and photons. The HYDROCARBON log utilizes these nuclear principles to record cased hole measurements and quantitatively distinguish possible productive zones from non-productive zones. Different field examples are illustrated showing the response to shaly sands, porosity and water salinity. Interpretation techniques are discussed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The HYDROCARBON log has proven to be a reliable device in the determination of water saturation in sands behind casing even when shale content and porosity are not well known. This technique is also valuable in the location of the present position of gas--oil contacts and water levels

  2. Gamma compensated pulsed ionization chamber wide range neutron/reactor power measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method and system of pulsed mode operation of ionization chambers is described in which a single sensor system with gamma compensation is provided by sampling, squaring, automatic gate selector, and differential amplifier circuit means, employed in relation to chambers sensitized to neutron plus gamma and gamma only to subtract out the gamma component, wherein squaring functions circuits, a supplemental high performance pulse rate system, and operational and display mode selection and sampling gate circuits are utilized to provide automatic wide range linear measurement capability for neutron flux and reactor power. Neon is employed as an additive in the ionization chambers to provide independence of ionized gas kinetics temperature effects, and the pulsed mode of operation provide independence of high temperature insulator leakage effects. (auth)

  3. Gamma spectrum analysis including NAA with SAMPO for Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Nikkinen, M.T.; Routti, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    SAMPO for Windows is a high performance gamma spectrum analysis program. All the measurement, analysis and NAA phases can be done either under full interactive use control or user defined tasks can be used for automated measurement and analysis sequences including control of MCAs and sample changers. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy together with the possibility to resolve complex multiplets with high accuracy makes SAMPO very suitable for INAA. On the other hand, the possibility to automate analysis sequences allows it use effectively also in all routine NAA measurements. NAA in SAMPO is accomplished using comparative methods. Spectra of standards, flux monitors, controls and actual samples are analyzed normally to obtain the peak areas which are optionally corrected for decay. In the comparison the flux monitor results are used to correct for variations in the effective neutron flux. An optional irradiation position correction can also be applied. The controls are used to alarm for possible deviations in the results. The sophisticated spectrum analysis methods used together with the comparative NAA and monitors give accurate results limited by the systematic effects only. The Windows environment provides ease of use and further processing power is available through the interface to expert system identification of nuclides. (author) 19 refs.; 1 tab

  4. Pulsed neutron logging system for inelastic scattering gamma rays with gain compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, W.E.; Smith, H.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention includes methods for linearizing the gain of borehole gamma ray energy measurement apparatus. A known energy peak (or peaks) which is prominent in the gamma ray energy spectra of borehole measurements is monitored and any drift in its apparent location in the energy spectrum is used to generate an error voltage. The error voltage is applied in an inverse feedback manner to control the gain of system amplifiers to cancel the drift

  5. Radioactive well logging system with shale (boron) compensation by gamma ray build-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelman, H.E.; Arnold, D.M.; Pitts, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole are repetitively bombarded with bursts of high energy neutrons. A radiation detector in a sonde in the borehole senses the gamma rays induced by the capture of thermal neutrons and sends signals representative thereof to the surface. At the surface, two single channel energy analyzers, such as from 1.30 to 2.92 MeV and from 3.43 to 10.0 MeV, sense the formation thermal neutron capture gamma ray response after each neutron burst. The counts of thermal neutron capture gamma rays in these analyzers are used to distinguish between the presence of salt water and hydrocarbons, which is logged. By controlling the repetition rate of the neutron source, measured counting rates in formations with relatively large thermal neutron lifetimes are emphasized, compensating for borehole effects which could otherwise give rise to erroneous results in shale formations, which have a high boron content. 11 claims, 5 figures

  6. Depth-of-Interaction Compensation Using a Focused-Cut Scintillator for a Pinhole Gamma Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassen, Fares; Kudrolli, Haris; Singh, Bipin; Kim, Sangtaek; Seo, Youngho; Gould, Robert G.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2011-06-01

    Preclinical SPECT offers a powerful means to understand the molecular pathways of drug interactions in animal models by discovering and testing new pharmaceuticals and therapies for potential clinical applications. A combination of high spatial resolution and sensitivity are required in order to map radiotracer uptake within small animals. Pinhole collimators have been investigated, as they offer high resolution by means of image magnification. One of the limitations of pinhole geometries is that increased magnification causes some rays to travel through the detection scintillator at steep angles, introducing parallax errors due to variable depth-of-interaction in scintillator material, especially towards the edges of the detector field of view. These parallax errors ultimately limit the resolution of pinhole preclinical SPECT systems, especially for higher energy isotopes that can easily penetrate through millimeters of scintillator material. A pixellated, focused-cut (FC) scintillator, with its pixels laser-cut so that they are collinear with incoming rays, can potentially compensate for these parallax errors and thus improve the system resolution. We performed the first experimental evaluation of a newly developed focused-cut scintillator. We scanned a Tc-99 m source across the field of view of pinhole gamma camera with a continuous scintillator, a conventional “straight-cut” (SC) pixellated scintillator, and a focused-cut scintillator, each coupled to an electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) detector by a fiber-optic taper, and compared the measured full-width half-maximum (FWHM) values. We show that the FWHMs of the focused-cut scintillator projections are comparable to the FWHMs of the thinner SC scintillator, indicating the effectiveness of the focused-cut scintillator in compensating parallax errors.

  7. Depth-of-Interaction Compensation Using a Focused-Cut Scintillator for a Pinhole Gamma Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassen, Fares; Kudrolli, Haris; Singh, Bipin; Kim, Sangtaek; Seo, Youngho; Gould, Robert G; Nagarkar, Vivek V

    2011-06-01

    Preclinical SPECT offers a powerful means to understand the molecular pathways of drug interactions in animal models by discovering and testing new pharmaceuticals and therapies for potential clinical applications. A combination of high spatial resolution and sensitivity are required in order to map radiotracer uptake within small animals. Pinhole collimators have been investigated, as they offer high resolution by means of image magnification. One of the limitations of pinhole geometries is that increased magnification causes some rays to travel through the detection scintillator at steep angles, introducing parallax errors due to variable depth-of-interaction in scintillator material, especially towards the edges of the detector field of view. These parallax errors ultimately limit the resolution of pinhole preclinical SPECT systems, especially for higher energy isotopes that can easily penetrate through millimeters of scintillator material. A pixellated, focused-cut (FC) scintillator, with its pixels laser-cut so that they are collinear with incoming rays, can potentially compensate for these parallax errors and thus improve the system resolution. We performed the first experimental evaluation of a newly developed focused-cut scintillator. We scanned a Tc-99m source across the field of view of pinhole gamma camera with a continuous scintillator, a conventional "straight-cut" (SC) pixellated scintillator, and a focused-cut scintillator, each coupled to an electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) detector by a fiber-optic taper, and compared the measured full-width half-maximum (FWHM) values. We show that the FWHMs of the focused-cut scintillator projections are comparable to the FWHMs of the thinner SC scintillator, indicating the effectiveness of the focused-cut scintillator in compensating parallax errors.

  8. A tool to include gamma analysis software into a quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Christina E; McGarry, Conor K

    2016-03-01

    To provide a tool to enable gamma analysis software algorithms to be included in a quality assurance (QA) program. Four image sets were created comprising two geometric images to independently test the distance to agreement (DTA) and dose difference (DD) elements of the gamma algorithm, a clinical step and shoot IMRT field and a clinical VMAT arc. The images were analysed using global and local gamma analysis with 2 in-house and 8 commercially available software encompassing 15 software versions. The effect of image resolution on gamma pass rates was also investigated. All but one software accurately calculated the gamma passing rate for the geometric images. Variation in global gamma passing rates of 1% at 3%/3mm and over 2% at 1%/1mm was measured between software and software versions with analysis of appropriately sampled images. This study provides a suite of test images and the gamma pass rates achieved for a selection of commercially available software. This image suite will enable validation of gamma analysis software within a QA program and provide a frame of reference by which to compare results reported in the literature from various manufacturers and software versions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The impact of prompt gamma compensation on myocardial blood flow measurements with rubidium-82 dynamic PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ian S; Memmott, Matthew J; Tonge, Christine M; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2018-04-01

    Rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion imaging is a well-established technique for assessing myocardial ischemia. With continuing interest on myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurements, there is a requirement to fully appreciate the impact of technical aspects of the process. One such factor for rubidium-82 is prompt gamma compensation (PGC). This study aims to assess the impact of PGC on MBF and MFR calculated from dynamic Rb-82 data. Dynamic rest and stress images were acquired on a Siemens Biograph mCT and reconstructed with and without PGC in 50 patients (29 male). MBF and MFR were measured in the three main coronary territories as well as globally. With PGC, statistically significant reductions in MBF were observed in LAD (-6.9%), LCx (-4.8%), and globally (-6.5%) but only in obese patients. Significant increases in MBF were observed in RCA (+6.4%) in only nonobese patients. In very obese patients, differences of up to 40% in MBF were observed between PGC and non-PGC images. In nearly all cases, similar PGC differences were observed at stress and rest so there were no significant differences in MFR; however, in a small number of very obese patients, differences in excess of 20% were observed. PGC results in statistically significant changes in MBF, with the greatest reductions observed in the LAD and LCx territories of obese patients. In most cases, the impact on stress and rest data is of similar relative magnitudes and changes to MFR are small.

  10. Sampled data CT system including analog filter and compensating digital filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, G. H.; DallaPiazza, D. G.; Pelc, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A CT scanner in which the amount of x-ray information acquired per unit time is substantially increased by using a continuous-on x-ray source and a sampled data system with the detector. An analog filter is used in the sampling system for band limiting the detector signal below the highest frequency of interest, but is a practically realizable filter and is therefore non-ideal. A digital filter is applied to the detector data after digitization to compensate for the characteristics of the analog filter, and to provide an overall filter characteristic more nearly like the ideal

  11. Automatic generation control with thyristor controlled series compensator including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Padhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the dynamic performance of Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area multi-units thermal–thermal power system with the consideration of Reheat turbine, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Time delay. Initially, the gains of the fuzzy PID controller are optimized using Differential Evolution (DE algorithm. The superiority of DE is demonstrated by comparing the results with Genetic Algorithm (GA. After that performance of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC has been investigated. Further, a TCSC is placed in the tie-line and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES units are considered in both areas. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters.

  12. 26 CFR 1.61-2 - Compensation for services, including fees, commissions, and similar items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (including Christmas bonuses), termination or severance pay, rewards, jury fees, marriage fees and other...). For the special rules relating to the includibility in an employee's gross income of an amount equal...

  13. SAMPO 90 high resolution interactive gamma-spectrum analysis including automation with macros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Nikkinen, M.T.; Routti, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    SAMPO 90 is high performance gamma-spectrum analysis program for personal computers. It uses color graphics to display calibrations, spectra, fitting results as multiplet components, and analysis results. All the analysis phases can be done either under full interactive user control or macros and programmable function keys can be used for completely automated measurement and analysis sequences including the control of MACs and sample changers. Accurate peak area determination of even the most complex multiplets, of up to 32 components, is accomplished using linear and mixed mode fitting. Nuclide identification is done using associated lines techniques allowing interference correction for fully overlapping peaks. Peaked Background Subtraction can be performed and Minimum Detectable Activities calculated. The analysis reports and program parameters are fully customizable. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig

  14. SAMPO 90 - High resolution interactive gamma spectrum analysis including automation with macros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Nikkinen, M.T.; Routti, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    SAMPO 90 is a high performance gamma spectrum analysis program for personal computers. It uses high resolution color graphics to display calibrations, spectra, fitting results as multiplet components, and analysis results. All the analysis phases can be done either under full interactive user control or by using macros for automated measurement and analysis sequences including the control of MCAs and sample changers. Semi-automated calibrations for peak shapes (Gaussian with exponential tails), detector efficiency, and energy are available with a possibility for user intervention through interactive graphics. Accurate peak area determination of even the most complex multiplets, of up to 32 components, is accomplished using linear, non-linear and mixed mode fitting, where the component energies and areas can be either frozen or allowed to float in arbitrary combinations. Nuclide identification is done using associated lines techniques which allow interference correction for fully overlapping peaks. Peaked Background Subtraction can be performed and Minimum Detectable Activities calculated. Attenuation corrections can be taken into account in detector efficiency calculation. The most common PC-based MCA spectrum formats (Canberra S100, Ortec ACE, Nucleus PCA, ND AccuSpec) are supported as well as ASCII spectrum files. A gamma-line library is included together with an editor for user configurable libraries. The analysis reports and program parameters are fully customizable. Function key macros can be used to automate the most common analysis procedures. Small batch type modules are additionally available for routine work. SAMPO 90 is a result of over twenty man years of programming and contains 25,000 lines of Fortran, 10,000 lines of C, and 12,000 lines of assembler

  15. Nuclear data libraries for gamma analysis programs, including special purpose libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmeier, W.; Reus, U.; Siemon, K.; Westmeier, H.

    2002-01-01

    A complete set of gamma ray and other data relating to the decay of all known nuclides has been compiled from the literature and electronic sources. The data were critically reviewed, evaluated and the consistency was checked. The total catalogue is comprised of data-sets for 3841 nuclides and isomers with 106,355 gamma ray and 19,347 X ray entries. A subset of 1,627 nuclides with 32,456 gamma ray entries is extracted into a database, which provides the basis for the generation of nuclide libraries for the application in spectrometry programmes. The WINDOWS based program NUC M AN was developed which serves for the updating and editing of the database as well as the generation of task-specific user libraries for special purposes. The literature cut-off date for this catalogue is January 1, 1998. (author)

  16. High-resolution gamma ray attenuation density measurements on mining exploration drill cores, including cut cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.-S.; Bourke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical property measurements are increasingly important in mining exploration. For density determinations on rocks, one method applicable on exploration drill cores relies on gamma ray attenuation. This non-destructive method is ideal because each measurement takes only 10 s, making it suitable for high-resolution logging. However calibration has been problematic. In this paper we present new empirical, site-specific correction equations for whole NQ and BQ cores. The corrections force back the gamma densities to the "true" values established by the immersion method. For the NQ core caliber, the density range extends to high values (massive pyrite, 5 g/cm3) and the correction is thought to be very robust. We also present additional empirical correction factors for cut cores which take into account the missing material. These "cut core correction factors", which are not site-specific, were established by making gamma density measurements on truncated aluminum cylinders of various residual thicknesses. Finally we show two examples of application for the Abitibi Greenstone Belt in Canada. The gamma ray attenuation measurement system is part of a multi-sensor core logger which also determines magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and mineralogy on rock cores, and performs line-scan imaging.

  17. High-performance control of a three-phase voltage-source converter including feedforward compensation of the estimated load current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Andres E.; Solsona, Jorge A.; Busada, Claudio; Chiacchiarini, Hector; Valla, Maria Ines

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new control strategy for voltage-source converters (VSC) is introduced. The proposed strategy consists of a nonlinear feedback controller based on feedback linearization plus a feedforward compensation of the estimated load current. In our proposal an energy function and the direct-axis current are considered as outputs, in order to avoid the internal dynamics. In this way, a full linearization is obtained via nonlinear transformation and feedback. An estimate of the load current is feedforwarded to improve the performance of the whole system and to diminish the capacitor size. This estimation allows to obtain a more rugged and cheaper implementation. The estimate is calculated by using a nonlinear reduced-order observer. The proposal is validated through different tests. These tests include performance in presence of switching frequency, measurement filters delays, parameters uncertainties and disturbances in the input voltage.

  18. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    2013-07-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  19. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee

    2013-01-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  20. Effect of cobalt-60 {gamma} radiation and of thermal neutrons on high resistance P and N silicon. Possibility of obtaining a nuclear compensation for P type silicon; Effects du rayonnement {gamma} du cobalt 60 et de neutrons thermiques sur du silicium P et N de haute resistivite. Possibilite de realiser une compensation nucleaire d'un silicium du type P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-11-01

    Type P silicon has been compensated by the production of a controlled and uniform amount of donor atoms ({sup 31}P) using thermal neutrons to bring about a nuclear transformation. It is shown that it is possible in this way to reduce by a factor of about one hundred the overall concentration of residual ionised impurities in the purest crystals obtained by floating zone purification (2 x 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 3}). The degree compensation obtained is limited by the initial inhomogeneity of acceptor impurities which have to be compensated. Lattice defects which still remain after prolonged annealings reduce the life-time of the material to about 10 {mu}s approximately. Particle detectors having thicknesses of 2 to 5 mm have been built by this process; they give good results, particularly at low temperatures. A study has also been made of the number and of the nature of lattice defects produced by thermal neutrons in high resistivity P and N type crystals. These defects have been compared to those produced by {gamma} rays from {sup 60}Co. A discussion is given of the validity of the Wertheim model concerning pronounced recombination at low temperatures (77 deg. K - 300 deg. K) of primary defect-interstitial pairs. The nature of the defects introducing energy levels into the lower half of the forbidden band has been studied. (author) [French] On a compense du silicium de type P en produisant, au moyen de neutrons thermiques, par transmutation nucleaire une quantite controlee et uniforme d'atomes donneurs ({sup 31}P). On montre qu'on peut ainsi reduire de cent fois environ la densite nette d'impuretes ionisees residuelles subsistant dans les cristaux les plus purs obtenus par purification par zone flottante (2.10{sup 12} atomes/cm{sup 3}). Le degre de compensation obtenu est limite par i'inhomogeneite initiale des impuretes acceptrices a compenser. Des defauts de reseau qui subsistent meme apres des recuits prolonges reduisent la duree de vie du materiau a 10 {mu

  1. Mechanisms of growth inhibition of primary prostate epithelial cells following gamma irradiation or photodynamic therapy include senescence, necrosis, and autophagy, but not apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Fiona M.; Savoie, Huguette; Bryden, Francesca; Giuntini, Francesca; Mann, Vincent M.; Simms, Matthew S.; Boyle, Ross W.; Maitland, Norman J.

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to more differentiated cells, prostate cancer stem-like cells are radioresistant, which could explain radio-recurrent prostate cancer. Improvement of radiotherapeutic efficacy may therefore require combination therapy. We have investigated the consequences of treating primary prostate epithelial cells with gamma irradiation and photodynamic therapy (PDT), both of which act through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Primary prostate epithelial cells were cultured from patient samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer prior to treatment with PDT or gamma irradiation. Cell viability was measured using MTT and alamar blue assay, and cell recovery by colony-forming assays. Immunofluorescence of gamma-H2AX foci was used to quantify DNA damage, and autophagy and apoptosis were assessed using Western blots. Necrosis and senescence were measured by propidium iodide staining and beta-galactosidase staining, respectively. Both PDT and gamma irradiation reduced the colony-forming ability of primary prostate epithelial cells. PDT reduced the viability of all types of cells in the cultures, including stem-like cells and more differentiated cells. PDT induced necrosis and autophagy, whereas gamma irradiation induced senescence, but neither treatment induced apoptosis. PDT and gamma irradiation therefore inhibit cell growth by different mechanisms. We suggest these treatments would be suitable for use in combination as sequential treatments against prostate cancer

  2. Improvement of gamma-ray Sn transport calculations including coherent and incoherent scatterings and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence: Determination of gamma-ray buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Diop, C.M.; Assad, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Ridoux, P.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of gamma-ray transport calculations in S n codes aim at taking into account the bound-electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent), coherent scattering (Rayleigh), and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. A computation scheme was developed to take into account these phenomena by modifying the angular and energy transfer matrices, and no modification in the transport code has been made. The incoherent and coherent scatterings as well as the fluorescence sources can be strictly treated by the transfer matrix change. For bremsstrahlung sources, this is possible if one can neglect the charged particles path as they pass through the matter (electrons and positrons) and is applicable for the energy range of interest for us (below 10 MeV). These improvements have been reported on the kernel attenuation codes by the calculation of new buildup factors. The gamma-ray buildup factors have been carried out for 25 natural elements up to 30 mean free paths in the energy range between 15 keV and 10 MeV

  3. The investigation of gamma and neutron shielding properties of concrete including basalt fibre for nuclear energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nulk, H.; Ipbuker, C.; Gulik, V.; Tkaczyk, A.; Biland, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we would like to draw attention to the prospect of basalt fibre as the main component for concrete reinforcement of NPP. This work describes the computational study of gamma attenuation parameters, the effective atomic number Z(eff) and the effective electron density N e (eff), of relatively light-weight concrete with chopped basalt fibre used as reinforcement in different mixture rates. We can draw the following conclusions. Basalt fibre is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement instead of metallic fibers. Basalt fibre has a similar specific gravity to that of concrete elements. Basalt fibre has high chemical and abrasion resistance. Basalt fibre has almost 10 times the tensile strength of steel re-bars. Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients increase with addition of basalt fibre into concrete in every case. The effective atomic number of the concrete increases with the addition of basalt fibre. The results show that basalt fibre reinforced concrete have improved shielding properties against gamma rays in comparison with regular concrete. This result is based on a regular concrete with only basalt fiber reinforcement. We estimate that with addition of standard aggregates for radiation shielding concrete, such as barite, magnetite or hematite, the shielding properties will increase exponentially

  4. Automated analysis of off-line measured gamma-spectra using UniSampo gamma-ray spectrum analysis software including criterias for alarming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkinen, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    In many laboratories the number of measured routine gamma-spectra can be significant and the labour work to review all the data is time consuming and expensive task. In many cases the routine sample does not normally contain radiation above a detectable level, and still the review of the spectra has to be performed. By introducing simple rules for emerging conditions, the review work can be significantly reduced. In one case the need to review the environmental measurement spectra was reduced to less than 1% compared to the original need, which in turn made the review personnel available for more useful functions. Using the UniSampo analysis system, the analysis results of spectra that are causing alarming conditions can be transmitted via e-mail to any address. Some systems are even equipped with the capability to forward these results to hand-portable telephones or pagers. This is a very practical solution for automated environmental monitoring, when the sample spectra are collected automatically and transmitted to central computer for further analysis. Set up of an automatic analysis system, rules for the emerging conditions, technical solutions for an automated alarming system and a generic hypothesis test for the alarming system developed for UniSampo analysis software are described. (author)

  5. Creative compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, D.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs

  6. Addressing inadequate compensation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-12

    Aug 12, 2016 ... The issue LSLAs raise a number of concerns regarding compensation, including ... at a meeting with traders in Lamu, Kenya, where a new port is planned. ... compensation and a fair share of benefits and risks in land deals.

  7. Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael J; Rylett, Caroline M; Keen, Jeff N; Audsley, Neil; Sajid, Mohammed; Shirras, Alan D; Isaac, R Elwyn

    2006-05-02

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin K-like cysteine peptidase and a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Enzymatic studies established that accessory gland secretions contain a cysteine peptidase zymogen that can be activated at low pH. This peptidase may have a role in the processing of female and other male-derived proteins, but is unlikely to be involved in the processing of the sex peptide. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidases are type II integral membrane proteins; however, the identified AG gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-1) is unusual in that it is predicted to be a soluble secreted protein, a prediction that is supported by biochemical evidence. GGT-1 is possibly involved in maintaining a protective redox environment for sperm. The strong gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity found in the secretions provides an explanation for the observation that glutamic acid is the most abundant free amino acid in accessory gland secretions of D. melanogaster. We have applied biochemical approaches, not used previously, to characterise

  8. Losses compensation; Compensation des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One mission of RTE (Electric Power Transportation), is to watch over the losses compensation resulting from the power transport on the electric power network. Since january 2001, RTE makes good the electric losses by the purchase of energy. To choose the marketers, a consultation has been realized by RTE. This document presents the rules concerning these losses compensation. (A.L.B.)

  9. 25 CFR 900.70 - What elements are included in the compensation for a lease entered into between the Secretary and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Trash and waste removal and disposal; (10) Fire protection/fire fighting services and equipment; (11) Monitoring and preventive maintenance of building structures and systems, including but not limited to: (i...) Fire safety system; (vii) Security system; and (viii) Roof, foundation, walls, floors. (12) Unscheduled...

  10. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  11. Background compensation methodologies for contamination monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Anand; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation surveillance program in the various nuclear facilities incorporate contamination monitoring as an important component. Contamination monitoring programs constitute monitoring for alpha and beta contamination of the physical entities associated with the working personnel that include his hands, feet, clothing, shoes as well as the general surface areas in the working environment like floors. All these measurements are fraught with the contribution of the ambient gamma background radiation fields. These inhibit a proper and precise estimation of the contamination concentration being monitored. This paper investigates the efficacy of two methodologies that have been incorporated in two of the contamination monitoring systems developed in the Division. In the first system discussed, a high degree of gamma compensation has been achieved for an uniform exposure of the order of 50 nSv/hr to 100 mSv/hr. In the second system discussed, the degree of gamma compensation achieved is equal to those dictated by the statistical nature of the uncertainties associated with the subtraction of background from the source data. These two methods can be very effectively employed depending on the application requirement. A minimum detection level equivalent to 0.37 Bq/cdm 2 has been achieved in both these cases

  12. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  13. Creative compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll, D

    1994-09-19

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs.

  14. Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Assad, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these two effects greatly increase the buildup factors for energies below a few hundred kilo-electron-volts, and thus the new results are improved relative to the experiment. This greater accuracy is due to the increase in the linear attenuation coefficient, which leads to the calculation of the buildup factors for a mean free path with a smaller shield thickness. On the other hand, for the same shield thickness, exposure increases when only incoherent scattering is included and decreases when only coherent scattering is included, so that the exposure finally decreases when both effects are included. Great care must also be taken when checking the approximations for gamma-ray deep-penetration transport calculations, as well as for the cross-section treatment and origin

  15. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those hours...

  16. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The application of full spectrum gamma-gamma techniques to density/photoelectric cross section logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minette, D.C.; Hubner, B.G.; Koudelka, J.C.; Schmidt, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Compensated Z-Densilog instrument is a new full spectrum gamma-gamma logging instrument, measuring the density and photoelectric cross section (Pe) of the formation. This instrument represents an advancement over present instruments in that the observed gamma spectrum is sent to the surface as a full 256-channel spectrum instead of count rates in a few energy gates. This advancement is made possible by the use of high speed digital electronics which are protected from the high temperatures observed downhole by custom-built flasks. In this paper, the new advanced electronics are considered in some detail. This consideration includes a comparison of full spectrum data acquisition with the multiple discriminator window technique, which is the foundation of the ''few gate'' method. Both of these methods are critiqued based upon electronic stability and the information obtained. The full spectrum provided by high speed electronics facilitates a much more sophisticated data analysis. This data analysis, based on phenomenological model of the instrument (Minette, 1984), includes real time compensation for changes in detector gain and crystal resolution. It also includes a ''four-dimensional'' rib-spine plot, which separates the compensation for mudcake density from the compensation for the Pe of the formation and the mudcake. Also included in the software are real time error minimization and real time decision-making techniques. These techniques maximize the sensitivity of the instrument to the density and Pe of the formation and minimize error due to statistical fluctuations. Gain and resolution compensation completes the data analysis. This compensation virtually eliminates density and Pe errors caused by changing gain and resolution

  18. Aeromagnetic Compensation for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naprstek, T.; Lee, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic data is one of the most widely collected types of data in exploration geophysics. With the continuing prevalence of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in everyday life there is a strong push for aeromagnetic data collection using UAVs. However, apart from the many political and legal barriers to overcome in the development of UAVs as aeromagnetic data collection platforms, there are also significant scientific hurdles, primary of which is magnetic compensation. This is a well-established process in manned aircraft achieved through a combination of platform magnetic de-noising and compensation routines. However, not all of this protocol can be directly applied to UAVs due to fundamental differences in the platforms, most notably the decrease in scale causing magnetometers to be significantly closer to the avionics. As such, the methodology must be suitably adjusted. The National Research Council of Canada has collaborated with Aeromagnetic Solutions Incorporated to develop a standardized approach to de-noising and compensating UAVs, which is accomplished through a series of static and dynamic experiments. On the ground, small static tests are conducted on individual components to determine their magnetization. If they are highly magnetic, they are removed, demagnetized, or characterized such that they can be accounted for in the compensation. Dynamic tests can include measuring specific components as they are powered on and off to assess their potential effect on airborne data. The UAV is then flown, and a modified compensation routine is applied. These modifications include utilizing onboard autopilot current sensors as additional terms in the compensation algorithm. This process has been applied with success to fixed-wing and rotary-wing platforms, with both a standard manned-aircraft magnetometer, as well as a new atomic magnetometer, much smaller in scale.

  19. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  20. Neutron detector with gamma compensated cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, H.D.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention describes a technique for essentially eliminating the radiation induced background currents that are generated in the cable that connects an ''in-core'' neutron detector to an electrical terminal that is outside of the reactor's radiation field. This undesirable radiation-induced cable current is suppressed through an appropriate selection of conductor and cable sheath materials and sizes that generally satisfy the equation: Z/sub l/sup n/d/sub l/ = Z/sub s/sup m/d/sub s/ where Z is the atomic number of the material; d is a characteristic of the size of the cable component; m and/n have values between 1 and 5 to express the electron emissivity of the cable component from photoelectric and Compton effects; l represents the conductor; and s represents the sheath. Thus, the radiation-generated electrons emitted from the conductor and the oppositely-directed electrons emitted from the inner surface of the cable sheath are mutually cancelled if this equation is satisfied. A typical cable that does meet this criterion at low temperatures has a centrally disposed Zircaloy-2 inner conductor of 0.011 inch diameter, an annular insulation of magnesium oxide powder compacted to 100 percent density, and an Inconel sheath with an outside diameter of 0.062 inch and 0.011 inch wall thickness. (auth)

  1. Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokemoto, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform were closely related. Nuclear damage compensation cost should be part of generation cost of nuclear power. Extend of nuclear damage compensation was limited by compensation standard of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) following guidelines of Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation. TEPCO had already paid compensation of about two trillion yen until now, which was only a part of total damage compensation cost. TEPCO had been provided more than 3.4 trillion yen by Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Cooperation, which would be put back by nuclear operators including TEPCO. TEPCO could obtain present raising funds and try to reconstruct business with restart of nuclear power, which might disturb energy reform. Present nuclear damage compensation scheme had better be reformed with learning more from Minamata disease case in Japan. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  3. A primer for workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Spengler, Dan M; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-07-01

    A physician's role within a workers' compensation injury extends far beyond just evaluation and treatment with several socioeconomic and psychological factors at play compared with similar injuries occurring outside of the workplace. Although workers' compensation statutes vary among states, all have several basic features with the overall goal of returning the injured worker to maximal function in the shortest time period, with the least residual disability and shortest time away from work. To help physicians unfamiliar with the workers' compensation process accomplish these goals. Review. Educational review. The streamlined review addresses the topics of why is workers' compensation necessary; what does workers' compensation cover; progression after work injury; impairment and maximum medical improvement, including how to use the sixth edition of American Medical Association's (AMA) Guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment (Guides); completion of work injury claim after impairment rating; independent medical evaluation; and causation. In the "no-fault" workers' compensation system, physicians play a key role in progressing the claim along and, more importantly, getting the injured worker back to work as soon as safely possible. Physicians should remain familiar with the workers' compensation process, along with how to properly use the AMA Guides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Automatic error compensation in dc amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longden, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    When operational amplifiers are exposed to high levels of neutron fluence or total ionizing dose, significant changes may be observed in input voltages and currents. These changes may produce large errors at the output of direct-coupled amplifier stages. Therefore, the need exists for automatic compensation techniques. However, previously introduced techniques compensate only for errors in the main amplifier and neglect the errors induced by the compensating circuitry. In this paper, the techniques introduced compensate not only for errors in the main operational amplifier, but also for errors induced by the compensation circuitry. Included in the paper is a theoretical analysis of each compensation technique, along with advantages and disadvantages of each. Important design criteria and information necessary for proper selection of semiconductor switches will also be included. Introduced in this paper will be compensation circuitry for both resistive and capacitive feedback networks

  5. Improved cable compensation technique for self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhove, R. van

    1996-01-01

    Measurements with cobalt self powered neutron detectors on the BR2 reactor have revealed that the currents induced by external gamma radiation can be of the same order as the neutron induced signal and that the gamma induced current on the emitter and the compensator wires are not symmetric. In this case, the standard detection electronic setup leads to erroneous results. It is shown that a slightly modified electronic setup, in which this asymmetry is compensated for, can nevertheless allow to obtain correct neutron flux measurements. Measures to reduce the influence of external gamma radiation in general will also be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Gamma-ray production cross sections for 0.9 to 20 MeV neutron interactions with 10B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bywater, R.L. Jr.

    1986-09-01

    Gamma-ray spectral data previously obtained at the 20-meter station of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator flight-path 8 were studied to determine cross sections for 0.9- to 20-MeV neutron interactions with 10 B. Data reduction techniques, including those for determination of incident neutron fluences as well as those to compensate for Doppler-broadened gamma-ray-detection responses, are given in some detail in this report. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would

  8. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  9. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  10. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  11. Gamma, radon, natural radioactivity measurements in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.

