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Sample records for include forming glass-to-metal

  1. Validation Assessment of a Glass-to-Metal Seal Finite-Element Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Emery, John M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Vicente J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Sealing glasses are ubiquitous in high pressure and temperature engineering applications, such as hermetic feed-through electrical connectors. A common connector technology are glass-to-metal seals where a metal shell compresses a sealing glass to create a hermetic seal. Though finite-element analysis has been used to understand and design glass-to-metal seals for many years, there has been little validation of these models. An indentation technique was employed to measure the residual stress on the surface of a simple glass-to-metal seal. Recently developed rate- dependent material models of both Schott 8061 and 304L VAR stainless steel have been applied to a finite-element model of the simple glass-to-metal seal. Model predictions of residual stress based on the evolution of material models are shown. These model predictions are compared to measured data. Validity of the finite- element predictions is discussed. It will be shown that the finite-element model of the glass-to-metal seal accurately predicts the mean residual stress in the glass near the glass-to-metal interface and is valid for this quantity of interest.

  2. Stress Mapping in Glass-to-Metal Seals using Indentation Crack Lengths.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diebold, Thomas Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bencoe, Denise N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the residual stress which develops during fabrication of a glass-to-metal compression seal requires material models that can accurately predict the effects of processing on the sealing glass. Validation of the predictions requires measurements on representative test geometries to accurately capture the interaction between the seal materials during a processing cycle required to form the seal, which consists of a temperature excursion through the glass transition temperature of the sealing glass. To this end, a concentric seal test geometry, referred to as a short cylinder seal, consisting of a stainless steel shell enveloping a commercial sealing glass disk has been designed, fabricated, and characterized as a model validation test geometry. To obtain data to test/validate finite element (FE) stress model predictions of this geometry, spatially-resolved residual stress was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks emanating from radially positioned Vickers indents in the glass disk portion of the seal. The indentation crack length method is described, and the spatially-resolved residual stress determined experimentally are compared to FE stress predictions made using a nonlinear viscoelastic material model adapted to inorganic sealing glasses and an updated rate dependent material model for 304L stainless steel. The measurement method is a first to achieve a degree of success for measuring spatially resolved residual stress in a glass-bearing geometry and a favorable comparison between measurements and simulation was observed.

  3. Stress Mapping in Glass-to-Metal Seals using Indentation Crack Lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Component & Systems Analysis; Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Diebold, Thomas Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Bencoe, Denise N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electronic, Optical and Nano; Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Science; Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation System Analysis

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the residual stress which develops during fabrication of a glass-to-metal compression seal requires material models that can accurately predict the effects of processing on the sealing glass. Validation of the predictions requires measurements on representative test geometries to accurately capture the interaction between the seal materials during a processing cycle required to form the seal, which consists of a temperature excursion through the glass transition temperature of the sealing glass. To this end, a concentric seal test geometry, referred to as a short cylinder seal, consisting of a stainless steel shell enveloping a commercial sealing glass disk has been designed, fabricated, and characterized as a model validation test geometry. To obtain data to test/validate finite element (FE) stress model predictions of this geometry, spatially-resolved residual stress was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks emanating from radially positioned Vickers indents in the glass disk portion of the seal. The indentation crack length method is described, and the spatially-resolved residual stress determined experimentally are compared to FE stress predictions made using a nonlinear viscoelastic material model adapted to inorganic sealing glasses and an updated rate dependent material model for 304L stainless steel. The measurement method is a first to achieve a degree of success for measuring spatially resolved residual stress in a glass-bearing geometry and a favorable comparison between measurements and simulation was observed.

  4. Characterization & Modeling of Materials in Glass-To-Metal Seals: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Robert S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computer Science and Mechanics; Emery, John M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid Mechanics; Tandon, Rajan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Reliability; Antoun, Bonnie R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Science; Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Reliability

    2014-01-01

    To support higher fidelity modeling of residual stresses in glass-to-metal (GTM) seals and to demonstrate the accuracy of finite element analysis predictions, characterization and validation data have been collected for Sandia’s commonly used compression seal materials. The temperature dependence of the storage moduli, the shear relaxation modulus master curve and structural relaxation of the Schott 8061 glass were measured and stress-strain curves were generated for SS304L VAR in small strain regimes typical of GTM seal applications spanning temperatures from 20 to 500 C. Material models were calibrated and finite element predictions are being compared to measured data to assess the accuracy of predictions.

  5. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  6. Methods for forming complex oxidation reaction products including superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.A.; Urquhart, A.W.; Nagelberg, A.S.; Newkirk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for producing a superconducting complex oxidation reaction product of two or more metals in an oxidized state. It comprises positioning at least one parent metal source comprising one of the metals adjacent to a permeable mass comprising at least one metal-containing compound capable of reaction to form the complex oxidation reaction product in step below, the metal component of the at least one metal-containing compound comprising at least a second of the two or more metals, and orienting the parent metal source and the permeable mass relative to each other so that formation of the complex oxidation reaction product will occur in a direction towards and into the permeable mass; and heating the parent metal source in the presence of an oxidant to a temperature region above its melting point to form a body of molten parent metal to permit infiltration and reaction of the molten parent metal into the permeable mass and with the oxidant and the at least one metal-containing compound to form the complex oxidation reaction product, and progressively drawing the molten parent metal source through the complex oxidation reaction product towards the oxidant and towards and into the adjacent permeable mass so that fresh complex oxidation reaction product continues to form within the permeable mass; and recovering the resulting complex oxidation reaction product

  7. 12 CFR 563b.255 - What must the form of proxy include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What must the form of proxy include? 563b.255... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Proxy Solicitation § 563b.255 What must the form of proxy include? The form of proxy must include all of the following: (a) A statement in bold face type...

  8. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  9. 78 FR 18457 - Definition of Form I-94 To Include Electronic Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... alien to turn in the departure portion of the Form I-94 at the time of departure, the definition..., and 286 [USCBP-2013-0011; CBP Dec. No. 13-06] RIN 1651-AA96 Definition of Form I-94 To Include... departure. DHS generally issues the Form I-94 to aliens at the time they lawfully enter the United States...

  10. 21 CFR 1.233 - What optional items are included in the registration form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... extracts) and 11b (e.g., grain products, amino acids); (i) Type of storage, if the facility is primarily a... registration form? 1.233 Section 1.233 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Registration of Food Facilities § 1.233 What optional items are included in the registration form? FDA...

  11. Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride-comprising bodies, including methods of forming a sheet of transparent armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-12-02

    The invention includes methods of forming an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body. For example, a mixture is formed which comprises A:B:C in a respective molar ratio in the range of 9:3.6-6.2:0.1-1.1, where "A" is Al.sub.2O.sub.3, "B" is AlN, and "C" is a total of one or more of B.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, Si--Al--O--N, and TiO.sub.2. The mixture is sintered at a temperature of at least 1,600.degree. C. at a pressure of no greater than 500 psia effective to form an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body which is at least internally transparent and has at least 99% maximum theoretical density.

  12. Cladding material, tube including such cladding material and methods of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-layered cladding material including a ceramic matrix composite and a metallic material, and a tube formed from the cladding material. The metallic material forms an inner liner of the tube and enables hermetic sealing of thereof. The metallic material at ends of the tube may be exposed and have an increased thickness enabling end cap welding. The metallic material may, optionally, be formed to infiltrate voids in the ceramic matrix composite, the ceramic matrix composite encapsulated by the metallic material. The ceramic matrix composite includes a fiber reinforcement and provides increased mechanical strength, stiffness, thermal shock resistance and high temperature load capacity to the metallic material of the inner liner. The tube may be used as a containment vessel for nuclear fuel used in a nuclear power plant or other reactor. Methods for forming the tube comprising the ceramic matrix composite and the metallic material are also disclosed.

  13. Turbomachine combustor nozzle including a monolithic nozzle component and method of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoia, Lucas John; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Vanselow, John Drake; Westmoreland, James Harold

    2016-02-23

    A turbomachine combustor nozzle includes a monolithic nozzle component having a plate element and a plurality of nozzle elements. Each of the plurality of nozzle elements includes a first end extending from the plate element to a second end. The plate element and plurality of nozzle elements are formed as a unitary component. A plate member is joined with the nozzle component. The plate member includes an outer edge that defines first and second surfaces and a plurality of openings extending between the first and second surfaces. The plurality of openings are configured and disposed to register with and receive the second end of corresponding ones of the plurality of nozzle elements.

  14. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  15. Isogeometric analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams including the nonlinear effects of large deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Farhad; Hashemian, Ali; Moetakef-Imani, Behnam; Hadidimoud, Saied

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the isogeometric analysis (IGA) of free-form planar curved beams is formulated based on the nonlinear Timoshenko beam theory to investigate the large deformation of beams with variable curvature. Based on the isoparametric concept, the shape functions of the field variables (displacement and rotation) in a finite element analysis are considered to be the same as the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) basis functions defining the geometry. The validity of the presented formulation is tested in five case studies covering a wide range of engineering curved structures including from straight and constant curvature to variable curvature beams. The nonlinear deformation results obtained by the presented method are compared to well-established benchmark examples and also compared to the results of linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. As the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of Timoshenko beams is the main topic of this article, the results strongly show the applicability of the IGA method to the large deformation analysis of free-form curved beams. Finally, it is interesting to notice that, until very recently, the large deformations analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams has not been considered in IGA by researchers.

  16. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  17. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  18. 76 FR 55788 - Amendments To Include New Applicant Types on Form ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ...\\ See EDGAR Filing Manual (Volume I) General Information (Section 2.4, Accessing EDGAR). Currently, Form... Administrative Procedure Act (``APA'') \\34\\ generally requires an agency to publish, before adopting a rule....'' \\36\\ Further, the APA also generally requires that an agency publish a rule in the Federal Register 30...

  19. 41 CFR 301-74.16 - What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? 301-74.16 Section 301-74.16... included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? (a) Any advertisement or application for attendance at a conference described in § 301-74.14 must include: (1) Notice of...

  20. 40 CFR 720.45 - Information that must be included in the notice form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufactured, processed, or used. (2) A process description of each manufacture, processing, and use operation which includes a diagram of the major unit operations and chemical conversions, the identity and entry... composition that can be represented by a specific, complete chemical structure diagram (a Class 1 substance...

  1. 29 CFR 784.108 - Operations not included in named operations on forms of aquatic “life.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject matter of the exemptions is concerned with “aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life,” the..., novelties, liquid glue, isinglass, pearl essence, and fortified or refined fish oil is not within these... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations not included in named operations on forms of...

  2. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongling; Zeng, Lin; Fetters, Micheal D; Li, Nan; Tao, Liyuan; Shi, Yanyan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fengwei; Zhao, Yiming

    2017-09-18

    Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research. The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing, China. The target population was clinical researchers with three levels of experience, namely, limited clinical research experience, clinicians with rich clinical research experience and clinical research experts. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 13 individual interviews (face to face) and one group interview (n=4) with clinical researchers from June to September 2016. Based on maximum variation sampling to identify researchers with three levels of research experience: eight clinicians with limited clinical research experience, five clinicians with rich clinical research experience and four clinical research experts. These 17 researchers had diverse hospital-based medical specialties and or specialisation in clinical research. Our analysis yields a typology of three processes developing a case report form that varies according to research experience level. Novice clinician researchers often have an incomplete protocol or none at all, and conduct data collection and publication based on a general framework. Experienced clinician researchers include variables in the case report form based on previous experience with attention to including domains or items at risk for omission and by eliminating unnecessary variables. Expert researchers consider comprehensively in advance data collection and implementation needs and plan accordingly. These results illustrate increasing levels of sophistication in research planning that increase sophistication in selection for variables in the case report form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive

  3. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator-design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses the restriction of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solutions to the algebraic Riccati Equation to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical systems. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist. Some examples of simple spring mass systems are shown to illustrate key points.

  4. Systems of differential forms, including Kuranishi's theory of total prolongations. Technical report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H.H.

    1956-01-01

    The theory of differential forms and their integral manifolds was created by E. Cartan in order to study the differential equations which occur in Lie groups and differential geometry. We present here a modern outline of this theory using refinements and notations taken from recent papers of Y. Matsushima and M. Kuranishi. Section III is devoted to an exposition of a paper of Kuranishi on total prolongations which was presented at the 1956 Summer Institute in Differential Geometry at the University of Washington.

  5. SMRT has tissue-specific isoform profiles that include a form containing one CoRNR box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Stephen; Malartre, Marianne; Sharpe, Colin

    2005-01-01

    SMRT acts as a corepressor for a range of transcription factors. The amino-terminal part of the protein includes domains that mainly mediate transcriptional repression whilst the carboxy-terminal part includes domains that interact with nuclear receptors using up to three motifs called CoRNR boxes. The region of the SMRT primary transcript encoding the interaction domains is subject to alternative splicing that varies the inclusion of the third CoRNR box. The profile in mice includes an abundant, novel SMRT isoform that possesses just one CoRNR box. Mouse tissues therefore express SMRT isoforms containing one, two or three CoRNR boxes. In frogs, the SMRT isoform profile is tissue-specific. The mouse also shows distinct profiles generated by differential expression levels of the SMRT transcript isoforms. The formation of multiple SMRT isoforms and their tissue-specific regulation indicates a mechanism, whereby cells can define the repertoire of transcription factors regulated by SMRT

  6. Estimation of hull girder vertical bending moments including non-linear and flexibility effects using closed form expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    -induced loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Non-linearity in the wave bending moment is modeled using results derived from a second-order strip theory and water entry solutions for wedge type sections. Hence, bow flare slamming is accounted for through a momentum type of approach....... The stochastic properties of this non-linear response are calculated through a monotonic Hermite transformation. In addition, the impulse loading due to e.g. bottom slamming or a rapid change in bow flare is included using a modal expansion in the two lowest vertical vibration modes. These whipping vibrations...

  7. Novel Insights Into the Phenotypical Spectrum of KIF11-Associated Retinopathy, Including a New Form of Retinal Ciliopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtel, Johannes; Gliem, Martin; Mangold, Elisabeth; Tebbe, Lars; Spier, Isabel; Müller, Philipp L; Holz, Frank G; Neuhaus, Christine; Wolfrum, Uwe; Bolz, Hanno J; Charbel Issa, Peter

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to characterize the ophthalmic and extraocular phenotype in patients with known and novel KIF11 mutations. Four patients (3, 5, 36, and 38 years of age, on father-daughter constellation) from three unrelated families were characterized by retinal examination including multimodal retinal imaging, investigation for syndromic disease manifestations, and targeted next-generation sequencing. The subcellular localization of Kif11 in the retina was analyzed by light and electron microcopy. There was considerable interindividual and intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity of KIF11-related retinopathy. Two patients presented with a progressive retinal dystrophy, one with chorioretinal dysplasia and one with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) in one eye and thinning of the photoreceptor layer in the fellow eye. Obvious syndromic disease manifestations were present only in the youngest patient, but minor signs (e.g. reduced head circumference) were present in the three other individuals. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated Kif11 localization in the inner segment and ciliary compartments of photoreceptor cells and in the retinal pigment epithelium. Progressive retinal degeneration in KIF11-related retinopathy indicates a role for KIF11 not only in ocular development but also in maintaining retinal morphology and function. The remarkable variability of the ocular phenotype suggests four different types of retinopathy which may overlap. KIF11 should be considered in the screening of patients with retinal dystrophies because other syndromic manifestations may be subtle. Evaluation of head circumference may be considered as a potential shortcut to the genetic diagnosis. The localization of Kif11 in photoreceptor cells indicates a retinal ciliopathy.

  8. Bonding glass to metal with plastic for stability over temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Chris L.; Petrie, Stephen P.

    2001-11-01

    To enable the invention of higher power IRCM lasers, 3D LIDAR systems, Designator/Rangefinders and other Instruments subjected to a broad range of operating conditions, there is a need to develop improved technology to hold small mirrors, lenses, beamsplitters and other optical elements with repeatable and high dimensional stability over wide environmental temperature ranges, an do so with great economy. The intent of this effort was to begin identifying significant factors for bonding small mirrors for high stability. A screening experiment was performed in which half-inch diameter flat mirrors were face bonded to similar mirror mounts, then bolted to a reference test fixture and subjected to an environmental temperature range of -40 to +70 degrees C. Mount material, optic material, adhesive material, bond joint design, and bond thickness were varied. The resulting tilt errors in the mirror assemblies were measured. Steps were taken to isolate the bond joint stability as opposed to stability in the mounted mirror subassemblies. The effort required to minimize experimental noise was much greater than anticipated. This first experimental effort failed to identify main factors with statistical significance, however; some results are interesting. Perhaps also of interest is the progress made at characterizing the experimental setup and process, and lessons learned in control of noise factors in this kind of experiment.

  9. Application Of A New Semi-Empirical Model For Forming Limit Prediction Of Sheet Material Including Superposed Loads Of Bending And Shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Christian; Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf; Sindel, Manfred

    2010-06-01

    The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.

  10. Application Of A New Semi-Empirical Model For Forming Limit Prediction Of Sheet Material Including Superposed Loads Of Bending And Shearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Christian; Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf; Sindel, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.

  11. Characteristics of water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge formed during drinking water treatment, including C-, N-disinfection byproduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Xiao, Hongdi; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2017-03-15

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the characteristics of the water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge generated in the drinking water treatment plant, including formation of C- and N-disinfection by-products (DBPs). Results showed that this 'dewatering water' (DW) had different properties when the sludge was stored at different times. The content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microcystins (MCs) in the DW were low when the sludge was treated or disposed of within 4 days; correspondingly, the C-, N-DBP production was also low. However, due to the damage of algal cells to some extent, the DOM and MC levels increased significantly for storage time longer than 4 days; the production of C-, N-DBPs also increased. There were also obvious differences in the characteristics of the DW from sludges generated with different coagulant species. Due to the better protective effect of FeCl 3 and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) flocs, the DOM and MC levels and the production of C-, N-DBPs in the DW with FeCl 3 and PAFC coagulation were lower than those with AlCl 3 coagulation, even though the sludges were stored for the same amount of time. Furthermore, because of the formation of Al and Fe hydroxides, precipitated onto the surface of flocs, the soluble Al and Fe in the DW decreased with increased storage time, especially in the first four days. Overall, this study revealed the trends in variation of DW quality for cyanobacteria-containing sludges formed with different coagulants, then FeCl 3 and PAFC coagulants are recommended and sludge should be treated or disposed of within 4 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Method of manufacturing a display device including forming electric connections on a substrate, conductor patterns on a second substrate and coupling the connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Roozeboom, F.; Elfrink, R.J.G.; Johnson, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    ICs (20) are nearly separated from the semiconductor substrate (10) on/in which they are formed. Subsequently, the substrate is positioned upside down on a substrate (carrier) (3) which is provided with glue (21) at the location of a crystal. After attachment of the crystal to the carrier, the

  13. Separating semiconductor devices from substrate by etching graded composition release layer disposed between semiconductor devices and substrate including forming protuberances that reduce stiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Nielson, Gregory N; Cederberg, Jeffrey G; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2015-05-12

    A method includes etching a release layer that is coupled between a plurality of semiconductor devices and a substrate with an etch. The etching includes etching the release layer between the semiconductor devices and the substrate until the semiconductor devices are at least substantially released from the substrate. The etching also includes etching a protuberance in the release layer between each of the semiconductor devices and the substrate. The etch is stopped while the protuberances remain between each of the semiconductor devices and the substrate. The method also includes separating the semiconductor devices from the substrate. Other methods and apparatus are also disclosed.

  14. Determination of sulfur forms in wine including free and total sulfur dioxide based on molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide in the air-acetylene flame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Heitmann, Uwe; Okruss, Michael; Patz, Claus-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    A new method for the determination of sulfur forms in wine, i.e., free SO(2), total SO(2), bound SO(2), total S, and sulfate, is presented. The method is based on the measurement of the carbon monosulfide (CS) molecular absorption produced in a conventional air-acetylene flame using high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometry. Individual sulfur forms can be distinguished because of the different sensitivities of the corresponding CS molecular absorption. The sensitivity of free SO(2) is about three times higher than the value for bound SO(2) and sulfate. The method makes use of procedures similar to those used in classic reference methods. Its performance is verified by analyzing six wine samples. Relative standard deviations are between 5 and 13% for free SO(2) and between 1 and 3% for total SO(2). For the validation of the accuracy of the new method, the results are compared with those of reference methods. The agreement of the values for total SO(2) with values of the classic method is satisfactory: five out of six samples show deviations less than 16%. Due to the instability of free SO(2) in wine and the known problems of the used reference method, serious deviations of the free SO(2) results are found for three samples. The evaluation of the limits of detection focuses on the value for free SO(2), which is the sulfur form having by far the lowest concentration in wine. Here, the achievable limit of detection is 1.8 mg L(-1). [figure: see text] Detection of non-metal elements using continuum source flame absorption spectrometry.

  15. Correlative microscopy including CLSM and SEM to improve high-speed, high-resolution laser-engraved print and embossing forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Markus; Schweitzer, Michael; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    The industrial market for processing large-scale films has seen dramatic changes since the 1980s and has almost completely been replaced by lasers and digital processes. A commonly used technology for engraving screens, print and embossing forms in the printing industry, well known since then, is the use of RF-excited CO2 lasers with a beam power up to about 1 kW, modulated in accordance to the pattern to be engraved. Future needs for high-security printing (banknotes, security papers, passports, etc.) will require laser engraving of at least half a million or even more structured elements with a depth from some μm up to 500 μm. Industry now wants photorealistic pictures in packaging design, which requires a similar performance. To ensure 'trusted pulses' from the digital process to the print result the use of correlative microscopy (CLSM and SEM) is demonstrated as a complete chain for a correlative print process in this paper.

  16. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  17. Proposed Testing to Assess the Accuracy of Glass-To-Metal Seal Stress Analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Robert S.; Emery, John M; Tandon, Rajan; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Stavig, Mark E.; Newton, Clay S.; Gibson, Cory S; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2014-09-01

    The material characterization tests conducted on 304L VAR stainless steel and Schott 8061 glass have provided higher fidelity data for calibration of material models used in Glass - T o - Metal (GTM) seal analyses. Specifically, a Thermo - Multi - Linear Elastic Plastic ( thermo - MLEP) material model has be en defined for S S304L and the Simplified Potential Energy Clock nonlinear visc oelastic model has been calibrated for the S8061 glass. To assess the accuracy of finite element stress analyses of GTM seals, a suite of tests are proposed to provide data for comparison to mo del predictions.

  18. Bonding glass to metal with plastic for stability over temperature: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Chris L.; Petrie, Stephen P.

    2002-09-01

    To enable the invention of new optical instruments subjected to a broad range of operating conditions, there is a need to develop improved technology to hold small mirrors and other optical elements with high dimensional stability and low cost. A previous paper described a screening experiment on small face bonded mirrors subjected to an environment of -41 to +70 degree(s)C with the intent of finding factors that influence the bond joint's contribution to angular stability. This paper describes part of the continuing experiment, specifically addressing BK-7 mirrors bonded to Aluminum mounts with a flexible adhesive. The resulting tilt errors in the mirror assemblies were measured, and showed a definite pattern with respect to bond thickness. Flexible bonds between these two CTE mismatched materials did not fail, and exhibited high stability over temperature at 0.002-inch bond thickness.

  19. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... and concepts from real designs by studying form in abstract contexts. The challenge for the first approach is how to support students in decoupling form from the work as a whole. The challenge for the second approach is how to translate general form into real design. Hence, choosing between the two approaches...