    1997-01-01

    Different natural radiation measurements, performed since 1983, are analysed and discussed regarding the average effective population dose. A decade of absorbed gamma dose measurements in air (1983-93), were carried out using compensated TLD detectors, during long periods of integration time and with a network of 11 stations, along the country, from Arica to the Antarctic territory. An indoor Rn -222 and gamma survey dwellings, in high background zones, underground mines and drinking water was started in 1988 using different kind of detectors, including electret radon chambers. The methods, dose assessments and results are presented and discussed in the frame of worldwide average effective population doses. None of the average effective doses found over the evaluated areas, exceed the comparison levels. (author)

  12. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Straelberg, E.; Klemola, S.; Nielsen, Sven P.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  13. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  14. Reactor gamma spectrometry: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Kaiser, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Current work is described for Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry including developments in experimental technique as well as recent reactor spectrometry measurements. The current status of the method is described concerning gamma spectromoetry probe design and response characteristics. Emphasis is given to gamma spectrometry work in US LWR and BR programs. Gamma spectrometry in BR environments are outlined by focussing on start-up plans for the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Gamma spectrometry results are presented for a LWR pressure vessel mockup in the Poolside Critical Assembly (PCA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  15. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  16. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  17. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  18. Developing fair compensation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousdale, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of finding an effective way to incorporate Aboriginal values into the process of developing fair compensation structures was discussed. This paper discusses pricing intangible values using dollars, but it was emphasized that 'values' are whatever are important to us. Therefore, in order to achieve fair compensation, creative alternatives that are value-focused should be pursued. In addition to the more straight-forward monetary compensation, compensation could also be about avoiding losses, mitigating adverse impacts, achieving better communication, and promoting cultural understanding. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  19. US-LHC IR magnet error analysis and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Ptitsin, V.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Gelfand, N.; Wan, W.; Holt, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of the insertion-region (IR) magnet field errors on LHC collision performance. Compensation schemes including magnet orientation optimization, body-end compensation, tuning shims, and local nonlinear correction are shown to be highly effective

  20. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  1. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We derive the optimal compensation contract in a principal–agent setting in which outcome is used to provide incentives for both effort and risky investments. To motivate investment, optimal compensation entails rewards for high as well as low outcomes, and it is increasing at the mean outcome...

  2. Optimal compensation for neuron loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David GT; Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-01-01

    The brain has an impressive ability to withstand neural damage. Diseases that kill neurons can go unnoticed for years, and incomplete brain lesions or silencing of neurons often fail to produce any behavioral effect. How does the brain compensate for such damage, and what are the limits of this compensation? We propose that neural circuits instantly compensate for neuron loss, thereby preserving their function as much as possible. We show that this compensation can explain changes in tuning curves induced by neuron silencing across a variety of systems, including the primary visual cortex. We find that compensatory mechanisms can be implemented through the dynamics of networks with a tight balance of excitation and inhibition, without requiring synaptic plasticity. The limits of this compensatory mechanism are reached when excitation and inhibition become unbalanced, thereby demarcating a recovery boundary, where signal representation fails and where diseases may become symptomatic. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12454.001 PMID:27935480

  3. Compensation of Disadvantages in University Examination Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Quapp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Active social participation of disabled people is one of the major tasks of modern society. That also includes access to the academic community by higher education. Universities all over the world work hard to give handicapped students a chance to graduate. In this context, compensation of disadvantages in examination procedures is an important matter. But, also chronic illness may impair the student's examination performance. To ensure equal examination opportunities for all students, responsible university officials must be creative to find individual compensation solutions. The paper analyzes examination regulations at universities in different countries and offers solutions to compensate disabled and chronic ill students' disadvantages. It discusses the necessity of compensation for different types of disability and chronic illness. Finally, an overview of current German case law and solutions for compensation problems are provided.

  4. Reactive power compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  5. Reactive power compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  6. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  7. Does CEO compensation impact patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingbola, Kunle; van den Berg, Herman A

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between CEO compensation and patient satisfaction in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to determine what impact hospital CEO compensation has on hospital patient satisfaction. The analyses in this study were based on data of 261 CEO-hospital-year observations in a sample of 103 nonprofit hospitals. A number of linear regressions were conducted, with patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and CEO compensation as the independent variable of interest. Controlling variables included hospital size, type of hospital, and frequency of adverse clinical outcomes. CEO compensation does not significantly influence hospital patient satisfaction. Both patient satisfaction and CEO compensation appear to be driven primarily by hospital size. Patient satisfaction decreases, while CEO compensation increases, with the number of acute care beds in a hospital. In addition, CEO compensation does not even appear to moderate the influence of hospital size on patient satisfaction. There are several limitations to this study. First, observations of CEO-hospital-years in which annual nominal CEO compensation was below $100,000 were excluded, as they were not publicly available. Second, this research was limited to a three-year range. Third, this study related the compensation of individual CEOs to a measure of performance based on a multitude of patient satisfaction surveys. Finally, this research is restricted to not-for-profit hospitals in Ontario, Canada. The findings seem to suggest that hospital directors seeking to improve patient satisfaction may find their efforts frustrated if they focus exclusively on the hospital CEO. The findings highlight the need for further research on how CEOs may, through leading and supporting those hospital clinicians and staff that interact more closely with patients, indirectly enhance patient satisfaction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no research has examined the relationship between

  8. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Driga, M.D.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  9. Global patterns and trends in human-wildlife conflict compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, Jeremy; Nyhus, Philip J

    2017-12-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a major conservation challenge, and compensation for wildlife damage is a widely used economic tool to mitigate this conflict. The effectiveness of this management tool is widely debated. The relative importance of factors associated with compensation success is unclear, and little is known about global geographic or taxonomic differences in the application of compensation programs. We reviewed research on wildlife-damage compensation to determine geographic and taxonomic gaps, analyze patterns of positive and negative comments related to compensation, and assess the relative magnitude of global compensation payments. We analyzed 288 publications referencing wildlife compensation and identified 138 unique compensation programs. These publications reported US$222 million (adjusted for inflation) spent on compensation in 50 countries since 1980. Europeans published the most articles, and compensation funding was highest in Europe, where depredation by wolves and bears was the most frequently compensated damage. Authors of the publications we reviewed made twice as many negative comments as positive comments about compensation. Three-quarters of the negative comments related to program administration. Conversely, three-quarters of the positive comments related to program outcomes. The 3 most common suggestions to improve compensation programs included requiring claimants to employ damage-prevention practices, such as improving livestock husbandry or fencing of crops to receive compensation (n = 25, 15%); modifying ex post compensation schemes to some form of outcome-based performance payment (n = 21, 12%); and altering programs to make compensation payments more quickly (n = 14, 8%). We suggest that further understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of compensation as a conflict-mitigation tool will require more systematic evaluation of the factors driving these opinions and that differentiating process and outcomes and understanding

  10. Gamma-sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.

    1974-01-01

    The author makes a survey of his experience in sterilization and sterility control of medical products. At present three different methods are used, steamsterilization, gassterilizing and gammasterilizing. The investments and costs for gamma radiation is presented and a comparison of the costs for gamma- and gassterilization including sterility control is made. (M.S.)

  11. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux

  12. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux millimetres fonctionnent

  13. On the possible effects of gluon number fluctuations on {gamma}{gamma} collisions at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    We investigate the effects of the fluctuations on the total {gamma}{gamma}, {gamma}*{gamma}* cross sections and the real photon structure function F{sup {gamma}}{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}), considering a saturation phenomenological model for the dipole-dipole cross section and scattering amplitude with fluctuations included.

  14. Evaluation of peak-fitting software for gamma spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Moralles, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    In all applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy, one of the most important and delicate parts of the data analysis is the fitting of the gamma-ray spectra, where information as the number of counts, the position of the centroid and the width, for instance, are associated with each peak of each spectrum. There's a huge choice of computer programs that perform this type of analysis, and the most commonly used in routine work are the ones that automatically locate and fit the peaks; this fit can be made in several different ways - the most common ways are to fit a Gaussian function to each peak or simply to integrate the area under the peak, but some software go far beyond and include several small corrections to the simple Gaussian peak function, in order to compensate for secondary effects. In this work several gamma-ray spectroscopy software are compared in the task of finding and fitting the gamma-ray peaks in spectra taken with standard sources of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 133 Ba and 152 Eu. The results show that all of the automatic software can be properly used in the task of finding and fitting peaks, with the exception of GammaVision; also, it was possible to verify that the automatic peak-fitting software did perform as well as - and sometimes even better than - a manual peak-fitting software. (author)

  15. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Gamma Knife Gamma Knife® is a radiation therapy that uses computerized ... If you're scheduled for radiation therapy using Gamma Knife®, a treatment team consisting of a radiation ...

  16. Neutron flux measurement with 6Li and 7Li dual glass scintillators by γ compensation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Shulan; Zhang Shuheng

    1996-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of 6 Li glass scintillator which is sensitive to both neutron and gamma rays, and 7 Li glass scintillator which is sensitive to gamma rays only, a new method of detecting weak neutron flux under interference of strong gamma radiation has been investigated by means of 6 Li- 7 Li pair glass scintillator gamma compensation method. The result of neutron flux measurement by above-mentioned method with an error of about 1% when the gamma ray interference is up to 18.7% has been obtained

  17. Neutron flux measurement with 6Li and 7Li dual glass scintillators by γ compensation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Shulan; Zhang Shuheng

    1998-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of 6 Li glass scintillator which is sensitive to both neutron and gamma rays, and 7 Li glass scintillator which is sensitive to gamma rays only, a new method of detecting weak neutron flux under interference of strong gamma radiation has been investigated by mans of 6 Li- 7 Li dual glass scintillator gamma compensation method. The result of neutron flux measurement by above-mentioned method with an error of about 1% when the gamma ray interference is up to 18.7% has been obtained

  18. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strålberg, Elisabeth; Klemola, Seppo; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical...

  19. Enthalpy–entropy compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enthalpy–entropy compensation is the name given to the correlation sometimes observed between the estimates of the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction obtained from temperature-dependence data. Although the mainly artefactual nature of this correlation has been known for many years, the subject enjoys periodical ...

  20. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  1. Teacher Compensation and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in the conceptualization of schooling over time from an organizational perspective. Explores how compensation systems might be better designed to match alternative organizational designs, considering scientific management, effective schools, content-driven schooling, and high standards/high involvement schools as organizational…

  2. (statcom) in synchronous compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    with fast response and low cost for stabilizing electricity grid power and voltage. ... The conventional and modified Newton-Raphson-based power flow equations .... The control of the reactive power exchange between .... because of its faster rate of convergence and accuracy ..... compensator, North American Power System.

  3. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  4. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  5. Cosmical sources of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchowicz, B [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    A brief historical outline of the X-ray and ..gamma..-ray astronomies is given first, then a summary of the recent status of X-ray astronomy follows. Further chapters include information on ..gamma..-ray sources in the solar system, in our Galaxy, and beyond it. In discussing linear gamma spectra attention is paid to the possibility of studying explosive nucleo-synthesis by observation of gamma lines from supernova remnants, etc. Questions of the isotropic gamma background are discussed at the end of the survey.

  6. Center for Worker's Compensation Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the NIOSH Center for Workers’ Compensation Studies (CWCS) is to use workers’ compensation data and systems to improve workplace safety and health....

  7. Structuring competitive physician compensation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kim; Turcotte, Claire

    2010-12-01

    When developing and reviewing their physician compensation programs, healthcare organizations should: Understand the market data. Test outcomes of incentive plans for fair market value. Check total compensation for fair market value and reasonableness.

  8. Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Examining data of a sample of UK companies over the period 2003–2006 we find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant. An increase in the number of compensation

  9. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Schmuecking, Michael; Aebersold, Daniel; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations

  10. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of coal mine dust using gamma-ray backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of particulate material, particularly coal mine dust, include placing a sample of the particulate material in a container to define a pair of angularly oriented surfaces of the sample, directing an incident gamma-ray beam from a radiation source at one surface of the sample and detecting gamma-ray backscatter from the other surface of the sample with a radiation detector having an output operating a display to indicate incombustible content of the sample. The positioning of the source and detector along different surfaces of the sample permits the depth of the scattering volume defined by intersection of the incident beam and a detection cone from the detector to be selected such that variations in scattered radiation produced by variations in density of the sample are compensated by variations in the attenuation of the incident beam and the gamma-ray backscatter. 17 claims 5 figures

  12. Deformation compensation in dynamic tomography; Compensation de deformations en tomographie dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbat, L. [Universite Joseph Fourier, UMR CNRS 5525, 38 - Grenoble (France); Roux, S. [Universite Joseph Fourier, TIMC-IMAG, In3S, Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France); Grangeat, P. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This work is a contribution to the compensation of motion in tomography. New classes of deformation are proposed, that compensates analytically by an algorithm of a F.B.P. type reconstruction. This work makes a generalisation of the known results for affine deformations, in parallel geometry and fan-beam, to deformation classes of infinite dimension able to include strong non linearities. (N.C.)

  13. Predictors of Energy Compensation during Exercise Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Riou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation was 18% ± 93%. The analyses indicated that 48% of the variance of energy compensation is explained by the interaction between initial fat mass, age and duration of exercise interventions. Sex, frequency, intensity and dose of exercise energy expenditure were not significant predictors of energy compensation. The fitted model suggested that for a shorter study duration, lower energy compensation was observed in younger individuals with higher initial fat mass (FM. In contrast, higher energy compensation was noted for younger individuals with lower initial FM. From 25 weeks onward, energy compensation was no longer different for these predictors. For studies of longer duration (about 80 weeks, the energy compensation approached 84%. Lower energy compensation occurs with short-term exercise, and a much higher level of energy compensation accompanies long-term exercise interventions.

  14. Fukushima: liability and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, Japan endured one of the worst natural disasters in its history when a massive earthquake struck the Pacific coast of the country and was followed by a tsunami which led to considerable loss of lives. It also led to a major accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Soon afterwards, the operator of the plant, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), assumed responsibility and liability for the nuclear accident. On 28 April 2011, TEPCO established a dedicated contact line to provide consulting services for financial compensation related to the damage caused

  15. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...... that the present practice of avoiding samples above a depth of 0.3 m may be over-cautious...

  16. Do compensation processes impair mental health? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, Nieke A; Hulst, Liesbeth; Cuijpers, Pim; Akkermans, Arno J; Bruinvels, David J

    2013-05-01

    Victims who are involved in a compensation processes generally have more health complaints compared to victims who are not involved in a compensation process. Previous research regarding the effect of compensation processes has concentrated on the effect on physical health. This meta-analysis focuses on the effect of compensation processes on mental health. Prospective cohort studies addressing compensation and mental health after traffic accidents, occupational accidents or medical errors were identified using PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. Relevant studies published between January 1966 and 10 June 2011 were selected for inclusion. Ten studies were included. The first finding was that the compensation group already had higher mental health complaints at baseline compared to the non-compensation group (standardised mean difference (SMD)=-0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.66 to -0.10; p=.01). The second finding was that mental health between baseline and post measurement improved less in the compensation group compared to the non-compensation group (SMD=-0.35; 95% CI -0.70 to -0.01; p=.05). However, the quality of evidence was limited, mainly because of low quality study design and heterogeneity. Being involved in a compensation process is associated with higher mental health complaints but three-quarters of the difference appeared to be already present at baseline. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution because of the limited quality of evidence. The difference at baseline may be explained by a selection bias or more anger and blame about the accident in the compensation group. The difference between baseline and follow-up may be explained by secondary gain and secondary victimisation. Future research should involve assessment of exposure to compensation processes, should analyse and correct for baseline differences, and could examine the effect of time, compensation scheme design, and claim settlement on

  17. A broadband Soleil-Babinet compensator for ultrashort light pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixiang; Ma, Yingkun; Cai, Yi; Lu, Xiaowei; Zeng, Xuanke; Chen, Hongyi; Li, Jingzhen

    2013-12-01

    This letter reports a novel design for a broadband Soleil-Babinet compensator including two pairs of optical wedges plus one plate. According to our birefringent dispersion compensation model, we can eliminate the first-order birefringent phase retardation (BPR) dispersion by using three different birefringent crystals. Our results show a Soleil-Babinet compensator based on a MgF2/ADP/KDP combination can work from 0° to 360° phase compensation with the maximal residual BPR less than 6° within the spectral region from 0.65 to 0.95 μm. The residual BPR of the compensator increases monotonically with the spectral deviation from the designed central wavelength, so our compensator is very suitable to be used for broadband laser pulses with most of their energies around the central wavelengths.

  18. A broadband Soleil–Babinet compensator for ultrashort light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shixiang; Ma, Yingkun; Cai, Yi; Lu, Xiaowei; Zeng, Xuanke; Chen, Hongyi; Li, Jingzhen

    2013-01-01

    This letter reports a novel design for a broadband Soleil–Babinet compensator including two pairs of optical wedges plus one plate. According to our birefringent dispersion compensation model, we can eliminate the first-order birefringent phase retardation (BPR) dispersion by using three different birefringent crystals. Our results show a Soleil–Babinet compensator based on a MgF 2 /ADP/KDP combination can work from 0° to 360° phase compensation with the maximal residual BPR less than 6° within the spectral region from 0.65 to 0.95 μm. The residual BPR of the compensator increases monotonically with the spectral deviation from the designed central wavelength, so our compensator is very suitable to be used for broadband laser pulses with most of their energies around the central wavelengths. (letter)

  19. Whiplash and the compensation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B

    2011-12-01

    Review article. To explain why the evidence that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes is not compelling, either in general, or in the specific case of whiplash. There is a common view that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes ("the compensation hypothesis"), despite the presence of important, and unresolved sources of bias. The empirical evidence on this question has ramifications for the design of compensation schemes. Using studies on whiplash, this article outlines the methodological problems that impede attempts to confirm or refute the compensation hypothesis. Compensation studies are prone to measurement bias, reverse causation bias, and selection bias. Errors in measurement are largely due to the latent nature of whiplash injuries and health itself, a lack of clarity over the unit of measurement (specific factors, or "compensation"), and a lack of appreciation for the heterogeneous qualities of compensation-related factors and schemes. There has been a failure to acknowledge and empirically address reverse causation bias, or the likelihood that poor health influences the decision to pursue compensation: it is unclear if compensation is a cause or a consequence of poor health, or both. Finally, unresolved selection bias (and hence, confounding) is evident in longitudinal studies and natural experiments. In both cases, between-group differences have not been addressed convincingly. The nature of the relationship between compensation-related factors and health is unclear. Current approaches to testing the compensation hypothesis are prone to several important sources of bias, which compromise the validity of their results. Methods that explicitly test the hypothesis and establish whether or not a causal relationship exists between compensation factors and prolonged whiplash symptoms are needed in future studies.

  20. Weak hadronic currents in compensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Working within the framework of a compensation theory of strong and weak interactions, it is shown that: (1) an axial vector baryon number current can be included in the weak current algebra if certain restrictions on the K-meson strong couplings are relaxed; (2) the theory does not permit the introduction of strange currents of the chiral form V + A; and (3) the assumption that the superweak currents of the theory cannot contain certain CP conserving terms can be justified on the basis of compensation requirements

  1. Security careers skills, compensation, and career paths

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The third edition of Security Careers is the authoritative reference for current job descriptions and pay practices of security, compliance, ethics, environmental, health and safety occupations. The job descriptions and compensation ranges in this report are drawn from research from the Foushée Group, which has been conducting this research since 1980. Security Careers includes more than 75 job descriptions for security-related positions, which range from the entry-level security guard to the top global corporate executive. It also provides four years of compensation trend data to give a th

  2. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  3. Digital, electromagnetic rod position indicator with compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilchenfeld, M.M.; Geis, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    A digital rod position indicator having discrete coils L 0 , L 1 , L 2 ..... spaced along the travel path of an elongate magnetically permeable member stores in digital form compensation signals for automatically adjusting the location relative to the coils at which a digital output signal representative of the position of the end of the elongate member transitions from one code to the next. The appropriate compensation signal is addressed using the digital output signal and a correction factor which takes into account the direction of movement including reversals. Reference is made to the positioning of the control rods in a pressurized water reactor. (author)

  4. Gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.; Cesarsky, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This article overviews the gamma astronomy research. Sources already observed, and what causes to give to them; the galactic radiation and its interpretation; techniques already used and current projects [fr

  5. Gamma Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Butz, Tilman; Ertl, G.; Knözinger, H.; Schüth, F.

    2008-01-01

    No abstract. The sections in this article are 1 Introduction 2 Mössbauer Spectroscopy 3 Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) 4 Conclusions and Outlook Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy; gamma spectroscopy; perturbed angular correlation; TDPAC

  6. The Compensation Act 2006 and School Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Jones, John

    2006-01-01

    The Compensation Act 2006 received its Royal Assent on 25 July 2006. The Act allows the courts to have regard to the social utility of "desirable activities", including school trips, in considering negligence claims. The article reviews the law of negligence as it affects teachers of the very young and considers the possible impact of…

  7. 77 FR 5381 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... orchards, including direct marketers, and fruit tree nurseries. Compensation payments are provided to... stone fruit growers and direct marketers and in fruit tree nurseries, along with the effects of... economic losses experienced by grove owners, direct marketers, and nursery owners who are subject to an EAN...

  8. Defining Compensable Injury in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research provides a core social good by enabling medical progress. In the twenty-first century alone, this includes reducing transmission of HIV/AIDS, developing innovative therapies for cancer patients, and exploring the possibilities of personalized medicine. In order to continue to advance medical science, research relies on the voluntary participation of human subjects. Because research is inherently uncertain, unintended harm is an inevitable part of the research enterprise. Currently, injured research participants in the United States must turn to the “litigation lottery” of the tort system in search of compensation. This state of affairs fails research participants, who are too often left uncompensated for devastating losses, and makes the United States an outlier in the international community. In spite of forty years’ worth of Presidential Commissions and other respected voices calling for the development of a no-fault compensation system, no progress has been made to date. One of the reasons for this lack of progress is the failure to develop a coherent ethical basis for an obligation to provide compensation for research related injuries. This problem is exacerbated by the lack of a clear definition of “compensable injury” in the biomedical research context. This article makes a number of important contributions to the scholarship in this growing field. To begin, it examines compensation systems already in existence and concludes that there are four main definitional elements that must be used to define “compensable injury.” Next, it examines the justifications that have been put forth as the basis for an ethical obligation to provide compensation, and settles on retrospective nonmaleficence and distributive and compensatory justice as the most salient and persuasive. Finally, it uses the regulatory elements and the justifications discussed in the first two sections to develop a well-rounded definition of “compensable injury

  9. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  10. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Introduction. Section 85 prescribes rules relating to the inclusion in gross income of... than in cash or on some other basis. (ii) Disability and worker's compensation payments. Amounts in the nature of unemployment compensation also include cash disability payments made pursuant to a governmental...

  11. 16 CFR 1018.32 - Compensation and travel expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... place of business, may be allowed travel expenses including per diem in lieu of expenses as authorized... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation and travel expenses. 1018.32... MANAGEMENT Administration of Advisory Committees § 1018.32 Compensation and travel expenses. (a) A single...

  12. Self compensating fire detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholin, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A device employing ionization principles for fire detection disclosing a configuration which allows compensation for adverse effects due to the flow of the gas through the device or due to the accumulation of dust and dirt therein. The detecting device includes two ionization chambers, each having a first member, such as a cylindrically shaped cup, having first and second conductive surface portions. Each chamber also incudes a second member, such as a circular, electrode disc having two conductive surface portions. There is disposed in each chamber a radioactive source for ionizing the gas in the volumes intervening between respective pairs of surfaces. The area dimensions of the respective pairs of surfaces, the interventing volumes and the distances there between, and the relative orientation of the respective pairs are calculated and placed such that the ionization currents flowing between pairs of conductive surfaces are substantially equal and orthogonal to each other

  13. The Nature of Whiplash in a Compensable Environment: Injury, Disability, Rehabilitation, and Compensation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Luke B

    2017-07-01

    Synopsis Whiplash is a compensable injury in many jurisdictions, but there is considerable heterogeneity in the compensation arrangements that apply across jurisdictions, even within some countries. These compensation schemes have, however, been subject to a common set of interrelated concerns, chiefly concerning the incentives, behaviors, and outcomes that may arise when financial compensation for injuries is available to injured parties. This article provides a nontechnical overview of some of those concerns through the lens of economics: principally, insurance economics and health economics, including related subsets such as information economics and agency theory, as well as economics and the law. It notes that because it is generally infeasible to randomize the treatment (ie, compensation) via trials, analyses of observational data are necessary to discover more about the relationship between compensation and health outcomes. This poses the analytical challenge of discovering causal connections between phenomena from nonrandomized data sets. The present article calls for further research that would enable convincing causal interpretations of such relationships via the careful analysis of rich observational data sets using modern econometric methods. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(7):503-508. Epub 16 Jun 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7533.

  14. Re-Planning for Compensator-Based IMRT with Original Compensators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Li Weiqi; Leuthold, Susan; Springett, Gregory; Hoffe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Compared with multileaf collimator (MLC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for moving targets, compensator-based IMRT has advantages such as shorter beam-on time, fewer monitor units with potentially decreased secondary carcinogenesis risk, better optimization-to-deliverable dose conversion, and often better dose conformity. Some of the disadvantages include additional time for the compensators to be built and delivered, as well as extra cost. Patients undergoing treatment of abdominal cancers often experience weight loss. It would be necessary to account for this change in weight with a new plan and a second set of compensators. However, this would result in treatment delays and added costs. We have developed a method to re-plan the patient using the same set of compensators. Because the weight changes seen with the treatment of abdominal cancers are usually relatively small, a new 4D computed tomography (CT) acquired in the treatment position with markers on the original isocenter tattoos can be registered to the original planning scan. The contours of target volumes from the original scans are copied to the new scan after fusion. The original compensator set can be used together with a few field-in-field (FiF) beams defined by the MLC (or beams with cerrobend blocks for accelerators not equipped with a MLC). The weights of the beams with compensators are reduced so that the FiF or blocked beams can be optimized to mirror the original plan and dose distribution. Seven abdominal cancer cases are presented using this technique. The new plan on the new planning CT images usually has the same dosimetric quality as the original. The target coverage and dose uniformity are improved compared with the plan without FiF/block modification. Techniques combining additional FiF or blocked beams with the original compensators optimize the treatment plans when patients lose weight and save time and cost compared with generating plans with a new set of compensators.

  15. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  16. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  17. 17 CFR 240.14a-20 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to include a compensation discussion and analysis in their proxy statements in order to comply with... arising from financial assistance provided under the TARP, as defined in section 3(8) of the Emergency...-K (§ 229.402 of this chapter), including the compensation discussion and analysis, the compensation...

  18. Annual compensation for pipelines in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    The Surface Rights Board (SRB) in Alberta held a hearing in November 2007 to address three issues involving a pipeline for Enbridge Pipelines (Athabasca) Inc. as well as several land owner issues in Townships 66-68 and Ranges 17-19, all west of the 4th Meridian. The issues the SRB examined were the appropriate amount (i.e. magnitude) of compensation payable under right of entry orders under consideration; the appropriate structure of the compensation award; and to whom the compensation was payable. This document presented a review by the Farmer's Advocate Office (FAO) of the published decision of the SRB. The verbatim decision and rationale used by the SRB to award annual compensation for loss and/or ongoing nuisance and inconvenience was presented. The document could be useful to landowners as they determine their negotiation strategy when faced with considering future pipeline access agreements. The document included a discussion of the context for the decision and a case review. Specific topics that were covered included the rationale for the decision; long term effects of pipeline arguments and SRB commentary; the award and determination; and what still needs to be done. It was concluded that the SRB requires evidence in order to answer several questions regarding the magnitude of any losses, and to what degree, if any, had the nuisance, inconvenience, and loss of rights already been anticipated and factored into the operator's final offer

  19. Takeovers and (Excess) CEO Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    We study if a CEO’s equity-based compensation affects the expected value generation in takeovers. When the objectives of management and shareholders are more aligned, as proxied by the use of equity-based compensation, more value-maximizing acquisitions are expected. Whereas in widely-held firms the

  20. Takeovers and (excess) CEO compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Renneboog, Luc

    We study if a CEO’s equity-based compensation affects the expected value generation in takeovers. When the objectives of management and shareholders are more aligned, as proxied by the use of equity-based compensation, more value-maximizing acquisitions are expected. Whereas in widely-held firms the

  1. Changing Conceptions of Employee Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Hayes, Linda J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses many differing forms of incentive compensation systems that are being used in today's organizations. The review traces the roots of bonus compensation from individual piece-work plans through the adoption of organization-wide gain sharing plans to the growing recognition of open-book management. Reasons for the…

  2. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The light pulse output of a scintillator, on which incident collimated gamma rays impinge, is detected by an array of photoelectric tubes each having a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to outputs of the phototubes develops the scintillation event position coordinate electrical signals with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as is possible to obtain less distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar photocathode gamma cameras

  3. SU-E-T-04: 3D Dose Based Patient Compensator QA Procedure for Proton Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, W; Reyhan, M; Zhang, M; Davis, R; Jabbour, S; Khan, A; Yue, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In proton double-scattering radiotherapy, compensators are the essential patient specific devices to contour the distal dose distribution to the tumor target. Traditional compensator QA is limited to checking the drilled surface profiles against the plan. In our work, a compensator QA process was established that assess the entire compensator including its internal structure for patient 3D dose verification. Methods: The fabricated patient compensators were CT scanned. Through mathematical image processing and geometric transformations, the CT images of the proton compensator were combined with the patient simulation CT images into a new series of CT images, in which the imaged compensator is placed at the planned location along the corresponding beam line. The new CT images were input into the Eclipse treatment planning system. The original plan was calculated to the combined CT image series without the plan compensator. The newly computed patient 3D dose from the combined patientcompensator images was verified against the original plan dose. Test plans include the compensators with defects intentionally created inside the fabricated compensators. Results: The calculated 3D dose with the combined compensator and patient CT images reflects the impact of the fabricated compensator to the patient. For the test cases in which no defects were created, the dose distributions were in agreement between our method and the corresponding original plans. For the compensator with the defects, the purposely changed material and a purposely created internal defect were successfully detected while not possible with just the traditional compensator profiles detection methods. Conclusion: We present here a 3D dose verification process to qualify the fabricated proton double-scattering compensator. Such compensator detection process assesses the patient 3D impact of the fabricated compensator surface profile as well as the compensator internal material and structure changes

  4. Stabilized thermally compensated mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, C. III; Tobin, R.D.; Bergstreser, N.E.; Heinz, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally compensated mirror is described that is formed by a laminated structure. The structure is comprised of a front plate having a reflective front surface and having a plurality of grooves formed in the rear surface for conducting coolant fluid in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface, a rear plate having coolant inlet and coolant outlet openings extending therethrough, a minimum temperature plate interposed between said front and rear plates and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution passageways coupled to receive coolant fluid from said coolant inlet and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a minimum temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, a temperature stabilization plate interposed between said front plate and said minimum temperature plate and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution channels coupled to receive said coolant fluid after said coolant fluid has passed in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a uniform temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, and means for circulating said coolant fluid through said structure in a predetermined path. (U.S.)

  5. Compensating for the harms of family violence: statutory barriers in Australian victims of crime compensation schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the compensative capacity of the victims of crime statutory schemes that are present in all eight Australian jurisdictions for primary victims of family violence. It argues that the recommendations of the Final Report on Family Violence conducted jointly by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 2010, although a positive step, are insufficient to facilitate meaningful compensation to victims of family violence. In addition to the primary limitations identified by the Commissions--a requirement to report the crime to the police within a reasonable time and a requirement for multiple acts of violence to be reduced to a single act if they are related--there are other statutory barriers that disproportionately disadvantage victims of family violence. These include time limitation provisions, a requirement to report the crime to police, the restriction of compensation to prescribed categories of loss which exclude many of the social, vocational, emotional and psychological harms suffered by victims of family violence, and significant cut-backs on the non-economic component of the schemes. This article further argues that the statutory barriers cumulatively contribute to the perception of a crime as an isolated event perpetrated by a deviant individual. The article recommends that specific provisions for family violence victims should be introduced into all schemes including three categories of compensation not tied to criminal offences but rather the different forms of family violence, with a generous compensation range, and no requirement for proof of injury.

  6. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  7. Influence of Lateral Muscle Loading in the Proximal Femur after Fracture Stabilization with a Trochanteric Gamma Nail (TGN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai; Bohez, Erik; Vander Sloten, Jos

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of lateral muscle loading on the stress/strain distributions of the trochanteric Gamma nail (TGN) fixation within the healed, trochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fractures by means of a finite element method. The effect of three muscle groups, the abductors (ABD), the vastus lateralis (VL) and the iliotibial band (ITB), were investigated. The analytical results showed that addition of lateral muscle forces, iliotibial band and vastus lateralis, produced compensation of forces and reduction of bending moments in the bone and in the trochanteric Gamma nail especially in the lateral aspect. The iliotibial band produced a higher impact as compared to the vastus lateralis. Therefore in the finite element analysis of the proximal femur with the trochanteric Gamma nail fracture fixation should include the lateral muscle forces to simulate load condition with maximal physiological relevance to the closed nailing technique.

  8. Standard compensation for power cuts. Working group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The Working Group was commissioned to draw up a proposal in the form of a Government Bill for provisions to be included in the Electricity Market Act on imposing an obligation on the distribution net operator to pay a standard compensation to the users of electricity for the event that they get no access to electricity. The Working Group should consider especially a model of standard compensation presented in the final report by Mr. Jarl Forsten, Deputy Director General of the Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT, published on 30 April 2002 that the amount of standard compensation should not depend on the reason for the power cut. The Working Group proposes that the Electricity Market Act should be amended by provisions providing that a distribution net operator shall pay to the user of electricity a standard compensation for power cuts lasting over 12 hours. The amount of compensation shall be based on the annual network service fee and a sliding scale of compensation related to the duration of the power cut shall be applied. The maximum compensation shall be paid when the power cut lasts more than five days. The maximum amount of individual compensations shall be fixed at EUR 700. The proposed provisions on standard compensation in the event of power cuts are aimed at amending the provisions in Chapter 6a of the Electricity Market Act on price reduction and compensation because of fault in the supply of electricity. The aim of the introduction of standard compensation for power cuts is to persuade distribution net operators to make an effort to minimize the time for power cuts. (orig.)

  9. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  10. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  11. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  12. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  13. Skew quad compensation at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.

    1977-10-01

    Rotational and focal effects of solenoids used in PEP detectors will cause severe perturbations of machine beam optics and must be corrected. Ordinarily this would be accomplished by the addition of compensating solenoids and adjustment of insertion quadrupole strengths. It has been found that an arbitrary cross plane coupling representing the effects of solenoids and/or skew quads in any combination can be synthesized (or compensated) exactly using a quartet of skew quads combined with other erect transport elements in a wide variety of configurations. Specific skew quad compensating systems for PEP have been designed and are under study by PEP staff. So far no fundamental flaws have been discovered. In view of that, PEP management has tentatively authorized the use of such a system in the PEP-4, PEP-9 experiments and proposes to leave the question open ''without prejudice'' for other experiments. Use of skew quad compensation involves an imponderable risk, of course, simply because the method is new and untested. But in addition to providing the only known method for dealing with skew quad perturbations, skew quad compensation, as an alternate to compensating solenoids, promises to be much cheaper, to require much less power and to occupy much less space in the IR's. The purpose of this note is to inform potential users of the foregoing situation and to explain skew quad compensation more fully. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Industrial radiography. Gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, J.

    1975-01-01

    Informations are given on gamma radiodefectology regulations, entire references and main dispositions applicable to each state of the European Economic Community. The content includes previous arrangements for source acquisition, holding and use of the sources, transport, accidents, civil liability of the source holder, person insurance against radiation hazards and contamination, property insurance, penal liability of the source holder

  15. Administrative compensation for medical injuries: lessons from three foreign systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Kachalia, Allen; Studdert, David M

    2011-07-01

    The United States requires patients injured by medical negligence to seek compensation through lawsuits, an approach that has drawbacks related to fairness, cost, and impact on medical care. Several countries, including New Zealand, Sweden, and Denmark, have replaced litigation with administrative compensation systems for patients who experience an avoidable medical injury. Sometimes called "no-fault" systems, such schemes enable patients to file claims for compensation without using an attorney. A governmental or private adjudicating organization uses neutral medical experts to evaluate claims of injury and does not require patients to prove that health care providers were negligent in order to receive compensation. Information from claims is used to analyze opportunities for patient safety improvement. The systems have successfully limited liability costs while improving injured patients' access to compensation. American policymakers may find many of the elements of these countries' systems to be transferable to demonstration projects in the U.S.

  16. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  17. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng, E-mail: panghongfeng@126.com; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-03-15

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods.

  18. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods

  19. Altitude Compensating Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Jones, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The dual-bell nozzle (fig. 1) is an altitude-compensating nozzle that has an inner contour consisting of two overlapped bells. At low altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle operates in mode 1, only utilizing the smaller, first bell of the nozzle. In mode 1, the nozzle flow separates from the wall at the inflection point between the two bell contours. As the vehicle reaches higher altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle flow transitions to mode 2, to flow full into the second, larger bell. This dual-mode operation allows near optimal expansion at two altitudes, enabling a higher mission average specific impulse (Isp) relative to that of a conventional, single-bell nozzle. Dual-bell nozzles have been studied analytically and subscale nozzle tests have been completed.1 This higher mission averaged Isp can provide up to a 5% increase2 in payload to orbit for existing launch vehicles. The next important step for the dual-bell nozzle is to confirm its potential in a relevant flight environment. Toward this end, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) have been working to develop a subscale, hot-fire, dual-bell nozzle test article for flight testing on AFRC's F15-D flight test bed (figs. 2 and 3). Flight test data demonstrating a dual-bell ability to control the mode transition and result in a sufficient increase in a rocket's mission averaged Isp should help convince the launch service providers that the dual-bell nozzle would provide a return on the required investment to bring a dual-bell into flight operation. The Game Changing Department provided 0.2 FTE to ER42 for this effort in 2014.

  20. What Constitutes Fair Compensation for Unfair Dismissal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Generally the monetary compensation is perceived to be a solatium. 19 .... compensation for non-patrimonial loss in the context of an unfair labour practice. 41 .... awards of compensation where a person's dignity is impaired in the course of an.

  1. Is compensation "bad for health"? A systematic meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B

    2011-01-01

    There is a common perception that injury compensation has a negative impact on health status, and systematic reviews supporting this thesis have been used to influence policy and practice decisions. This study evaluates the quality of the empirical evidence of a negative correlation between injury compensation and health outcomes, based on systematic reviews involving both verifiable and non-verifiable injuries. Systematic meta-review (a "review of reviews"). PubMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, PsycInfo, EconLit, Lexis, ABI/INFORM, The Cochrane Library, and the AHRQ EPC were searched from the date of their inception to August 2008, and hand searches were conducted. Selection criteria were established a priori. Included systematic reviews examined the impact of compensation on health, involved adults, were published in English and used a range of outcome measures. Two investigators independently applied standard instruments to evaluate the methodological quality of the included reviews. Data on compensation scheme design (i.e., the intervention) and outcome measures were also extracted. Eleven systematic reviews involving verifiable and non-verifiable injuries met the inclusion criteria. Nine reviews reported an association between compensation and poor health outcomes. All of them were affected by the generally low quality of the primary (observational) research in this field, the heterogeneous nature of compensation laws (schemes) and legal processes for seeking compensation, and the difficulties in measuring compensation in relation to health. Notwithstanding the limitations of the research in this field, one higher quality review examining a single compensation process and relying on primary studies using health outcome (rather than proxy) measures found strong evidence of no association between litigation and poor health following whiplash, challenging the general belief that legal processes have a negative impact on health status. Moves to alter scheme design and

  2. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Dependency and Indemnity Compensation, Death...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... (Application for Dependency and Indemnity Compensation, Death Pension and Accrued Benefits by a Surviving... Dependency and Indemnity Compensation, Death Pension and Accrued Benefits by a Surviving Spouse or Child (Including Death Compensation if Applicable), VA Form 21-534. b. Application for Dependency and Indemnity...

  3. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Dependency and Indemnity Compensation, Death...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... (Application for Dependency and Indemnity Compensation, Death Pension and Accrued Benefits by a Surviving... dependency and indemnity compensation (DIC), death pension and accrued benefits. DATES: Written comments and... Indemnity Compensation, Death Pension and Accrued Benefits by a Surviving Spouse or Child (Including Death...

  4. A Complete Characterization of Potential Compensation Tests of Hicksian Welfare Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Keenan; Arthur Snow

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present complete characterizations of the compensation tests for potential Pareto superiority proposed by Kaldor, Hicks, and Samuelson in terms of the aggregate Hicksian measures of income compensation, including compensating and equivalent variations. The key to obtaining these characterizations lies in recognizing that each potential compensation test entails a search over possible outcomes, rather than a comparison of only the new and original outcomes, as with s...

  5. Compensative hypertrophy of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    Several measurement methods are available to practitioners to reveal a compensative hypertrophy. Mensuration of the kidney has the advantage of simplicity but is in fact an unreliable and inaccurate method. Separate clearances in their traditional form have never entered into routine use because of the disadvantages of ureteral catheterism. The use of radioactive tracers avoids this drawback, but clearances calculated in this way are only valid in the absence of obstructive urinary disorders. Solutions have been proposed, but the values obtained are no longer identical with the clearances. The Hg uptake test quantifies quite accurately the function of each kidney. From the results obtained a complete compensative hypertrophy developed on a healthy kidney and an incomplete compensative hypertrophy developed on the diseased kidney have been described. In each of these situations the degree to which compensative hypertrophy develops seems to be fixed at a given level peculiar to each patient [fr

  6. Lithium compensation of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Tavendale, A.J.

    1988-08-01

    Defects generated following Li diffusion into GaAs were studied by optical deep level transient spectroscopy (ODLTS) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). In an exploratory series of experiments, the effect of Li diffusion on existing trap spectra, defect generation and as a means for the compensation of GaAs was studied. The variables included diffusion temperature, initial trap spectra of GaAs and annealing periods. Detailed measurements of trap energies were made

  7. CEO Compensation and Disclosure Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weijia; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between CEO compensation and disclosure policy related to corporate governance information within S&P 500 index. Our sample consists of 456 companies for the period from 2005 to 2015. Most previous researchers mainly put their attention on various corporate governance characteristics such as board size, board independence, and executive ownership when analysing CEO compensation. Our paper extends the previous study by dividing corporate governance into...

  8. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.; Kotschak, O.; Conrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera with a simplified setup as compared with the state of engineering is described permitting, apart from good localization, also energy discrimination. Behind the usual vacuum image amplifier a multiwire proportional chamber filled with trifluorine bromium methane is connected in series. Localizing of the signals is achieved by a delay line, energy determination by means of a pulse height discriminator. With the aid of drawings and circuit diagrams, the setup and mode of operation are explained. (ORU) [de

  9. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  10. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1987-06-01

    The mapping of gamma sources radiation emission in a nuclear plant is an important safety point. A remote gamma ray mapping process was developed in SPS/CEA/SACLAY. It uses the ''pinhole camera'' principle, precursor of photography. It mainly consists of a radiation proof box, with a small orifice, containing sensitive emulsions at the opposite. A first conventional photographic type emulsion photographs the area. A second photographic emulsion shows up the gamma radiations. The superim position of the two shots gives immediate informations of the precise location of each source of radiation in the observed area. To make easier the presentation and to improve the accuracy of the results for radiation levels mapping, the obtained films are digitally processed. The processing assigns a colours scale to the various levels of observed radiations. Taking account physical data and standard parameters, it gets possible to estimate the dose rate. The device is portable. Its compactness and fully independent nature make it suitable for use anywhere. It can be adapted to a remote automatic handling system, robot... so as to avoid all operator exposure when the local dose rate is too high [fr

  11. Self-Compensating Excitation of Fluxgate Sensors for Space Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Alec; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of the new self-compensating excitation circuitry to the new generation of high-precise space vector magnetometers. The application starts with complex study including design of new robust model of the non-linear inductor leading to investigation...... of the most crucial points, continuous by design of the self-compensating excitation unit and concludes with unit complex testing and application to the magnetometer. The application of the self-compensation of the excitation decreases temperature drift of the magnetometer offset caused by the temperature...

  12. Adaptive Engine Torque Compensation with Driveline Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jinrak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine net torque is the total torque generated by the engine side, and includes the fuel combustion torque, the friction torque, and additionally the starter motor torque in case of hybrid vehicles. The engine net torque is utilized to control powertrain items such as the engine itself, the transmission clutch, also the engine clutch, and it must be accurate for the precise powertrain control. However, this net torque can vary with the engine operating conditions like the engine wear, the changes of the atmospheric pressure and the friction torque. Thus, this paper proposes the adaptive engine net torque compensator using driveline model which can cope with the net torque change according to engine operating conditions. The adaptive compensator was applied on the parallel hybrid vehicle and investigated via MATLAB Simcape Driveline simulation.

  13. Percentage compensation arrangements: suspect, but not illegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, F P

    2001-01-01

    Percentage compensation arrangements, in which a service is outsourced to a contractor that is paid in accordance with the level of its performance, are widely used in many business sectors. The HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) has shown concern that these arrangements in the healthcare industry may offer incentives for the performance of unnecessary services or cause false claims to be made to Federal healthcare programs in violation of the antikickback statute and the False Claims Act. Percentage compensation arrangements can work and need not run afoul of the law as long as the healthcare organization carefully oversees the arrangement and sets specific safeguards in place. These safeguards include screening contractors, carefully evaluating their compliance programs, and obligating them contractually to perform within the limits of the law.

  14. Doppler Shift Compensation Schemes in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nyongesa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication has received a lot of attention as it is a crucial issue in intravehicle communication as well as in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In ITS the focus is placed on integration of communication between mobile and fixed infrastructure to execute road safety as well as nonsafety information dissemination. The safety application such as emergence alerts lays emphasis on low-latency packet delivery rate (PDR, whereas multimedia and infotainment call for high data rates at low bit error rate (BER. The nonsafety information includes multimedia streaming for traffic information and infotainment applications such as playing audio content, utilizing navigation for driving, and accessing Internet. A lot of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET research has focused on specific areas including channel multiplexing, antenna diversity, and Doppler shift compensation schemes in an attempt to optimize BER performance. Despite this effort few surveys have been conducted to highlight the state-of-the-art collection on Doppler shift compensation schemes. Driven by this cause we survey some of the recent research activities in Doppler shift compensation schemes and highlight challenges and solutions as a stock-taking exercise. Moreover, we present open issues to be further investigated in order to address the challenges of Doppler shift in VANETs.

  15. Method and equipment for γ background compensation in neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, M.; Marik, P.

    1986-01-01

    The compensation of background gamma radiation in neutron spectrometry is based on the measurement of the total energy spectrum of all protons and electrons, and of the energy spectrum of those protons and neutrons which are in coincidence with the discriminating signal derived from the integral of the counting rate distribution by pulse shape. The benefits of the method consist in the possibility of using standard single-parameter apparatus, in considerably smaller demands on the memory capacity and the possibility of a substantially finer division of the spectrum and more accurate compensation of the background than has been the case with methods used so far. A practical application is shown in a block diagram. (J.B.)

  16. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to the...

  17. Motion-compensated processing of image signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In a motion-compensated processing of images, input images are down-scaled (scl) to obtain down-scaled images, the down-scaled images are subjected to motion- compensated processing (ME UPC) to obtain motion-compensated images, the motion- compensated images are up-scaled (sc2) to obtain up-scaled

  18. The effect of practitioner compensation on HMO consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggins, John F

    2002-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that a health maintenance organization (HMO) consumer's satisfaction depends on the way his or her health plan compensates practitioners. Consumer Assessment of Health Plans (CAHPS) survey data from 1999 and 2000 were provided by the Office of Public Insurance Counsel for the state of Texas. These data were combined with the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) quality measures of managed care health plans in Texas published by the Texas Health Care Information Council. The study fitted the CAHPS survey data to an ordered-probit model. The dependent variable was customer satisfaction with the health plan, using a rating scale from 0-10. The independent variables included the percentage of health plan practitioners compensated with capitated fees, the percentage compensated with a bonus or withholding incentive, and other health plan and consumer characteristics. Consumer satisfaction with HMOs is negatively correlated with the percentage of practitioners who are compensated on a capitated-fee basis and positively correlated with the percentage of practitioners compensated with a fee-withholding incentive (e.g., a fraction of fees that are withheld until specific quality and cost-control goals are reached). Neither the percentage compensated under a bonus incentive system nor the percentage of general practitioners with board certification correlated with HMO consumer satisfaction. A managed health plan's method of practitioner compensation can affect participant satisfaction in a predictable manner.

  19. Dose compensation of the total body irradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.-P.; Chu, T.-C.; Liu, M.-T.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to improve dose uniformity in the body by the compensator-rice and to decrease the dose to the lung by the partial lung block. Rando phantom supine was set up to treat bilateral fields with a 15 MV linear accelerator at 415 cm treatment distance. The experimental procedure included three parts. The first part was the bilateral irradiation without rice compensator, and the second part was with rice compensator. In the third part, rice compensator and partial lung block were both used. The results of thermoluminescent dosimeters measurements indicated that without rice compensator the dose was non-uniform. Contrarily, the average dose homogeneity with rice compensator was measured within ±5%, except for the thorax region. Partial lung block can reduce the dose which the lung received. This is a simple method to improve the dose homogeneity and to reduce the lung dose received. The compensator-rice is cheap, and acrylic boxes are easy to obtain. Therefore, this technique is suitable for more studies

  20. Springback Prediction, Compensation and Correlation for Automotive Stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Siguang; Zhao Kunmin; Lanker, Terry; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase fuel efficiency and safety, more and more automotive sheet stamping parts are being made of aluminum and high strength steels. Forming of such materials encounters not just reduced formability but also dimensional quality problems. Springback prediction accuracy and compensation effectiveness have been the major challenge to die development, construction and tryout. In this paper, the factors that affect the accuracy of springback prediction are discussed, which includes the effect of material models, the selection of element size, and the contact algorithms. Springback predictions of several automotive aluminum and high strength panels are compared with measurement data. The examples show that the prediction correlates with measurement data in both springback trend and magnitude. The effect of springback on final product can be reduced or eliminated through process control and die face compensation. The process control method involves finding the root causes of springback and eliminating them through process modification. The geometrical compensation of die surface is a direct way to eliminate the springback effect. The global scaling compensation method is normally limited to parts with relatively small springback. For large springback and twisting, a new approach is discussed, which takes into account of the effect of deformation and springback history. The compensation is achieved iteratively by solving a system of non-linear equations. Production dies were cut to the compensated surface, which shows that the die compensation is an efficient way to reduce springback-induced geometry deviation

  1. Crime victims‘ right to compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.

  2. Workers' compensation in Pennsylvania: the effects of delayed contested cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S E

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of delayed workers' compensation cases in the Pennsylvania system. Forty-five claimants of a workers' compensation support group responded to interviews. Delay periods averaged two years with a 68.4% drop in income. Results indicate that claimants endured financial and emotional stress, exhausted personal assets, relied on assistance from relatives, and received public assistance. Implications for social work practice include educating workers about benefits, counseling claimants with delayed claims, and advocating for administrative reforms.

  3. Experimental evaluation of voltage unbalance compensation in an islanded microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method for voltage unbalance compensation in an islanded microgrid based on the proper control of distributed generators (DGs) interface converter is proposed. In this method, active and reactive power control loops are considered to control the power sharing among the DGs. Also......, a virtual impedance loop and voltage and current proportional-resonant controllers are included. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for compensating voltage unbalance to an acceptable level....

  4. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental compensation includes a range of activities intended to counterbalance such negative impacts of development projects that remain in the environment after all preventive and corrective measures have been fully implemented. Sweden, being a member state of the European Union (EU, must implement environmental compensation under EU directives such as the Habitat Directive. However, like in other countries, implementation is not yet widespread in Sweden, and new practices and guidelines remain to be developed both nationally and at European level. This need is all the more urgent considering that the European Commission estimates that, within the EU, about 100,000 hectares of land is converted from its natural state each year. The aim of this paper is to describe current environmental-compensation practices in Swedish road and railway projects and to discuss issues of vital importance to the development of compensation policy, such as what to compensate for, how much, and how. A national inventory was performed, for the first time in Sweden, to identify compensation measures in road and railway projects. Data were collected from a national mailing list including 141 officials at county administrative boards (CABs, internal e-mail correspondence within the Swedish Transport Administration and databases of court decisions. The inventory focused on compensation measures ordered by virtue of the Swedish Environmental Code. In addition, two case studies were carried out to investigate the planning of compensation measures. The results showed that CABs and courts rarely order compensation in infrastructure projects, even though this is possible under Swedish law. Between 1999 and 2012, 37 cases (i.e. permits issued were found for which compensation was ordered. Of these cases, 76% concerned compensation for encroachments on minor habitats such as small ponds and cairns. No CAB ordered compensation for non-protected areas. Compensation ratios

  5. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    To set the gamma activity cartography is an important element of safety in numerous cases: intervention in hot cell, search of a radioactive source, examination of radioactive waste circuit followed by a reprocessing definition of decontamination and decommissioning processes and for all other accidents. The device presented here is like a ''black box'' with an aperture and an emulsion photosensitive to the opposite; a classical film takes photography of the place; a X-ray type emulsion gives a spot more or less contrasted and extensive corresponding to each source. Images can be processed with a microprocessor [fr

  6. Compensation of the flux modulation distortion using an additional coil in a loudspeaker unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonello, Niccoló; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2014-01-01

    the compensation coil is derived. The compensation technique consists on feeding the compensation coil and voice coil with filtered versions of the wanted audio signal. Simulations show that a significant reduction in flux modulation distortion can be achieved with this technique. A simple magnetic circuit has......Flux modulation is one of the main causes of distortion in electrodynamic loudspeaker units. A new compensation technique that eliminates this type of non-linearity using an additional compensation coil in the speaker unit is presented. An equivalent circuit model of the device including...

  7. Gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Takakura, Kintomo

    1991-01-01

    As to the gamma knife which is the radiation surgery device developed in Sweden a quarter century ago, its principle, structure, treatment techniques, already established clinical effect and the problems being left for hereafter are described. This treatment means supplements the operation under microscopes, and at present it takes the important position in neurosurgery, but hereafter, by the interdisciplinary cooperation of neurosurgery and clinical radiobiology, the more development can be expected. The method of irradiating the radiation of high dose selectively to a target region and breaking its tissue is called radiosurgery, and the device developed for this purpose is the gamma knife. First, it was applied to functional diseases, but good results were obtained by its application to auditory nerve and brain blood vessels, and it establishes the position as the safe treatment method of the morbid state in the deep part of brains, which is difficult to reach by operation. Accompanying the recent progress of the operation of skull base part, attention is paid to its application to various tumors in skull base. On the other hand, the radiosurgery combining a cyclotron or a linear accelerator with stereotaxic brain surgery is actively tried mainly to the deformation of brain blood vessels. (K.I.)

  8. Network compensation for missing sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    1991-01-01

    A network learning translation invariance algorithm to compute interpolation functions is presented. This algorithm with one fixed receptive field can construct a linear transformation compensating for gain changes, sensor position jitter, and sensor loss when there are enough remaining sensors to adequately sample the input images. However, when the images are undersampled and complete compensation is not possible, the algorithm need to be modified. For moderate sensor losses, the algorithm works if the transformation weight adjustment is restricted to the weights to output units affected by the loss.

  9. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  10. Compensated transnational surrogacy in Australia: time for a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Ainsley J

    2016-01-18

    Commercial or compensated surrogacy involves providing payment for a woman to gestate a fetus to term and then hand over the child to commissioning parent(s). Compensated surrogacy is currently restricted by law or regulation in all Australian states and territories. New South Wales, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory also restrict commissioning transnational compensated surrogacy, although there is evidence that this is not acting as a deterrent. Ethical issues arising in transnational compensated surrogacy include concerns relating to exploitation, commodification and welfare. The current status quo is unsatisfactory on legal, ethical and practical grounds. It is time to openly debate how Australia should balance the desire for childbearing through surrogacy with the limited domestic availability of women willing to act as surrogates.

  11. Psychology of Pay and Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites:

  12. Ongoing transients in carbonate compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudreau, B.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is acidifying the oceans. Over the next 2000 years, this will modify the dissolution and preservation of sedimentary carbonate. By coupling new formulas for the positions of the calcite saturation horizon, zsat, the compensation depth, zcc, and the snowline, zsnow, to a

  13. Strategic Design of Teacher Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the national focus on revitalizing the teacher evaluation and support/development process, as well as the current economic downturn, many school districts are reviewing how teachers are compensated. While a few courageous districts have completely upended current structures, most districts are undertaking changes that leave the most…

  14. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat; Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed

  15. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, U.; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. The supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other through about 90 0 to a collimator exchange position. Each of the separate supports is swingable to a vertically aligned position, with limiting of the swinging movement and positioning of the support at the desired exchange position. The collimators are carried on the supports by means of a series of vertically disposed coil springs. Projections on the camera are movable from above into grooves of the collimator at the exchange position, whereupon the collimator is turned so that it is securely prevented from falling out of the camera head

  16. Gamma counter calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the calibration of a gamma radiation measurement instrument to be used over any of a number of different absolute energy ranges. The method includes the steps of adjusting the overall signal gain associated with pulses which are derived from detected gamma rays, until the instrument is calibrated for a particular absolute energy range; then storing parameter settings corresponding to the adjusted overall signal gain, and repeating the process for other desired absolute energy ranges. The stored settings can be subsequently retrieved and reapplied so that test measurements can be made using a selected one of the absolute energy ranges. Means are provided for adjusting the overall signal gain and a specific technique is disclosed for making coarse, then fine adjustments to the signal gain, for rapid convergence of the required calibration settings. (C.F.)

  17. No-fault compensation and performance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, B

    1993-01-01

    Two major issues in relation to medical malpractice are discussed. The first is "no-fault compensation", an alternative to the present tort system long established in most countries, including Singapore, where negligence must be proved before a claim can succeed. The second is "performance review", a new concept for monitoring and correcting under-performing medical practitioners against whom a complaint has been laid. Both these issues are currently under active discussion and are arousing political notice and professional controversy. Though the article describes the British situation, there is much of contemporary relevance for Singapore, which has such a similar system of medical practice.

  18. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teegarden, B.J

    1999-02-11

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world.

  19. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world

  20. Neuromuscular compensation mechanisms in vocal fold paralysis and paresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Karuna; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew; Soofer, Donna; Chhetri, Dinesh K

    2017-07-01

    Vocal fold paresis and paralysis are common conditions. Treatment options include augmentation laryngoplasty and voice therapy. The optimal management for this condition is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess possible neuromuscular compensation mechanisms that could potentially be used in the treatment of vocal fold paresis and paralysis. In vivo canine model. In an in vivo canine model, we examined three conditions: 1) unilateral right recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) paresis and paralysis, 2) unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) paralysis, and 3) unilateral vagal nerve paresis and paralysis. Phonatory acoustics and aerodynamics were measured in each of these conditions. Effective compensation was defined as improved acoustic and aerodynamic profile. The most effective compensation for all conditions was increasing RLN activation and decreasing glottal gap. Increasing RLN activation increased the percentage of possible phonatory conditions that achieved phonation onset. SLN activation generally led to decreased number of total phonation onset conditions within each category. Differential effects of SLN (cricothyroid [CT] muscle) activation were seen. Ipsilateral SLN activation could compensate for RLN paralysis; normal CT compensated well in unilateral SLN paralysis; and in vagal paresis/paralysis, contralateral SLN and RLN displayed antagonistic relationships. Methods to improve glottal closure should be the primary treatment for large glottal gaps. Neuromuscular compensation is possible for paresis. This study provides insights into possible compensatory mechanisms in vocal fold paresis and paralysis. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1633-1638, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  2. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS... allowable under paragraph (a) of this section must be reduced by— (1) All compensation made available to the... under § 136.235. Government Revenues ...

  3. GALIST, Decay Gamma Spectra Retrieval from ENSDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, Tsutomu

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: GALIST consists of two main programs, GAMRET and GNOI. - GAMRET retrieves from ENSDF or files with ENSDF-like format gamma rays following radioactive decay. GAMRET uses two auxiliary programs, ENSORT and AMSORT (see below under item 8). - GNOI makes a list of radionuclides and their gamma rays. In the decay data of ENSDF, however, not all gamma-ray intensities are included

  4. Quantum electrodynamics with compensating current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechler, A [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej

    1974-01-01

    A formulation of quantum electrodynamics is proposed in which all the propagators and field operators are gauge invariant. It is based on an old idea of Heisenberg and Euler which consists in the introduction of the linear integrals of potentials as arguments of the exponential functions. This method is generalized by an introduction of the so-called ''compensating currents'', which ensure local, i.e. in every point of space-time, charge conservation. The linear integral method is a particular case of that proposed in this paper. As the starting point we use quantum electrodynamics with a non-zero, small photon mass (Proca theory). It is shown that, due to the presence of the compensating current, the theory is fully renormalizable in Hilbert space with positive definite scalar product. The problem of the definition of the current operator is also briefly discussed.

  5. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Heinzelmann, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    A gamma camera is described which obviates the distortion of locating signals generally caused by the varied light conductive capacities of the light conductors in that the flow of light through each light conductor may be varied by means of a shutter. A balancing of the flow of light through each of the individual light conductors, in effect, collective light conductors may be balanced on the basis of their light conductive capacities or properties, so as to preclude a distortion of the locating signals caused by the varied light conductive properties of the light conductors. Each light conductor has associated therewith two, relative to each other, independently adjustable shutters, of which one forms a closure member and the other an adjusting shutter. In this embodiment of the invention it is thus possible to block all of the light conductors leading to a photoelectric transducer, with the exception of those light conductors which are to be balanced. The balancing of the individual light conductors may then be obtained on the basis of the output signals of the photoelectric transducer. (auth)

  6. Executive compensation: a calibration approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ivilina Popova; Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    We use a version of the Grossman and Hart principal-agent model with 10 actions and 10 states to produce quantitative predictions for executive compensation. Performance incentives derived from the model are compared with the performance incentives of 350 firms chosen from a survey by Michael Jensen and Kevin Murphy. The results suggest both that the model does a reasonable job of explaining the data and that actual incentives are close to the optimal incentives predicted by theory.

  7. Compensating Differentials for Sexual Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Joni Hersch

    2011-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...

  8. 23 CFR 751.15 - Just compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Just compensation. 751.15 Section 751.15 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.15 Just compensation. (a) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the... nonconforming junkyard as provided in § 751.11 must pertain at the time of the taking or removal in order to...

  9. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modules...

  10. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...

  11. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...

  12. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT General Procedure § 136.113 Other compensation. A... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113...

  13. The battle over workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, J N

    2000-01-01

    Faced with lower profits and rapidly increasing premium costs in the 1980s, insurers and employer organizations cleverly parlayed the public perception of worker fraud and abuse in the workers' compensation system (that they helped to create) into massive legislative changes. Over the last decade, state legislators and governors, Republican and Democrat alike, have jumped on this bandwagon, one that workers and their allies have dubbed the workers' compensation "deform" movement. Alleging a "game plan" and a calculated campaign on the part of insurers and employers, the author looks at the major components of changes that were made, examines the elements of workers' compensation over which employers and insurers have gained control, and discusses Newt Gingrich's efforts to capitalize on employer and insurer fervor over the system. This campaign whistled through the country until it goaded the labor movement, injured workers, the trial bar, and others in Ohio in 1997 to organize themselves to stand up to employers by defeating the deform law through a ballot initiative. The article details that battle and suggests that similar voices can be achieved through a return to grassroots organizing and mobilization.

  14. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  15. Peace/Williston fish and wildlife compensation program: 1992-1993 public compensation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemister, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    The Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program is a joint initiative by British Columbia Hydro and the provincial environment ministry to enhance and protect fish and wildlife resources and their habitat in the Williston watershed affected by the construction of the WAC Bennett and Peace Canyon dams on the Peace River. The interest from a fund of $11 million, established by BC Hydro in 1988, is used to maintain the compensation programs. Public input to the ongoing fish and wildlife programs is provided by a public consultation program. To date, the Peace/Williston compensation program has undertaken 93 projects to either conserve or enhance fish and wildlife through habitat improvement and protection. A summary is presented of the activities undertaken by the public consultation program in 1992/93 and public attitudes toward the consultation program. Activities undertaken in the fish and wildlife enhancement program are summarized in appendices. Fisheries programs included stocking, stream fertilization, small lake surveys, preparation of a side channel in Carbon Creek for multi-species spawning, and creation of an artificial spring at Windy Point for spawning purposes. Wildlife programs included channel clearance and vegetation supply improvements to enhance muskrat and beaver habitat; radio monitoring of sheep and elk; studying the feasibility of transplanting elk herds; and purchase of critical ungulate winter habitat lands. 13 figs., 4 tabs

  16. SU-E-T-357: Electronic Compensation Technique to Deliver Total Body Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, T [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Wang, I; Podgorsak, M [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient’s immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has conventionally been used to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Methods: Treatment plans utilizing electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two, specifically weighted, pair of opposed fields. One pair of open, large fields (collimator=45°), to encompass the patient’s entire anatomy, and one pair of smaller fields (collimator=0°) focused only on the thicker midsection of the patient. The optimal fluence for each one of the smaller fields was calculated at a patient specific penetration depth. Irregular surface compensators provide a more uniform dose distribution within the smaller opposed fields. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In one case, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 195.8% to 165.3% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the region of electronic compensation. The mean body doses calculated from the DVH were also reduced from the non-compensated 120.6% to 112.7% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more accurate delivery of the prescription dose. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not substantially increase the beam on time while it can significantly reduce the compensator

  17. 38 CFR 21.3023 - Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. 21.3023 Section 21.3023 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Child; age 18. A child who...