  20. VALIDATION OF A MODIFIED-MULTIDIMENSIONAL PROGNOSTIC INDEX (m-MPI) INCLUDING THE MINI NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT SHORT-FORM (MNA-SF) FOR THE PREDICTION OF ONE-YEAR MORTALITY IN HOSPITALIZED ELDERLY PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANCARLO, D.; D’ONOFRIO, G.; FRANCESCHI, M.; SCARCELLI, C.; NIRO, V.; ADDANTE, F.; COPETTI, M.; FERRUCCI, L.; FONTANA, L.; PILOTTO, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The mortality prediction represents a key factor in the managing of elderly hospitalized patients. Since in older subjects mortality results from a combination of biological, functional, nutritional, psychological and environmental factors, a Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) that predict short- and long-term mortality based on a standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) has recently been developed and validated. Objective This study compares the accuracy in predicting the mortality of the MPI with a modified version of the MPI (m-MPI) that included the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) instead of the standard MNA. Design This prospective study with a one-year follow-up included 4088 hospitalized patients aged 65 years and older. A standardized CGA that included information on functional (Activities of Daily Living, ADL and Instrumental-ADL), cognitive (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire), risk of pressure sore (Exton-Smith Scale), comorbidities (CIRS Index), medications, living status and nutritional status (MNA and MNA-SF) was used to calculate the MPI using a previously validated algorithm. Results Higher MPI values were significantly associated with higher mortality rates with a close agreement between the estimated and the observed mortality both after 1-month (MPI1=2.8% versus m-MPI1=2.8%, p=0.946; MPI2=8.9% versus m-MPI2=9%, p=0.904; MPI3=21.9% versus m-MPI3=21.9, p=0.978) and 1-year of follow-up (MPI1=10.8% versus m-MPI1=10.5%, p=0.686; MPI2=27.3% versus m-MPI2=28%, p=0.495; MPI3=52.8% versus m-MPI3=52.7%, p=0.945). The estimated areas under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves suggested a clinically negligible difference between the two indices. Conclusion The m-MPI is as sensitive as the MPI in stratifying hospitalized elderly patients into groups at varying risk of short- and long-term mortality, but with fewer items. PMID:21369662

  1. Physical and chemical characteristics including total and geochemical forms of phosphorus in sediment from the top 30 centimeters of cores collected in October 2006 at 26 sites in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nancy S.; Ingle, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    μThis study of phosphorus (P) cycling in eutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Lakebed sediments from the upper 30 centimeters (cm) of cores collected from 26 sites were characterized. Cores were sampled at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm. Prior to freezing, water content and sediment pH were determined. After being freeze-dried, all samples were separated into greater than 63-micron (μm) particle-size (coarse) and less than 63-μm particle-size (fine) fractions. In the surface samples (0.5 to 4.5 cm below the sediment water interface), approximately three-fourths of the particles were larger than 63-μm. The ratios of the coarse particle-size fraction (>63 μm) and the fine particle-size fraction (determination of total concentrations of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), carbon (C), iron (Fe), poorly crystalline Fe, nitrogen (N), P, and titanium (Ti). Total Fe concentrations were the largest in sediment from the northern portion of UKL, Howard Bay, and the southern portion of the lake. Concentrations of total Al, Ca, and Ti were largest in sediment from the northern, central, and southernmost portions of the lake and in sediment from Howard Bay. Concentrations of total C and N were largest in sediment from the embayments and in sediment from the northern arm and southern portion of the lake in the general region of Buck Island. Concentrations of total C were larger in the greater than 63-μm particle-size fraction than in the less than 63-μm particle-size fraction. Sediments were sequentially extracted to determine concentrations of inorganic forms of P, including loosely sorbed P, P associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides, and P associated with mineral phases. The difference between the concentration of total P and sum of the concentrations of inorganic forms of P is referred to as residual P. Residual P was the largest fraction of P in all

  2. Deep sequencing of HIV-1 near full-length proviral genomes identifies high rates of BF1 recombinants including two novel circulating recombinant forms (CRF) 70_BF1 and a disseminating 71_BF1 among blood donors in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Watanabe, Jaqueline Tomoko; Calabria, Paula; Felix, Alvina Clara; Loureiro, Paula; Sabino, Ester C; Busch, Michael P; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2014-01-01

    The findings of frequent circulation of HIV-1 subclade F1 viruses and the scarcity of BF1 recombinant viruses based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing among blood donors in Pernambuco (PE), Northeast of Brazil, were reported recently. Here, we aimed to determine whether the classification of these strains (n = 26) extends to the whole genome sequences. Five overlapping amplicons spanning the HIV near full-length genomes (NFLGs) were PCR amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 26 blood donors. The amplicons were molecularly bar-coded, pooled, and sequenced by Illumina paired-end protocol. The prevalence of viral variants containing drug resistant mutations (DRMs) was compared between plasma and PBMCs. Of the 26 samples studied, 20 NFLGs and 4 partial fragments were de novo assembled into contiguous sequences and successfully subtyped. Two distinct BF1 recombinant profiles designated CRF70_BF1 and CRF71_BF1, with 4 samples in profile I and 11 in profile II were detected and thus constitute two novel recombinant forms circulating in PE. Evidence of dual infections was detected in four patients co-infected with distinct HIV-1 subtypes. According to our estimate, the new CRF71_BF1 accounts for 10% of the HIV-1 circulating strains among blood donors in PE. Discordant data between the plasma and PBMCs-virus were found in 15 of 24 donors. Six of these strains displayed major DRMs only in PBMCs and four of which had detectable DRMs changes at prevalence between 1-20% of the sequenced population. The high percentage of the new RF71_BF1 and other BF1 recombinants found among blood donors in Pernambuco, coupled with high rates of transmitted DRMs and dual infections confirm the need for effective surveillance to monitor the prevalence and distribution of HIV variants in a variety of settings in Brazil.

  3. Magnetic behavior of cobalt bromide hydrates including a deuterated form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu; Hampton, A.S.; Van Dongen, M.J.; Komatsu, C.H.; DeSanto, C.L.; Davis, C.M.

    2017-04-15

    The magnetic properties of little examined CoBr{sub 2}• 2H{sub 2}O and new CoBr{sub 2}• H{sub 2}O and CoBr{sub 2}• D{sub 2}O are studied. Curie-Weiss fits, χ{sub M}=C/(T-θ), yield θ of −9.9, 9.4 and 10.0 K, respectively, over a 30–80 K linear range for each. Higher temperature data are fit assuming two moderately separated low lying Kramers doublets, with exchange accounted for in a mean-field approximation. Susceptibility maxima appear at 9.5, 15.4 and 15.5 K, with χ{sub max} of 0.163, 0.375 and 0.435 emu/mol, respectively. Antiferromagnetic ordering is estimated to occur at 9.0, 13.7 and 13.8 K, in the same order. The ratio T{sub c}/T{sub max} is 0.95, 0.89 and 0.89, respectively, suggesting little low dimensional magnetic character in singly hydrated systems. Data at lower temperatures for the dihydrate are fit with an antiferromagnetic 3D-Ising model. For singly hydrated systems the large size of χ{sub max} prevents this; weakened interchain antiferromagnetic interactions yield enhanced susceptibility maxima. Magnetization data exhibit field induced transitions near 13.5 kG for the dihydrate, and near 6.5 kG for singly hydrated systems with enhanced hysteresis. These transitions are interpreted as metamagnetic in nature. - Highlights: • CoBr{sub 2}• 2H{sub 2}O has a larger susceptibility maximum at lower temperature than CoCl{sub 2}• 2H{sub 2}O. • Enhanced antiferromagnetic susceptibility maxima occur in CoBr{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O and CoBr{sub 2}• D{sub 2}O. • Metamagnetic transitions occur at much lower fields in monohydrates than dehydrate. • Interchain antiferromagnetic exchange is weaker in monohydrates than dehydrate. • CoBr{sub 2}• H{sub 2}O exhibit spin glass behavior similar to that seen previously in CoCl{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O.

  4. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  7. Method for forming ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  8. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  9. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  10. Methods of forming CIGS films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Lorelle; Ramanathan, Kannan

    2017-09-19

    Methods for forming CIGS films are provided. According to an aspect of the invention, a method of forming a CIGS film includes a precursor step, which includes simultaneously evaporating Cu, In, Ga, Se, and Sb onto a substrate. The Se is incident on the substrate at a rate of at least 20 .ANG./s. The method also includes a selenization step, which includes evaporating Se over the substrate after the precursor step.

  11. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  12. Cigarette makers pioneered many of our black arts of disinformation, including the funding of research to distract from the hazards of smoking. Ten Nobel prizes were the result. By funding distraction research, the cigarette industry became an important source of academic corruption, helping also to forge other forms of denialism on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette Disinformation: Origins and Global Impact Robert N. Proctor The cigarette is the deadliest artifact in the history of human civilization. And whereas "only" a hundred million people died in the 20th century from smoking, we are presently on a pace to have several times that toll in the present century. Much of that catastrophe would not be possible without a massive campaign of disinformation. The cigarette industry pioneered many of the black arts of disinformation, cleverly exploiting the inherent skepticism of science to claim that "more research" was needed to resolve a purported "cigarette controversy." Cigarette makers funded hundreds of millions of dollars worth of "distraction research," most of which was solid empirical science but off topic, focusing on basic biology and biochemistry, viral and genetic causes of disease, and other "cigarette friendly" topics. At least ten Nobel prizes were the result. Cigarette skepticism was thus more complex than we normally imagine: the tobacco industry corrupted science by funding "alternative causation," meaning anything that could be used to draw attention away from cigarettes as a source of disease. The cigarette industry by this means became the most important source of academic corruption since the Nazi era. That corruption has also helped forge other forms of denialism and corruption on a global scale.

  13. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  14. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  15. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  16. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  17. Harmonic maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  18. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  19. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  20. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  1. Ceramic substrate including thin film multilayer surface conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Joseph Ambrose; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-09

    A ceramic substrate comprises a plurality of ceramic sheets, a plurality of inner conductive layers, a plurality of vias, and an upper conductive layer. The ceramic sheets are stacked one on top of another and include a top ceramic sheet. The inner conductive layers include electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of each ceramic sheet excluding the top ceramic sheet. The vias are formed in each of the ceramic sheets with each via being filled with electrically conductive material. The upper conductive layer includes electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of the top ceramic sheet. The upper conductive layer is constructed from a stack of four sublayers. A first sublayer is formed from titanium. A second sublayer is formed from copper. A third sublayer is formed from platinum. A fourth sublayer is formed from gold.

  2. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Doctors usually diagnose Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, infection ...

  3. Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.

  4. Harmony of super form factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhuber, A.; Gürdoğan, Ö.; Mooney, R.; Travaglini, G.; Yang, G.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we continue our systematic study of form factors of half-BPS operators in mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills. In particular, we extend various on-shell techniques known for amplitudes to the case of form factors, including MHV rules, recursion relations, unitarity and dual MHV rules. As an application, we present the solution of the recursion relation for split-helicity form factors. We then consider form factors of the stress-tensor multiplet operator and of its chiral truncation, and write down supersymmetric Ward identities using chiral as well as non-chiral superspace formalisms. This allows us to obtain compact formulae for families of form factors, such as the maximally non-MHV case. Finally we generalise dual MHV rules in dual momentum space to form factors.

  5. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  6. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life

  7. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related... that was indicated is the estimated annualized cost to the respondents for the hour burden for... additional 30-days for public comments and to correct the cost from $236,253.00 to zero. DATES: Comments are...

  8. Sex Classification Using the Three-Dimensional Tibia Form or Shape Including Population Specificity Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzobohatá, Hana; Krajíček, V.; Horák, Z.; Velemínská, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-40 ISSN 0022-1198 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 613012 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : forensic science * geometric morphometrics * sexual dimorphism * optical scanning * computed tomography-derived models * tibia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.322, year: 2015

  9. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  10. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  11. Entropic Forms and Related Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maria Scarfone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a very general trace-form entropy, we introduce a pair of algebraic structures endowed by a generalized sum and a generalized product. These algebras form, respectively, two Abelian fields in the realm of the complex numbers isomorphic each other. We specify our results to several entropic forms related to distributions recurrently observed in social, economical, biological and physical systems including the stretched exponential, the power-law and the interpolating Bosons-Fermions distributions. Some potential applications in the study of complex systems are advanced.

  12. Pulmonary disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Grammer, Leslie C

    2010-02-01

    The lung is a very complex immunologic organ and responds in a variety of ways to inhaled antigens, organic or inorganic materials, infectious or saprophytic agents, fumes, and irritants. There might be airways obstruction, restriction, neither, or both accompanied by inflammatory destruction of the pulmonary interstitium, alveoli, or bronchioles. This review focuses on diseases organized by their predominant immunologic responses, either innate or acquired. Pulmonary innate immune conditions include transfusion-related acute lung injury, World Trade Center cough, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptive immunity responses involve the systemic and mucosal immune systems, activated lymphocytes, cytokines, and antibodies that produce CD4(+) T(H)1 phenotypes, such as for tuberculosis or acute forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and CD4(+) T(H)2 phenotypes, such as for asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mesonic Form Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, Frederic D.R.; Edwards, Robert G.; Felming, George T.; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-01-01

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors

  14. Isotropy of quadratic forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Suresh University Of Hyderabad Hyderabad

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... Historically, the study of quadratic forms was part of number theory; Minkowski, Siegel, Hasse, Eichler, Kneser and several other mathematicians created a rich arithmetic theory of quadratic forms. V. Suresh University Of Hyderabad Hyderabad. Isotropy of quadratic forms ...

  15. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees

  16. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  17. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  18. Gravitation and quadratic forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Sudarshan; Brink, Lars; Majumdar, Sucheta; Mali, Mahendra; Shah, Nabha

    2017-03-01

    The light-cone Hamiltonians describing both pure ( N = 0) Yang-Mills and N = 4 super Yang-Mills may be expressed as quadratic forms. Here, we show that this feature extends to theories of gravity. We demonstrate how the Hamiltonians of both pure gravity and N = 8 supergravity, in four dimensions, may be written as quadratic forms. We examine the effect of residual reparametrizations on the Hamiltonian and the resulting quadratic form.

  19. Gravitation and quadratic forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananth, Sudarshan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India); Brink, Lars [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Institute of Advanced Studies and Department of Physics & Applied Physics,Nanyang Technological University,Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Majumdar, Sucheta [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India); Mali, Mahendra [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Thiruvananthapuram, Trivandrum 695016 (India); Shah, Nabha [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India)

    2017-03-31

    The light-cone Hamiltonians describing both pure (N=0) Yang-Mills and N=4 super Yang-Mills may be expressed as quadratic forms. Here, we show that this feature extends to theories of gravity. We demonstrate how the Hamiltonians of both pure gravity and N=8 supergravity, in four dimensions, may be written as quadratic forms. We examine the effect of residual reparametrizations on the Hamiltonian and the resulting quadratic form.

  20. PowerForms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Ricky, Mikkel

    2000-01-01

    such validation. Today, CGI programmers often use Perl libraries for simple server-side validation or program customized JavaScript solutions for client-side validation. We present PowerForms, which is an add-on to HTML forms that allows a purely declarative specification of input formats and sophisticated...... interdependencies of form fields. While our work may be seen as inspiration for a future extension of HTML, it is also available for CGI programmers today through a preprocessor that translates a PowerForms document into a combination of standard HTML and JavaScript that works on all combinations of platforms...

  1. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  2. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  3. Mastering HTML5 forms

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial will show you how to create stylish forms, not only visually appealing, but interactive and customized, in order to gather valuable user inputs and information.Enhance your skills in building responsive and dynamic web forms using HTML5, CSS3, and related technologies. All you need is a basic understanding of HTML and PHP.

  4. Hepatitis E: Epidemiological forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In these endemic countries, the disease takes two major epidemiological forms. The form that was recognized first was occurrence of large outbreaks affecting several hundred to several thousand cases of acute hepatitis, usually over a short period of a few weeks. However, it was soon realized that the viral agent was also ...

  5. Pre-form ceramic matrix composite cavity and method of forming and method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Philip Harold; Delvaux, John McConnell; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-06-09

    A pre-form CMC cavity and method of forming pre-form CMC cavity for a ceramic matrix component includes providing a mandrel, applying a base ply to the mandrel, laying-up at least one CMC ply on the base ply, removing the mandrel, and densifying the base ply and the at least one CMC ply. The remaining densified base ply and at least one CMC ply form a ceramic matrix component having a desired geometry and a cavity formed therein. Also provided is a method of forming a CMC component.

  6. Stability of the spherical form of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    An extension of the mass formula for a spherical nucleus in the drop model to include a largely deformed nucleus of different forms is investigated. It is found that although the spherical form is stable under small deformations from equilibrium, there exists for heavier nuclei another more favourable stable form, which can be approximated by two, or three touching prolate ellipsoids of revolution

  7. Article and method of forming an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Dutta, Sandip; Schick, David Edward

    2017-12-26

    Provided are an article and a method of forming an article. The method includes providing a metallic powder, heating the metallic powder to a temperature sufficient to joint at least a portion of the metallic powder to form an initial layer, sequentially forming additional layers in a build direction by providing a distributed layer of the metallic powder over the initial layer and heating the distributed layer of the metallic powder, repeating the steps of sequentially forming the additional layers in the build direction to form a portion of the article having a hollow space formed in the build direction, and forming an overhang feature extending into the hollow space. The article includes an article formed by the method described herein.

  8. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  9. Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Michael P [Ammon, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

  10. New directions in Dirichlet forms

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen; Mosco, Umberto; Rockner, Michael; Sturm, Karl-Theodor

    1998-01-01

    The theory of Dirichlet forms brings together methods and insights from the calculus of variations, stochastic analysis, partial differential and difference equations, potential theory, Riemannian geometry and more. This book features contributions by leading experts and provides up-to-date, authoritative accounts on exciting developments in the field and on new research perspectives. Topics covered include the following: stochastic analysis on configuration spaces, specifically a mathematically rigorous approach to the stochastic dynamics of Gibbs measures and infinite interacting particle systems; subelliptic PDE, homogenization, and fractals; geometric aspects of Dirichlet forms on metric spaces and function theory on such spaces; generalized harmonic maps as nonlinear analogues of Dirichlet forms, with an emphasis on non-locally compact situations; and a stochastic approach based on Brownian motion to harmonic maps and their regularity. Various new connections between the topics are featured, and it is de...

  11. Analysis of forming limit in tube hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Il; Yang, Seung Hang; Kim, Young Suk

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry has shown increasing interest in tube hydroforming. Despite many automobile structural parts being produced from cylindrical tubes, failures frequently occur during tube hydroforming under improper forming conditions. These problems include wrinkling, buckling, folding back, and bursting. We perform analytical studies to determine forming limits in tube hydroforming and demonstrate how these forming limits are influenced by the loading path. Theoretical results for the forming limits of wrinkling and bursting are compared with experimental results for an aluminum tube.

  12. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Today, Linda Saisselin takes joy in holding her new grandson—pain free. Photo courtesy of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this is a joint disease that mostly affects ...

  13. NOAA Form 370 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains information from submitted NOAA Form 370s, also known as the Fisheries Certificate of Origin, for imported shipments of frozen and/or processed...

  14. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  15. Science on form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Shozo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Takaki, Ryuji; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Symposium was to discuss interdisciplinal science aspects of form. 'Form' depends on the material and the changes. But, it is the form that appears evident at once and endures. Form is absorbed from every field as media of information. One part of the work covers the description of non-periodic phenomena, morphogenesis or evolution. Irreducible stubborn facts as diseases or social problems, or whatever else that could not be analyzed are integrally challenged to be systematized by computer simulation. The other part covers the finding of laws for determining how systems behave. Attention should be paid to pattern recognition, image processing and pattern formation. The Symposium proceeded with no parallel sessions, and participants from various fields made exciting discussions in an interdisciplinal atmosphere. (Auth.)

  16. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  17. Forms of Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Events Faces of Dystonia Donate Donate Online Membership Find an Event Donor Bill of Rights About Dystonia Symptoms & Diagnosis Forms of Dystonia Genetics Glossary Treatment Find a Doctor Oral Medications Botulinum Neurotoxin Neurosurgery ...

  18. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  19. Polyphony and verb forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Rajić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some special uses of indicative and subjunctive verb forms in Spanish, which contemporary linguistics explains using the notions of polyphony, evidentials, echoic representation, quotatives, etc. These terms, even though they refer to different characteristics and belong to different theoretical frameworks, share one common feature: they all refer to diverse linguistic forms (discourse markers, linguistic negation, quotatives, echoic utterances, etc. characterized by the presence and interaction of different voices or points of view in one discourse sequence. In this study we are interested in a description of quotative or polyphonic meanings expressed by specific verb forms and tenses, the imperfect and the conditional, and also by indicative forms in subordinate substantive clauses with a negative main verb and by subjunctive forms in subordinate concessive clauses. Our research focuses on the analysis of the linguistic conditions that make possible the evidential use of the conditional, the imperfect and the echoic (metarepresentative interpretation of indicative and subjunctive forms in the above-mentioned contexts. The examples we discuss show that evidential and echoic interpretations are inferential meanings derived from the extralinguistic situation and the knowledge that speakers have of the world.

  20. Cells, walls, and endless forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monniaux, Marie; Hay, Angela

    2016-12-01

    A key question in biology is how the endless diversity of forms found in nature evolved. Understanding the cellular basis of this diversity has been aided by advances in non-model experimental systems, quantitative image analysis tools, and modeling approaches. Recent work in plants highlights the importance of cell wall and cuticle modifications for the emergence of diverse forms and functions. For example, explosive seed dispersal in Cardamine hirsuta depends on the asymmetric localization of lignified cell wall thickenings in the fruit valve. Similarly, the iridescence of Hibiscus trionum petals relies on regular striations formed by cuticular folds. Moreover, NAC transcription factors regulate the differentiation of lignified xylem vessels but also the water-conducting cells of moss that lack a lignified secondary cell wall, pointing to the origin of vascular systems. Other novel forms are associated with modified cell growth patterns, including oriented cell expansion or division, found in the long petal spurs of Aquilegia flowers, and the Sarracenia purpurea pitcher leaf, respectively. Another good example is the regulation of dissected leaf shape in C. hirsuta via local growth repression, controlled by the REDUCED COMPLEXITY HD-ZIP class I transcription factor. These studies in non-model species often reveal as much about fundamental processes of development as they do about the evolution of form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  2. Benign bone-forming tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Staebler, A.; Steinborn, M.; Woertler, K.

    2001-01-01

    Benign bone-forming tumors include osteomas, enostomas, osteoid osteomas, and osteoblastomas. These lesions are often characterized by typical imaging findings on radiographs, CT and MR imaging studies. Radiologic findings and additional clinical information allow for a specific diagnosis in most cases. This review article emphasizes the radiological patterns of benign boneforming tumors as well as their epidemiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics. In addition, minimally invasive interventional procedures for the therapy of osteoid osteoma are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  3. Forming a multinational joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, N.K.; Garb, R.H.; Statton, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the basis and mechanics for forming a multinational joint venture. The topics of the paper include the motivations for a joint venture, selection of the appropriate co-venturer, management of the multinational joint venture, and the joint venture agreement. The authors state that a joint venture is not applicable or desirable in all instances and to be successful, must be carefully planned

  4. Chemical forms of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1979-01-01

    Release of radioiodine built-up during reactor operations presents a potential problem from the standpoint of environmental safety. Among the chemical forms of radioiodine, depending upon the circumstances, organic iodides cast a most serious problem because of its difficulties in the trapping and because of its stability compared to other chemical forms. Furthermore, pellet-cladding interaction (PCl) fuel failures in LWR fuel rods are believed to be stress corrosion cracks caused by embrittling fission product species, radioiodine. To deal with these problems, knowledge is required on the chemical behaviors of radioiodine in and out of fuels, as well as the release behaviors from fuels. Here a brief review is given of these respects, in aiming at clearing-up the questions still remaining unknown. The data seem to indicate that radioiodine exists as a combined form in fuels. upon heating slightly irradiated fuels, the iodine atoms are released in a chemical form associated with uranium atoms. Experiments, however, as needed with specimen of higher burnup, where the interactions of radioiodine with metallic fission products could be favored. The dominant release mechanism of radioiodine under normal operating temperatures will be diffusion to grain boundaries leading to open surfaces. Radiation-induced internal traps, however, after the rate of diffusion significantly. The carbon sources of organic iodides formed under various conditions and its formation mechanisms have also been considered. (author)

  5. FORM version 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, J.; Ueda, T.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.; Vollinga, J.

    2013-05-01

    We present version 4.0 of the symbolic manipulation system FORM. The most important new features are manipulation of rational polynomials and the factorization of expressions. Many other new functions and commands are also added; some of them are very general, while others are designed for building specific high level packages, such as one for Gröbner bases. New is also the checkpoint facility, that allows for periodic backups during long calculations. Finally, FORM 4.0 has become available as open source under the GNU General Public License version 3. Program summaryProgram title: FORM. Catalogue identifier: AEOT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151599 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 078 748 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: The FORM language. FORM itself is programmed in a mixture of C and C++. Computer: All. Operating system: UNIX, LINUX, Mac OS, Windows. Classification: 5. Nature of problem: FORM defines a symbolic manipulation language in which the emphasis lies on fast processing of very large formulas. It has been used successfully for many calculations in Quantum Field Theory and mathematics. In speed and size of formulas that can be handled it outperforms other systems typically by an order of magnitude. Special in this version: The version 4.0 contains many new features. Most important are factorization and rational arithmetic. The program has also become open source under the GPL. The code in CPC is for reference. You are encouraged to upload the most recent sources from www.nikhef.nl/form/formcvs.php because of frequent bug fixes. Solution method: See "Nature of Problem", above. Additional comments: NOTE: The code in CPC is for reference. You are encouraged

  6. Modular forms a classical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The theory of modular forms is a fundamental tool used in many areas of mathematics and physics. It is also a very concrete and "fun" subject in itself and abounds with an amazing number of surprising identities. This comprehensive textbook, which includes numerous exercises, aims to give a complete picture of the classical aspects of the subject, with an emphasis on explicit formulas. After a number of motivating examples such as elliptic functions and theta functions, the modular group, its subgroups, and general aspects of holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms are explained, with an emphasis on explicit examples. The heart of the book is the classical theory developed by Hecke and continued up to the Atkin-Lehner-Li theory of newforms and including the theory of Eisenstein series, Rankin-Selberg theory, and a more general theory of theta series including the Weil representation. The final chapter explores in some detail more general types of modular forms such as half-integral weight, Hilbert, Jacob...