  18. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoji; Oribe, Naoya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia (SZ). Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ. To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies (20, 30, and 40 Hz) and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group. Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced (non-phase-locked) gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data. The ASSR phase-locking factor was reduced significantly in patients with SZ compared with controls for the 40-Hz stimulation (mean [SD], 0.075 [0.028] vs 0.113 [0.065]; F1,46 = 6.79 [P = .012]) but not the 20- or the 30-Hz stimulation (0.042 [0.038] vs 0.043 [0.034]; F1,46 = 0.006 [P = .938] and 0.084 [0.040] vs 0.098 [0.050]; F1,46 = 1.605 [P = .212], respectively), repeating previous findings. The mean [SD] broadband-induced (30

  19. gamma-Glutamyl dipeptides in Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, Roman; Musah, Rabi A

    2005-10-01

    Three gamma-glutamyl dipeptides have been isolated from Petiveria alliacea L. roots. These dipeptides include (S(C2)R(C7))-gamma-glutamyl-S-benzylcysteine together with two diastereomeric sulfoxides, namely (S(C2)R(C7)R(S))- and (S(C2)R(C7)R(S))-gamma-glutamyl-S-benzylcysteine S-oxides (gamma-glutamyl-petiveriins A and B, respectively). Their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR, MALDI-HRMS, IR and CD spectroscopy, and confirmed by comparison with authentic compounds obtained by synthesis.

  20. Fabrication of gamma sources using the neutron-gamma reactions of 238Pu13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solinhac, I.; Maillard, C.; Donnet, L.

    2004-01-01

    A production campaign for 238 Pu 13 C sources with gamma fluence ranging from 2500 to 4500 gamma/s/4π at 6.13 MeV was carried out in 2002 in Atalante. An experimental study was undertaken to prepare the 238 PuC mixture, which is the most delicate step. This procedure is described together with the other steps in the source fabrication process: purification of a plutonium oxide batch, preparation of a nitric solution of 238 Pu, measurement of the gamma fluence of the PuC mixture before and after insertion into each of the two stainless steel capsules that constitute a PuN 2 O package, welding of the second envelope followed by leak testing, final measurement of the gamma fluence of the sealed source. This PuC sources fabrication procedure is effective: all the sources include the required gamma activity with an uncertainty on the gamma fluence of less than 10%. (authors)

  1. Compensating Victims of Personal Injury in Tort: The Nigerian Experience So Far

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwakemi ADEKILE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a critical evaluation of the compensation system for personal injury tort in Nigeria. The present compensation system under the law of tort leaves many victims of personal injury uncompensated in Nigeria. This stems from many factors, including the fact that traditional tort theory of no liability without fault has continued to be the principal basis for liability. This is in spite of the heavy criticisms of the tort regime as an ineffective mode of compensation. Through an anal...

  2. Test and simulation of dynamic phase compensation from Mita-Teknik A/S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Skaarup, J.

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the test of a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The influence on power quality analysed, and influence on component lifetime is discussed. Besides, simulation models in Matlab/Simulink are presented, including a flicker meter model. (au)

  3. Royal Order of 28 March 1969 listing occupational diseases giving rise to compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This Royal Order, made in implementation of the Act of 24 December 1963 on compensation for damage resulting from occupational diseases and prevention thereof, as amended by an Act fo 24 December 1968, lists the occupational diseases giving rise to compensation and includes those caused by ionizing radiations. The Order came into force on 1 July 1969 and repealed a previous Order of 18 January 1964 which laid down a first list of such diseases giving rise to compensation. (NEA) [fr

  4. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  5. Research on the critical parameters initialization of optical PMD compensator in high bit-rate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Zhang, Haiyi; Ji, Yuefeng; Xu, Daxiong

    2004-05-01

    Based on the proposed polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation simulation model and statistical analysis method (Monte-Carlo), the critical parameters initialization of two typical optical domain PMD compensators, which include optical PMD method with fixed compensation differential group delay (DGD) and that with variable compensation DGD, are detailedly investigated by numerical method. In the simulation, the line PMD values are chosen as 3ps, 4ps and 5ps and run samples are set to 1000 in order to achieve statistical evaluation for PMD compensated systems, respectively. The simulation results show that for the PMD value pre-known systems, the value of the fixed DGD compensator should be set to 1.5~1.6 times of line PMD value in order to reach the optimum performance, but for the second kind of PMD compensator, the DGD range of lower limit should be 1.5~1.6 times of line PMD provided that of upper limit is set to 3 times of line PMD, if no effective ways are chosen to resolve the problem of local minimum in optimum process. Another conclusion can be drawn from the simulation is that, although the second PMD compensator holds higher PMD compensation performance, it will spend more feedback loops to look up the optimum DGD value in the real PMD compensation realization, and this will bring more requirements on adjustable DGD device, not only wider adjustable range, but rapid adjusting speed for real time PMD equalization.

  6. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  7. Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, various classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei have been established as sources of high-energy radiation extending over a very broad range from soft gamma-rays (photon energies E~MeV) up to very-high-energy gamma-rays (E>100 GeV). These include blazars of different types, as well as young and evolved radio galaxies. The observed gamma-ray emission from such implies efficient particle acceleration processes taking place in highly magnetized and relativistic jets produced by supermassive black holes, processes that have yet to be identified and properly understood. In addition, nearby starforming and starburst galaxies, some of which host radio-quiet Seyfert-type nuclei, have been detected in the gamma-ray range as well. In their cases, the observed gamma-ray emission is due to non-thermal activity in the interstellar medium, possibly including also a contribution from accretion disks and nuclear outflows. Finally, the high-energy emission from clusters of galaxies remains elusive...

  8. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  9. ICIT contribution to JET gamma-ray diagnostics enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, S.; Curuia, M.; Zoita, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma-ray emission of tokamak plasmas is the result of the interaction of fast ions (fusion reaction products, including alpha particles, NBI ions, ICRH-accelerated ions) with main plasma impurities (e.g., carbon, beryllium). Gamma-ray diagnostics involve both gamma-ray imaging (cameras) and gamma-ray spectrometry (spectrometers). For the JET tokamak, gamma-ray diagnostics have been used to provide information on the characteristics of the fast ion population in plasmas. Two gamma-ray diagnostics enhancements project have been launched by JET and the MEdC/EURATOM Association has agreed to lead both of them with ICIT as projects leader. (authors)

  10. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  11. Compensation of the ux modulation distortion using an additional coil in a loudspeaker unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonello, Niccoló; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2014-01-01

    Flux modulation is one of the main causes of distortion in electrodynamic loudspeaker units. A new com- pensation technique that eliminates this type of non-linearity using an additional compensation coil in the speaker unit is presented. An equivalent circuit model of the device including...... the compensation coil is de- rived. The compensation technique consists on feeding the compensation coil and voice coil with ltered versions of the wanted audio signal. Simulations show that a signicant reduction in ux modulation distor- tion can be achieved with this technique. A simple magnetic circuit has been...

  12. Thin hybrid pixel assembly fabrication development with backside compensation layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R., E-mail: richard.bates@glasgow.ac.uk [Experimental Particle Physics Group, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Buttar, C.; McMullen, T.; Cunningham, L.; Ashby, J.; Doherty, F. [Experimental Particle Physics Group, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pares, G.; Vignoud, L.; Kholti, B. [CEA Leti, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, F38054, Grenoble (France); Vahanen, S. [Advacam Oy, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2017-02-11

    The ATLAS and CMS experiments will both replace their entire tracking systems for operation at the HL-LHC in 2026. This will include a significantly larger pixel systems, for example, for ATLAS approximately 15 m{sup 2}. To keep the tracker material budget low it is crucial to minimize the mass of the pixel modules via thinning both the sensor and readout chip to about 150 μm each. The bump yield of thin module assemblies using solder based bump bonding can be problematic due to wafer bowing during solder reflow at high temperature. A new bump-bonding process using backside compensation on the readout chip to address the issue of low yield will be presented. The objective is to compensate dynamically the stress of the front side stack by adding a compensating layer to the backside of the wafer. A SiN and Al:Si stack has been chosen for the backside layer. The bow reducing effect of applying a backside compensation layer will be demonstrated using the FE-I4 wafer. The world's first results from assemblies produced from readout wafers thinned to 100 μm with a stress compensation layer are presented with bond yields close to 100% measured using the FE-I4 readout chip.

  13. Cosmic gamma bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehstulin, I.V.

    1980-01-01

    A brief consideration is being given to the history of cosmic gamma burst discovery and modern knowledge of their properties. The time dependence of gamma bursts is described and their possible sources are discussed

  14. Reforming insurance to support workers' rights to compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Martha T

    2012-06-01

    The structure and regulation of the insurance system for financing workers' compensation affects the costs of workers' benefits. Using the example of Maine's insurance market restructuring in response to a crisis of the early 1990s, this commentary explores how changes in insurance regulation might better support the goals of workers' compensation. The commentary analyzes how insurance and its regulation should go beyond correct pricing of risks to questions of how to structure incentives for loss control to include workers' interests as well as the interests of employers and insurers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Novel temperature compensation technique for force-sensing piezoresistive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Joshua; Enikov, Eniko T

    2011-01-01

    A novel stress-insensitive piezoresistor in the shape of an annulus has been developed to be used in conjunction with a piezoresistive bridge for temperature-compensated force measurements. Under uniform stress conditions, the annular resistor shows near-zero stress sensitivity and a linear response to temperature excitation within test conditions of 24–34 °C. Annular resistors were placed in close proximity to stress-sensitive elements in order to detect local temperature fluctuations. Experiments evaluating the performance of the temperature compensator while testing force sensitivity showed a thermal rejection ratio of 37.2 dB and near elimination of low-frequency noise (drift) below 0.07 Hz. Potential applications of this annular resistor include use in multi-axis force sensors for force feedback microassembly, improvements in the simplicity and robustness of high precision microgram sensitive balances, higher accuracy for silicon diaphragm-based pressure sensors and simple temperature compensation for AFM cantilevers.

  16. An efficient dose-compensation method for proximity effect correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Han Weihua; Yang Xiang; Zhang Yang; Yang Fuhua; Zhang Renping

    2010-01-01

    A novel simple dose-compensation method is developed for proximity effect correction in electron-beam lithography. The sizes of exposed patterns depend on dose factors while other exposure parameters (including accelerate voltage, resist thickness, exposing step size, substrate material, and so on) remain constant. This method is based on two reasonable assumptions in the evaluation of the compensated dose factor: one is that the relation between dose factors and circle-diameters is linear in the range under consideration; the other is that the compensated dose factor is only affected by the nearest neighbors for simplicity. Four-layer-hexagon photonic crystal structures were fabricated as test patterns to demonstrate this method. Compared to the uncorrected structures, the homogeneity of the corrected hole-size in photonic crystal structures was clearly improved. (semiconductor technology)

  17. Examining the Gap: Compensation Disparities between Male and Female Physician Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Noël; Cawley, James F; McCall, Timothy C

    Compensation disparities between men and women have been problematic for decades, and there is considerable evidence that the gap cannot be entirely explained by nongender factors. The current study examined the compensation gap in the physician assistant (PA) profession. Compensation data from 2014 was collected by the American Academy of PAs in 2015. Practice variables, including experience, specialty, and hours worked, were controlled for in an ordinary least-squares sequential regression model to examine whether there remained a disparity in total compensation. In addition, the absolute disparity in compensation was compared with historical data collected by American Academy of PAs over the previous 1.5 decades. Without controlling for practice variables, a total compensation disparity of $16,052 existed between men and women in the PA profession. Even after PA practice variables were controlled for, a total compensation disparity of $9,695 remained between men and women (95% confidence interval, $8,438-$10,952). A 17-year trend indicates the absolute disparity between men and women has not lessened, although the disparity as a percent of male compensation has decreased in recent years. There remain challenges to ensuring pay equality in the PA profession. Even when compensation-relevant factors such as experience, hours worked, specialty, postgraduate training, region, and call are controlled for, there is still a substantial gender disparity in PA compensation. Remedies that may address this pay inequality include raising awareness of compensation disparities, teaching effective negotiation skills, assisting employers as they develop equitable compensation plans, having less reliance on past salary in position negotiation, and professional associations advocating for policies that support equal wages and opportunities, regardless of personal characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability improvement for anisotropic biased compensated α/β contamination meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R., E-mail: romain.coulon@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Montagu, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation des Systèmes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Schoepff, V. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Menaa, N.; Ulmann, A. Gallozzi; Blanc de Lanaute, N. [CANBERRA France, F-78182 St Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    2016-11-21

    Nuclear instruments such as alpha/beta contamination meter are frequently used in a compensated mode where the contribution of gamma radiation background is compensated by a guard detector. The signal of interest is then the subtraction of counting from both channels. In practice, the noise signal measured by the guard detector is not strictly equal to the noise contribution into the first detector due to anisotropic biases. The random error (under Poisson assumption) is taken into account to build a hypothesis test. The system is also designed to minimize the systematic error but in some cases, this bias could not be completely removed. The measurement system then shows different behavior when the surrounding environment changes exhibiting inopportune false alarms. A method allowing the false alarms to be suppressed is addressed in this study for compensated measurement. An improvement in terms of reliability has been proven.

  19. 76 FR 18966 - Listing Standards for Compensation Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... director. For this purpose, remuneration includes any payment in exchange for goods or services. Section... the board of directors and to be ``independent,'' as defined in the listing standards of the exchanges... requirements for members of the compensation committee of the board of directors of an issuer. In accordance...

  20. 77 FR 38421 - Listing Standards for Compensation Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ..., in any capacity other than as a director. For this purpose, remuneration includes any payment in... of a listed issuer's compensation committee to be a member of the board of directors and to be... annual meeting of shareholders (or a special meeting in lieu of the annual meeting) at which directors...

  1. Faculty Compensation in Continuing Education: Theory versus Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Joyce A.

    1984-01-01

    Lawler's Motivation Model and other studies of reward systems are used to develop a policy assessment and development checklist for compensating continuing education faculty. The checklist includes institutional, reward system, and motivation factors that should be considered to encourage faculty participation. (SK)

  2. Gamma source for active interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Lou, Tak Pui [Berkeley, CA; Barletta, William A [Oakland, CA

    2009-09-29

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  3. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  4. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations

  5. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.

  6. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear gamma astronomy is presented, in particular the Gamma Ray Observatory, an enormous eight tonnes machine fitted with gamma telescopes, scheduled for launching around 1985. It is thereby hoped to study the natural nuclear reactions which occur when stars explode [fr

  7. Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Seo, J.H.; Ahn, H.J; Byun, M.W; Kim, Y.H.; Choi, J.M.; Yook, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy

  8. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  9. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  10. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  11. Compensation for nuclear damage: a comparison among the international regime, Japan and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Faure, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Following the Fukushima disaster in Japan in 2011, how the compensation system for nuclear damage should be improved has obtained broad attention. The compensation system, including liability rules, insurance and government involvement, does not only concern to what extent the victims can be

  12. 75 FR 64717 - Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost... Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (``CSC'') including its obligation to contribute to an international supplementary fund in the event of certain nuclear incidents. The NOI provided a September 27...

  13. Hospital executive compensation act dropped from ballot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hospital Executive Compensation Act did not qualify for the November 8, 2016 ballot in Arizona as a state statute (1. The Service Employees International Union (SEIU dropped the initiative just before arguments were to begin in a lawsuit that challenged the legality of signature gatherers who failed to register with the state. The measure would have limited total pay for executives, administrators and managers of healthcare facilities and entities to the annual salary of the President of the United States. A similar measure in California was also dropped by the SEIU in 2014. Supporters of the proposal said it would decrease escalating healthcare costs. Opponents of the measure, including the Arizona Chamber of Commerce who filed the suit challenging the proposition, alleged that it would lead to poorer healthcare. However, a survey conducted by the Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care showed that most supported the measure and felt that it would not lead to poorer healthcare (2.

  14. Enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation was found to be a universal law in protein unfolding based on over 3 000 experimental data. Water molecular reorganization accompanying the protein unfolding was suggested as the origin of the enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding. It is indicated that the enthalpy-entropy compensation constitutes the physical foundation that satisfies the biological need of the small free energy changes in protein unfolding, without the sacrifice of the bio-diversity of proteins. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory proposed herein also provides valuable insights into the Privalov's puzzle of enthalpy and entropy convergence in protein unfolding.

  15. 26 CFR 509.112 - Compensation for labor or personal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including the practice of the liberal professions and the rendition of services as a director, performed in... include, but shall not be limited to, the compensation, profits, emoluments, or other remuneration of...

  16. Multi-qubit compensation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y; Merrill, J T; Brown, K R

    2010-01-01

    The Hamiltonian control of n qubits requires precision control of both the strength and timing of interactions. Compensation pulses relax the precision requirements by reducing unknown but systematic errors. Using composite pulse techniques designed for single qubits, we show that systematic errors for n-qubit systems can be corrected to arbitrary accuracy given either two non-commuting control Hamiltonians with identical systematic errors or one error-free control Hamiltonian. We also examine composite pulses in the context of quantum computers controlled by two-qubit interactions. For quantum computers based on the XY interaction, single-qubit composite pulse sequences naturally correct systematic errors. For quantum computers based on the Heisenberg or exchange interaction, the composite pulse sequences reduce the logical single-qubit gate errors but increase the errors for logical two-qubit gates.

  17. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo; Tsuneya, Tsubokawa; Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe

    1999-01-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10 33 to 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 . Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  18. Regulation of PPAR{gamma} function by TNF-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Jianping [Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States)], E-mail: yej@pbrc.edu

    2008-09-26

    The nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma} is a lipid sensor that regulates lipid metabolism through gene transcription. Inhibition of PPAR{gamma} activity by TNF-{alpha} is involved in pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cancer cachexia. PPAR{gamma} activity is regulated by TNF-{alpha} at pre-translational and post-translational levels. Activation of serine kinases including IKK, ERK, JNK, and p38 may be involved in the TNF-regulation of PPAR{gamma}. Of the four kinases, IKK is a dominant signaling molecule in the TNF-regulation of PPAR{gamma}. IKK acts through at least two mechanisms: inhibition of PPAR{gamma} expression and activation of PPAR{gamma} corepressor. In this review article, literature is reviewed with a focus on the mechanisms of PPAR{gamma} inhibition by TNF-{alpha}.

  19. Librarian driven analysis of gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashov, V.; Petersone, I.

    2002-01-01

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates of their errors to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma ray line(s). The identification of a given radionuclide is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of a database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma ray energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by the ICRP. (author)

  20. Isomeric shift compensation when using resonance detectors in Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irkaev, S.M.; Semenkin, V.A.; Sokolov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Method for compensation of isomeric shift of lines observed during operation of resonance detectors being part of spectrometers of nuclear gamma resonance is suggested. A flowsheet of device permitting to realize the method described is given. The method is based on using the Doppler effect. A source of resonance radiation is moved at a constant velocity, which is choosen so as to compensate energy shift of lines of the source and convertors of the resonance detector. The absorber under investigation is put in motion with a constant acceleration. The resonance detector signals are amplified selected according to amplitude by a discriminator and come to the input of multichannel analyzer operating in the regime of subsequent scaling. Analysis of experimental spectra obtained at velocities of source movement from 0 to +3 mm/s shows that value of resonance absorption effect drops as increasing energy shift in the source-converter system. It is concluded that application of the method described will permit to considerably extend the field of application of resonance detectors in the Moessbauer spectroscopy and investigate in practice all the isotopes having converted transitions [ru

  1. 38 CFR 3.351 - Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension...

  2. Future prospects for. gamma. -ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichtel, C [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1981-06-30

    As ..gamma..-ray astronomy moves from the discovery to the exploratory phase, the promise of ..gamma..-ray astrophysics noted by theorists in the late 1940s and 1950s is beginning to be realized. In the future, satellites should carry instruments that will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far, and, for at least some portions of the ..gamma..-ray energy range, these detectors will also have substantially improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance our knowledge of several astrophysical phenomena including the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects, astrophysical nucleosynthesis, solar particle acceleration, the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the Solar System, the structure of our Galaxy, the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays, high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies especially active ones, and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the Universe. The ..gamma..-ray results of the forthcoming programs such as Gamma-I, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the ..gamma..-ray burst network, Solar Polar, and very high energy ..gamma..-ray telescopes on the ground will almost certainly provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the Space Platform currently under study by N.A.S.A.

  3. Gamma scanner conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1979-11-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will include several stations for the nondestructive examination of irradiated fuels. One of these stations will be the gamma scanner which will be employed to detect gamma radiation from the irradiated fuel pins. The conceptual design of the gamma scan station is described. The gamma scanner will use a Standard Exam Stage (SES) as a positioner and transport mechanism for the fuel pins which it will obtain from a magazine. A pin guide mechanism mounted on the face of the collimator will assure that the fuel pins remain in front of the collimator during scanning. The collimator has remotely adjustable tungsten slits and can be manually rotated to align the slit at various angles. A shielded detector cart located in the operating corridor holds an intrinsic germanium detector and associated sodium-iodide anticoincidence detector. The electronics associated with the counting system consist of standard NIM modules to process the detector signals and a stand-alone multichannel analyzer (MCA) for counting data accumulation. Data from the MCA are bussed to the station computer for analysis and storage on magnetic tape. The station computer controls the collimator, the MCA, a source positioner and the SES through CAMAC-based interface hardware. Most of the electronic hardware is commercially available but some interfaces will require development. Conceptual drawings are included for mechanical hardware that must be designed and fabricated

  4. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    .... APHIS-2011-0004] RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... interim rule that amended the plum pox regulations to provide for the payment of compensation to eligible... are required to be destroyed in order to prevent the spread of plum pox. The interim rule also...

  5. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation... that amount required to accomplish the activities for which the claim was paid. Real or Personal...

  6. Multiple Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Data for a sample of UK companies over the period 2003-2006 are analyzed using a variety of econometric methods. We find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant.

  7. Compensation of oscillation coupling induced by solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for construction of various schemes of oscillation coupling compensation, induced by solenoids in charged particle storage rings, are described. Peculiarities of magnetic structure, enabling to localize oscillation coupling in wide energy range are discussed. Results of calculation of compensation schemes for design of NR-2000 storage ring spin rotation are presented

  8. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  9. Gamma sterilization of disposable medical products (DMP's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinston, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Ten million cubic meters (361 million cubic feet) of disposable medical products (DMP) and related health care items are estimated to be sterilized in the world. In this paper, current conditions and perspectives of gamma sterilization is discussed in comparison with ethylene oxide gas and electron beams. Of the total sterilization estimates for DMP, 2.8 million cubic meters (99 million cubic feet) are sterilized with gamma radiation, with a market share of 27%. Gamma radiation is becoming increased from both general market growth and the introduction of new products, as well as the conversion of product from ethylene oxide gas to cobalt-60. Regulatory pressures, legal considerations, and increasing publicity surrounding ethylene oxide usage are encouraging manufactures to switch to gamma radiation. Gamma's performance features include: no temperature change during the sterilization, high penetration, even through hermetically sealed packages, no residues, and no post-sterilization treatment or quarantine period. Gamma sterilization is economically beneficial in large volumes of product. Cost saving to the end user of gamma sterilization has meant lower minimum dose levels than 25 KGy. Despite of an increasingly accepted gamma radiation, there are still four factors to be considered, including cobalt-60 availability, price, transportation, and disposal. The price of cobalt-60 is based on neutron cost. In the future, cobalt-60 price is expected to be flat and enables gamma processing to become even more competitive with other sterilization methods. Gamma radiation using cobalt-60 has been proven as a safe, effective, and cost-competitive sterilization method for treating DMP and related health care items. It's wide use and many processing advantages will continue to make it a preferred sterilization method. (N.K.)

  10. Peace/Williston fish and wildlife compensation program: 1991-1992 Public compensation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    The Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program is a joint initiative by British Columbia Hydro and the provincial environment ministry to enhance and protect fish and wildlife resources and their habitat in the Williston watershed affected by the construction of the WAC Bennett and Peace Canyon dams on the Peace River. The interest from a fund of $11 million, established by BC Hydro in 1988, is used to maintain the compensation programs. Public input to the ongoing fish and wildlife programs is provided by a public consultation program. A summary is presented of the activities undertaken by the public consultation program in 1991/92 and public attitudes toward the consultation program. Activities undertaken in the fish and wildlife enhancement program are summarized in appendices. Fisheries programs included stocking, stream fertilization, small lake surveys, preparation of a side channel in Carbon Creek for multi-species spawning, and creation of an artificial spring at Windy Point for spawning purposes. Wildlife programs included channel clearance and vegetation supply improvements to enhance muskrat and beaver habitat; radio monitoring of sheep and elk; studying the feasibility of transplanting elk herds; and purchase of critical ungulate winter habitat lands. 1 fig., 12 tabs

  11. Effects of Acute Gamma Irradiation on Amaryllis Orange Bio gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Shakinah Salleh; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin; Suhaimi Musa; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Ornamental and landscaping plants have their own demand. Color variations, shape and flower shelf life are among the important value-added characters in improvement of new varieties of ornamental plants. Mutation induction using ionizing radiation is an alternative way for obtaining plant with desirable traits. Improvement of ornamental plant Amaryllis 'Orange Bio gamma' was carried out by exposing bulbs with gamma rays at dose 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50 Gy using Bio Beam GM8000 gamma irradiation chamber at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Effect of radiation on the growth of bulbs was observed. Data on shoot and root length was recorded after 6 weeks. From the observation, the increasing dose has caused a reduction in shoot length and inhibited the root production. This paper will discuss the effects of acute gamma irradiation on the plant morphology. The result and observation obtained is useful for future work on lily improvement and will be included into Bio Beam GM8000 irradiation database. (author)

  12. {beta} {gamma} porch detector; Detecteur portique {beta} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This device is to be placed at the outside of reactors, hot laboratories and others where radioactive products are treated; it is intended to give the alarm when someone, passing through the porch is greatly contaminated, or carries, without his knowing, a radioactive substance. Being to be used in places where there might be an important ground noise, this device is provided with an automatic offset of this noise; an adjusting system of sensitivity allows to obtain a 15 {mu}Ci in {gamma} and 10 {mu}Ci in {beta} radioactive source, passing through the porch at the normal speed at which man is walking. A battery, set in buffer, allows working of the device, even when current is off. (author) [French] Cet appareil est destine a etre place a la sortie des reacteurs, laboratoires chauds ou autres laboratoires travaillant sur des produits radioactifs; son but est de donner une alarme lorsque quelqu'un, passant sous le portique, presente une forte contamination, ou surtout transporte par inadvertance un corps radioactif. Cet appareil devant etre utilise dans les lieux ou peut regner un bruit de fond important, possede une compensation automatique de ce bruit de fond; un reglage de la sensibilite permet d'obtenir au mieux un declenchement pour une source. de 15 {mu}Ci en {gamma} et 10 {mu}Ci en {beta} passant sous le portique a la vitesse normale d'un homme qui marche. Une batterie montee en tampon permet a l'appareil de fonctionner meme en cas de coupure de courant. (auteur)

  13. 42 CFR 413.102 - Compensation of owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definitions—(1) Compensation. Compensation means the total benefit received by the owner for the services he... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation of owners. 413.102 Section 413.102... § 413.102 Compensation of owners. (a) Principle. A reasonable allowance of compensation for services of...

  14. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  15. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma camera system having control components operating in conjunction with a solid state detector is described. The detector is formed of a plurality of discrete components which are associated in geometrical or coordinate arrangement defining a detector matrix to derive coordinate signal outputs. These outputs are selectively filtered and summed to form coordinate channel signals and corresponding energy channel signals. A control feature of the invention regulates the noted summing and filtering performance to derive data acceptance signals which are addressed to further treating components. The latter components include coordinate and enery channel multiplexers as well as energy-responsive selective networks. A sequential control is provided for regulating the signal processing functions of the system to derive an overall imaging cycle

  16. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,α), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,#betta#) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide

  17. Mechanical design of deformation compensated flexural pivots structured for linear nanopositioning stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Kearney, Steven P.; Preissner, Curt A.

    2015-02-17

    A method and deformation compensated flexural pivots structured for precision linear nanopositioning stages are provided. A deformation-compensated flexural linear guiding mechanism includes a basic parallel mechanism including a U-shaped member and a pair of parallel bars linked to respective pairs of I-link bars and each of the I-bars coupled by a respective pair of flexural pivots. The basic parallel mechanism includes substantially evenly distributed flexural pivots minimizing center shift dynamic errors.

  18. Self Organization in Compensated Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2004-03-01

    In partially compensated semiconductor (PCS) Fermi level is pinned to donor sub-band. Due to positional randomness and almost isoenergetic hoppings, donor-spanned electronic subsystem in PCS forms fluid-like highly mobile collective state. This makes PCS playground for pattern formation, self-organization, complexity emergence, electronic neural networks, and perhaps even for origins of life, bioevolution and consciousness. Through effects of impact and/or Auger ionization of donor sites, whole PCS may collapse (spinodal decomposition) into microblocks potentially capable of replication and protobiological activity (DNA analogue). Electronic screening effects may act in RNA fashion by introducing additional length scale(s) to system. Spontaneous quantum computing on charged/neutral sites becomes potential generator of informationally loaded microstructures akin to "Carl Sagan Effect" (hidden messages in Pi in his "Contact") or informational self-organization of "Library of Babel" of J.L. Borges. Even general relativity effects at Planck scale (R.Penrose) may affect the dynamics through (e.g.) isotopic variations of atomic mass and local density (A.A.Berezin, 1992). Thus, PCS can serve as toy model (experimental and computational) at interface of physics and life sciences.

  19. Gamma Splines and Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce a new family of splines termed as gamma splines for continuous signal approximation and multiresolution analysis. The gamma splines are born by -times convolution of the exponential by itself. We study the properties of the discrete gamma splines in signal interpolation and approximation. We prove that the gamma splines obey the two-scale equation based on the polyphase decomposition. to introduce the shift invariant gamma spline wavelet transform for tree structured subscale analysis of asymmetric signal waveforms and for systems with asymmetric impulse response. Especially we consider the applications in biomedical signal analysis (EEG, ECG, and EMG. Finally, we discuss the suitability of the gamma spline signal processing in embedded VLSI environment.

  20. Pneumatic load compensating or controlling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A pneumatic load compensating or controlling system for restraining a load with a predetermined force or applying a predetermined force to the load is described; it includes a source of pressurized air, a one-way pneumatic actuator operatively connected to a load, and a fluid conduit fluidically connecting the actuator with the source of pressurized air. The actuator is of the piston and cylinder type, and the end of the fluid conduit is connected to the upper or lower portion of the cylinder whereby the actuator alternatively and selectively restrains the load with a predetermined force or apply a predetermined force to the load. Pressure regulators are included within the system for variably selectively adjusting the pressurized fluid to predetermined values as desired or required; a pressure amplifier is included within the system for multiplying the pressurized values so as to achieve greater load forces. An accumulator is incorporated within the system as a failsafe operating mechanism, and visual and aural alarm devices, operatively associated with pressure detecting apparatus, readily indicate the proper or improper functioning of the system.

  1. The law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Basic terms are defined, such as: operation of reactors; nuclear damage; nuclear enterpriser; nuclear ship; measure for compensation; amount of compensation and liability insurance contract. The government may conclude with nuclear enterprisers indemnity agreements, in which in the case of reparation responsibilities of the enterprisers coming into being, the government agrees to make for losses of the enterprisers not possible to be compensated by liability insurance contracts, etc., and the enterprisers comply to pay indemnity charges. Losses indemnified by the government with the said agreements (indemnity agreement) shall be losses of the enterprisers (indemnity loss) which occur from reparation of nuclear damages due to earthquakes or eruptions, or regular operation of reactors or damages to be compensated by the insurance contracts, which are not demanded by the sufferers for 10 years from the day of events, and others. The term of indemnity agreements is from the time of the conclusion to the date of suspension of the operation of reactors. Indemnity charges, amount of indemnity, limit of conclusion of indemnity agreements, notice, prescription and others are prescribed respectively. The government may dissolute indemnity agreements in specified particular cases, including violation of the provisions of the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage by the enterprisers, etc. (Okada, K.)

  2. Evaluation of compensation formulae to measure natural resource damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilliard, G.A.; Fischel, M.; Desvousges, W.H.; Dunford, R.W.; Mathews, K.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the oil spills in marine, estuarine, or freshwater environments of the United States are small (less than 1,000 gallons) and result in minimal injury to natural resources or little to no loss of services. However, federal, state, and Indian tribe trustees for natural resources are entitled under a variety of laws, including the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, to collect damages (money) from responsible parties to compensate for the foregone services and restoration of the services provided by the natural resources. Alaska, Washington, and Florida have developed a formula-based approach to calculating natural resource damages resulting from most spills; the federal National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and several other states are considering developing a compensation formula. The ideal compensation formula is a simplified assessment process that (a) can be applied rapidly, (b) requires relatively small transaction or assessment costs, (c) requires minimal site- and spill-specific data as inputs, (d) is based on generally accepted scientific and economic principles and methods, and (e) results in damage values acceptable to both the trustees and the responsible party. In theory, a compensation formula could be applied to most small oil spills in United States waters

  3. A practical attenuation compensation method for cone beam spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manglos, S.H.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Floyd, C.E.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    An algorithm for attenuation compensation of cone beam SPECT images has been developed and implemented. The algorithm is based on a multiplicative post-processing method previously used for parallel and fan beam geometries. This method computes the compensation from the estimated average attenuation of photons originating from each image pixel. In the present development, a uniform attenuation coefficient inside of the body contour is assumed, although the method could be extended to include a non-uniform attenuation map. The algorithm is tested with experimental projections of a phantom obtained using a cone beam collimator. Profiles through the reconstructed images are presented as a quantitative test of the improvement due to the compensation. The algorithm provides adequate compensation for attenuation in a simple uniform cylindrical phantom, and the computational time is short compared to that expected for iterative reconstruction techniques. Also observed are image distortions in some reconstructed slices when the source distribution extends beyond the edge of the cone beam axial field-of-view

  4. Rain Fade Compensation for Ka-Band Communications Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W. Carl; Nguyen, Lan; Dissanayake, Asoka; Markey, Brian; Le, Anh

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a review and evaluation of rain fade measurement and compensation techniques for Ka-band satellite systems. This report includes a description of and cost estimates for performing three rain fade measurement and compensation experiments. The first experiment deals with rain fade measurement techniques while the second one covers the rain fade compensation techniques. The third experiment addresses a feedback flow control technique for the ABR service (for ATM-based traffic). The following conclusions were observed in this report; a sufficient system signal margin should be allocated for all carriers in a network, that is a fixed clear-sky margin should be typically in the range of 4-5 dB and should be more like 15 dB in the up link for moderate and heavy rain zones; to obtain a higher system margin it is desirable to combine the uplink power control technique with the technique that implements the source information rate and FEC code rate changes resulting in a 4-5 dB increase in the dynamic part of the system margin. The experiments would assess the feasibility of the fade measurements and compensation techniques, and ABR feedback control technique.