  7. On Growth and Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maartens, Aidan

    2017-12-01

    D'Arcy Thompson was born in 1860, trained in Edinburgh and Cambridge, and held positions in Dundee and St Andrews, where he worked until his death in 1948. On Growth and Form , his classic work on the mathematical patterns and physical rules underlying biological forms, was first published in 1917. To learn more about the book's context, we met Matthew Jarron, Curator of Museum Services at the University of Dundee, in the University's D'Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum. Surrounded by specimens, many of which were collected by Thompson himself, we discussed the legacy of On Growth and Form and the life of the man behind it. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Photovoltaic cell module and method of forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Malinda; Juen, Donnie; Ketola, Barry; Tomalia, Mary Kay

    2017-12-12

    A photovoltaic cell module, a photovoltaic array including at least two modules, and a method of forming the module are provided. The module includes a first outermost layer and a photovoltaic cell disposed on the first outermost layer. The module also includes a second outermost layer disposed on the photovoltaic cell and sandwiching the photovoltaic cell between the second outermost layer and the first outermost layer. The method of forming the module includes the steps of disposing the photovoltaic cell on the first outermost layer, disposing a silicone composition on the photovoltaic cell, and compressing the first outermost layer, the photovoltaic cell, and the second layer to form the photovoltaic cell module.

  9. Solid form screening--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Jaakko; Allesø, Morten; Mirza, Sabiruddin; Koradia, Vishal; Gordon, Keith C; Rantanen, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    Solid form screening, the activity of generating and analysing different solid forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), has become an essential part of drug development. The multi-step screening process needs to be designed, performed and evaluated carefully, since the decisions made based on the screening may have consequences on the whole lifecycle of a pharmaceutical product. The selection of the form for development is made after solid form screening. The selection criteria include not only pharmaceutically relevant properties, such as therapeutic efficacy and processing characteristics, but also intellectual property (IP) issues. In this paper, basic principles of solid form screening are reviewed, including the methods used in experimental screening (generation, characterisation and analysis of solid forms, data mining tools, and high-throughput screening technologies) as well as basics of computational methods. Differences between solid form screening strategies of branded and generic pharmaceutical manufacturers are also discussed.

  10. Waste-form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements

  11. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  12. Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  13. Sesotho Address Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akindele, Dele Femi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Address forms constitute an integral part of Basotho sociolinguistic etiquette. They are regarded as a kind of emotional capital that may be invested in putting others at ease. They are indicators of deference, politeness and markers of social distance. (Fasold 1990, Akindele 1990, 1991, 1993 This paper examines the address forms used by the Basotho people. It analyzes and discusses the various types and the factors determining their use. The discussion of address forms in Sesotho focuses on First Name, Title plus First Name, Title plus Last Name, Nickname, Multiple Names, and Teknonym. Drawing data from semi-literate and literate urban and rural population of Maseru district of Lesotho, it was found that the commonest form of address used by the Basotho people is title plus first name. e.g. ntate Thabo (father Thabo, 'm'e Puleng (mother Puleng, ausi Maneo (sister Maneo, abuti Mahao (brother Mahao. It is used by close relations, associates, and familiar people in both formal and informal situations.

  14. Documentary form no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This first documentary form, edited by the national association of local commissions of information about nuclear activities (ANCLI), briefly presents the radioactivity phenomenon, the ionising radiations, the characteristics of radiation sources (activity, half life, energy), and the dosimetry (absorbed, equivalent, efficient doses). (J.S.)

  15. Getting in-formed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    Work-in-progress paper præsenteret ved PhD Seminar: Analytical strategies and methodologies for the study of virtual worlds at RUC. September 28th to October 1st 2009. I paperet diskuteres den dobbelte bevægelse at vi som forskere via vores undersøgelser bliver informeret og i samme moment putter...... det vi undersøger på form gennem vores beskrivelser. Paperet tager afsæt i empiriske eksempler fra et postdoc projekt om et såkaldt 'serious game' - Mingoville. Projektet følger circuleringer og etableringer af Mingoville 'på en global markedsplads'. I paperet diskuteres hvordan vi som forskere samler....../performer de fænomener vi forsker i. Aktør-Netværks-Teoretiker Bruno Latour (2005) pointerer at enhver beskrivelse også er en form for forklaring. En form for forklaring, der putter ting ind i et skript og dermed også putter ting på form. Paperet diskuterer to tilgange til at gøre serious games og derved skabe viden om...

  16. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Inequalities for Differential Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P

    2009-01-01

    Presents a series of local and global estimates and inequalities for differential forms, in particular the ones that satisfy the A-harmonic equations. This work focuses on the Hardy-Littlewood, Poincare, Cacciooli, imbedded and reverse Holder inequalities. It is for researchers, instructors and graduate students

  18. Metal forming and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Lubrication is essential in most metal forming processes. The lubricant film has two basic functions, [1]: i. to separate the work piece and tool surfaces and ii. to cool the workpiece and the tool. Separation of the two surfaces implies lower friction facilitating deformation and lowering the tool...

  19. Spin-forming Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick

    2009-03-20

    In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.

  20. Education fees – New forms

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The application forms for the payment of education fees have been updated and are now available in the Admin e-guide (under the “Useful Documents” heading):   Payment of education fees (including language course fees) – AC12A (form to be used by staff members recruited before 1 January 2007, with the exception of former “local staff”).   Payment of education fees – AC12B (form to be used by staff members recruited on or after 1 January 2007, by fellows, scientific associates and guest professors and by former “local staff” whose contracts started before 1 January 2007). The Education Fees service will continue to accept the old forms until the end of the current academic year, i.e. until 31 August 2015. Members of the personnel are reminded that any false declaration or failure to declare information with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain that would result in a financial loss for CERN or...

  1. Waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    In this program, contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements (both as they exist and as they are modified with time). 6 tables

  2. Forms of Inattentiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and kept out of sight in the decision processes by looking at a specific case study involving the construction of a model intended to control, and render transparent, the quality of health services in Denmark. This paper outlines the forms of inattentiveness which make communication blind to information...... that could question the quality model. Five forms of inattentiveness are identified that function as answers to the question of how communication avoids actualizing relevant but also potentially destructive information. This study documents a considerable amount of blindness to potentially relevant themes...... effect of the categories applied. This paper puts forward a fourth type of organizational blindness in addition to the already documented ones, namely self-imposed blindness to potentially destructive information. This paper studies how relevant - but problematic - information is actively ignored...

  3. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  4. Differential forms of supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresin, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of differential and pseUdo-differential forms on supermanifolds is constructed. The definition and notations of superanalogy of the Pontryagin and Chern characteristic classes are given. The theory considered is purely local. The scheme suggested here generalizes the so-called Weil homomorphism for superspace which lays on the basis of the Chern and Potryagin characteristic class theory. The theory can be extended to the global supermanifolds

  5. Personal Information Request Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PC Forms Inc. 834-4048

    Request Form. Head Office / Siège : PO Box / CP 8500, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1G 3H9 www.idrc.ca www.crdi.ca. (150 Kent Street, Constitution Square / 150, rue Kent, Complexe Constitution Square). Phone / Tél. : 613-236-6163, ext./poste 2348 Fax / Téléc. : 613-565-8212 Email / Courriel : ATIP-AIPRP@idrc.ca. Privacy Act.

  6. Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hacker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The phrase ‘Lebensform’ (form of life had a long and varied history prior to Wittgenstein’s use of it on a mere three occasions in the Philosophical Investigations. It is not a pivotal concept in Wittgenstein’s philosophy. But it is a minor signpost of a major reorientation of philosophy, philosophy of language and logic, and philosophy of mathematics that Wittgenstein instigated. For Wittgenstein sought to replace the conception of a language as a meaning calculus (Frege, Russell, the Tractatus by an anthropological or ethnological conception. A language is not a class of sentences that can be formed from a set of axioms (definitions, formation and transformation rules and the meanings of which is given by their truth-conditions, but an open-ended series of interlocking language-games constituting a form of life or way of living (a culture. Wittgenstein’s uses of ‘Lebensform’ and its cognates, both in the Investigations and in his Nachlass are severally analysed, and various exegetical misinterpretations are clarified.

  7. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  8. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  9. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  10. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  11. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    purity of the final preparation. Using mini-gels (BioRad Mini-Protean II apparatus), each group can pour, run, and stain their own 8 7.3-cm gel within the lab period; destaining can be carried out at any time afterward. The main contaminating band observed is ovalbumin, at a molecular weight of 46,000. Computer Modeling Using the program Quanta (MSI, Burlington, MA) on Indigo workstations (Silicon Graphics, Hudson, MA), the students retrieve coordinates from an MSI version of the Protein Data Bank, display the structure, and rationalize what changes would occur with a mutated form of the protein. Even for those who do not have Quanta or analogous programs, structural coordinates are available through the Internet. Students are prepared for their independent use of the molecular modeling workstations through a series of tutorials during the course of the semester. These exercises require that the students become familiar with specific applications of Quanta, including setting secondary conformation and hydrogen bonds, energy calculations, selectively displaying parts of molecules, measuring interatomic distances, and editing existing proteins. This introduction to macromolecular modeling is comparable to that suggested by Harvey and Tan (17) as a brief introduction to the field. Peer Review For each writing assignment (short paper and grant proposal), one week of lab is devoted to the peer review process. Students are to come to lab with a draft of their paper and a cover letter to their reviewers, which states how far they believe they are in the writing process; what they like and don't like about their work at this stage; and in what specific areas they need help (e.g., audience level, organization, use of references). They exchange papers, reading two or three during the course of the lab period. For each paper, they fill out a peer review form, which requires that they summarize the paper; look for clarity of presentation, appropriate citations, and use of others

  12. Associations between urban form and cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    The bikeability project has analysed the environmental correlates of cycling based on Danish National Transportation Survey data transportation and urban form micro-data; and based on a smaller sample of primary data which included housing preferences, policy and attitude variables. Analysis of N...... – but does not rule out the importance of urban form....

  13. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps...

  14. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. B.; Swann, A.

    2013-01-01

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are gu...

  15. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  16. Teaching With Documents: Chinese Exclusion Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Linda, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the history of Chinese immigration to the United States and provides a facsimilie of a form used to document immigrants under the Chinese Exclusion Act. Teaching suggestions are included. (JDH)

  17. Organizational forms and knowledge absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the entire portion of knowledge in an organization is a challenging task. At the organizational level, there can be enormous quantities of unknown, poorly valued or inefficiently applied knowledge. This is normally followed with the underdeveloped potential or inability of organizations to absorb knowledge from external sources. Facilitation of the efficient internal flow of knowledge within the established communication network may positively affect organizational capacity to absorb or identify, share and subsequently apply knowledge to commercial ends. Based on the evidences that the adoption of different organizational forms affects knowledge flows within an organization, this research analyzed the relationship between common organizational forms and absorptive capacity of organizations. In this paper, we test the hypothesis stating that the organizational structure affects knowledge absorption and exploitation in the organization. The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a questionnaire, while the data has been statistically analyzed and the hypothesis has been tested with the use of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings suggest that the type of organizational form affects knowledge absorption capacity and that having a less formalized and more flexible structure in an organization increases absorbing and exploiting opportunities of potentially valuable knowledge.

  18. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered ‘improved sanitation’ or, in the current terminology, ‘basic sanitation’ by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapte...

  19. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  20. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  1. Silicon nitride-fabrication, forming and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehezkel, O.

    1983-01-01

    This article, which is a literature survey of the recent years, includes description of several methods for the formation of silicone nitride, and five methods of forming: Reaction-bonded silicon nitride, sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing and chemical vapour deposition. Herein are also included data about mechanical and physical properties of silicon nitride and the relationship between the forming method and the properties. (author)

  2. Pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  3. Image forming apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    An image H(x, y) for displaying a target image G(x, y) is displayed on a liquid-crystal display panel and illumination light from an illumination light source is made to pass therethrough to form an image on a PALSLM. Read light hv is radiated to the PALSLM and a phase-modulated light image alpha...... (x, y) read out of the PALSLM is subjected to Fourier transform by a lens. A phase contrast filter gives a predetermined phase shift to only the zero-order light component of Fourier light image alpha f(x, y). The phase-shifted light image is subjected to inverse Fourier transform by a lens...... characteristics of the illumination light source, PALSLM, and phase contrast filter, based on the evaluation result....

  4. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  5. Le forme del fondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Non è vero che la natura ha paura del vuoto. Forse addirittura si completa. Il vuoto è anche una modalità dell'essere. È possibile nidificarvisi, avvolgersi pigramente e, così, proteggersi dall'angoscia del tempo che passa. Il vuoto delle apparenze è, in alcuni momenti, una delle forme d'espressione della vita sociale. Oltretutto occorre saperle riconoscere. Certamente, abbiamo tutti un'esistenza personale, ma siamo, ugualmente, i rappresentanti, a volte anche le vittime, di uno "spirito comune", forse anche di un "inconscio collettivo" che si è costituito di secolo in secolo. E, molto spesso, quando crediamo di esprimere le nostre idee, siamo soltanto dei portavoce, comparse di un vasto "theatrum mundi" dalle dimensioni infinite.

  6. Dimeric form of peroxynitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K. V.; Tulub, A. V.

    2009-07-01

    The (ONOO)- anion, known as peroxynitrite, is characterized by a singlet spin state. A new stable dimer form of peroxynitrite [NO-O2]- in the triplet state at distances close to r(O-N) ≈ 2.885 Å between oxygen in the O2 structure and nitrogen has been established within the quantum-chemical CASSCF approximation. The vibrational motion of the dimer is significantly anharmonic; for the 16O and 14N isotopes, the differences in the energies of two neighboring levels correspond to frequencies of about 70-30 cm-1. The triplet dimer structure retains stability in the case of interaction with water molecules. The activation barriers caused by rearrangement of the peroxynitrite structure into the ground state of the NO{3/-} anion with the symmetry D 3 h are found.

  7. AMERICAN QUARTER HORSES’ BEHAVIORAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Olexandrivna Suprun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of basic literary sources is made out of behavior of horse. On the basis of the field researches (visual supervisions after three different aged groups of mares it is built ethograms. An ethogram of behavioral forms among mares was developed. They represent the different forms of mares’ behavior in a dynamics. The reaction of mares of the different age-related and physiology groups on appearance of extraneous objects on a pasture, their activity, hierarchy, socialization is analyzed in groups. Several main studies on equines were reviewed in ethogram. Four objects were placed into the pasture with the mares and foals including a mat, cone, halter, and mounting block. Initial interest of mares in objects was high. Herd mentality highly evident. When one horse spooked at object the whole herd followed. After 5 minutes, majority of mares and foals lose interest in objects. The major general behavior categories observed include: locomotion, comfort, and harem social. Dominance was demonstrated while looking at the objects. Dominance was also demonstrated when a mare wanted to be in a specific place or play with a specific toy, she would pin her ears back, bite, or kick at the other mare. 

  8. Density, form and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.

    2011-01-01

    A redefinition of building economics towards sustainability will include the spatial approach of green field investments and most of all necessary intensification of brown field development. For large parts of Western Europe and the US the latter will be, according to economic principles of

  9. Manuscript Submission Form

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mr.XAVIER

    To: Indian Academy of Sciences. From: Author or Corresponding author with institutional/corresponding address including e-mail. (on behalf of, and binding upon, all the authors). Journal: Title of manuscript: Date of submission of manuscript: In respect of the work mentioned above, I/we undertake to ensure that: i).

  10. Electrically assisted forming modeling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Salandro, Wesley A; Bunget, Cristina; Mears, Laine; Roth, John T

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest research findings and applications of Electrically-Assisted Forming (EAF) – whereby metals are formed under an electric current field – this book explains how such a process produces immediate improved formability of metals beyond the extent of thermal softening, and allows metals to be formed to greater elongation with lower mechanical energy as well as allowing for lightweight brittle metals such as magnesium and titanium to be formed without external heating or annealing, enabling the more effective use of these lightweight metals in design. Including case studies that illustrate and support the theoretical content and real-world applications of the techniques discussed, this book also serves to enrich readers understanding of the underlying theories that influence electro-plastic behaviour. The authors have extensive experience in studying Electrically-Assisted Forming and have written extensively on the topic with publications including experimental works, t...

  11. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  12. A generalized definition for waste form durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, T. H.; Bauer, T. H.; Morris, E. E.; Wigeland, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    When evaluating waste form performance, the term ''durability'' often appears in casual discourse, but in the technical literature, the focus is often on waste form ''degradation'' in terms of mass lost per unit area per unit time. Waste form degradation plays a key role in developing models of the long-term performance in a repository environment, but other factors also influence waste form performance. These include waste form geometry; density, porosity, and cracking; the presence of cladding; in-package chemistry feedback; etc. The paper proposes a formal definition of waste form ''durability'' which accounts for these effects. Examples from simple systems as well as from complex models used in the Total System Performance Assessment of Yucca Mountain are provided. The application of ''durability'' in the selection of bounding models is also discussed

  13. Directory of energy data collection forms. Forms in use as of October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This is an authoritative listing of selected public use forms currently used as basic energy information gathering tools by the Department of Energy (DOE). This directory provides an overview of DOE`s energy information collection programs for decisionmakers in Government and industry. Forms designed to collect energy information and used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) as of October 1995 are included in this directory. For each form listed in this directory, an abstract is included that describes the form`s uses, its respondents, and the data collected. For the reader`s convenience in finding specific types of collections, several indices have been provided in this directory. A listing of the forms grouped by energy source and function begins on page 26. Beginning on page 38 are the publications derived from the collections, and on page 50, are the forms linked to general respondent categories.

  14. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  15. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  16. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  17. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  18. Cavitation During Superplastic Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Campbell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is the opening of pores during superplastic forming, typically at grain boundary triple points or on second phase grain boundary particles during slip of grain boundaries. Theories for the initiation of cavitation are reviewed. It seems that cavitation is unlikely to occur by processes intrinsic to metals such as dislocation mechanisms or point defect condensation. It is proposed that cavitation can only occur at non-bonded interfaces such as those introduced extrinsically (i.e., from the outside during the original casting of the metal. These defects, known as oxide bifilms, are naturally introduced during pouring of the liquid metal, and are frozen into the solid, often pushed by dendritic growth into grain boundaries where they are difficult to detect because of their extreme thinness, often measured in nanometres. Their unbonded central interface acts as a crack and can initiate cavitation. Second phase precipitates probably do not nucleate and grow on grain boundaries but grow on bifilms in the boundaries, explaining the apparent association between boundaries, second phase particles and failure initiation. Improved melting and casting techniques can provide metal with reduced or zero bifilm population for which cavitation would not be possible, promising significant improvements in superplastic behaviour.

  19. Les formes du fond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Il n'est pas vrai que la nature a horreur du vide. Peut-être même s'y complait-elle. Le creux est aussi une modalité de l'être. Il est possible de s'y nicher, de s'y lover paresseusement et, ainsi, de se protéger contre l'angoisse du temps qui passe. Le creux des apparences est, à certains moments, une des formes d'expression de la vie sociale. Encore faut-il savoir le reconnaître. Certes, nous avons tous une existence personnelle, mais nous sommes, également, les représentants, parfois même les victimes, d'un "esprit commun", peut-être même d'un "inconscient collectif" qui s'est constitué de siècle en siècle. Et, très souvent, là où nous croyons exprimer nos propres idées, nous ne sommes que les porte-voix, les figurants d'un vaste "theatrum mundi" aux dimensions infinies.

  20. Image forming apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    An image H(x, y) for displaying a target image G(x, y) is displayed on a liquid-crystal display panel and illumination light from an illumination light source is made to pass therethrough to form an image on a PALSLM. Read light hv is radiated to the PALSLM and a phase-modulated light image alpha...... (x, y) read out of the PALSLM is subjected to Fourier transform by a lens. A phase contrast filter gives a predetermined phase shift to only the zero-order light component of Fourier light image alpha f(x, y). The phase-shifted light image is subjected to inverse Fourier transform by a lens...... to project an output image O(x, y) to an output plane. A light image O'(x, y) branched by a beam sampler is picked up by a pickup device and an evaluation value calculating unit evaluates conformity between the image O(x, y) and the image G(x, y).; A control unit performs feedback control of optical...

  1. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  2. Inherited ichthyosis: Syndromic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Kozo

    2016-03-01

    Among diseases that cause ichthyosis as one of the symptoms, there are some diseases that induce abnormalities in organs other than the skin. Of these, diseases with characteristic signs are regarded as syndromes. Although these syndromes are very rare, Netherton syndrome, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome, ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome, and Refsum syndrome have been described in texts as representative ones. It is important to know the molecular genetics and pathomechanisms in order to establish an effective therapy and beneficial genetic counseling including a prenatal diagnosis. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  5. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  6. Survey of concrete waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation of radioactive waste in cement has been widely studied for many years. It has been routinely used at nuclear research and production sites for some types of nuclear waste for almost three decades and at power reactor plants for nearly two decades. Cement has many favorable characteristics that have contributed to its popularity. It is a readily available material and has not required complex and/or expensive equipment to solidify radioactive waste. The resulting solid products are noncombustible, strong, radiation resistant, and have reasonable chemical and thermal stability. As knowledge increased on the possible dangers from radioactive waste, requirements for waste fixation became more stringent. A brief survey of some of the research efforts used to extend and improve cementitious waste hosts to meet these requirements is given in this paper. Selected data are presented from the rather extensive study of the applicability of concrete as a waste form for Savannah River defense waste and the use of polymer impregnation to reduce the leachability and improve the durability of such waste forms. Hot-pressed concretes that were developed as prospective host solids for high-level wastes are described. Highlights are given from two decades of research on cementitious waste forms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The development of the hydrofracture process for the disposal of all locally generated radioactive waste led to a process for the disposal of I-129 and to the current research on the German in-situ solidification process for medium-level waste and the Oak Ridge FUETAP process for all classes of waste including commercial and defense high-level wastes. Finally, some of the more recent ORNL concepts are presented for the use of cement in the disposal of inorganic and biological sludges, waste inorganic salts, trash, and krypton

  7. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  8. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  9. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Interaction design is distinguished from most other design disciplines through its temporal form. Temporal form is the computational structure that enables and demands a temporal expression in the resulting design. Temporal form is what enables poetry. In music, temporal form is the composition o...

  10. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of income. Like their counterparts elsewhere, they face many difficulties, including: ...

  11. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  12. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  13. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  14. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  15. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  16. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  17. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  18. Waste form development/test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1983-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate new solidification agents relative to their potential application to wastes generated by advanced high volume reduction technologies, e.g., incinerator ash, dry solids, and ion exchange resins. Candidate materials selected for the solidification of these wastes include a modified sulfur cement and low-density polyethylene, neither of which are currently employed commerically for the solidification of low-level waste (LLW). As both the modified sulfur cement and the polyethylene are thermoplastic materials, a heated screw type extruder is utilized in the production of waste form samples for testing and evaluation. In this regard, work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be satisfactorily applied to the specific LLW streams and to provide information relevant to operating parameters and process control

  19. Power generation method including membrane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  20. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  1. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  2. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-11-03

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Analysis of Forming Forces in Single Point Incremental Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kyung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental forming is a process to produce sheet metal parts in quick. Because there is no need for dedicated dies and molds, this process is less cost and time spent. The purpose of this study is to investigate forming forces in single point incremental forming. Producing a cone frustum of aluminum is tested for forming forces. A dynamometer is used to collect forming forces and analyze them. These forces are compared with cutting forces upon producing same geometrical shapes of experimental parts. The forming forces in Z direction are 40 times larger than the machining forces. A spindle and its axis of a forming machine should be designed enough to withstand the forming forces.

  4. Broadening Industry Governance to Include Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-11-11

    As industry is the first line of defense in detecting and thwarting illicit trade networks, the engagement of the private sector is critical to any government effort to strengthen existing mechanisms to protect goods and services throughout the supply chain. This study builds on previous PNNL work to continue to evaluate means for greater industry engagement to complement and strengthen existing governmental efforts to detect and stem the trade of illicit goods and to protect and secure goods that could be used in making a weapon of mass destruction. Specifically, the study evaluates the concept of Industry Self Regulation, defined as a systematic voluntary program undertaken by an industry or by individual companies to anticipate, implement, supplement, or substitute for regulatory requirements in a given field, generally through the adoption of best practices. Through a series of interviews with companies with a past history of non-compliance, trade associations and NGOs, the authors identify gaps in the existing regulatory infrastructure, drivers for a self regulation approach and the form such an approach might take, as well as obstacles to be overcome. The authors conclude that it is at the intersection of industry, government, and security that—through collaborative means—the effectiveness of the international nonproliferation system—can be most effectively strengthened to the mutual benefit of both government and the private sector. Industry has a critical stake in the success of this regime, and has the potential to act as an integrating force that brings together the existing mechanisms of the global nonproliferation regime: export controls, physical protection, and safeguards. The authors conclude that industry compliance is not enough; rather, nonproliferation must become a central tenant of a company’s corporate culture and be viewed as an integral component of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

  5. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  6. L-Functions and Automorphic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnen, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a collection of carefully refereed research articles and lecture notes stemming from the Conference "Automorphic Forms and L-Functions", held at the University of Heidelberg in 2016.  The theory of automorphic forms and their associated L-functions is one of the central research areas in modern number theory, linking number theory, arithmetic geometry, representation theory, and complex analysis in many profound ways.  The 19 papers cover a wide range of topics within the scope of the conference, including automorphic L-functions and their special values, p-adic modular forms, Eisenstein series, Borcherds products, automorphic periods, and many more.