  5. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The first certain detection of celestial high energy gamma rays came from a satellite experiment flown on the third Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-111). A Gamma ray spark chamber telescope with substantively greater sensitivity and angular resolution (a few degrees) flown on the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-II) has now provided a better picture of the gamma ray sky, and particularly the galactic plane and pulsars. This paper will summarize the present picture of gamma ray astronomy as it has developed at this conference from measurements made with experiments carried out on balloons, those remaining on the ground, and ones flown on satellites. (orig.) [de

  6. Gamma radiation and HZE treatment of seedlings in Arabidopsis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plants exhibit a robust transcriptional response to gamma radiation which includes the induction of transcripts required for homologous recombination and the...

  7. Constraining CKM $\\gamma$ angle at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Vallier, Alexis Roger Louis

    2015-01-01

    The current combination of all available tree-level measurements of the CKM angle gamma at LHCb is reported. It includes results obtained from time independent analyses of B+ -> DK+ and of B0 -> DK∗0 decays; and from a time-dependent analysis of Bs0 -> DsK decays. The results represent the world's best single-experiment determination of gamma. The first observation of the Bs->Ds*K decay and the first observation and amplitude analysis of B- -> D+K-pi- are also reported. In addition to these tree measurements, the estimation of gamma from charmless B meson decay, sensitive to loops contribution, is presented.

  8. Gamma radiation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.

    1981-08-01

    A nationwide investigation has been made into the gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings. The measurements were made with small detectors containing thermoluminescent dosimeters. The detectors were sent to the selected participants by mail. 1300 dwellings were included in the investigation. In each dwelling three measurements were made: one detector was placed in the kitchen, one in the living-room and one in the bedroom. The mean annual absorbed tissue dose in dwellings in Sweden was found to be 0.65 mGy (corresponding to an exposition rate of 12 μR/h) when the contribution from cosmic radiation had been subtracted. That represents an annual collective dose of about 4000 mansieverts to the population of Sweden. From a previous investigation we have calculate the mean value for the gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings for 1950 to be 0.4 mGy/a (8μR/h). The reason for the relatively large increase in the mean value is an increased use of building materials on stone, particularly of lightweight concrete based on alum shale, from 1940 to middle 1960s. The production of this type of lightweight concrete was discontinued in 1975 and the use of other stone-based building materials has decreased. The mean value of gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings is therefore expected to decrease slowly in the future if this tendency holds. Sweden has some 3.5 million dwellings. About 10 % of them have mean values of 1 mGy/a (19 μR/h) or more, 0.2 % have 3 mGy/a (57 μR/h) or more and a couple of hundred 5 mGy/a (95 μR/h or more. The mean value for detached houses was found to be 0.43 mGy/a (8 μR/h) and for dwellings in multi-family houses 0.80 mGy/a (15 μR/h). The investigation dwellings have also been classified according to the building materials, the year of construction and the degree of urbanization of the area. (author)

  9. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645 ns 'mini' bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have <1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1%/ms. This places a significant design burden on the current transformer; such a design is almost impossible to achieve. Extremely large expensive cores are needed to meet the low droop, while leakage inductance increases with size, thereby reducing the achievable rise time. In this paper, I discuss a digital compensation approach [M. Kesselman, Spallation neutron source beam current monitor electronics, PAC2001 June 18-22, 2001, Chicago, IL.] that extends the lower cut-off frequency of the current transformer, optimized for high frequency response, so that it can be used in this application with improvements in droop of the order of 1000:1. Transformer saturation (current-time product) is a separate issue and the transformer must be designed to handle the current-time product of the signal to assure it does not saturate

  10. High rate of awarding compensation for claims of injuries related to clinical trials by pharmaceutical companies in Japan: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Chieko; Kusuoka, Hideo; Ono, Shunsuke; Kakee, Naoko; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takehara, Kenji; Tsujide, Kiyokazu; Nabeoka, Yuzo; Sakuhiro, Takuya; Aoki, Hiroshi; Morishita, Noriko; Suzuki, Chieko; Kachi, Shigeo; Kondo, Emiko; Komori, Yukiko; Isobe, Tetsu; Kageyama, Shigeru; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    International norms and ethical standards have suggested that compensation for research-related injury should be provided to injured research volunteers. However, statistical data of incidence of compensation claims and the rate of awarding them have been rarely reported. Questionnaire surveys were sent to pharmaceutical companies and medical institutions, focusing on industry-initiated clinical trials aiming at new drug applications (NDAs) on patient volunteers in Japan. With the answers from pharmaceutical companies, the incidence of compensation was 0.8%, including 0.06% of monetary compensation. Of the cases of compensation claims, 99% were awarded. In turn, with the answers from medical institutions, the incidence of compensation was 0.6%, including 0.4% of serious but not death cases, and 0.04% of death cases. Furthermore, most claims for compensation were initiated by medical institutions, rather than by the patients. On the other hand, with the answers from clinical trial volunteers, 3% of respondents received compensations. These compensated cases were 25% of the injuries which cannot be ruled out from the scope of compensation. Our study results demonstrated that Japanese pharmaceutical companies have provided a high rate of compensation for clinical trial-related injuries despite the possibility of overestimation. In the era of global clinical development, our study indicates the importance of further surveys to find each country's compensation policy by determining how it is being implemented based on a survey of the actual status of compensation coming from statistical data.

  11. Towards Compensation Correctness in Interactive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cátia; Ferreira, Carla

    One fundamental idea of service-oriented computing is that applications should be developed by composing already available services. Due to the long running nature of service interactions, a main challenge in service composition is ensuring correctness of failure recovery. In this paper, we use a process calculus suitable for modelling long running transactions with a recovery mechanism based on compensations. Within this setting, we discuss and formally state correctness criteria for compensable processes compositions, assuming that each process is correct with respect to failure recovery. Under our theory, we formally interpret self-healing compositions, that can detect and recover from failures, as correct compositions of compensable processes.

  12. Inductive voltage compensation in superconducting magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.; Goddard, J.S.; Shen, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper details several techniques of inductive voltage compensation developed for quench detection in superconducting magnet systems with multiple coils and power supplies, with particular application for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF). Sources of noise, their magnitudes, and the sensitivity required for normal zone detection to avoid damage to the magnets are discussed. Two passive compensation schemes (second difference and central difference) are introduced and illustrated by parameters of LCTF; these take advantage of coil symmetries and other system characteristics. An active compensation scheme based on current rate input fom pickup coils and utilizing theory on ac loss voltage for calibration was tested, and the experimental setup and test results are discussed

  13. Health Insurance Costs and Employee Compensation: Evidence from the National Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Priyanka

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines the relationship between rising health insurance costs and employee compensation. I estimate the extent to which total compensation decreases with a rise in health insurance costs and decompose these changes in compensation into adjustments in wages, non-health fringe benefits, and employee contributions to health insurance premiums. I examine this relationship using the National Compensation Survey, a panel dataset on compensation and health insurance for a sample of establishments across the USA. I find that total hourly compensation reduces by $0.52 for each dollar increase in health insurance costs. This reduction in total compensation is primarily in the form of higher employee premium contributions, and there is no evidence of a change in wages and non-health fringe benefits. These findings show that workers are absorbing at least part of the increase in health insurance costs through lower compensation and highlight the importance of examining total compensation, and not just wages, when examining the relationship between health insurance costs and employee compensation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  15. Gamma irradiation of onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, D.

    1975-01-01

    Technological and economic feasibility of gamma irradiation of onions and garlic on an industrial scale are studied. Statistical data on production, consumption, exportation and losses during storage are analyzed. Traditional methods of food preservation are reviewed and gamma irradiation techniques are presented as an alternative to sprout inhibition. Requirements for the irradiation of onions and garlic on a commercial scale including a cost benefit analysis are discussed. Some conclusions are formulated on licensing and prospects

  16. Gamma tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Span, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a gamma tomography apparatus for medical diagnosis. The apparatus comprises a gamma scintillation camera head and a suspension system for supporting and positioning the camera head with respect for the patient. Both total body scanning and single photon emission tomography can be carried out with the apparatus. (U.K.)

  17. Gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsen, W.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of the celestial gamma-ray fine-scale structure based on over half of the data which may ultimately be available from the COS-B satellite. A catalogue consisting of 25 gamma-ray sources measured at energies above 100 MeV is presented. (Auth.)

  18. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  19. RARE DECAYS INCLUDING PENGUINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigen, G

    2003-12-04

    The authors present a preliminary measurement of the exclusive charmless semileptonic B decays, B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}, and the extraction of the CKM parameters V{sub ub}. IN a data sample of 55 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they measure a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}) = (3.39 {+-} 0.44{sub stat} {+-} 0.52{sub sys} {+-} 0.60{sub th}) x 10{sup -4} yielding |V{sub ub}| = (3.69 {+-} 0.23{sub stat} {+-} 0.27{sub sys -0.59th}{sup +0.40}) x 10{sup -3}. Next, they report on a preliminary study of the radiative penguin modes B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}. In a data sample of 84 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they observe a significant signal (4.4{sigma}) in B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, yielding a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.78{sub -0.20-0.18}{sup +0.24+0.11}) x 10{sup -6}. In B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} the observed yield is not yet significant (2.8{sigma}), yielding an upper limit of the branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) 3.0 x 10{sup -6} {at} 90% confidence level. Finally, they summarize preliminary results of searches for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma}, B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  20. The risks and rewards of setting physician compensation internally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jen

    2013-01-01

    To establish physician compensation internally, finance leaders should: Educate decision makers on basic regulatory guidance and valuation theory. Determine fair market value. Consider using a compensation calculator.

  1. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  2. Defense Contract Audit Agency Compensation Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) assists the administrative contracting officer in accomplishing that responsibility by determining whether the contractor's compensation system is sound, reliable, consistently applied, and results...

  3. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  4. Shaft Seal Compensates for Cold Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Seal components easy to install. Ring seal for rotating or reciprocating shafts spring-loaded to compensate for slow yielding (cold flow) of sealing material. New seal relatively easy to install because components preassembled, then installed in one piece.

  5. Integrated open source mine workers compensation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Mine Workers Compensation System developed by the CSIR and Molepe Consulting for the South African Department of Health. Mining activities increase the risk of certain occupational lung diseases. South African legislation...

  6. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-22

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  7. voltage compensation using artificial neural network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Offor Theophilos

    Simulation results showed that DVR is effective in compensating for ... shutdown of heavy equipment, switching operations etc, ... station were carried out in MatLab 2013 application. ... semiconductor in a pulse width modulation (PWM).

  8. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  9. Gamma model and its analysis for phase measuring profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Yongchang; Lau, Daniel L; Hao, Qi; Hassebrook, Laurence G

    2010-03-01

    Phase measuring profilometry is a method of structured light illumination whose three-dimensional reconstructions are susceptible to error from nonunitary gamma in the associated optical devices. While the effects of this distortion diminish with an increasing number of employed phase-shifted patterns, gamma distortion may be unavoidable in real-time systems where the number of projected patterns is limited by the presence of target motion. A mathematical model is developed for predicting the effects of nonunitary gamma on phase measuring profilometry, while also introducing an accurate gamma calibration method and two strategies for minimizing gamma's effect on phase determination. These phase correction strategies include phase corrections with and without gamma calibration. With the reduction in noise, for three-step phase measuring profilometry, analysis of the root mean squared error of the corrected phase will show a 60x reduction in phase error when the proposed gamma calibration is performed versus 33x reduction without calibration.

  10. Synchronization of two chaotic systems: Dynamic compensator approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-K.; Lai, T.-W.; Yan, J.-J.; Liao, T.-L.

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the identical synchronization problem for a class of chaotic systems. A dynamic compensator is proposed to achieve the synchronization between master and slave chaotic systems using only the accessible output variables. A sufficient condition is also proposed to ensure the global synchronization. Furthermore, the strictly positive real (SPR) restriction, which is normally required in most of the observer-based synchronization schemes, is released in our approach. Two numerical examples are included to illustrate the proposed scheme.

  11. Capital Structure and Managerial Compensation: The Effects of Renumeration Seniority

    OpenAIRE

    Calcagno, R.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the relative seniority of debt and managerial compensation has important implications on the design of remuneration contracts.Whereas the traditional literature assumes that debt is senior to remuneration, we show that this is frequently not the case according to bankruptcy regulation and as observed in practice.We theoretically show that including risky debt changes the incentive to provide the manager with stronger performance-related incentives ("contract substitution" effect)...

  12. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlicek, V.; Pokorny, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper

  13. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlíček, V.; Pokorný, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper.

  14. Radiotherapy dose compensation for lung patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyaratna, N.; Arnold, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a more homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume from compensated anterior and posterior fields while the healthy lung is spared by de-weighting the lateral fields. A compensation computation which used linear iterations to compute the most homogeneous dose distribution across the target volume was applied to produce optimum compensator designs. The equivalent tissue-air ratio (E-TAR) inhomogeneity correction was applied for the computations using a GE target series 11 planning computer. The compensators designed were tested for accuracy in a modified water/lung phantom using a scanning diode and an anthropomorphic phantom using thermoluminescent dosimeters. A comparison has been made between the compensated and uncompensated plans for the first nine patients who we have treated with this technique. The dose profiles produced by the computation agreed with the prediction of the computed isodose plans to within ± 2% at the target depth. The thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-measured results in the anthropomorphic phantom agreed with the planning computer within ± 3%. A comparison of nine compensated plans of radiotherapy patients for large-volume targets in the lung region showed a maximum variation in the target to be 19% uncompensated versus 10% compensated. By providing compensated treatment fields from anterior and posterior treatment portals, a homogeneous dose that conforms well to the target volume is provided. As an added bonus, this enables the lateral lung fields to be significantly de-weighted and the healthy lung is spared considerable dose. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  15. Reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М.Galynovskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of models of three-phase-to-single-phase rotary reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators in a circuit simulation system is analyzed. It is shown that combined control mode of opposite-connected thyristors may result in the exciter armature winding short circuits both at the thyristor feed-forward and lagging current delay angles. It must be taken into consideration when developing brushless compensator excitation systems.

  16. Executive Compensation and Principal-Agent Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Garen, John E

    1994-01-01

    The empirical literature on executive compensation generally fails to specify a model of executive pay on which to base hypotheses regarding its determinants. In contrast, this paper analyzes a simple principal-agent model to determine how well it explains variations in CEO incentive pay and salaries. Many findings are consistent with the basic intuition of principle-agent models that compensation is structured to trade off incentives with insurance. However, statistical significance for some...

  17. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  18. Compensation for Combat Deaths: Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    through the courts for deaths resulting from other parties’ negligence or criminal behavior; a key difference between the tort system and many other...funding facilities that function outside of the tort system— for example, workers’ compensation programs for workplace fatalities and the Victims...receive $100,000 if the 10-percent risk of a loss of $100,000 actually came to pass. Tort law generally uses an ex post approach to compensation and

  19. Reactive power compensation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Just, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive resource on reactive power compensation, presenting the design, application and operation of reactive power equipment and installations The area of reactive power compensation is gaining increasing importance worldwide. If suitably designed, it is capable of improving voltage quality significantly, meaning that losses in equipment and power systems are reduced, the permissible loading of equipment can be increased, and the over-all stability of system operation improved. Ultimately, energy use and CO2 emisson are reduced. This unique guide discusses the

  20. Environmental change, phenotypic plasticity, and genetic compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F

    2005-10-01

    When a species encounters novel environmental conditions, some phenotypic characters may develop differently than in the ancestral environment. Most environmental perturbations of development are likely to reduce fitness, and thus selection would usually be expected to favor genetic changes that restore the ancestral phenotype. I propose the term "genetic compensation" to refer to this form of adaptive evolution. Genetic compensation is a subset of genetic accommodation and the reverse of genetic assimilation. When genetic compensation has occurred along a spatial environmental gradient, the mean trait values of populations in different environments may be more similar in the field than when representatives of the same populations are raised in a common environment (i.e., countergradient variation). If compensation is complete, genetic divergence between populations may be cryptic, that is, not detectable in the field. Here I apply the concept of genetic compensation to three examples involving carotenoid-based sexual coloration and then use these and other examples to discuss the concept in a broader context. I show that genetic compensation may lead to a cryptic form of reproductive isolation between populations evolving in different environments, may explain some puzzling cases in which heritable traits exposed to strong directional selection fail to show the expected evolutionary response, and may complicate efforts to monitor populations for signs of environmental deterioration.

  1. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with compensators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salz, H.; Wiezorek, T.; Scheithauer, M.; Kleen, W.; Schwedas, M.; Wendt, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation with intensity-modulated fields is possible with static as well as dynamic methods. In our university hospital, the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with compensators was prepared and used for the first time for patient irradiation in July 2001. The compensators consist of a mixture of tin granulate and wax, which is filled in a milled negative mould. The treatment planning is performed with Helax-TMS (MDS Nordion). An additional software is used for editing the modulation matrix ('Modifix'). Before irradiation of the first patient, extensive measurements have been carried out in terms of quality assurance of treatment planning and production of compensators. The results of the verification measurements have shown that IMRT with compensators possesses high spatial and dosimetric exactness. The calculated dose distributions are applied correctly. The accuracy of the calculated monitor units is normally better than 3%; in small volumes, further dosimetric inaccuracies between calculated and measured dose distributions are mostly less than 3%. Therefore, the compensators contribute to the achievement of high-level IMRT even when apparatuses without MLC are used. This paper describes the use of the IMRT with compensators, presents the limits of this technology, and discusses the first practical experiences. (orig.) [de

  2. Trends in compensation for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco, Ann; Demers, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    Occupational cancer is the leading cause of work-related deaths, yet it is often unrecognized and under reported, and associated claims for compensation go unfiled. We sought to examine trends in deaths from occupational cancer, high-risk industries and exposures, and commonly compensated categories of occupational cancers. In addition, we compared deaths from occupational lung cancer for which compensation had been given with total deaths from lung cancer. We used data from the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada pertaining to the nature and source of the injury or disease and the industry in which it occurred (by jurisdiction) to describe trends in compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada for the period 1997-2010. We used data published by the Canadian Cancer Society in Canadian Cancer Statistics to compare compensated occupational lung cancer deaths with total estimated lung cancer deaths for the period between 2006 and 2010. Compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer have increased in recent years and surpassed those for traumatic injuries and disorders in Canada, particularly in Ontario. Between 1997 and 2010, one-half of all compensated deaths from occupational cancer in Canada were from Ontario. High-risk industries for occupational cancer include manufacturing, construction, mining and, more recently, government services. Deaths from lung cancer and mesothelioma comprise most of the compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Ontario and Canada. These diseases are usually the result of asbestos exposure. The burden of other occupational carcinogens is not reflected in claims data. Although the number of accepted claims for deaths from occupational cancers has increased in recent years, these claims likely only represent a fraction of the true burden of this problem. Increased education of patients, workers at high risk of exposure and health care providers is needed to ensure that people

  3. Intonation and compensation of fretted string instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varieschi, Gabriele; Gower, Christina

    2011-04-01

    We discuss theoretical and physical models that are useful for analyzing the intonation of musical instruments such as guitars and mandolins and can be used to improve the tuning on these instruments. The placement of frets on the fingerboard is designed according to mathematical rules and the assumption of an ideal string. The analysis becomes more complicated when we include the effects of deformation of the string and inharmonicity due to other string characteristics. As a consequence, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument cannot be achieved, but complex compensation procedures can be introduced to minimize the problem. To test the validity of these procedures, we performed extensive measurements using standard monochord sonometers and other acoustical devices, confirming the correctness of our theoretical models. These experimental activities can be integrated into acoustics courses and laboratories and can become a more advanced version of basic experiments with monochords and sonometers. This work was supported by a grant from the Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering, Loyola Marymount University.

  4. Gamma ray lines from a universal extra dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Jackson, C. B.; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Tait, Tim M.P.; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Indirect Dark Matter searches are based on the observation of secondary particles produced by the annihilation or decay of Dark Matter. Among them, gamma-rays are perhaps the most promising messengers, as they do not suffer deflection or absorption on Galactic scales, so their observation would directly reveal the position and the energy spectrum of the emitting source. Here, we study the detailed gamma-ray energy spectrum of Kaluza--Klein Dark Matter in a theory with 5 Universal Extra Dimensions. We focus in particular on the two body annihilation of Dark Matter particles into a photon and another particle, which produces monochromatic photons, resulting in a line in the energy spectrum of gamma rays. Previous calculations in the context of the five dimensional UED model have computed the line signal from annihilations into \\gamma \\gamma, but we extend these results to include \\gamma Z and \\gamma H final states. We find that these spectral lines are subdominant compared to the predicted \\gamma \\gamma signal, but they would be important as follow-up signals in the event of the observation of the \\gamma \\gamma line, in order to distinguish the 5d UED model from other theoretical scenarios.

  5. Compensations to Local Communities in the Krsko NPP Decommissioning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanat, I.; Knapp, A.; Lokner, V.

    2010-01-01

    In Slovenia, direct financial compensations (for 'limited land use') to local communities hosting nuclear facilities were initially specified by a government Decree from 2003. In Croatia, a possibility of direct financial compensations had been indicated in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository siting about a decade earlier, but the topic was subsequently abandoned together with the repository project. In 2004, the joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 (the 1st revision of the joint Program) conservatively included the compensation amounts from the Slovenian Decree into the cost estimates of LILW and SF repositories, although their location was entirely unspecified ('in Slovenia or in Croatia'). Shortly before the 2nd revision of the joint Program started in the fall of 2008, the Slovenian government had amended its Decree, practically doubling the amounts of the repository compensations. Assuming that some (or possibly all) nuclear facilities and waste, dealt with in the Program, may be located in Slovenia, the revision has adopted a conservative approach to include all compensations to local communities that may be required by the Slovenian regulations into the Program costs. This paper discusses the Slovenian government Decree, its impact on the joint Program costs, and its implications on RW and SF management in the region. The Decree suffers from the lack of self-consistency, clarity, and consistency with the more general legal provisions on which it should have been based, but it may have an important supporting role in the process of RW and SF management facilities siting. The Decree introduced significant additional costs into the joint Program, which have grown from about one hundred million eur in the 1st revision to about half a billion in this revision (depending on the Program scenario). Besides, application of the Decree in the joint Program has set a precedent

  6. Implementation of Cascade Gamma and Positron Range Corrections for I-124 Small Animal PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzmann, S.; Braun, F.; Zakhnini, A.; Weber, W. A.; Pietrzyk, U.; Mix, M.

    2014-02-01

    Small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) should provide accurate quantification of regional radiotracer concentrations and high spatial resolution. This is challenging for non-pure positron emitters with high positron endpoint energies, such as I-124: On the one hand the cascade gammas emitted from this isotope can produce coincidence events with the 511 keV annihilation photons leading to quantification errors. On the other hand the long range of the high energy positron degrades spatial resolution. This paper presents the implementation of a comprehensive correction technique for both of these effects. The established corrections include a modified sinogram-based tail-fitting approach to correct for scatter, random and cascade gamma coincidences and a compensation for resolution degradation effects during the image reconstruction. Resolution losses were compensated for by an iterative algorithm which incorporates a convolution kernel derived from line source measurements for the microPET Focus 120 system. The entire processing chain for these corrections was implemented, whereas previous work has only addressed parts of this process. Monte Carlo simulations with GATE and measurements of mice with the microPET Focus 120 show that the proposed method reduces absolute quantification errors on average to 2.6% compared to 15.6% for the ordinary Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization algorithm. Furthermore resolution was improved in the order of 11-29% depending on the number of convolution iterations. In summary, a comprehensive, fast and robust algorithm for the correction of small animal PET studies with I-124 was developed which improves quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution.

  7. LOFT gamma densitometer background fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimesey, R.A.; McCracken, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Background gamma-ray fluxes were calculated at the location of the γ densitometers without integral shielding at both the hot-leg and cold-leg primary piping locations. The principal sources for background radiation at the γ densitometers are 16 N activity from the primary piping H 2 O and γ radiation from reactor internal sources. The background radiation was calculated by the point-kernel codes QAD-BSA and QAD-P5A. Reasonable assumptions were required to convert the response functions calculated by point-kernel procedures into the gamma-ray spectrum from reactor internal sources. A brief summary of point-kernel equations and theory is included

  8. Selective Compensation of Voltage Harmonics in a Grid-Connected Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, M.; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method for selective voltage harmonic compensation in a grid-connected microgrid is presented. Harmonic compensation is done through proper control of distributed generators (DGs) interface converters. In order to achieve proper sharing of compensation effort among the DGs, a power...... named “Harmonic Distortion Power (HDP)” is defined. In the proposed method, active and reactive power control loops are considered to control the powers injected by the DGs. Also, a virtual impedance loop and voltage and current proportional-resonant controllers are included. Simulation results show...

  9. Compensation of Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnek, Jonathan R

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify factors associated with compensation for Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics and assess whether these associations have changed over the period 1999-2008. Data obtained from the Longitudinal EMT Attributes and Demographic Study (LEADS) surveys, a mail survey of a random, stratified sample of nationally certified EMT-Basics and Paramedics, were analyzed. For the 1999-2003 period, analyses included all respondents providing Emergency Medical Services (EMS). With the addition of a survey in 2004 about volunteers, it was possible to exclude volunteers from these analyses. Over 60% of EMT-Basics reported being either compensated or noncompensated volunteers in the 2004-2008 period. This was substantially and significantly greater than the proportion of EMT-Paramedic volunteers (Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s87-s95.

  10. Evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated sex chromosomes in mammals and other vertebrates evolved independently but in strikingly similar ways. Vertebrates with differentiated sex chromosomes share the problems of the unequal expression of the genes borne on sex chromosomes, both between the sexes and with respect to autosomes. Dosage compensation of genes on sex chromosomes is surprisingly variable - and can even be absent - in different vertebrate groups. Systems that compensate for different gene dosages include a wide range of global, regional and gene-by-gene processes that differ in their extent and their molecular mechanisms. However, many elements of these control systems are similar across distant phylogenetic divisions and show parallels to other gene silencing systems. These dosage systems cannot be identical by descent but were probably constructed from elements of ancient silencing mechanisms that are ubiquitous among vertebrates and shared throughout eukaryotes.

  11. Electrochemical energy storage devices comprising self-compensating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Bautista-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Friesen, Cody; Switzer, Elise

    2018-01-30

    The disclosed technology relates generally to devices comprising conductive polymers and more particularly to electrochemical devices comprising self-compensating conductive polymers. In one aspect, electrochemical energy storage device comprises a negative electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device additionally comprises a positive electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device further comprises an electrolyte material interposed between the negative electrode and positive electrode and configured to conduct mobile counterions therethrough between the negative electrode and positive electrode. At least one of the negative electrode redox-active polymer and the positive electrode redox-active polymer comprises a zwitterionic polymer unit configured to reversibly switch between a zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has first and second charge centers having opposite charge states that compensate each other, and a non-zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has one of the first and second charge centers whose charge state is compensated by mobile counterions.

  12. The gamma function

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers

  13. Structure and content of the galaxy and galactic gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The conference included papers on ..gamma..-ray pulsars, galactic diffuse flux and surveys, radio surveys of external galaxies, galactic distribution of pulsars, and galactic gamma emission. Galactic structure drawing on all branches of galactic astronomy is discussed. New and unpublished material is included. (JFP)

  14. Measurement of K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Morales, Cristina

    2009-07-21

    The goal of this thesis was an experimental test of an effective theory of strong interactions at low energy, called Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). Weak decays of kaon mesons provide such a test. In particular, K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays are interesting because there is no tree-level O(p{sup 2}) contribution in ChPT, and the leading contributions start at O(p{sup 4}). At this order, these decays include one undetermined coupling constant, c. Both the branching ratio and the spectrum shape of K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays are sensitive to this parameter. O(p{sup 6}) contributions to K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} ChPT predict a 30-40% increase in the branching ratio. From the measurement of the branching ratio and spectrum shape of K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays, it is possible to determine a model dependent value of c and also to examine whether the O(p{sup 6}) corrections are necessary and enough to explain the rate. About 40% of the data collected in the year 2003 by the NA48/2 experiment have been analyzed and 908 K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} candidates with about 8% background contamination have been selected in the region with z=m{sup 2}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}/m{sub K}{sup 2}{>=}0.2. Using 5,750,121 selected K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} decays as normalization channel, a model independent differential branching ratio of K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} has been measured to be: BR(K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma}, z{>=}0.2)=(1.018{+-}0.038{sub stat}{+-}0.039{sub syst}{+-}0.004{sub ext}).10{sup -6}. From the fit to the O(p{sup 6}) ChPT prediction of the measured branching ratio and the shape of the z-spectrum, a value of c=1.54{+-}0.15{sub stat}{+-}0.18{sub syst} has been extracted. Using the measured c value and the O(p{sup 6}) ChPT prediction, the branching ratio for z=m{sup 2}{sub

  15. 28 CFR 104.21 - Filing for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “Personal Injury Compensation Form” or a “Death Compensation Form.” A claim shall be deemed “filed” for... filing either a “Personal Injury Compensation Form” or a “Death Compensation Form,” the claim shall be..., when a Claims Evaluator determines that both the Eligibility Form and either a Personal Injury...

  16. 20 CFR 211.2 - Definition of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 211.2 Section 211.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.2 Definition of compensation. (a) The term compensation means any form...

  17. 50 CFR 296.4 - Claims eligible for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compensation. (a) Claimants. Damage or loss eligible for Fund compensation must be suffered by a commercial fisherman. (b) Damage or loss of fishing gear. Damage or loss is eligible for Fund compensation if it was... is not eligible for Fund compensation: (1) If the damage or loss was caused by the negligence or...

  18. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency and indemnity compensation. This term means a monthly payment made by...

  19. Gamma spectrometry and plastic-scintillator inherent background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantsev, V.V.; Gagauz, I.B.; Mitsai, L.I.; Pilipenko, V.S.; Solomonov, V.M.; Chernikov, V.V.; Tsirlin, Y.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors measured the energy resolution for a linear dependence of light yield on gamma radiation energy of gamma spectrometers based on plastic scintillation detectors for several plastic scintillators. If there were several gamma lines from the source the line with the highest energy was used to eliminate distortion due to overlap from the Compton background from gamma radiation of higher energy. Attenuation lengths were calculated. The tests were based on three modes of interaction between the gamma radiation and the scintillator: Compton scattering, the photoelectric effect, and pair formation. The contribution from light collection was also considered. The scintillators tested included polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, cesium iodide, and sodium iodide. Gamma sources included cesium 137, sodium 22, potassium 40, yttrium 88, thorium 232, and plutonium-beryllium

  20. Basics of Gamma Ray Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venkataraman, Ram [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this training is to explain the origin of x-rays and gamma rays, gamma ray interactions with matter, detectors and electronics used in gamma ray-spectrometry, and features of a gamma-ray spectrum for nuclear material that is safeguarded.

  1. An ecological compensation standard based on emergy theory for the Xiao Honghe River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xinjian; Chen, Moyu; Hu, Caihong

    2015-01-01

    The calculation of an ecological compensation standard is an important, but also difficult aspect of current ecological compensation research. In this paper, the factors affecting the ecological-economic system in the Xiao Honghe River Basin, China, including the flow of energy, materials, and money, were calculated using the emergy analysis method. A consideration of the relationships between the ecological-economic value of water resources and ecological compensation allowed the ecological-economic value to be calculated. On this basis, the amount of water needed for dilution was used to develop a calculation model for the ecological compensation standard of the basin. Using the Xiao Honghe River Basin as an example, the value of water resources and the ecological compensation standard were calculated using this model according to the emission levels of the main pollutant in the basin, chemical oxygen demand. The compensation standards calculated for the research areas in Xipin, Shangcai, Pingyu, and Xincai were 34.91 yuan/m3, 32.97 yuan/m3, 35.99 yuan/m3, and 34.70 yuan/m3, respectively, and such research output would help to generate and support new approaches to the long-term ecological protection of the basin and improvement of the ecological compensation system.