  7. Conference L-Functions and Automorphic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnen, Winfried; LAF

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a collection of carefully refereed research articles and lecture notes stemming from the Conference "Automorphic Forms and L-Functions", held at the University of Heidelberg in 2016.  The theory of automorphic forms and their associated L-functions is one of the central research areas in modern number theory, linking number theory, arithmetic geometry, representation theory, and complex analysis in many profound ways.  The 19 papers cover a wide range of topics within the scope of the conference, including automorphic L-functions and their special values, p-adic modular forms, Eisenstein series, Borcherds products, automorphic periods, and many more.

  8. Problems in the theory of modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram; Graves, Hester

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the fascinating world of modular forms through a problem-solving approach. As such, besides researchers, the book can be used by the undergraduate and graduate students for self-instruction. The topics covered include q-series, the modular group, the upper half-plane, modular forms of level one and higher level, the Ramanujan τ-function, the Petersson inner product, Hecke operators, Dirichlet series attached to modular forms and further special topics. It can be viewed as a gentle introduction for a deeper study of the subject. Thus, it is ideal for non-experts seeking an entry into the field. .

  9. Exotic Forms of Silicon for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. Craig

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few decades many exotic forms of carbon, such as carbon-60, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have generated novel scientific discoveries and revolutionized many important applications. Similar potentially transformative breakthroughs may be expected with exotic forms of silicon. Such structures include, but are not necessarily limited to, (1) those formed under high pressure that are metastable at ambient pressure, (2) single layers of Si (silicene), (2) clathrate Si, which has been studied for superconducting and thermoelectric properties but not in any detail for semiconductor applications, (3) nanostructured forms of Si (nanodots and nanowires), including those composed of diamond Si, (4) porous Si, and (5) any other structures that differ in their structural, optical or electronic properties from bulk diamond Si. Silicon is an abundant, non-toxic element around which an advanced technology exists for semiconducting devices based on diamond Si. One of these exotic forms of Si could form the basis for the next revolution in electronics or even opto-electronics, since some forms exhibit direct, or nearly direct, band gaps. Recent results toward producing pure and dopable semiconductors out of Si nanodots imbedded in amorphous matrices and in clathrate Si and clathrate Si-Ge alloys will be discussed. The author acknowledges important collaborations with R. T. Collins, C. A. Koh, L. Krishna, M. Lusk, and P. Stradins. DOE SUNSHOT program, under Contract DE-EE0005326 and by the NSF MRSEC program under Grant DMR-0820518.

  10. Dosage form design and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2008-11-01

    Drugs must be properly formulated for administration to patients, regardless of age. Pediatric patients provide some additional challenges to the formulator in terms of compliance and therapeutic efficacy. Due to the lack of sufficient drug products for the pediatric population, the pharmaceutical industry and compounding pharmacies must develop and provide appropriate medications designed for children. The purpose of this article was to review the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of drug substances and pharmaceutical ingredients to be used in preparing a drug product. In addition, stability, appearance, palatability, flavoring, sweetening, coloring, preservation, packaging, and storage are discussed. Information for the current article was gathered from a literature review; from presentations at professional and technical meetings; and from lectures, books, and publications of the author, as well as from his professional experience. Professional society meetings and standards-setting bodies were also used as a resource. The proper design and formulation of a dosage form requires consideration of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of all of the drug substances and pharmaceutical ingredients (excipients) to be used in fabricating the product. The drug and pharmaceutical materials utilized must be compatible and produce a drug product that is stable, efficacious, palatable, easy to administer, and well tolerated. Preformulation factors include physical properties such as particle size, crystalline structure, melting point, solubility, partition coefficient, dissolution, membrane permeability, dissociation constants, and drug stability. Successful development of a formulation includes multiple considerations involving the drug, excipients, compliance, storage, packaging, and stability, as well as patient considerations of taste, appearance, and palatability.

  11. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  12. Advances in metal forming expert system for metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hingole, Rahulkumar Shivajirao

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book offers a clear account of the theory and applications of advanced metal forming. It provides a detailed discussion of specific forming processes, such as deep drawing, rolling, bending extrusion and stamping. The author highlights recent developments of metal forming technologies and explains sound, new and powerful expert system techniques for solving advanced engineering problems in metal forming. In addition, the basics of expert systems, their importance and applications to metal forming processes, computer-aided analysis of metalworking processes, formability analysis, mathematical modeling and case studies of individual processes are presented.

  13. Nanofiber electrode and method of forming same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Zhang, Wenjing

    2018-02-27

    In one aspect, a method of forming an electrode for an electrochemical device is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of mixing at least a first amount of a catalyst and a second amount of an ionomer or uncharged polymer to form a solution and delivering the solution into a metallic needle having a needle tip. The method further includes the steps of applying a voltage between the needle tip and a collector substrate positioned at a distance from the needle tip, and extruding the solution from the needle tip at a flow rate such as to generate electrospun fibers and deposit the generated fibers on the collector substrate to form a mat with a porous network of fibers. Each fiber in the porous network of the mat has distributed particles of the catalyst. The method also includes the step of pressing the mat onto a membrane.

  14. Method of forming an HTS article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Zhang, Xun; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2014-08-19

    A method of forming a superconducting article includes providing a substrate tape, forming a superconducting layer overlying the substrate tape, and depositing a capping layer overlying the superconducting layer. The capping layer includes a noble metal and has a thickness not greater than about 1.0 micron. The method further includes electrodepositing a stabilizer layer overlying the capping layer using a solution that is non-reactive to the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer has an as-formed critical current I.sub.C(AF) and a post-stabilized critical current I.sub.C(PS). The I.sub.C(PS) is at least about 95% of the I.sub.C(AF).

  15. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  16. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  17. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  18. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  19. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  20. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  1. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  2. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  3. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; King, S.J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of 26 Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 59 Ni and 129 I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs

  4. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  5. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi......Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  6. Open and Closed Form in Interactive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Performing music includes substantial listening skills on part of the performer. Performing with an interactive computer requires the performer to interact with the computer and intuitively and consciously include this information in the responsiveness of his playing. The interaction can be expan......Performing music includes substantial listening skills on part of the performer. Performing with an interactive computer requires the performer to interact with the computer and intuitively and consciously include this information in the responsiveness of his playing. The interaction can...... be expanded to include the performer's high-level decisions typical of open-form notation. These decisions can be used for defining and re-defining the computer's role in further development of the piece. In this paper I describe how such an open-form notation is used in the interactive man...

  7. Adaptive Municipal e-forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, P.M.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Boerma, A.K.; Weibelzahl, S.; Cristea, A.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer eforms online that can be used to request a municipal product or service. To create adaptive e-forms that satisfy the need of end-users, involvement of

  8. West Coast Canopy-Forming Kelp, 1989-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data include the general extents of canopy-forming kelp surveys from 1989 to 2014 and a compilation of existing data sets delineating canopy-forming kelp beds...

  9. 75 FR 3736 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... training application forms 32.1 and 36.5 (50,000 students x 5 minutes for form 32.1, and 24,000 students x... training activities include laboratory training, classroom study, online training, and distance learning...

  10. 77 FR 38144 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8594

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... reported includes the amount allocated to goodwill or going concern value. Form 8594 is used to report this..., Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form...

  11. Rational homotopy theory and differential forms

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    This completely revised and corrected version of the well-known Florence notes circulated by the authors together with E. Friedlander examines basic topology, emphasizing homotopy theory. Included is a discussion of Postnikov towers and rational homotopy theory. This is then followed by an in-depth look at differential forms and de Tham's theorem on simplicial complexes. In addition, Sullivan's results on computing the rational homotopy type from forms is presented.  New to the Second Edition: *Fully-revised appendices including an expanded discussion of the Hirsch lemma*Presentation of a natu

  12. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  13. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  14. Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)

  15. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  16. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Resection of thymoma should include nodal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weksler, Benny; Pennathur, Arjun; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Nason, Katie S

    2015-03-01

    Thymoma is best treated by surgical resection; however, no clear guidelines have been created regarding lymph node sampling at the time of resection. Additionally, the prognostic implications of nodal metastases are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic implications of nodal metastases in thymoma. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients who underwent surgical resection of thymoma with documented pathologic examination of lymph nodes. The impact of nodal status on survival and thymoma staging was examined. We identified 442 patients who underwent thymoma resection with pathologic evaluation of 1 or more lymph nodes. A median of 2 nodes were sampled per patient. Fifty-nine patients (59 of 442, 13.3%) had ≥ 1 positive node. Patients with positive nodes were younger and had smaller tumors than node-negative patients. Median survival in the node-positive patients was 98 months, compared with 144 months in node-negative patients (P = .013). In multivariable analysis, the presence of positive nodes had a significant, independent, adverse impact on survival (hazard ratio 1.945, 95% confidence interval 1.296-2.919, P = .001). The presence of nodal metastases resulted in a change in classification to a higher stage in 80% of patients, the majority from Masaoka-Koga stage III to stage IV. Nodal status seems to be an important prognostic factor in patients with thymoma. Until the prognostic significance of nodal metastases is better understood, surgical therapy for thymoma should include sampling of regional lymph nodes. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  19. Directory of energy data collection forms: Forms in use as of October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-15

    This 18th edition directory provides an overview of DOE`s energy information collection programs for decisionmakers in Government and industry; selected public use forms currently used as basic energy information gathering tools by DOE are covered. For each form, an abstract is included that describes the form`s uses, its respondents, and the data collected. Also shown are frequently requested items: energy sources and functions covered by the form, general categories of respondents, collection frequency, public laws and regulations, reporting requirement, name and phone number of the data collection manager, and the publications resulting from the data collection. Indexes, arranged according to energy source/function, publications, respondent categories, former EIA form number designations, and collection authorities, are provided.

  20. Summary: special waste form lysimeters - arid program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, R.L.; Walter, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Special Waste Form Lysimeters - Arid Program is to determine the performance of solidified commercial low-level waste forms using a field-scale lysimeter facility constructed for measuring the release and migration of radionuclides from the waste forms. The performance of these waste forms, as measured by radionuclide concentrations in lysimeter effluent, will be compared to that predicted by laboratory characterization of the waste forms. Waste forms being tested include nuclear power reactor waste streams that have been solidified in cement, Dow polymer, and bitumen. To conduct the field leaching experiments a lysimeter facility was built to measure leachate under actual environmental conditions. Field-scale samples of waste were buried in lysimeters equipped to measure water balance components, effluent radionuclide concentrations, and to a limited extent, radionuclide concentrations in lysimeter soil samples. The waste forms are being characterized by standard laboratory leach tests to obtain estimates of radionuclide release. These estimates will be compared to leach rates observed in the field. Adsorption studies are being conducted to determine the amount of contaminant available for transport after the release. Theoretical solubility calculations will also be performed to investigate whether common solid phases could be controlling radionuclide release. 4 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  1. Elevated temperature forming method and preheater apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Paul E; Hammar, Richard Harry; Singh, Jugraj; Cedar, Dennis; Friedman, Peter A; Luo, Yingbing

    2013-06-11

    An elevated temperature forming system in which a sheet metal workpiece is provided in a first stage position of a multi-stage pre-heater, is heated to a first stage temperature lower than a desired pre-heat temperature, is moved to a final stage position where it is heated to a desired final stage temperature, is transferred to a forming press, and is formed by the forming press. The preheater includes upper and lower platens that transfer heat into workpieces disposed between the platens. A shim spaces the upper platen from the lower platen by a distance greater than a thickness of the workpieces to be heated by the platens and less than a distance at which the upper platen would require an undesirably high input of energy to effectively heat the workpiece without being pressed into contact with the workpiece.

  2. Make Projects Small Form Factor PCs

    CERN Document Server

    Wessels, Duane

    2006-01-01

    Shoebox sized and smaller, small-form-factor PCs can pack as much computing muscle as a full-sized desktop computer. They consumer less power, have few or no moving parts, and are very quiet. Whether you plan to use one as a standalone PC or want to embed it in your next hacking project, a small-form-factor PC can be a lot of fun to build. Make Projects: Small Form Factor PCs is the only book available that shows you how to build small-form-factor PCs -- from kits and from scratch -- that are more interesting and more personalized than what a full-sized PC can give you. Included in the book

  3. FormTracer. A mathematica tracing package using FORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrol, Anton K.; Mitter, Mario; Strodthoff, Nils

    2017-10-01

    We present FormTracer, a high-performance, general purpose, easy-to-use Mathematica tracing package which uses FORM. It supports arbitrary space and spinor dimensions as well as an arbitrary number of simple compact Lie groups. While keeping the usability of the Mathematica interface, it relies on the efficiency of FORM. An additional performance gain is achieved by a decomposition algorithm that avoids redundant traces in the product tensors spaces. FormTracer supports a wide range of syntaxes which endows it with a high flexibility. Mathematica notebooks that automatically install the package and guide the user through performing standard traces in space-time, spinor and gauge-group spaces are provided. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/7rd29h4p3m.1 Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: Mathematica and FORM Nature of problem: Efficiently compute traces of large expressions Solution method: The expression to be traced is decomposed into its subspaces by a recursive Mathematica expansion algorithm. The result is subsequently translated to a FORM script that takes the traces. After FORM is executed, the final result is either imported into Mathematica or exported as optimized C/C++/Fortran code. Unusual features: The outstanding features of FormTracer are the simple interface, the capability to efficiently handle an arbitrary number of Lie groups in addition to Dirac and Lorentz tensors, and a customizable input-syntax.