  2. Compensation phenomena of a mixed spin-2 and spin-12 Heisenberg ferrimagnetic model: Green function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Wei Guozhu; Du An

    2005-01-01

    The compensation and critical behaviors of a mixed spin-2 and spin-12 Heisenberg ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice are investigated theoretically by the two-time Green's function technique, which takes into account the quantum nature of Heisenberg spins. The model can be relevant for understanding the magnetic behavior of the new class of organometallic ferromagnetic materials that exhibit spontaneous magnetic properties at room temperature. We carry out the calculation of the sublattice magnetizations and the spin-wave spectra of the ground state. In particular, we have studied the effects of the nearest, next-nearest-neighbor interactions, the crystal field and the external magnetic field on the compensation temperature and the critical temperature. When only the nearest-neighbor interactions and the crystal field are included, no compensation temperature exists; when the next-nearest-neighbor interaction between spin-12 is taken into account and exceeds a minimum value, a compensation point appears and it is basically unchanged for other parameters in Hamiltonian fixed. The next-nearest-neighbor interactions between spin-2 and the external magnetic field have the effects of changing the compensation temperature and there is a narrow range of parameters of the Hamiltonian for which the model has the compensation temperatures and compensation temperature exists only for a small value of them

  3. Temperature compensation and entrainment in circadian rhythms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenstein, C; Heiland, I; Schuster, S

    2012-01-01

    To anticipate daily variations in the environment and coordinate biological activities into a daily cycle many organisms possess a circadian clock. In the absence of external time cues the circadian rhythm persists with a period of approximately 24 h. The clock phase can be shifted by single pulses of light, darkness, chemicals, or temperature and this allows entrainment of the clock to exactly 24 h by cycles of these zeitgebers. On the other hand, the period of the circadian rhythm is kept relatively constant within a physiological range of constant temperatures, which means that the oscillator is temperature compensated. The mechanisms behind temperature compensation and temperature entrainment are not fully understood, neither biochemically nor mathematically. Here, we theoretically investigate the interplay of temperature compensation and entrainment in general oscillatory systems. We first give an analytical treatment for small temperature shifts and derive that every temperature-compensated oscillator is entrainable to external small-amplitude temperature cycles. Temperature compensation ensures that this entrainment region is always centered at the endogenous period regardless of possible seasonal temperature differences. Moreover, for small temperature cycles the entrainment region of the oscillator is potentially larger for rectangular pulses. For large temperature shifts we numerically analyze different circadian clock models proposed in the literature with respect to these properties. We observe that for such large temperature shifts sinusoidal or gradual temperature cycles allow a larger entrainment region than rectangular cycles. (paper)

  4. Engineering Compensations in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Micahel; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure in such a......Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this paper, we introduce an engineering approach and an environment to deal with advanced...... compensations based on forward recovery principles. We extend the existing Web service transaction coordination architecture and infrastructure in order to support flexible compensation operations. A contract-based approach is being used, which allows the specification of permitted compensations at runtime. We...

  5. Towards a global network of gamma-ray detector calibration facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijs, Marco; Koomans, Ronald; Limburg, Han

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray logging tools are applied worldwide. At various locations, calibration facilities are used to calibrate these gamma-ray logging systems. Several attempts have been made to cross-correlate well known calibration pits, but this cross-correlation does not include calibration facilities in Europe or private company calibration facilities. Our aim is to set-up a framework that gives the possibility to interlink all calibration facilities worldwide by using `tools of opportunity' - tools that have been calibrated in different calibration facilities, whether this usage was on a coordinated basis or by coincidence. To compare the measurement of different tools, it is important to understand the behaviour of the tools in the different calibration pits. Borehole properties, such as diameter, fluid, casing and probe diameter strongly influence the outcome of gamma-ray borehole logging. Logs need to be properly calibrated and compensated for these borehole properties in order to obtain in-situ grades or to do cross-hole correlation. Some tool providers provide tool-specific correction curves for this purpose. Others rely on reference measurements against sources of known radionuclide concentration and geometry. In this article, we present an attempt to set-up a framework for transferring `local' calibrations to be applied `globally'. This framework includes corrections for any geometry and detector size to give absolute concentrations of radionuclides from borehole measurements. This model is used to compare measurements in the calibration pits of Grand Junction, located in the USA; Adelaide (previously known as AMDEL), located in Adelaide Australia; and Stonehenge, located at Medusa Explorations BV in the Netherlands.

  6. FTR europia gamma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.T. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Calculated and experimental gamma heating rates of europia in the Engineering Mockup Critical Assembly (EMC) were correlated. A calculated to experimental (C/E) ratio of 1.086 was established in validating the theoretical approach and computational technique applied in the calculations. Gamma heat deposition rates in the FTR with Eu 2 O 3 control absorbers were determined from three-dimensional calculations. Maximum gamma heating was found to occur near the tip of a half-inserted row 5 control rod assembly--12.8 watts/gm of europia. Gamma heating profiles were established for a single half-inserted europia absorber assembly. Local heat peaking was found not to alter significantly heating rates computed in the FTR core model, where larger mesh interval sizes precluded examination of spatially-limited heating gradients. These computations provide the basis for thermal-hydraulic analyses to ascertain temperature profiles in the FTR under europia control

  7. Gamma spectrometry today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the important advances in gamma spectroscopy made in recent years. Improvements in detectors and other components and the addition of on-line computer control systems is discussed. (UK)

  8. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe; Ma Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and

  9. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: sluan@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: nate@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: zchen@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: lijunma@radonc.ucsf.edu

    2009-03-21

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can

  10. Gamma-ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, R.E.; Hudson, H.S.; Worrall, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop covered the study of the explosive phenomena responsible for the various gamma ray transients. X-ray burster observations and theories were also reviewed with emphasis on their relationship to gamma ray bursts. Recent observational data, particularly from the SMM, HEAO, and VENERA satellites made the workshop especially timely. Major headings include: gamma-ray transients, x-ray bursts, solar transients, and instrumental concepts. Individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  11. Design of The Test Stand for Hydraulic Active Heave Compensation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presented here described the design of a test stand for hydraulic active heave compensation system. The simulation of sea waves is realized by the use of hydraulic cylinder. A hydraulic motor is used for sea waves compensation. The hydraulic cylinder and the hydraulic motor are controlled by electrohydraulic servo valves. For the measurements Authors used displacement sensor and incremental encoder. Control algorithm is implemented on the PLC. The performed tests included hydraulic actuator and hydraulic motor step responses.

  12. Economic estimation of risk and compensation of damage from accidents in power engineering objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnykh, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Place and basic peculiarities of the task relative to compensation of damage due to accidents in the problem on technical-economical studies of the power engineering objects, including NPPs, are analyzed. Certain approaches in the task of the risk economical estimates and basic provisions of the economical damage compensation system are presented. Description of imitated and analytical approach in the task of estimating financial state is given and certain study results are presented. 11 refs., 8 figs

  13. Study on APD real time compensation methods of laser Detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ying; Zhang He; Zhang Xiangjin; Liu Kun

    2011-01-01

    With the monochromatic and the directional capability of the laser, laser detection system is confidential in anti-jamming. Detection accuracy is improved significantly as the result of laser's good orientation ability. Sensitivity is enhanced as laser's high-brightness characteristic. With the development of laser technology and laser devices, laser detections are developed both in civilian and military areas. In the military field, laser detection system has been widely applied in various types of tactical missiles, the technique is more mature. Because photo detectors receive the backscattering echo signal of target in laser detection system, they are required sensitive enough to weak signal. With APD's salient features of high sensitivity, rapid response speed, high response frequency and low noise equivalent power, etc.; PIN is replaced by APD to improve sensitivity of laser detection system in recent years. The signal magnification is inadequate in laser detection system, the detector output is usually amplified by multistage amplifiers. And then the system noise includes detector noise and latter amplifiers noise. With its high internal gain, APD becomes the primary noise source of receiving system. This point can be attested by analyzing the transfer function of laser detection system receiver. To ensure the system detecting ability, APD noise must be mitigated as low as possible. According to a large number of experiments, the power signal-to-noise (SNR) and the best multiplication factor of APD are mostly affected by background radiation and temperature. In order to make APD operate at state of the best multiplication factor, the optimum bias must be selected due to the actual operating circumstance. Therefore, APD realtime compensation must be adopted. The existing APD compensation includes the constant false alarm rate compensation, the noise compensation and the temperature compensation. The features of these compensations are obtained by analyzing

  14. Study on APD real time compensation methods of laser Detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Ying; Zhang He; Zhang Xiangjin; Liu Kun, E-mail: fy_caimi@163.com [ZNDY of Ministerial Key Laboratory, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2011-02-01

    With the monochromatic and the directional capability of the laser, laser detection system is confidential in anti-jamming. Detection accuracy is improved significantly as the result of laser's good orientation ability. Sensitivity is enhanced as laser's high-brightness characteristic. With the development of laser technology and laser devices, laser detections are developed both in civilian and military areas. In the military field, laser detection system has been widely applied in various types of tactical missiles, the technique is more mature. Because photo detectors receive the backscattering echo signal of target in laser detection system, they are required sensitive enough to weak signal. With APD's salient features of high sensitivity, rapid response speed, high response frequency and low noise equivalent power, etc.; PIN is replaced by APD to improve sensitivity of laser detection system in recent years. The signal magnification is inadequate in laser detection system, the detector output is usually amplified by multistage amplifiers. And then the system noise includes detector noise and latter amplifiers noise. With its high internal gain, APD becomes the primary noise source of receiving system. This point can be attested by analyzing the transfer function of laser detection system receiver. To ensure the system detecting ability, APD noise must be mitigated as low as possible. According to a large number of experiments, the power signal-to-noise (SNR) and the best multiplication factor of APD are mostly affected by background radiation and temperature. In order to make APD operate at state of the best multiplication factor, the optimum bias must be selected due to the actual operating circumstance. Therefore, APD realtime compensation must be adopted. The existing APD compensation includes the constant false alarm rate compensation, the noise compensation and the temperature compensation. The features of these compensations are obtained

  15. Study on APD real time compensation methods of laser Detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Feng; He, Zhang; Xiangjin, Zhang; Kun, Liu

    2011-02-01

    With the monochromatic and the directional capability of the laser, laser detection system is confidential in anti-jamming. Detection accuracy is improved significantly as the result of laser's good orientation ability. Sensitivity is enhanced as laser's high-brightness characteristic. With the development of laser technology and laser devices, laser detections are developed both in civilian and military areas. In the military field, laser detection system has been widely applied in various types of tactical missiles, the technique is more mature. Because photo detectors receive the backscattering echo signal of target in laser detection system, they are required sensitive enough to weak signal. With APD's salient features of high sensitivity, rapid response speed, high response frequency and low noise equivalent power, etc.; PIN is replaced by APD to improve sensitivity of laser detection system in recent years. The signal magnification is inadequate in laser detection system, the detector output is usually amplified by multistage amplifiers. And then the system noise includes detector noise and latter amplifiers noise. With its high internal gain, APD becomes the primary noise source of receiving system. This point can be attested by analyzing the transfer function of laser detection system receiver. To ensure the system detecting ability, APD noise must be mitigated as low as possible. According to a large number of experiments, the power signal-to-noise (SNR) and the best multiplication factor of APD are mostly affected by background radiation and temperature. In order to make APD operate at state of the best multiplication factor, the optimum bias must be selected due to the actual operating circumstance. Therefore, APD realtime compensation must be adopted. The existing APD compensation includes the constant false alarm rate compensation, the noise compensation and the temperature compensation. The features of these compensations are obtained by analyzing

  16. IMEF gamma scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs.

  17. IMEF gamma scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum.

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs

  18. Gamma knife therapy for craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Masayuki; Maezawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Toshinori [Komaki Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    Gamma knife therapy in stereotactic radiosurgery was evaluated as a tool to solve problems raised in therapy for craniopharyngioma. Subjects were 9 childhood patients (<16 y, mean age 9.75 y) and 16 adult patients (mean age 43.9 y), 23 cases of whom had been treated with surgery before gamma knife. Planning of irradiation to the solid part of the tumor was based on their T1-weighted MRI images of 3 mm-thick slice. The mean size of the tumors was 20.7 (9.6-31.2) mm in diameter. The mean central dose of 23.3 (20-30) Gy was irradiated with the mean marginal dose of 11.8 (18-11.3) Gy through the mean shot of 4.8. Results were followed in every 3-6 months by MRI, neurological and endocrinological examinations for 7-52 (mean 23.3) months. Reduction of tumor size including its disappearance (7 cases) were observed in 22 cases (88%) with adverse effects of hypopituitarism (3 cases) and hemianopsia (1). Gamma knife therapy was thus safe and effective. (K.H.)

  19. Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Wilson, R.

    1988-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CH 3 ) 4 ) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to sampling inefficiencies. The results of the simulations also indicate that significant compensation is achieved (given small enough saturation) due to low energy recoil protons produced in collisions with low energy (1--20 MeV) cascade and fission neutrons in the active medium. Both compensation mechanisms are important to help balance the response of a calorimeter to incident electrons and hadrons, that is, to achieve a ratio of pulse heights (e/h ∼ 1) which will lead to the best energy resolution. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Incomplete and imperfect information for sales compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Valeanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales force compensation represents the fix and / or variable payment by the company. To compensate agents based on the results, the company set a goal which is brought to their attention through the compensation plan. Applying the model of moral hazard, where the agent behavior cannot be verified, it cannot be specified in the contract what is the expected behavior of the agent. In order to make an offer to contract principal should know the effort that the agent will submit it to define the payment and the contract is determined optimally in trade between the two conflicting objectives of the two participants in the contract. Although agent behavior cannot be verified, the result of this behavior should be measurable at the end of the contract so that the employer may make the contract contingent on effort commission agent for sale of which is measured by the amount of earnings to the company.

  1. 'Compensation neurosis': a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weighill, V E

    1983-01-01

    This review examines the literature on psychological reactions, often referred to as 'compensation neurosis', which occur after an accident and which are thought to be produced or maintained by a compensation claim. Theories and research are examined. The area is complicated and research so far is limited in scope and design. Few accident cases involve compensation claims and the incidence of psychological difficulties across the whole range of cases is unknown. Researchers have considered a number of background factors--severity of injury, pre-existing neurotic traits, social class, sex and age--but there has been little investigation of attitudinal, family, social and employment factors or of progress of the condition and follow-up after settlement. The review identifies a major research need for more adequate screening and sampling of cases and for more systematic investigation of personal and family factors.

  2. Software compensation in Particle Flow reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Lan Tran, Huong; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The Particle Flow approach to calorimetry requires highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analog energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in Particle Flow reconstruct...

  3. Institutional directors and board compensation: Spanish evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix López-Iturriaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We address the influence of directors who represent institutional investors in three aspects of board compensation policies: level of compensation, composition, and performance sensitivity. We differentiate pressure-sensitive directors (i.e., with business links and pressure-resistant directors (i.e., without business links. Our results show that pressure-resistant directors decrease total board compensation and its fixed proportion, whereas they increase the variable proportion of total remuneration and the pay-for-performance sensitivity. By contrast, pressure-sensitive directors offer the opposite results. These findings are consistent with the view that institutional investors are not a homogeneous group and that pressure-resistant directors fulfill a more thorough monitoring role.

  4. Compensation: Will it provide a waste site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Offering an attractive compensation package to persuade a community to voluntarily accept an otherwise undesirable facility may work in some cases, but it's not likely to work for high-level nuclear-waste disposal. The public perception of the risks involved and the public distrust of the institutions responsible for managing those risks are just too great. Much of the controversy stems from public perceptions that the site-selection process itself is unfair. Resentment builds when this occurs, and offers of compensation come to be labeled bribes or blood money. The driving force behind current nuclear-waste policy is intergenerational equity - the moral concept that the generation that produced the waste should dispose of it, permanently. Regardless of the moral appeal, doubts have been raised about the technical feasibility of this approach. Alternatives featuring intergenerational monetary compensation may better honor the commitment hor-ellipsis and reduce pressure to try to do what may be impossible

  5. Reexamining workers' compensation: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Leslie I

    2012-06-01

    Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a human rights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Possible galactic origin of. gamma. -ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchanda, R K; Ramsden, D [Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1977-03-31

    It is stated that extragalactic models for the origin of non-solar ..gamma..-ray bursts include supernova bursts in remote galaxies, and the collapse of the cores of active stars, whilst galactic models are based on flare stars, thermonuclear explosions in neutron stars and the sudden accretion of cometary gas on to neutron stars. The acceptability of any of these models may be tested by the observed size spectrum of the ..gamma..-ray bursts. The extragalactic models predict a power law spectrum with number index -1.5, whilst for the galactic models the number index will be -1. Experimental data on ..gamma..-ray bursts is, however, still meagre, and so far only 44 confirmed events have been recorded by satellite-borne instruments. The number spectrum of the observed ..gamma..-ray bursts indicates that the observed distribution for events with an energy < 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/ is flat; this makes the choice of any model completely arbitrary. An analysis of the observed ..gamma..-ray events is here presented that suggests very interesting possibilities for their origin. There appears to be a preferred mean energy for ..gamma..-ray bursts; some 90% of the recorded events show a mean energy between 5 x 10/sup -5/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/, contrary to the predicted characteristics of the number spectrum of various models. A remarkable similarity is found between the distribution of ..gamma..-ray bursts and that of supernova remnants, suggesting a genetic relationship between the two and the galactic origin of the ..gamma..-ray bursts, and the burst source could be identified with completely run down neutron stars, formed during supernova explosions.

  7. Does injury compensation lead to worse health after whiplash? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B; Gargett, Susan; Sterling, Michele

    2012-06-01

    One might expect that injury compensation would leave injured parties better off than they would otherwise have been, yet many believe that compensation does more harm than good. This study systematically reviews the evidence on this "compensation hypothesis" in relation to compensable whiplash injuries. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, PsycInfo, CCTR, Lexis, and EconLit were searched from the date of their inception to April 2010 to locate longitudinal studies, published in English, comparing the health outcomes of adults exposed/not exposed to compensation-related factors. Studies concerning serious neck injuries, using claimants only, or using proxy measures of health outcomes were excluded. Eleven studies were included. These examined the effect of lawyer involvement, litigation, claim submission, or previous claims on pain and other health outcomes. Among the 16 results reported were 9 statistically significant negative associations between compensation-related factors and health outcomes. Irrespective of the compensation-related factor involved and the health outcome measured, the quality of these studies was similar to studies that did not find a significant negative association: most took some measures to address selection bias, confounding, and measurement bias, and none resolved the potential for reverse causality bias that arises in the relationship between compensation-related factors and health. Unless ambiguous causal pathways are addressed, one cannot draw conclusions from statistical associations, regardless of their statistical significance and the extent of measures to address other sources of bias. Consequently, there is no clear evidence to support the idea that compensation and its related processes lead to worse health. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Is clinician refusal to treat an emerging problem in injury compensation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijnath, Bianca; Mazza, Danielle; Kosny, Agnieszka; Bunzli, Samantha; Singh, Nabita; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Collie, Alex

    2016-01-20

    The reasons that doctors may refuse or be reluctant to treat have not been widely explored in the medical literature. To understand the ethical implications of reluctance to treat there is a need to recognise the constraints of doctors working in complex systems and to consider how these constraints may influence reluctance. The aim of this paper is to illustrate these constraints using the case of compensable injury in the Australian context. Between September and December 2012, a qualitative investigation involving face-to-face semistructured interviews examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs) facilitating return to work in people with compensable injuries. Compensable injury management in general practice in Melbourne, Australia. 25 GPs who were treating, or had treated a patient with compensable injury. The practice of clinicians refusing treatment was described by all participants. While most GPs reported refusal to treat among their colleagues in primary and specialist care, many participants also described their own reluctance to treat people with compensable injuries. Reasons offered included time and financial burdens, in addition to the clinical complexities involved in compensable injury management. In the case of compensable injury management, reluctance and refusal to treat is likely to have a domino effect by increasing the time and financial burden of clinically complex patients on the remaining clinicians. This may present a significant challenge to an effective, sustainable compensation system. Urgent research is needed to understand the extent and implications of reluctance and refusal to treat and to identify strategies to engage clinicians in treating people with compensable injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Is clinician refusal to treat an emerging problem in injury compensation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijnath, Bianca; Mazza, Danielle; Kosny, Agnieszka; Bunzli, Samantha; Singh, Nabita; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Collie, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective The reasons that doctors may refuse or be reluctant to treat have not been widely explored in the medical literature. To understand the ethical implications of reluctance to treat there is a need to recognise the constraints of doctors working in complex systems and to consider how these constraints may influence reluctance. The aim of this paper is to illustrate these constraints using the case of compensable injury in the Australian context. Design Between September and December 2012, a qualitative investigation involving face-to-face semistructured interviews examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs) facilitating return to work in people with compensable injuries. Setting Compensable injury management in general practice in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 25 GPs who were treating, or had treated a patient with compensable injury. Results The practice of clinicians refusing treatment was described by all participants. While most GPs reported refusal to treat among their colleagues in primary and specialist care, many participants also described their own reluctance to treat people with compensable injuries. Reasons offered included time and financial burdens, in addition to the clinical complexities involved in compensable injury management. Conclusions In the case of compensable injury management, reluctance and refusal to treat is likely to have a domino effect by increasing the time and financial burden of clinically complex patients on the remaining clinicians. This may present a significant challenge to an effective, sustainable compensation system. Urgent research is needed to understand the extent and implications of reluctance and refusal to treat and to identify strategies to engage clinicians in treating people with compensable injuries. PMID:26792215

  10. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  11. Compensating the transplant professional: time for a model change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouljoud, M; Whitehouse, S; Langnas, A; Brown, K

    2015-03-01

    Compensation models for physicians are currently based primarily on the work relative value unit (wRVU) that rewards productivity by work volume. The value-based payment structure soon to be ushered in by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services rewards clinical quality and outcomes. This has prompted changes in wRVU value for certain services that will result in reduced payment for specialty procedures such as transplantation. To maintain a stable and competent workforce and achieve alignment between clinical activity, growth imperatives, and cost effectiveness, compensation of transplant physicians must evolve toward a matrix of measures beyond the procedure-based activity. This personal viewpoint proposes a redesign of transplant physician compensation plans to include the "virtual RVU" to recognize and reward meaningful clinical integration defined as hospital-physician commitment to specified and measurable metrics for current non-RVU-producing activities. Transplantation has been a leader in public outcomes reporting and is well suited to meet the challenges ahead that can only be overcome with a tight collaboration and alignment between surgeons, other physicians, support staff, and their respective institution and leadership. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Skew quad compensation for SPEAR minibeta optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, K.

    1984-06-01

    With the new minibeta insertion for SPEAR the betatron coupling and the perturbations of beam optics caused by the solenoid field of the MARK III detector can't be compensated by the simple coils used so far. Therefore another scheme with four skew quads arranged in two families has been chosen. Even though this scheme doesn't compensate the effect of the solenoid on the beam completely, the residual emittance coupling is much less than 1% which should be sufficient under all running conditions. The major advantage of this concept is its simplicity

  13. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing; U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute

    2000-01-01

    The Contracting parties recognize the importance of the measures provided in the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third party liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy as well as in national legislation on compensation for nuclear damage consistent with the principles of these conventions. The Contracting parties desire to establish a worldwide liability regime to supplement and enhance these measures with a view to increasing the amount of compensation for nuclear damage and encourage regional and global co-operation to promote a higher level of nuclear safety in accordance with the principle of international partnership and solidarity

  14. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  15. Phase alteration compensation in reflection digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, O; Amezquita, R; Monroy, F

    2011-01-01

    The phase maps obtained from digital holographic microscopy techniques carry information about the axial lengths of the object under study. Additionally, these phase maps have information of tilt and curvatures with origin in the off-axis geometry and the magnification lenses system, respectively. Only a complete compensation of these extra phases allows a correct interpretation of the phase information. In this article a numerical strategy to compensate for these alterations is designed, using a phase mask located in different planes. This strategy is applied in the measurement of a phase steps plate using a digital holography setup.

  16. Kayenta advanced series compensation operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The world's first three-phase, thyristor-controlled series compensation scheme with continuously variable impedance has been introduced into a transmission system. Energized and dedicated in September 1992, the installation was placed into commercial operation in January 1993 and has provided over one year of operating experience. This paper describes the 230 kV, 330 MVAr (60 Hz) advanced series compensation (ASC) project, located in north-eastern Arizona at Kayenta Substation on the 320 km Glen Canyon-Shiprock transmission line. The paper describes operating experiences, coordination with phase shifting transformer, phase shifter failure, platform power, system disturbances, and future plans.

  17. Radiation damage effects on calorimeter compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Handler, T.

    1990-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of a detector that is to be used at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the response of the calorimeter to electromagnetic and hadronic particles and the equality of those responses for different types of particles at equal incident energies, i.e. compensation. However, as the simulations that are reported show, the compensation characteristics of a calorimeter can be seriously compromised over a relatively short period of time due to the large radiation levels that are expected in the SSC environment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  18. Compensation systems for low temperature applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skoczen, Balzej T

    2004-01-01

    The book is dedicated to the behaviour of ductile materials at cryogenic temperatures, structural stability issues and reliability oriented parametric optimisation of compensation systems containing the corrugated bellows. The problems of local and global stability of systems containing bellows, coupling between the low-cycle fatigue and stability as well as evolution of plastic strain fields, micro-damage and strain induced phase transformation in the corrugated shells at cryogenic temperatures are presented. As a special feature reliability oriented optimum design of compensation systems under strength, stability, fatigue and geometrical constraints is discussed. The relevant applications in the particle accelerators and cryogenic transfer lines are shown.

  19. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction...... using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...

  20. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  1. Measuring element for the detection and determination of radiation doses of gamma radiation and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, W.; Piesch, E.

    1975-01-01

    A measuring element detects and proves both gamma and neutron radiation. The element includes a photoluminescent material which stores gamma radiation and particles of arsenic and phosphorus embedded in the photoluminescent material for detecting neutron radiation. (U.S.)

  2. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  3. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  4. Accuracy in gamma spectrometry: Pileup, dead time, and fast electornics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An important source of inaccuracy in neutron activation analysis is the nonlinear throughput of the counting system, especially at high counting rates. Losses, due to the finite time needed for events to happen, occur in all parts of the spectrometer system: the germanium detector crystal, preamplifier, amplifier, analog-digital converter (ADC), and MCA or computer. The slowest unbuffered units are the ADC and the amplifier, followed by the crystal. Even with modern fast electronics, losses can be important, although compensating circuits can greatly improve accuracy if they are used correctly. The ADC dead time is less of a problem than it was a decade ago. For example, a modern successive-approximation ADC in the author's laboratory takes 6 μs to digitize a gamma ray in the middle of an 8192-channel spectrum, compared with 60 μs for the Wilkinson device that it replaced. Dead-time circuits in MCAs for many years have compensated very well for this dead time. Pulse pileup is as important as ADC dead time. Random coincidence, the accidental arrival of the signal from two nonrelated gamma rays at the amplifier in a time short compared to the shaping time, results in a composite pulse that distorts the spectrum. For accurate spectrometry, each such random-sum pulse should be excluded from the spectrum (pileup rejection), and the system dead time must be adjusted to compensate for the time the system is busy analyzing this rejected event (pileup live-time correction)

  5. Gamma-ray measurements with the segmented gamma scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.R.; Jones, D.F.; Parker, J.L.

    1977-12-01

    A revised and updated operation and maintenance manual for the segmented gamma-scan instrument is presented, which describes routine assay techniques as well as the theory of operation in sufficient depth that an experienced assayist can make nonroutine assays on a wide variety of materials and samples. In addition, complete electronic and electrical schematics of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL)-designed portions of the system are presented, along with sufficient system and circuit description to facilitate maintenance and troubleshooting. Complete software system descriptions are included, although detailed listings would have to be obained from LASL in order to make machine-language code changes

  6. Near space radiation dosimetry in Australian outback using a balloon borne energy compensated PIN diode detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Wu, Xiaofeng; Maczka, Tomasz; Kwan, Trevor; Huang, Yijun; Mares, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the near space ballooning experiment carried out at Australian outback town West Wyalong (33°51′S, 147°24′E) on 19 July 2015. Several dedicated electronic detectors including digital temperature and acceleration (vibration) sensors and an energy compensated PIN-diode gamma ray dosimeter were installed in a thermally insulated Styrofoam payload box. A 9 V Lithium-Polymer battery powered all the devices. The payload box was attached to a helium-filled latex weather balloon and set afloat. The balloon reached a peak burst altitude of 30 km and then soft-landed aided by a self-deploying parachute 66.2 km away form the launch site. The payload box was retrieved and data collected from the electronic sensors analysed. The integrated cosmic ray induced photon ambient dose equivalent recorded by the PIN diode detector was evaluated to be 0.36 ± 0.05 μSv. Furthermore, a high-altitude extended version of commercially available aviation dosimetry package EPCARD.Net (European Program package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) was used to calculate the ambient dose equivalents during the balloon flight. The radiation environment originated from the secondary cosmic ray shower is composed of neutrons, protons, electrons, muons, pions and photons. The photon ambient dose equivalent estimated by the EPCARD.Net code found to be 0.47 ± 0.09 μSv. The important aspects of balloon based near-space radiation dosimetry are highlighted in this paper. - Highlights: • Near space ballooning experiment in Australian outback. • A PIN diode based gamma dosimeter was sent to an altitude of 30 km. • Ambient photon dose equivalent was evaluated as a function of altitude. • Results agreed well with the simulated data delivered by EPCARD.Net Code. • The atmospheric temperature and payload jerks were also assessed.

  7. Microwave-gamma ray water in crude monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paap, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A microwave-gamma ray water-in-crude monitoring system measures the percent quantity of fresh water or salt water in crude oil flowing in a pipe line. The system includes a measuring cell arranged with the pipe line so that the crude oil flows through the measuring cell. A microwave transmitter subsystem and a gamma ray source are arranged with the measuring cell so that microwave energy and gamma rays are transmitted through the measuring cell. A microwave receiving subsystem and a gamma ray detector provide signals corresponding to received microwave energy and to the received gamma rays, respectively. Apparatus connected to the microwave receiver and to the gamma ray detector provides an indication of the percentage of water in the crude oil

  8. Induction motor IFOC based speed-controlled drive with asymptotic disturbance compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Đorđe M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of digitally controlled speed electrical drive, with the asymptotic compensation of external disturbances, implemented by using the IFOC (Indirect Field Oriented Control torque controlled induction motor. The asymptotic disturbance compensation is achieved by using the DOB (Disturbance Observer with the IMP (Internal Model Principle. When compared to the existing IMP-based DOB solutions, in this paper the robust stability and disturbance compensation are improved by implementing the minimal order DOB filter. Also, the IMP-based DOB design is improved by employing the asymptotic compensation of all elemental or more complex external disturbances. The dynamic model of the IFOC torque electrical drive is, also, included in the speed-controller and DOB section design. The simulation and experimental measurements presented in the paper illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme.

  9. OLT-centralized sampling frequency offset compensation scheme for OFDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zhou, Hui; Zheng, Zhiwei; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Peng, Miao; Liu, Cuiwei; He, Jing; Chen, Lin; Tang, Xionggui

    2017-08-07

    We propose an optical line terminal (OLT)-centralized sampling frequency offset (SFO) compensation scheme for adaptively-modulated OFDM-PON systems. By using the proposed SFO scheme, the phase rotation and inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by SFOs between OLT and multiple optical network units (ONUs) can be centrally compensated in the OLT, which reduces the complexity of ONUs. Firstly, the optimal fast Fourier transform (FFT) size is identified in the intensity-modulated and direct-detection (IMDD) OFDM system in the presence of SFO. Then, the proposed SFO compensation scheme including phase rotation modulation (PRM) and length-adaptive OFDM frame has been experimentally demonstrated in the downlink transmission of an adaptively modulated optical OFDM with the optimal FFT size. The experimental results show that up to ± 300 ppm SFO can be successfully compensated without introducing any receiver performance penalties.

  10. Design of compensators for patients with hip prostheses undergoing pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alecu, R.; Feldmeier, J.; He, T.; Alecu, M.; Court, W.; Orton, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    The perturbations in the dose distribution caused by a hip prosthesis when treating pelvic cancers have been evaluated and found to be significant by several investigators. Treatment techniques not including the prosthesis are often not the best choice. The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility and usefulness of design of compensators in routine clinical practice for any kind of hip prosthesis. The calculation procedures and the algorithms developed by the authors for generating the compensators are described for two systems: one based on a locally developed 3-D computerized treatment planning system and an other one practicable in any institution which does not have access to a 3D treatment planning system or CT. The methodology to create the compensators for a patient is explained. To evaluate the constructed compensators in phantom and in vivo measurements were performed. The results are presented along with a comparison between the two methods

  11. High energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinston, J.A.; Nifenecker, H.; Nifenecker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental techniques used to study high energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions are reviewed. High energy photon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. Semi-classical descriptions of the nucleus-nucleus gamma reactions are introduced. Nucleon-nucleon gamma cross sections are considered, including theoretical aspects and experimental data. High energy gamma ray production in proton-nucleus reactions is explained. Theoretical explanations of photon emission in nucleus-nucleus collisions are treated. The contribution of charged pion currents to photon production is mentioned

  12. Compensator design using the par scientific miller and ADAC Pinnacle tps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, G.; White, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Ideal compensators are designed so that a uniform dose is given to a specific plane within the treatment volume despite variation in surface contour and non-homogeneity within the volume. Traditionally our department has designed compensators based on missing tissue alone and using lead sheet. We have now acquired a Par Scientific compensator miller and ADAC Pinnacle compensator design software. This poster sets out the investigations carried out to design compensators using this equipment. The investigation consisted of four parts. Part one was an evaluation of the Par Scientific miller's ability to accurately and to reproducibly mill various shapes from foam and cerrobend. It also included an examination of the effects due to varying the parameter options available in the software and the use of substitute milling bits. The second part was the choice of material to be used for the compensator. The following were investigated for moulds: steel grit; steel shot and cerrobend and for direct milling: cerrobend. Part three consisted of an investigation into the effects on compensator design with changes in the many parameter options available in ADAC software. For the final part compensators were designed using the ADAC software for both a Head and Neck, and a Mantle case. The compensators were made using the Par Scientific miller. This consisted of milling the required shape in foam and then filling it with cerrobend. TLDs were used to evaluate the compensators. Evaluation consisted of examining the uniformity of dose in the selected plane. The compensators were also compared to the traditional method for the same cases. Finally a comparison was made of the measured dose with that calculated by the ADAC Pinnacle planning system. The Par Scientific was found to be accurate and consistent, however not suitable for milling solid cerrobend directly. Investigations so far have shown that the use of molten cerrobend poured into milled foam moulds is the most

  13. Adaptive friction compensation: a globally stable approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.A.; Tóth, R.; Babuska, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive friction compensation scheme is proposed. The friction force is computed as a timevarying friction coefficient multiplied by the sign of the velocity and an on-line update law is designed to estimate this coefficient based on the actual position and velocity errors.

  14. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is limited to the actual net reduction or loss of earnings or profits suffered. Calculations for net reductions or losses must clearly reflect adjustments for... available; (d) Any saved overhead or normal expenses not incurred as a result of the incident; and (e) State...

  15. On the compensation effect in heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bligaard; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Logadottir, Ashildur

    2003-01-01

    For a class of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, we explain the compensation effect in terms of a switching of kinetic regimes leading to a concomitant change in the apparent activation energy and in the prefactor for the overall rate of the reaction. We first use the ammonia synthesis...

  16. 7 CFR 1280.208 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1280.208 Section 1280.208 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information...

  17. Evaluation of the implementation of Employees Compensation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the passage into law of the Employees Compensation Act in 2011, countless cases of workplace accidents have occurred in Nigeria. Yet there seems to be no succour for the Nigerian worker as many state governments have either refused to register with or do not have the will power to implement the legislation in ...

  18. Employing Conjoint Analysis in Making Compensation Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienast, Philip; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method employing conjoint analysis that generates utility/cost ratios for various elements of the compensation package. Its superiority to simple preference surveys is examined. Results of a study of the use of this method in fringe benefit planning in a large financial institution are reported. (Author/JAC)

  19. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Li, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2010-01-01

    We examine how executive compensation affects the cost of debt financing. Analyzing CEO pay data from the UK, we find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have opposite effects on the cost of debt. An increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while an

  20. ARCC Teacher Compensation Initiative: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, the Tennessee State Board of Education (SBE) requested that the Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center (ARCC) provide assistance to the SBE's Basic Education Program (BEP) Review Committee. The SBE requested additional information on the use and effectiveness of market-based teacher compensation and market-based incentives by…

  1. Open Business Models: New Compensation Mechanisms for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open Business Models: New Compensation Mechanisms for Creativity and Inclusion ... This research aims to explore important new business models in the networked society ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018 ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  2. Inertia compensated force and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, B.; Engeler, P.; Gossweiler, C. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    Any moving structure is affected by inertial effects. In case of force and pressure sensors, inertial effects cause measurement errors. The paper deals with novel signal conditioning methods and mechanical design features to minimize inertial effects. A novel solution for passive compensation of pressure sensors is presented. (orig.)

  3. Compensation of coupling in the SSC complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, F.; Bourianoff, G.

    1991-10-01

    This paper will describe a study of the coupling effects and their compensation by means of local depending techniques for some of the accelerators in the SSC Complex. Results concerning corrections and decoupling for the Low Energy and Medium Energy Boosters will be compared to results obtained for the Collider Ring. Some preliminary experimental data about measurement of coupling quantities will also be presented

  4. 44 CFR 295.21 - Allowable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable compensation. 295.21 Section 295.21 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... no-cost crisis counseling services available in the community. FEMA will not reimburse for treatment...

  5. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Liu, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how different components of executive compensation affect the cost of debt. We find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have differing effects: an increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while higher share holdings lead to higher

  6. 22 CFR 96.34 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... actually rendered, taking into account the country in which the adoption services are provided and norms... norms are known to the accrediting entity; the location, number, and qualifications of staff; workload requirements; budget; and size of the agency or person. (e) Any other compensation paid to the agency's or...

  7. Flywheels Would Compensate for Rotor Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastar, J. A. S.

    1982-01-01

    Spinning flywheels within rotor can null imbalance forces in rotor. Flywheels axes are perpendicular to each other and to rotor axis. Feedback signals from accelerometers or strain gages in platform control flywheel speeds and rotation directions. Concept should be useful for compensating rotating bodies on Earth. For example, may be applied to large industrial centrifuge, particularly if balance changes during operation.

  8. Paraxial charge compensator for electron cryomicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, John A.; Rosenthal, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a multi-hole condenser aperture for the production of several electron beams in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) making it possible to simultaneously image and irradiate spatially separated regions of a specimen. When the specimen is a thin film of vitreous ice suspended over a holey carbon film, simultaneous irradiation of the adjacent carbon support with the off-axis beam compensates for some of the effects of charging in the image formed by a beam irradiating only the ice. Because the intervening region is not irradiated, charge-neutralization of frozen-hydrated specimens can occur by a through-space mechanism such as the emission of secondary electrons from a grounded carbon support film. We use paraxial charge compensation (PCC) to control the amount of charge build-up on the specimen and observe the effects of charge on images. The multi-hole aperture thus provides a tool for investigating the mechanism of charging and charge mitigation during the imaging of radiation sensitive biological specimens by cryomicroscopy. -- Highlights: ► A multi-hole condenser aperture produces multiple (paraxial) beams in TEM. ► Paraxial charge compensation is used to study electron-optical effects of charging. ► Emission of secondary electrons controls charging by a through space mechanism. ► Paraxial beams compensate for charging effects in frozen-hydrated specimens.

  9. Feedback loop compensates for rectifier nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Signal processing circuit with two negative feedback loops rectifies two sinusoidal signals which are 180 degrees out of phase and produces a single full-wave rectified output signal. Each feedback loop incorporates a feedback rectifier to compensate for the nonlinearity of the circuit.

  10. Compensation Services Advisor | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The Compensation Services Advisor is accountable for the effective ... Coordinates the annual Performance Review and Assessment System ... by IDRC and the broader financial and social implications of working in Canada. ... in areas such as mortgages, credit and so on to individuals not accustomed to ...

  11. Wavefront compensation applied to AVLIS laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsiorowski, T.; Wirth, A.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of an AVLIS system depends upon the power density and uniformity of the laser system. Because of wavefront aberrations the realized beam quality is not ideal. Wavefront compensation provides a means to improve beam quality and system efficiency. (author)

  12. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Simon, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed.

  13. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Simon, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-10-01

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed.

  15. 31 CFR 28.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 28.515 Section 28.515 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance...

  16. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  17. Compensation techniques for operational amplifier bias current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two techniques are proposed for the compensation of the input current on operational amplifiers that can be used on inverting and non-inverting configurations. A qualitative analysis of temperature drift problems is made, and as a practical application, the construction of a voltage follower for high impedance measurements is presented. (Author) [pt

  18. Paraxial charge compensator for electron cryomicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berriman, John A. [Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Rosenthal, Peter B., E-mail: peter.rosenthal@nimr.mrc.ac.uk [Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    We describe a multi-hole condenser aperture for the production of several electron beams in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) making it possible to simultaneously image and irradiate spatially separated regions of a specimen. When the specimen is a thin film of vitreous ice suspended over a holey carbon film, simultaneous irradiation of the adjacent carbon support with the off-axis beam compensates for some of the effects of charging in the image formed by a beam irradiating only the ice. Because the intervening region is not irradiated, charge-neutralization of frozen-hydrated specimens can occur by a through-space mechanism such as the emission of secondary electrons from a grounded carbon support film. We use paraxial charge compensation (PCC) to control the amount of charge build-up on the specimen and observe the effects of charge on images. The multi-hole aperture thus provides a tool for investigating the mechanism of charging and charge mitigation during the imaging of radiation sensitive biological specimens by cryomicroscopy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multi-hole condenser aperture produces multiple (paraxial) beams in TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraxial charge compensation is used to study electron-optical effects of charging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emission of secondary electrons controls charging by a through space mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraxial beams compensate for charging effects in frozen-hydrated specimens.

  19. 7 CFR 301.74-5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exclusively at farmers markets or similar outlets that require orchard owners to sell only fruit that they... of commercial stone fruit orchards. Owners of commercial stone fruit orchards are eligible to receive... marketers. Orchard owners eligible for compensation under this paragraph who market all fruit they produce...

  20. Women's Experience in the Workers' Compensation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robert; Jansz, Janis

    2006-09-01

    Gender differences is a question of major importance within workers' compensation given the increased role of women in the workforce over the past several decades. This article reviews literature relating to women's experiences following work injury. An Australian study is used as background to exploring the broad issue of the question of gender equity in workers' compensation. In doing so it takes account of historical, legal and medical issues. Women's experience in the workers' compensation system is different to that of men due to a range of factors. It is heavily influenced by the industrial environment in which they work. Women are paid less than men in many instances and work in gender-segregated circumstances, which often reduces their industrial bargaining power. Women also suffer different forms of injury and disease to men because of the different nature of their work. The Australian experience suggests that as a consequence of the combination of lesser industrial bargaining power, lower wages and differing forms of injury and disease women often receive less than men in compensation payments, struggle to obtain equity in the dispute resolution process and experience greater difficulties in returning to work following injury or disease.

  1. 1979-1980 Administrative Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, James; And Others

    Results of the 1979-80 Administrative Compensation Survey Report conducted by the College and University Personnel Association are presented. The survey is based on 1,383 responses and covers 77 positions. Salary data are indicated for the median and interquartile range for each position. Data are provided by type of institution, by size of…

  2. 1981-1982 Administrative Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan P.; And Others

    Results of the College and University Personnel Association's 1981-1982 Administrative Compensation Survey, which provides data on 94 positions, is presented. Questionnaires were sent to 2,770 higher education institutions, and 1,391 usable responses were obtained. Salary data indicate the median and the interquartile range for each position and…

  3. Administrative Compensation Survey, 1983-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Forest C.; And Others

    Results of the College and University Personnel Association's 1983-1984 Administrative Compensation Survey, which provides data on 99 positions, is presented. Questionnaires were sent to 2,856 higher education institutions, and 1,515 usable responses were obtained. Salary data indicate the median and the interquartile range for each position and…

  4. Attitudes toward the dubious compensation claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEGGO, C

    1951-07-01

    Laws providing for compensation of workmen for occupational injury are a powerful socio-economic force. In settlement of compensation claims the goal, difficult to achieve, is fairness to employee, employer and insurance carrier. Often, medical, legal, economic and social considerations conflict with one another. A "fact" in one field may not be considered so in another. Since medical data and testimony often guide the ultimate decision of a compensation claim, the physician's attitude is a large factor not only immediately and directly in determination of the case at hand but, perhaps more important, in the ultimate direction of the socio-economic forces which spring from the sum of all such determinations. To perpetuate the good in workmen's compensation laws, the next generation of physicians-and of lawyers and business administrators as well, for they, too, are involved-ought to have basic training in the social sciences in order that they may have a broad rather than a segmental view of the problems with which they deal.

  5. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  6. Failure of gamma-aminobutyrate acid-beta agonist baclofen to improve balance, gait, and postural control after vestibular schwannoma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Valck, Claudia F J; Vereeck, Luc; Wuyts, Floris L; Van de Heyning, Paul H

    2009-04-01

    Incomplete postural control often occurs after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. Customized vestibular rehabilitation in man improves and speeds up this process. Animal experiments have shown an improved and faster vestibular compensation after administration of the gamma-aminobutyrate acid (GABA)-beta agonist baclofen. To examine whether medical treatment with baclofen provides an improvement of the compensation process after VS surgery. A time-series study with historical control. Tertiary referral center. Thirteen patients who underwent VS resection were included and compared with a matched group of patients. In addition to an individualized vestibular rehabilitation protocol, the study group received medical treatment with 30 mg baclofen (a GABA-beta agonist) daily during the first 6 weeks after surgery. Clinical gait and balance tests (Romberg maneuver, standing on foam, tandem Romberg, single-leg stance, Timed Up & Go test, tandem gait, Dynamic Gait Index) and Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Follow-up until 24 weeks after surgery. When examining the postoperative test results, the group treated with baclofen did not perform better when compared with the matched (historical control) group. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effect, but a significant time effect for almost all balance tests during the acute recovery period was found. An interaction effect between time and intervention was seen concerning single-leg stance and Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores for the acute recovery period. Medical therapy with baclofen did not seem to be beneficial in the process of central vestibular compensation.

  7. Stereotactic radiosurgery using the gamma knife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Tomio; Matsutani, Masao; Takakura, Kintomo; Terahara, Atsuro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-03-01

    Since stereotactic radiosurgery using a gamma knife was developed in 1968 by Leksell, it has been used with increasing frequency in Japan. During the period from June 19, 1990 through December 20, 1991, 218 patients have been treated with stereotactic radiosurgery using a gamma knife. Of them, 116 had vascular lesions (116), including arteriovenous malformation (114), dural arteriovenous malformation (one), and cerebral aneurysm (one); and the other 102 had tumorous lesions, including acoustic neurinoma (48), meningioma (26), pituitary tumor (11), metastatic tumor (7), germ cell tumor (3), glioma (2), hemangioblastoma (2), chordoma (one), craniopharyngioma (one), and trigeminal neurinoma (one). In this article, candidates of stereotactic radiosurgery using a gamma knife are discussed, with particular attention to clinical results of the aforementioned 218 patients. (N.K.) 54 refs.

  8. Plasma driven neutron/gamma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Antolak, Arlyn

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for the generation of neutron/gamma rays is described including a chamber which defines an ion source, said apparatus including an RF antenna positioned outside of or within the chamber. Positioned within the chamber is a target material. One or more sets of confining magnets are also provided to create a cross B magnetic field directly above the target. To generate neutrons/gamma rays, the appropriate source gas is first introduced into the chamber, the RF antenna energized and a plasma formed. A series of high voltage pulses are then applied to the target. A plasma sheath, which serves as an accelerating gap, is formed upon application of the high voltage pulse to the target. Depending upon the selected combination of source gas and target material, either neutrons or gamma rays are generated, which may be used for cargo inspection, and the like.

  9. Exploring gamma radiation effect on exoelectron emission properties of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Dekhtyar, Y.; Bogucharska, T.; Noskov, V. [Riga Technical Univ., Biomedical Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute (Latvia)

    2006-07-01

    Gamma radiation is used for radiation therapy to treat carcinogenic diseases including bone cancer. Ionising radiation kills carcinogenic calls. However, there are side effects of the gamma radiation on the bone surface electron structure. One of the effects is in the form of altering electron density of states of bone that, with time, influences biomedical reactions on bone life condition. (authors)

  10. Exploring gamma radiation effect on exoelectron emission properties of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, M.; Dekhtyar, Y.; Bogucharska, T.; Noskov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used for radiation therapy to treat carcinogenic diseases including bone cancer. Ionising radiation kills carcinogenic calls. However, there are side effects of the gamma radiation on the bone surface electron structure. One of the effects is in the form of altering electron density of states of bone that, with time, influences biomedical reactions on bone life condition. (authors)

  11. Comparison of full width at half maximum and penumbra of different Gamma Knife models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Sepideh; Banaee, Nooshin; Nedaie, Hassan Ali

    2018-01-01

    As a radiosurgical tool, Gamma Knife has the best and widespread name recognition. Gamma Knife is a noninvasive intracranial technique invented and developed by Swedish neurosurgeon Lars Leksell. The first commercial Leksell Gamma Knife entered the therapeutic armamentarium at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States on August 1987. Since that time, different generation of Gamma Knife developed. In this study, the technical points and dosimetric parameters including full width at half maximum and penumbra on different generation of Gamma Knife will be reviewed and compared. The results of this review study show that the rotating gamma system provides a better dose conformity.

  12. System for gamma-gamma formation density logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paske, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    The patent relates to a system for logging subterranean formations for the determination of formation density by using gamma radiation. Gamma ray source and detection means are disposed within a housing adapted for positioning within a borehole for the emission and detection of gamma rays propagating through earth formations and borehole drilling fluid. The gamma ray detection means comprises first and second gamma radiation sensors geometrically disposed within the housing, the same longitudinal distance from the gamma ray source and diametrically opposed in a common plane. A formation matrix density output signal is produced in proportion to the output signal from each of the gamma ray sensors and in conjunction with certain constants established by the geometrical configuration of the sensors relative to the gamma ray source and the borehole diameter. Formation density is determined without regard to the radial position of the logging probe within the borehole in a measuring while drilling mode. 6 figs

  13. Exploring the importance of different items as reasons for leaving emergency medical services between fully compensated, partially compensated, and non-compensated/volunteer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan; Gibson, Gregory; Bentley, Melissa A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the importance of different items as reasons for leaving the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) profession. An exit survey was returned by three distinct EMS samples: 127 full compensated, 45 partially compensated and 72 non-compensated/volunteer respondents, who rated the importance of 17 different items for affecting their decision to leave EMS. Unfortunately, there were a high percentage of "not applicable" responses for 10 items. We focused on those seven items that had a majority of useable responses across the three samples. Results showed that the desire for better pay and benefits was a more important reason for leaving EMS for the partially compensated versus fully compensated respondents. Perceived lack of advancement opportunity was a more important reason for leaving for the partially compensated and volunteer groups versus the fully compensated group. Study limitations are discussed and suggestions for future research offered.

  14. Modular gamma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millegan, D.R.; Nixon, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards requires sensitive, easily operated instruments for rapid inspection of personnel and vehicles to ensure that no uranium or plutonium is being diverted. Two portable gamma-ray detection systems have been developed. The Modular Gamma System (MGS) is very sensitive and two or more systems can be connected for even better performance. The multiunit configuration can be deployed by motor vehicle for search of large areas too extensive to search on foot. The Programmable Rate Monitor (PRM) is less sensitive but much smaller and therefore is more suitable for search of vehicles, personnel, or smaller areas. The PRM is programmable, which implements measurement and alarm algorithms for individual applications

  15. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  16. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizza, L. J.

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest transient sources in the gamma-ray sky. Since their discovery in the late 1960s, the investigation of the astrophysical sys- tems in which these phenomena take place, and the physical mechanisms that drive them, has become a vast and prolific area of modern astrophysics. In this work I will briefly describe the most relevant observations of these sources, and the models that describe their nature, emphasizing on the in- vestigations about the progenitor astrophysical systems. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  18. Gamma spectrometry of EFTTRA T2BIS R280.2. Gamma scan wires 6 through 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    In the frame work of the EFTTRA programme on recycling of actinides and fission products, five gamma scan wires which were included in the experiment R280.2 T2bis have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  19. Compensation scheme for online neutron detection using a Gd-covered CdZnTe sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumazert, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.dumazert@cea.fr; Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim

    2017-06-11

    The development of portable and personal neutron dosimeters requires compact and efficient radiation sensors. Gd-157, Gd-155 and Cd-113 nuclei present the highest cross-sections for thermal neutron capture among natural isotopes. In order to allow for the exploitation of the low and medium-energy radiative signature of the said captures, the contribution of gamma background radiation, falling into the same energy range, needs to be cancelled out. This paper introduces a thermal neutron detector based on a twin-dense semiconductor scheme. The neutron-sensitive channel takes the form of a Gd-covered CdZnTe crystal, a high density and effective atomic number detection medium. The background compensation will be carried out by means of an identical CdZnTe sensor with a Tb cover. The setting of a hypothesis test aims at discriminating the signal generated by the signature of thermal neutron captures in Gd from statistical fluctuations over the compensation of both independent channels. The measurement campaign conducted with an integrated single-channel chain and two metal Gd and Tb covers, under Cs-137 and Cf-252 irradiations, provides first quantitative results on gamma-rejection and neutron sensitivity. The described study of concept gives grounds for a portable, online-compatible device, operable in conventional to controlled environments.

  20. Two gamma dose evaluation methods for silicon semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Faguo; Jin Gen; Yang Yapeng; Xu Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Silicon PIN diodes have been widely used as personal and areal dosimeters because of their small volume, simplicity and real-time operation. However, because silicon is neither a tissue-equivalent nor an air-equivalent material, an intrinsic disadvantage for silicon dosimeters is that a significant over-response occurs at low-energy region, especially below 200 keV. Using a energy compensation filter to flatten the energy response is one method overcoming this disadvantage. But for dose compensation method, the estimated dose depends only on the number of the detector pulses. So a weight function method was introduced to evaluate gamma dose, which depends on pulse number as well as its amplitude. (authors)

  1. Doctors and retribution: the hospitalisation of compensation claims in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Hans; van der Geest, Sjaak

    2004-11-01

    The cultures in the Papua New Guinea Highlands are characterised by a tradition of retribution. Compensation is part of an elaborate system of exchanging gifts, goods and services. Compensation is paid to those who have suffered some kind of loss for which others are held responsible. Such incidents include death or injury caused by fighting, a road accident or domestic violence, theft, rape, gossip, and property damage. Fear of revenge is an important motive for paying compensation. The hospital has become an increasingly important institution for retribution. It provides medical reports to support compensation claims of physical damage in cases involving violence or an accident. Case material, collected by one of the authors who conducted fieldwork in a hospital in the Southern Highlands, shows that the hospital has established itself as an authoritative actor in the local compensation culture. Doctors spend about one afternoon per week writing medical reports for compensation claims. These reports have become an attractive extra source of income for the hospital. The article describes and analyses a number of cases to illustrate the hospital's role in the production and legitimisation of retribution.

  2. Person-based differences in pay reactions: A compensation-activation theory and integrative conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Ingrid Smithey; Shaw, Jason D

    2018-06-07

    Compensation research has focused traditionally on how pay design characteristics (e.g., pay level, individual or group incentives) relate to average employee outcomes and, in toto, on how these outcomes affect organizational performance. Recently, scholars have begun to pay more attention to how individuals vary in the strength of their reactions to pay. Empirical research in several disciplines examines how the interplay of pay systems and person-based characteristics (psychological individual differences, demographics, and relative performance or position in a group) relate to important work-related outcomes. We develop a compensation-activation theory that frames compensation design characteristics as workplace "situations" providing cues that activate individuals' corresponding fundamental social motives made salient due to chronic or transient person-based characteristics. Where activation occurs, stronger-than-average responses to the compensation "situation" are expected. Using the theory as a lens, we synthesize and reinterpret existing research on person-based reactions to pay characteristics, including sorting, incentive/motivational effects, and effects on collective pay system reactions and unit/organizational outcomes. We conclude with a research agenda aimed at refining compensation-activation theory and advancing the study of compensation as it affects individual and organizational outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Device evaluation and coverage policy in workers' compensation: examples from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, G M; Lifka, J; Milstein, J

    1998-09-25

    Workers' compensation health benefits are broader than general health benefits and include payment for medical and rehabilitation costs, associated indemnity (lost time) costs, and vocational rehabilitation (return-to-work) costs. In addition, cost liability is for the life of the claim (injury), rather than for each plan year. We examined device evaluation and coverage policy in workers' compensation over a 10-year period in Washington State. Most requests for device coverage in workers' compensation relate to the diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of chronic musculoskeletal conditions. A number of specific problems have been recognized in making device coverage decisions within workers' compensation: (1) invasive devices with a high adverse event profile and history of poor outcomes could significantly increase both indemnity and medical costs; (2) many noninvasive devices, while having a low adverse event profile, have not proved effective for managing chronic musculoskeletal conditions relevant to injured workers; (3) some devices are marketed and billed as surrogate diagnostic tests for generally accepted, and more clearly proven, standard tests; (4) quality oversight of technology use among physicians may be inadequate; and (5) insurers' access to efficacy data adequate to make timely and appropriate coverage decisions in workers' compensation is often lacking. Emerging technology may substantially increase the costs of workers' compensation without significant evidence of health benefit for injured workers. To prevent ever-rising costs, we need to increase provider education and patient education and consent, involve the state medical society in coverage policy, and collect relevant outcomes data from healthcare providers.

  4. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with chronic ... severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Gamma knife surgery for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, D.; Steiner, M.; Steiner, L.

    1995-01-01

    We present our results of Gamma Knife surgery for craniopharyngioma in nine patients. The current status of surgery, radiation therapy, intracavitary instillation of radionuclides and Gamma Knife surgery in the management of craniopharyngiomas is discussed. (author)

  6. CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Results of the latest $\\gamma$ combination from LHCb are presented, along with the six LHCb measurements used as inputs. In addition, the anticipated precision attainable for measuring $\\gamma$ after the LHCb Upgrade is outlined

  7. Alleged B. anthracis exposure claims in a workers' compensation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Gregory; Dunning, Kari; Lockey, James E

    2006-01-01

    Workers' compensation insurance in some states may not provide coverage for medical evaluation costs of workplace exposures related to potential bioterrorism acts if there is no diagnosed illness or disease. Personal insurance also may not provide coverage for these exposures occurring at the workplace. Governmental entities, insurers, and employers need to consider how to address such situations and the associated costs. The objective of this study was to examine characteristics of workers and total costs associated with workers' compensation claims alleging potential exposure to the bioterrorism organism B. anthracis. We examined 192 claims referred for review to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (OBWC) from October 10, 2001, through December 20, 2004. Although some cases came from out-of-state areas where B. anthracis exposure was known to exist, no Ohio claim was associated with true B. anthracis exposure or B. anthracis-related illness. Of the 155 eligible claims, 126 included medical costs averaging dollar 219 and ranging from dollar 24 to dollar 3,126. There was no difference in mean cost for government and non-government employees (p = 0.202 Wilcoxon). The number of claims and associated medical costs for evaluation and treatment of potential workplace exposure to B. anthracis were relatively small. These results can be attributed to several factors, including no documented B. anthracis exposures and disease in Ohio and prompt transmission of recommended diagnostic and prophylactic treatment protocols to physicians. How employers, insurers, and jurisdictions address payment for evaluation and treatment of potential or documented exposures resulting from a potential terrorism-related event should be addressed proactively.

  8. MTB-USDH Compensation Tracking System (MTB-CTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — MTB-USDH Compensation Tracking System: is the USDH Compensation Tracking System (MTB-CTS) to assist managers in monitoring their payroll costs for U.S. direct hires....

  9. The relationship between South African CEO compensation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1A study of corporate financial performance and CEO compensation by Firth, Lohne,. Ropstad .... requires both a qualitative and quantitative analysis. REMCOs, in ...... 'Executive compensation as an agency problem', Journal of. Economic ...

  10. A time averaged background compensator for Geiger-Mueller counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    The GM tube compensator described stores background counts to cancel an equal number of pulses from the measuring channel providing time averaged compensation. The method suits portable instruments. (orig.)

  11. Method Validation Procedure in Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes the methodology followed for the application of ISO 17025 standards in gamma spectroscopy laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission including the management and technical requirements. A set of documents, written procedures and records were prepared to achieve the management part. The technical requirements, internal method validation was applied through the estimation of trueness, repeatability , minimum detectable activity and combined uncertainty, participation in IAEA proficiency tests assure the external method validation, specially that the gamma spectroscopy lab is a member of ALMERA network (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurements of Environmental Radioactivity). Some of these results are presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Ultrasonography X gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The accumulated experience in the last ten years of substitution to essays by gamma radiography to essay by ultrasonography, starting of the systematic comparison and tabulation of the results obtained by both essays applied in welding joints, in field, in steel pipelines of the SABESP. (V.R.B.)

  13. Gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yohsimasa; Kida, Yoshihisa

    2003-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery has become a new treatment modality in the field of neurosurgery since the first gamma knife was brought into Japan in 1990. Advances in applications of new indications and long-term results have been continued to evolve during the past 12 years. Based on the experience of more than 4,500 cases treated by gamma knife at Komaki City Hospital, long-term results of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), metastatic brain tumors, acoustic neurinomas, meningiomas and trigeminal neuralgias are presented. Radiosurgery has become a novel treatment modality, especially for AVM, acoustic neurinoma and meningioma, which were once only treatable by conventional surgery, and shows a high cure rate in AVM cases and high control rate in benign tumors without major complications. The effects of radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors have been thought to be superior to fractionated radiotherapy due to high response and control rates, and patients showed improved quality of life although no prolongation of the life span was obtained. Gamma knife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia has been shown to be effective and less invasive than microvascular decompression, and is useful for cases resistant to conventional therapies and as an initial treatment as well. (author)

  14. Automated gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regener, M.

    1977-01-01

    This is a report on the most recent developments in the full automation of gamma counting in RIA, in particular by Messrs. Kontron. The development targets were flexibility in sample capacity and shape of test tubes, the possibility of using different radioisotopes for labelling due to an optimisation of the detector system and the use of microprocessers to substitute software for hardware. (ORU) [de

  15. Gamma cardio 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.

    1982-01-01

    New trends in nuclear cardiology are briefly presented supported by a large bibliography. The following topics are reviewed: new tracers of myocardial perfusion and metabolism; quantitative analysis of cardiac function; nuclear stethoscope; gamma emission tomography; diagnostic value of cardiac dynamic tests (at rest and during exercise), pharmacological tests; new clinical applications of cardiovascular nuclear medicine [fr

  16. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  17. Introscopy using gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Yu.V.; Leonov, B.I.; Najorov, A.N.; Smirnov, N.N.; Firstov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described of working with standard 170 Tm, 75 Se, 192 Ir, 137 Cs and 60 Co sources at the activity of 1-4000 Ci, during television gamma introscopy of steel products. Experiments involving the RI-10T introscope are carried out to determine prospects of using various radiation sources. The results of using X-ray instruments for control of steel products are also shown for comparison. In introscopy of X-rayed steel products over 25 mm thick, spreading of the edge of the detected groove image is shown to be comparable when using X radiation and gamma radiation of standard sources. Sensitivity of control by fluorographic introscope in X-raying and gamma irradiation of products over 25 mm thick will presumably be the same owing to the detector storage capacity. The use of commercial gamma flaw detecting instruments together with a television introscope permits to reliably reveal defects of 0.5-2.0 mm in size, eliminating possible instability of operation of X-ray instruments, particularly in field conditions

  18. Gamma apparatuses for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul'kin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific and technical achievements in development and application of gamma therapeutic apparatuses for external and intracavity irradiations are generalized. Radiation-physical parameters of apparatuses providing usability of progressive methods in radiotherapy of onclogical patients are given. Optimization of main apparatus elements, ensurance of its operation reliability, reduction of errors of irradiation plan reproduction are considered. Attention is paid to radiation safety

  19. Gamma ray calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.; Flaherty, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is in the field of gamma ray inspection devices for tubular products and the like employing an improved calibrating block which prevents the sensing system from being overloaded when no tubular product is present, and also provides the operator with a means for visually detecting the presence of wall thicknesses which are less than a required minimum. (author)

  20. Compensation and Rewards for Environmental Services in the Developing World: Framing Pan-Tropical Analysis and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent M. Swallow

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a series of papers that review the state of knowledge and practice regarding compensation and rewards for environmental services in the developing world. The paper begins with an assessment of the historical development of compensation and reward mechanisms within a broader context of changing approaches to nature conservation and environmental policy. The assessment shows that greater interest in compensation and reward mechanisms has emerged within a policy context of changing approaches to nature conservation and flexible multi-stakeholder approaches to environmental management. In the developing world, an even greater variety of perspectives has emerged on the opportunities and threats for using compensation and rewards for environmental services. Within that background, the paper clarifies key concepts - including the distinction between compensation and reward - and presents a conceptual framework for typifying and characterizing different types of mechanisms that link ecosystem stewards, ecosystem service beneficiaries, and intermediaries.

  1. EFFECTS OF INTERFACES ON GAMMA SHIELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, C. E.

    1963-06-15

    A survey is presented of studies of interface effects in gamma shielding problems. These studies are grouped into three types of approaches, viz.: sources at the interface; radiation backscattered from the interface; and radiation transmitted through the interface. A bibliography of 54 references is included. Limitations on the applicability of the results are discussed. (T.F.H.)

  2. Sales compensation governance: the last frontier of corporate reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy, Peter R; Gaeta, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    The area of sales compensation has remained relatively untouched by recent pressures for compensation reform. This article highlights some of the ways that sales organizations stumble in managing their compensation programs, and why it takes more than a simple tactical fix to address these problems effectively. The authors describe a more structured governance framework that not only identifies and resolves key sales compensation issues, but ultimately safeguards the effectiveness and financial integrity of the sales organization itself.

  3. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes an overall energy system approach to analysing the mismatch problem of zero energy and zero emission buildings (ZEBs). The mismatch arises from hourly differences in energy production and consumption at the building level and results in the need for exchange of electricity via...... the public grid even though the building has an annual net-exchange of zero. This paper argues that, when looked upon from the viewpoint of the overall electricity supply system, a mismatch can be both negative and positive. Moreover, there are often both an element of levelling out mismatches between...... of the energy production unit. Based on historical data for the electricity supply area in western Denmark, this paper makes a first attempt to quantify mismatch compensation factors. The results indicate that such compensation factors are a little below one for buildings with photovoltaics (PV) and a little...

  4. Chromaticity compensation scheme for the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The current Main Injector lattice is studied in the context of full chromaticity compensation in the presence of the eddy current, saturation and the end-pack sextupole fields generated by the dipole magnets. Two families of correcting sextupole magnets are placed to compensate these fields and to adjust the chromaticity (in both planes) to some desired value. Variation of the dipole induced sextupole fields with the B-field (changing along a ramp) are modeled according to recent experimental measurements of the Main Injector dipole magnet Analysis of the required sextupole strengths is carried out along two realistic momentum ramps. The results of our calculation give quantitative insight into the requisite performance of the sextupole magnets

  5. Compensating for telecommunication delays during robotic telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoni, Leonardo J; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation robotic systems may afford better care and telerehabilitation may extend the use and benefits of robotic therapy to the home. Data transmissions over distance are bound by intrinsic communication delays which can be significant enough to deem the activity unfeasible. Here we describe an approach that combines unilateral robotic telerehabilitation and serious games. This approach has a modular and distributed design that permits different types of robots to interact without substantial code changes. We demonstrate the approach through an online multiplayer game. Two users can remotely interact with each other with no force exchanges, while a smoothing and prediction algorithm compensates motions for the delay in the Internet connection. We demonstrate that this approach can successfully compensate for data transmission delays, even when testing between the United States and Brazil. This paper presents the initial experimental results, which highlight the performance degradation with increasing delays as well as improvements provided by the proposed algorithm, and discusses planned future developments.

  6. Phase Noise Compensation for OFDM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Amir; Yemini, Michal

    2017-11-01

    We describe a low complexity method for time domain compensation of phase noise in OFDM systems. We extend existing methods in several respects. First we suggest using the Karhunen-Lo\\'{e}ve representation of the phase noise process to estimate the phase noise. We then derive an improved datadirected choice of basis elements for LS phase noise estimation and present its total least square counterpart problem. The proposed method helps overcome one of the major weaknesses of OFDM systems. We also generalize the time domain phase noise compensation to the multiuser MIMO context. Finally we present simulation results using both simulated and measured phased noise. We quantify the tracking performance in the presence of residual carrier offset.

  7. Motion compensation via redundant-wavelet multihypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, James E; Cui, Suxia; Wang, Yonghui

    2006-10-01

    Multihypothesis motion compensation has been widely used in video coding with previous attention focused on techniques employing predictions that are diverse spatially or temporally. In this paper, the multihypothesis concept is extended into the transform domain by using a redundant wavelet transform to produce multiple predictions that are diverse in transform phase. The corresponding multiple-phase inverse transform implicitly combines the phase-diverse predictions into a single spatial-domain prediction for motion compensation. The performance advantage of this redundant-wavelet-multihypothesis approach is investigated analytically, invoking the fact that the multiple-phase inverse involves a projection that significantly reduces the power of a dense-motion residual modeled as additive noise. The analysis shows that redundant-wavelet multihypothesis is capable of up to a 7-dB reduction in prediction-residual variance over an equivalent single-phase, single-hypothesis approach. Experimental results substantiate the performance advantage for a block-based implementation.

  8. CGI delay compensation. [Computer Generated Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during agressive tasks such as nap of the earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitude distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  9. Design of a dynamic compensated temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wu; Katz, E.M.; Kerlin, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    One important function of a temperature sensor in a nuclear power plant is to track changing process temperatures, but the sensor output lags the changing temperature. This lag may have a large influence when the sensor is used in control or safety systems. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop methods that increase the sensor response speed. The goal of this project is to develop a fast-responding temperature sensor, the dynamic compensated temperature sensor (DCTS), based on signal dynamic compensation technology. To verify the theoretical basis of the DCTS and incorporate the DCTS into a real temperature measurement process, several experiments have been performed. The DCTS is a simple approach that can decrease the temperature sensor's response time, and it can provide faster temperature signals to the nuclear power plant safety system

  10. Glass scintillator pair for compensation neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Li Xuezhi; Yiu Guangduo

    1985-01-01

    Glass scintillator pair types ST 1604 and ST 1605 for compensation of neutron logging is developed. The neutron sensitive material used is multistick lithium glass scintillators 3 and 4 mm in diameter respectively. Thermoneutron detection efficiencies are 50-60% and 100% respectively. The detection efficiency for 60 Co γ ray is lower than 0.3%. The type ST 1604 and ST 1605 may also be used as high sensitive neutron detectors in an intensive γ ray field

  11. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shu, De-ming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguo.li@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  12. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai; Shu, De-ming; Li, Aiguo

    2017-01-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  13. Review of beamloading and compensation in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    2001-10-01

    This paper discusses the theory and state-of-the-art applications of beam loading and compensation in synchrotrons. In particular it discusses the developments in the introduction of Magnetic Alloy (e.g. Finemet) cores and adoption of low Q cavities; e plus-e minus factories with very large current (e.g. KEKB, PEP II) and developments at p,p factories (e.g. LHC) and simulation codes

  14. Research on injury compensation and health outcomes: ignoring the problem of reverse causality led to a biased conclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B; Nghiem, Hong S; Pobereskin, Louis

    2012-11-01

    This study highlights the serious consequences of ignoring reverse causality bias in studies on compensation-related factors and health outcomes and demonstrates a technique for resolving this problem of observational data. Data from an English longitudinal study on factors, including claims for compensation, associated with recovery from neck pain (whiplash) after rear-end collisions are used to demonstrate the potential for reverse causality bias. Although it is commonly believed that claiming compensation leads to worse recovery, it is also possible that poor recovery may lead to compensation claims--a point that is seldom considered and never addressed empirically. This pedagogical study compares the association between compensation claiming and recovery when reverse causality bias is ignored and when it is addressed, controlling for the same observable factors. When reverse causality is ignored, claimants appear to have a worse recovery than nonclaimants; however, when reverse causality bias is addressed, claiming compensation appears to have a beneficial effect on recovery, ceteris paribus. To avert biased policy and judicial decisions that might inadvertently disadvantage people with compensable injuries, there is an urgent need for researchers to address reverse causality bias in studies on compensation-related factors and health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in accordance...

  16. An EMTDC Model of a Three Level four MVAR Compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the dynamic characteristics of a three level ±4mvar solid state var compensator which is built and will be used for dynamic reactive power compensation in a wind farm. An investigation has been carried out of the influence of the compensator reactor, the DC intermediate voltage...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-1 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Definition—(1) The term compensation has the same meaning as the term wages in section 3121(a... regarding the inclusion of fringe benefits in compensation, see § 31.3121(a)-1T. (6) Split-dollar life... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 31.3231(e)-1 Section 31.3231(e)-1...

  18. 20 CFR 701.401 - Coverage under state compensation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage under state compensation programs...; DEFINITIONS AND USE OF TERMS Coverage Under State Compensation Programs § 701.401 Coverage under state compensation programs. (a) Exclusions from the definition of “employee” under § 701.301(a)(12), and the...

  19. 12 CFR 918.2 - Annual directors' compensation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 918.3. At a minimum, such policy shall address the activities or functions for which attendance is... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual directors' compensation policy. 918.2... HOME LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.2 Annual directors' compensation policy...

  20. 29 CFR 505.3 - Prevailing minimum compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevailing minimum compensation. 505.3 Section 505.3 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.3 Prevailing minimum compensation. (a)(1) In the absence of an alternative determination...)(2) of this section, the prevailing minimum compensation required to be paid under the Act to the...

  1. 14 CFR 250.8 - Denied boarding compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denied boarding compensation. 250.8 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS OVERSALES § 250.8 Denied boarding compensation. (a) Every carrier shall tender to a passenger eligible for denied boarding compensation, on the day and place the denied boarding...

  2. 39 CFR 3.2 - Compensation of Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation of Board. 3.2 Section 3.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.2 Compensation of Board. Section 202(a)(1) of title 39 provides for the compensation of...

  3. Assessment of Wetland Valuation Processes for Compensation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of compensation has been debated in various fora; however compensation on wetland resources has not been given the primary place. Wetland valuation like any other type of valuation requires going through stages, which may be more complex than real estate valuation for compensation. This study therefore ...

  4. Critical Issues in Assessing Teacher Compensation. Backgrounder. No. 2638

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    A November 2011 Heritage Foundation report--"Assessing the Compensation of Public-School Teachers"--presented data on teacher salaries and benefits in order to inform debates about teacher compensation reform. The report concluded that public-school teacher compensation is far ahead of what comparable private-sector workers enjoy, and that…

  5. 31 CFR 30.0 - Executive compensation and corporate governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Executive compensation and corporate governance. 30.0 Section 30.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.0 Executive compensation and corporate governance...

  6. 20 CFR 10.15 - May compensation rights be waived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May compensation rights be waived? 10.15 Section 10.15 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL... AMENDED General Provisions Rights and Penalties § 10.15 May compensation rights be waived? No employer or...

  7. 28 CFR 301.301 - Compensable and noncompensable injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... only those injuries suffered during the performance of an inmate's regular work assignment. However... institution, when such work has been approved by staff, may also be compensable. (c) Compensation is not paid... in any activity not related to the actual performance of the work assignment are not compensable, and...

  8. 34 CFR 75.519 - Dual compensation of staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dual compensation of staff. 75.519 Section 75.519... by a Grantee? Project Staff § 75.519 Dual compensation of staff. A grantee may not use its grantee to pay a project staff member for time or work for which that staff member is compensated from some other...

  9. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is...

  10. Adaptive pseudolinear compensators of dynamic characteristics of automatic control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorospeshkin, M. V.; Sukhodoev, M. S.; Timoshenko, E. A.; Lenskiy, F. V.

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive pseudolinear gain and phase compensators of dynamic characteristics of automatic control systems are suggested. The automatic control system performance with adaptive compensators has been explored. The efficiency of pseudolinear adaptive compensators in the automatic control systems with time-varying parameters has been demonstrated.

  11. 38 CFR 3.658 - Offsets; dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsets; dependency and... AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.658 Offsets; dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) When an award of dependency and...

  12. 38 CFR 3.461 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.461 Dependency...'s award of dependency and indemnity compensation will be apportioned where there is a child or...

  13. 38 CFR 3.702 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Concurrent Benefits and Elections § 3.702 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Right to elect. A person who is eligible for death...

  14. Depth-of-Interaction Compensation Using a Focused-Cut Scintillator for a Pinhole Gamma Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Alhassen, Fares; Kudrolli, Haris; Singh, Bipin; Kim, Sangtaek; Seo, Youngho; Gould, Robert G.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical SPECT offers a powerful means to understand the molecular pathways of drug interactions in animal models by discovering and testing new pharmaceuticals and therapies for potential clinical applications. A combination of high spatial resolution and sensitivity are required in order to map radiotracer uptake within small animals. Pinhole collimators have been investigated, as they offer high resolution by means of image magnification. One of the limitations of pinhole geometries is ...

  15. Installation of the sag compensator for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungkyoo; Jung, Hoansung; Lim, Incheol; Ahn, Gukhoon

    2008-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plants and also for nuclear facilities. HANARO is a research reactor which produces a 30 MW thermal power. HANARO is designed to be tripped automatically when interruptions or some extent of sags occur. HANARO has the reactor regulation system(RRS) and reactor protection system(RPS). HANARO is designed so as to be tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods(CAR) and shut-off rods(SOR). When voltage sag or momentary interruption occurs, the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs even though the process systems are still in operation. HANARO was experienced in a nuisance trip as often as the unexpected voltage sag and/or momentary interruption occurs. We installed the voltage sag compensator on the power supply for CARs and SORs so as to prevent an unwanted trip. We undertook voltage sag assessment of the AC coil contactor which is a component of the power supply unit for the SORs. The compensation time is determined to be less than 1 sec in consideration of the reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator. (author)

  16. Optical compensation device for chest film radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert G.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; DeForest, Sherman E.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hier, Richard G.

    1990-07-01

    Although chest radiography is the most commonly performed radiographic examination and one of the most valuable and cost-effective studies in medicine it suffers from relatively high error rates in both missing pathology and false positive interpretations. Detectability of lung nodules and other structures in underpenetrated regions of the chest film can be improved by both exposure and optical compensation but current compensation systems require major capital cost or a significant change in normal clinical practice. A new optical compensation system called the " Intelligent X-Ray Illuminator" (IXI) automatically and virtually instantaneously generates a patient-specific optical unsharp mask that is projected directly on a radiograph. When a radiograph is placed on the IXI which looks much like a conventional viewbox it acquires a low-resolution electronic image of this film from which the film transmission is derived. The transmission information is inverted and blurred in an image processor to form an unsharp mask which is fed into a spatial light modulator (SLM) placed between a light source and the radiograph. The SLM tailors the viewbox luminance by decreasing illumination to underexposed (i. e. transmissive) areas of the radiograph presenting the observer with an optically unsharp-masked image. The IXI uses the original radiograph and will allow it to be viewed on demand with conventional (uniform illumination. Potentially the IXI could introduce the known beneficial aspects of optical unsharp masking into radiology at low capital

  17. Installation of the sag compensator for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Jung, H. S.; Ahn, G. H.; Lim, I. C.

    2008-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plants and also for nuclear facilities. HANARO is a research reactor which produces a 30MW thermal power. HANARO is designed to be tripped automatically when interruptions or some extents of sags occur. HANARO has the reactor regulation system (RRS) and reactor protection system (RPS). HANARO is designed so as to tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods (CAR) and shut-off rods (SOR). When voltage or momentary interruption occurs, the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs even though the process systems are still in operation. HANARO was experienced in a nuisance trip as often as the unexpected voltage sag and/or momentary interruption occurs. We installed the voltage sag compensator on the power supply for CARs and SORs so as to prevent an unwanted trip. We undertook voltage sag assessment of the AC coil contactor which is a component of the power supply unit for the SORs. The compensation time is determined to be less than 1 sec in consideration of the reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator

  18. Installation of the sag compensator for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyoo; Jung, Hoan Sung; Lim, In Cheol; Ahn, Guk Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plants and also for nuclear facilities. HANARO is a research reactor which produces a 30MW thermal power. HANARO is designed to be tripped automatically when interruptions or some extent of sags occur. HANARO has the reactor regulation system(RRs) and reactor protection system(RPS). HANARO is designed so as to be tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods(CAR) and shut off rods(SOR). When voltage sag or momentary interruption occurs, the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs even though the process systems are still in operation. HANARO was experienced in a nuisance trip as often as the unexpected voltage sag and/or momentary interruption occurs. We installed the voltage sag compensator voltage sag assessment of the AC coil contactor which is a component of the power supply unit for the SORs. The compensation time is determined to be less than 1 sec in consideration of the reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator

  19. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyan, S., E-mail: suren.vasilyan@tu-ilmenau.de; Froehlich, Th. [Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6 }S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  20. Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2009-04-01

    Compensation for asbestos-related cancers occurring in occupationally-exposed workers is a global issue; this is also an issue in Korea. To provide basic information regarding compensation for workers exposed to asbestos, 60 cases of asbestos-related occupational lung cancer and mesothelioma that were compensated during 15 yr; from 1993 (the year the first case was compensated) to 2007 by the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation (KLWC) are described. The characteristics of the cases were analyzed using the KLWC electronic data and the epidemiologic investigation data conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA). The KLWC approved compensation for 41 cases of lung cancer and 19 cases of mesothelioma. Males accounted for 91.7% (55 cases) of the approved cases. The most common age group was 50-59 yr (45.0%). The mean duration of asbestos exposure for lung cancer and mesothelioma cases was 19.2 and 16.0 yr, respectively. The mean latency period for lung cancer and mesothelioma cases was 22.1 and 22.6 yr, respectively. The major industries associated with mesothelioma cases were shipbuilding and maintenance (4 cases) and manufacture of asbestos textiles (3 cases). The major industries associated with lung cancer cases were shipbuilding and maintenance (7 cases), construction (6 cases), and manufacture of basic metals (4 cases). The statistics pertaining to asbestos-related occupational cancers in Korea differ from other developed countries in that more cases of mesothelioma were compensated than lung cancer cases. Also, the mean latency period for disease onset was shorter than reported by existing epidemiologic studies; this discrepancy may be related to the short history of occupational asbestos use in Korea. Considering the current Korean use of asbestos, the number of compensated cases in Korea is expected to increase in the future but not as much as developed countries.

  1. Gamma--gamma directional correlations and coincidence studies in /sup 154/Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J B; Gupta, S L; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tenn. (USA). Dept. of Physics; Delhi Univ. (India). Ramjas Coll.)

    1977-06-01

    The intensities, placements and E2/M1 mixing ratios of transitions in the decay of /sup 154/Eu have been carefully studied to provide accurate data for microscopic calculations. Coincidence relationships in thhe decay of /sup 154/Eu have been studied extensively with a multiparameter ..gamma..-..gamma.. coincidence system with two large volume Ge(Li) detectors. Spectra in coincidence with twenty energy gates were analyzed. Twenty-nine new coincidence relationships were established and confirmed most, but not all, of several levels previously assigned by energy fits only. From an analysis of coincidence spectra and singles spectra with a 18% efficiency Ge(Li) detector new information on the gamma-ray intensities were obtained. Precise values of the E2/M1 mixing ratios of transitions from the gamma- and beta-vibrational bands to the g.s. band have been determined from ..gamma..-..gamma.. directional correlation measurements with a NaI(Tl)-Ge(Li) detector coincidence system. Mixing ratios were obtained for a number of other transitions including those from KPI = 0/sup -/ and 2+ bands from direct and skipped cascade correlations.

  2. GammaLog Playback 1.0 - mobile gamma ray spectrometry software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.J.; Smethurst, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) operates a mobile gamma ray spectrometer system which can be used in nuclear emergency situations to determine the location and type of orphan sources, or the extent and type of fallout contamination. The system consists of a 20 litre (16 litre downward and 4 litre upward looking) RSX-5 NaI detector and spectrometer, and can be mounted in fixed wing aircraft, helicopters, or vans/cars as appropriate. NGU has developed its own data acquisition and analysis software for this system. GammaLog (Smethurst 2005) controls the acquisition, display, and storage of data from the spectrometer, and performs real-time data analysis including estimation of dose rates and fallout concentrations, and separation of geological and anthropogenic components of the signal. The latter is particularly important where the geological radioisotope signal varies strongly from one place to another, and makes it easier to locate and identify anthropogenic sources which might otherwise be difficult to separate from the geological background signal. A modified version of GammaLog has been developed, GammaLog Playback, which allows the replay of previously acquired GammaLog datasets, while performing similar processing and display as the GammaLog acquisition software. This allows datasets to be reviewed and compared in the field or during post-survey analysis to help plan subsequent measurement strategies.(Au)

  3. Study on a Mechanical Semi-Active Heave Compensation System of Drill String for Use on Floating Drilling Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyou; Tang, Yang; Huang, Chongjun; Xie, Chong

    2015-01-01

    There are some disadvantages for existing heave compensation systems of drill string used for the Floating Drilling Platform (FDP), including high energy consumption, large and complex structure, and expensive manufacturing and maintenance costs. In view of the above, we present a streamlined mechanical semi-active heave compensation system (MSAHC) in this study. This system consists of active compensation part with the pinion and rack and passive compensation part. In order to evaluate system performance of the MSAHC, we establish its simulation model with AMEsim software. In the process of simulation, displacement of rotary hook and energy consumption is regarded as performance parameters of the system. And the change rule of two performance parameters are analyzed by changing these design parameters including gear radius of the pinion and rack, scale coefficient of PID, rotary hook load, heave height and heave period of the FDP, and accumulator volume. Then, based on the simulation results of the MSAHC system performance, we have selected out a best set of design parameters from them. Moreover, the feasibility of the design scheme of the MSAHC is effectively verified by comparison with the existing three heave compensation system. The result shows that the energy consumption of the MSAHC is lower than the active heave compensation system (AHC) and the semi-active heave compensation system (SAHC) when achieving a same compensation effect as well as the accumulator volume of MSAHC is half of the passive heave compensation system (PHC). Therefore, the new designed MSAHC not only ensure compensation effect but also lower energy consumption, and its structure is simplified by adopting the simple mechanical structure to decrease manufacturing cost, maintenance cost and floor space. PMID:26186620

  4. Parameters of compensating centers in n-type Si highly compensated by irradiation. Parametry kompensiruyushchikh tsentrov v n-Si sil'no kompensirovannym oblucheniem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, P M; Fistul' , V I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (USSR)

    1990-06-01

    Resuls of investigations into effect of {gamma}- and neutron irradiation on defect formation in high-ohmic n-Si

    using technique of capacity temperature dependence (CTD) are given. Radiation dose varied from 4.8x10{sup 17} up to 1.7x10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. CTD technique is shown to be successfully applied to investigate into defect formation at irradiation of highly compensated silicon. Rate of admission of Ec-0.40 eV deep acceptor levels in n-Si at pulsed electron irradiation does not depend on fine impurity cocentration. Positions of energy levels of deep acceptors introduced into n-Si do not coincide and constitute, respectively, E{sub c}-0.40 and E{sub c}-049 eV.

  5. Factors influencing mode of claims settlement in workers' compensation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D L; Wood, G A; MacDonald, S

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that influence the means by which 10,192 injured workers settled their compensation claims during 1990. The data on which this study is based come from a state in Australia where there are three means by which workers' compensation claims can be settled by lump sum payment: settlement following a specific injury payment, early settlement payment and settlement following a common law payment. This paper is specifically concerned with identifying the variables that determine whether the claim will be settled by a lump sum payment and whether different modes of claims settlement by lump sum are unique and predictable from a range of variables that include injury characteristics and demographics. The results of logistic regression modelling revealed that those who received a lump sum settlement could be reliably distinguished from those who did not receive such a payment. Each mode of settlement varied in the extent to which it could be predicted. Contrary to expectations, the most difficult form of settlement mode to predict was that of specific injury payments (4% accurate) with the most predictive being early settlement payments (81% accurate). Common law payments were also highly predictable (48% accurate). The form of lump sum payment received by injured workers was found to depend on a range of injury characteristics, indices of severity and for common law payments, gender and potential income loss. It is argued that although injury characteristics play a part in the process of claims settlement, personal circumstances and insurance company policies are influential in dictating the form by which workers compensation cases are finalized.

  6. Artistic Skills Recovery and Compensation in Visual Artists after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petcu, Eugen Bogdan; Sherwood, Katherine; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Buga, Ana Maria; Aceti, Lanfranco; Miroiu, Rodica Ileana

    2016-01-01

    Art is a characteristic of mankind, which requires superior central nervous processing and integration of motor functions with visual information. At the present time, a significant amount of information related to neurobiological basis of artistic creation has been derived from neuro-radiological cognitive studies, which have revealed that subsequent to tissue destruction, the artists continue to create art. The current study aims to review the most important cases of visual artists with stroke and to discuss artistic skills recovery and compensation as well as artistic style after stroke. The role of various central nervous system regions in artistic creation was reviewed on the basis of previously published functional studies. Our PubMed search (1995-2015) has identified 10 famous artists with right cerebral stroke as well as 5 with left cerebral stroke who survived and continued to create art after stroke. As the artists included in this review lived at various times during the twentieth century and in different countries, clinical information related to their case was limited. However, it appears that artistic skills recovery and compensation appear within days after stroke. Some of the artists would subsequently change their artistic style. All these elements have been evaluated within the context of specific clinical cases. The poststroke artistic skills recovery and compensation with development of a new style or the opposite, regaining the previous prestroke style, represents a significant element of clinical importance in medical rehabilitation as well as neuroesthetics, which requires further evaluation. At the present time, the molecular mechanisms of artistic creation are poorly understood, and more standardized clinical and experimental studies are needed.

  7. Precise measurement of {gamma}(K{yields}e {nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu} {nu}({gamma})) and study of K{yields}e {nu} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Jacewicz, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Archilli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Beltrame, P.; Denig, A.; Mueller, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Bini, C.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Capriotti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); Di Donato, C. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); State University of New York, Physics Department, Stony Brook (United States); Martini, M.; Patera, V.; Versaci, R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Valente, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present a precise measurement of the ratio R{sub K}={gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu}{nu}({gamma})) and a study of the radiative process K{yields}e{nu}{gamma}, performed with the KLOE detector. The results are based on data collected at the Frascati e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA {phi}NE for an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. We find R{sub K}=(2.493{+-}0.025{sub stat}{+-}0.019{sub syst}) x 10{sup -5}, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. This result is used to improve constraints on parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with lepton flavor violation. We also measured the differential decay rate d {gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}{gamma})/dE{sub {gamma}} for photon energies 10gamma}}<250 MeV. Results are compared with predictions from theory. (orig.)

  8. Gamma ray emission from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Massaro, E.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the production of gamma rays in a pulsar environment is presented, together with numerical computations fitted to the observations of PSR 0833-45. It is assumed that the primary particles are accelerated close to the star surface and then injected along the open field lines, which cause them to emit curvature radiation. The equation describing the particles' braking is integrated exactly up to the first order in the pulsar rotational frequency, and the transfer problem for the curvature photons is solved with the aberration, the Doppler shif, and the pair production absorption being taken into account. The latter effect is due not only to the transverse component of the magnetic field, but also to the electric field induced by the rotation. The synchrotron radiation emitted by the secondary particles is also included, subject to the 'on-the-spot' approximation. It is found that the observed gamma rays originate in the innermost regions of the magnetosphere, where the open lines' bundle is narrow and the geometrical beaming is effective. As shown by the computed pulse profiles, the duty cycle turns out to be equal to a few percent, comparable to the one of PSR 0833-45. The averaged spectra indicate that a substantial fraction of the primary photons do outlive the interaction with the magnetisphere; furthermore, the agreement in shape with the observational curves suggests that the acceleration output is fiarly close to a monoenergetic beam of particles. (orig.) [de

  9. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  10. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1997-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  11. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  12. Executive compensation and firm performance: Evidence from Indian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Raithatha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between executive compensation and firm performance among Indian firms. The evidence suggests that firm performance measured by accounting, as well as market-based measures, significantly affects executive compensation. We also test for the presence of persistence in executive compensation by employing the system-generalised methods of moments (GMM estimator. We find significant persistence in executive compensation among the sample firms. Further, we report the absence of pay–performance relationship among the smaller sample firms and business group affiliated firms. Thus, our findings cast doubts over the performance-based executive compensation practices of Indian business group affiliated firms.

  13. Impact of image noise on gamma index calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M; Mo, X; Parnell, D; Olivera, G; Galmarini, D; Lu, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Gamma Index defines an asymmetric metric between the evaluated image and the reference image. It provides a quantitative comparison that can be used to indicate sample-wised pass/fail on the agreement of the two images. The Gamma passing/failing rate has become an important clinical evaluation tool. However, the presence of noise in the evaluated and/or reference images may change the Gamma Index, hence the passing/failing rate, and further, clinical decisions. In this work, we systematically studied the impact of the image noise on the Gamma Index calculation. Methods: We used both analytic formulation and numerical calculations in our study. The numerical calculations included simulations and clinical images. Three different noise scenarios were studied in simulations: noise in reference images only, in evaluated images only, and in both. Both white and spatially correlated noises of various magnitudes were simulated. For clinical images of various noise levels, the Gamma Index of measurement against calculation, calculation against measurement, and measurement against measurement, were evaluated. Results: Numerical calculations for both the simulation and clinical data agreed with the analytic formulations, and the clinical data agreed with the simulations. For the Gamma Index of measurement against calculation, its distribution has an increased mean and an increased standard deviation as the noise increases. On the contrary, for the Gamma index of calculation against measurement, its distribution has a decreased mean and stabilized standard deviation as the noise increases. White noise has greater impact on the Gamma Index than spatially correlated noise. Conclusions: The noise has significant impact on the Gamma Index calculation and the impact is asymmetric. The Gamma Index should be reported along with the noise levels in both reference and evaluated images. Reporting of the Gamma Index with switched roles of the images as reference and

  14. Impact of Image Noise on Gamma Index Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Mo, X.; Parnell, D.; Olivera, G.; Galmarini, D.; Lu, W.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The Gamma Index defines an asymmetric metric between the evaluated image and the reference image. It provides a quantitative comparison that can be used to indicate sample-wised pass/fail on the agreement of the two images. The Gamma passing/failing rate has become an important clinical evaluation tool. However, the presence of noise in the evaluated and/or reference images may change the Gamma Index, hence the passing/failing rate, and further, clinical decisions. In this work, we systematically studied the impact of the image noise on the Gamma Index calculation. Methods: We used both analytic formulation and numerical calculations in our study. The numerical calculations included simulations and clinical images. Three different noise scenarios were studied in simulations: noise in reference images only, in evaluated images only, and in both. Both white and spatially correlated noises of various magnitudes were simulated. For clinical images of various noise levels, the Gamma Index of measurement against calculation, calculation against measurement, and measurement against measurement, were evaluated. Results: Numerical calculations for both the simulation and clinical data agreed with the analytic formulations, and the clinical data agreed with the simulations. For the Gamma Index of measurement against calculation, its distribution has an increased mean and an increased standard deviation as the noise increases. On the contrary, for the Gamma index of calculation against measurement, its distribution has a decreased mean and stabilized standard deviation as the noise increases. White noise has greater impact on the Gamma Index than spatially correlated noise. Conclusions: The noise has significant impact on the Gamma Index calculation and the impact is asymmetric. The Gamma Index should be reported along with the noise levels in both reference and evaluated images. Reporting of the Gamma Index with switched roles of the images as reference and

  15. Zone compensated multilayer laue lens and apparatus and method of fabricating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Raymond P.; Liu, Chian Qian; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan, Hanfei; Maser, Jorg; Kang, Hyon Chol; Stephenson, Gregory Brian

    2015-07-14

    A multilayer Laue Lens includes a compensation layer formed in between a first multilayer section and a second multilayer section. Each of the first and second multilayer sections includes a plurality of alternating layers made of a pair of different materials. Also, the thickness of layers of the first multilayer section is monotonically increased so that a layer adjacent the substrate has a minimum thickness, and the thickness of layers of the second multilayer section is monotonically decreased so that a layer adjacent the compensation layer has a maximum thickness. In particular, the compensation layer of the multilayer Laue lens has an in-plane thickness gradient laterally offset by 90.degree. as compared to other layers in the first and second multilayer sections, thereby eliminating the strict requirement of the placement error.

  16. VA Disability Compensation and Money Spent on Substance Use Among Homeless Veterans: A Controversial Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    There has long been concern that public support payments are used to support addictive behaviors. This study examined the amount of money homeless veterans spend on alcohol and drugs and the association between public support income, including VA disability compensation, and expenditures on alcohol and drugs. Data were from 1,160 veterans from 19 sites on entry into the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric analyses were conducted. About 33% of veterans reported spending money on alcohol and 22% reported spending money on drugs in the past month. No significant association was found between public support income, VA disability compensation, and money spent on alcohol and drugs. A substantial proportion of homeless veterans spend some income on alcohol and drugs, but disability income, including VA compensation, does not seem to be related to substance use or money spent on addictive substances.

  17. Gamma-Ray Bursts: 4th Huntsville Symposium. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meegan, C.A.; Preece, R.D.; Koshut, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Fourth Huntsville Gamma-Ray Bursts Symposium held in September, 1997 in Huntsville, Alabama, USA. This conference occurred at a crucial time in the history of the gamma-ray burst research. In early 1997, 30 years after the detection of the first gamma-ray burst by the Vela satellites, counterparts to bursts were finally detected at optical and radio wavelengths. The symposium attracted about 200 scientists from 16 countries. Some of the topics discussed include gamma-ray burst spectra, x-ray observations, optical observations, radio observations, host galaxies, shocks and afterglows and models of gamma-ray bursts. There were 183 papers presented, out of these, 16 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  18. Routine check and annual maintenance for industrial radiography gamma projector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharudin Sayuti; Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Sukhri Ahmad; Arshad Yassin; Mohd Junaidi Jaapar; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to share some experience pertaining to gamma projector maintenance programme. In Malaysia there are more than 100 gamma projectors, which need to be maintenance annually. Most of these projectors are Tech-Ops 660 series portable gamma radiography systems, which are used primarily for industrial radiography. The portability feature of the system provides both a safe means of transporting the radioactive source and operating flexibility, particularly useful in areas where access is limited. Generally, the national authorised service centre carries out the annual inspection of this system. In Malaysia, Malaysian Nuclear Agency has been recognised as the National Gamma Projector Maintenance Centre by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). In this paper, a brief review of the design and operation is included in the discussion of the maintenance procedure, limitations and improvements of the gamma projector maintenance programme. (author)

  19. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  20. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)