  4. Phosphorus Forms and Distribution in Selected Soils Formed Over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphorus Forms and Distribution in Selected Soils Formed Over Different Parent Materials in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Fe-P. Organic P correlated positively with Fe-P, Al-P and total P. Ca-P correlated negatively with sand and positively with organic carbon, exchangeable Ca, Al-P and total P. Fe-P correlated positively with ...

  5. Forming processes and mechanics of sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchitz, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The report is dealing with the numerical analysis of forming processes. Forming processes is the large group of manufacturing processes used to obtain various product shapes by means of plastic deformations. The report is organized as follows. An overview of the deformation processes and the

  6. Seal for fluid forming tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich [Beverly Hills, MI; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis [Milford, MI

    2012-03-20

    An electro-hydraulic forming tool for forming a sheet metal blank in a one-sided die has first and second rigid rings that engage opposite sides of a sheet metal blank. The rigid rings are contained within slots on a die portion and a hydraulic force applicator portion of the forming tool. The seals are either resiliently biased by an elastomeric member or inherently resiliently biased into contact with the blank.

  7. Laser forming and welding processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shuja, Shahzada Zaman

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces model studies and experimental results associated with laser forming and welding such as laser induced bending, welding of sheet metals, and related practical applications. The book provides insight into the physical processes involved with laser forming and welding. The analytical study covers the formulation of laser induced bending while the model study demonstrates the simulation of bending and welding processes using the finite element method. Analytical and numerical solutions for laser forming and welding problems are provided.

  8. Strange nucleon form-factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, F. E.; Paschke, K. D.

    2017-07-01

    A broad program measuring parity-violation in electron-nuclear scattering has now provided a large set of precision data on the weak-neutral-current form-factors of the proton. Under comparison with well-measured electromagnetic nucleon form-factors, these measurements reveal the role of the strange quark sea on the low-energy interactions of the proton through the strange-quark-flavor vector form-factors. This review will describe the experimental program and the implications of the global data for the strange-quark vector form-factors. We present here a new fit to the world data.

  9. Confectionery-based dose forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangso, Kristian J; Ho, Quy Phuong; Boyd, Ben J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional dosage forms such as tablets, capsules and syrups are prescribed in the normal course of practice. However, concerns about patient preferences and market demands have given rise to the exploration of novel unconventional dosage forms. Among these, confectionery-based dose forms have strong potential to overcome compliance problems. This report will review the availability of these unconventional dose forms used in treating the oral cavity and for systemic drug delivery, with a focus on medicated chewing gums, medicated lollipops, and oral bioadhesive devices. The aim is to stimulate increased interest in the opportunities for innovative new products that are available to formulators in this field, particularly for atypical patient populations.

  10. INFORMATIONAL EFFECT OF A FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko V.F.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted by method of light scattering of laser emission. The influence of the form field, mutual influence of mental informational and form torsional fields as well as the following exposure of water samples in the form field after the cease of informational influence on water structure were examined. Paper forms of a pyramid, a cylinder, and a prism were used. The experimental findings show that mechanism of mutual influence on water structure of the form and informational torsional fields depended on the initial conditions of spin restructuring process – the configuration of a form, the type of the form field (internal and external ones, and the initial water structure. The influence of the form field on informational aftereffect was determined, the character of which was defined by ratio of intensities of torsional form field and an informational soliton. The phenomenon of the abnormally large amplification of the informational aftereffect in the internal field of a pyramid demonstrating the attributes of positive reverse connection between the informational soliton and torsional field of water structure and selection of generated cluster sizes were discovered.

  11. Innovative forming and fabrication technologies : new opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.

    2008-01-31

    The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest

  12. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...

  13. The nucleon's strange form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of the nucleon's strange form factors will provide valuable insight into low energy hadron structure. Measurement of the vector strange form factor of the nucleon is accomplished through parity-violating electron scattering. This paper reviews the current status of this class of experiments

  14. Automated Test-Form Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  15. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  16. Readability of Invasive Procedure Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Naqvi, Syed S; Ghanian, Soha; Eberson, Craig P; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent is a pillar of ethical medicine which requires patients to fully comprehend relevant issues including the risks, benefits, and alternatives of an intervention. Given the average reading skill of US adults is at the 8th grade level, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient information materials should not exceed a 6th grade reading level. We hypothesized that text provided in invasive procedure consent forms would exceed recommended readability guidelines for medical information. To test this hypothesis, we gathered procedure consent forms from all surgical inpatient hospitals in the state of Rhode Island. For each consent form, readability analysis was measured with the following measures: Flesch Reading Ease Formula, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Linsear Write Formula. These readability scores were used to calculate a composite Text Readability Consensus Grade Level. Invasive procedure consent forms were found to be written at an average of 15th grade level (i.e., third year of college), which is significantly higher than the average US adult reading level of 8th grade (p < 0.0001) and the AMA/NIH recommended readability guidelines for patient materials of 6th grade (p < 0.0001). Invasive procedure consent forms have readability levels which makes comprehension difficult or impossible for many patients. Efforts to improve the readability of procedural consent forms should improve patient understanding regarding their healthcare decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 75 FR 26256 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... disease surveillance (includes campylobacter, salmonella, and shigella), foodborne outbreaks, arboviral... (in Form respondents respondent hours) Diarrheal Disease Surveillance: Campylobacter (electronic) 53... Gastroenteritis 20 5 5/60 (Clicivirus surveillance) Listeria Case Form 53 1 30/60 HABISS data entry form 10 12 8...

  18. Topics on the FORM software; Topicos do software FORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Jorge, Patricia M. da; Peres, Patricia Duarte [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao

    1997-06-01

    These notes studies the compilation with FORM software as applied to high energy physics, covering the following topics: Command structures, statistics and numbers, Dirac matrices, optimization control, Gamma matrices, errors and polynomial substitution

  19. Trends and Visions in Metal Forming Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Research and development in metal forming tribology is characterized by intensified focus on new tribo-systems such as new lubricants, tool materials and tool coatings in order to substitute environmentally hazardous lubricant systems. Other means to solve these problems include the development...... of structured work piece and tool surfaces to facilitate micro-hydro-dynamic lubrication. Increased knowledge on skin-pass rolling to establish structured sheet surfaces and new automatic polishing equipment to manufacture tailored tool surfaces are important means to improve tribo-conditions in severe forming...

  20. Some continual integrals from gaussian forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazmanishvili, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The result summary of continual integration of gaussian functional type is given. The summary contains 124 continual integrals which are the mathematical expectation of the corresponding gaussian form by the continuum of random trajectories of four types: real-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, Wiener process, complex-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the stochastic harmonic one. The summary includes both the known continual integrals and the unpublished before integrals. Mathematical results of the continual integration carried in the work may be applied in the problem of the theory of stochastic process, approaching to the finding of mean from gaussian forms by measures generated by the pointed stochastic processes

  1. Simulation of nanotubular forms of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovskii, Alexander L

    1999-01-01

    Data on the electronic and chemical structure of a new quasi-one-dimensional form of matter, viz., nanotubulenes, are generalised and systematised. Methods and approaches used in modern quantum chemistry for the simulation of the composition, structure, and properties of isolated tubulenes based on layered phases (graphite, boron nitride, boron carbide and boron carbonitride), nanotubular composites and nanotube crystals are described. The role of quantum theory in the development of the concepts of fundamental properties of substances in the nanotubular form and methods of their targeted modification is discussed. Prognostic potentials of theoretical models in solving material science problems are considered. The bibliography includes 197 references.

  2. Near net shape forming unsing semi-solid metal forming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available is supplied in specific lengths , which means there would be additional scrap created by off cuts. • During reheating oxidation of the billet surface occurs therefore dies have to be designed to remove oxides during the forming process. • During... Absorption Process consistency 2005 Advantages of Using The SSM Forming Methods • High wall thicknesses and different wall thicknesses can be designed • Low gas porosity due to laminar filling and good airing • Low solidification porosity due...

  3. Cold rolling precision forming of shaft parts theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jianli; Li, Yongtang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the theory, processes and equipment involved in cold rolling precision forming technologies, focusing on spline and thread shaft parts. The main topics discussed include the status quo of research on cold rolling precision forming technologies; the design and calculation of process parameters; the numerical simulation of cold rolling forming processes; and the equipment used in cold rolling forming. The mechanism of cold rolling forming is extremely complex, and research on the processes, theory and mechanical analysis of spline cold rolling forming has remained very limited to date. In practice, the forming processes and production methods used are mainly chosen on the basis of individual experience. As such, there is a marked lack of both systematic, theory-based guidelines, and of specialized books covering theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, experiments and equipment used in spline cold rolling forming processes – all key points that are included in this book and ill...

  4. Differential forms theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Differential forms are utilized as a mathematical technique to help students, researchers, and engineers analyze and interpret problems where abstract spaces and structures are concerned, and when questions of shape, size, and relative positions are involved. Differential Forms has gained high recognition in the mathematical and scientific community as a powerful computational tool in solving research problems and simplifying very abstract problems through mathematical analysis on a computer. Differential Forms, 2nd Edition, is a solid resource for students and professionals needing a solid g

  5. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  6. Waste forms for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Frank, S.M.; Meyer, M.K.; Hanson, M.; Staples, B.A.; Knecht, D.A.; Kong, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The field of plutonium disposition is varied and of much importance, since the Department of Energy has decided on the hybrid option for disposing of the weapons materials. This consists of either placing the Pu into mixed oxide fuel for reactors or placing the material into a stable waste form such as glass. The waste form used for Pu disposition should exhibit certain qualities: (1) provide for a suitable deterrent to guard against proliferation; (2) be of minimal volume, i.e., maximize the loading; and (3) be reasonably durable under repository-like conditions. This paper will discuss several Pu waste forms that display promising characteristics

  7. A European Humus Forms Reference Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, A.; Englisch, M.; Ponge, J.-F.; Jabiol, B.; Sartori, G.; Gardi, C.

    2012-04-01

    From 2003 on, a panel of experts in humus and humus dynamics (Humus group) has been working about a standardisation and improvement of existing national humus classifications. Some important goals have been reached, in order to share data and experiences: a) definition of specific terms; b) description of 15 types of diagnostic horizons; c) of 10 basic humus forms references; d) subdivision of each main reference in 2-4 sub-unities; e) elaboration of a general European Humus Form Reference Base (http://hal-agroparistech.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/56/17/95/PDF/Humus_Forms_ERB_31_01_2011.pdf); f) publication of the scientific significance of this base of classification as an article [A European morpho-functional classification of humus forms. Geoderma, 164 (3-4), 138-145]. The classification will be updated every 2 years and presently the Humus group is assessing biological (general: soil, vegetation, biome; specific: fungi, bacteria, pedofauna), physical (air temperature, rainfall) and chemical (pH, mineral elements, organic matter, quality and quantity of humic components…) factors which characterize basic humus forms and their varieties. The content of the new version of the classification is planned to be more "practical", like an ecological manual which lists associated humus forms and environmental data in the aim to contribute to a more precise environmental diagnosis of every analysed terrestrial and semiterrestrial European ecosystem. The Humus group is also involved in an endeavour to include humus forms in the World Reference Base for Soils (WRB-FAO) according to nomenclatural principles erected for soil profiles. Thirty basic references have been defined, complemented by a set of qualifiers (prefixes and suffixes), allowing to classify European humus forms and probably a large majority of humus forms known worldwide. The principles of the classification, the diagnostic horizons and humus forms main references are presented at the General Assembly of

  8. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  9. Tolerancing free-form optics for illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timinger, A.; Unterhinninghofen, J.; Junginger, S.; Hofmann, A.

    2011-10-01

    Free form surfaces allow elegant solutions in illumination optics. A complex function of the system can be achieved by a single optical element. Free form elements are usually manufactured by reproduction techniques, such as injection moulding of plastic. Manufacturing tolerances are crucial to maintain the required function while at the same time yielding the lowest possible price. We implemented a Monte Carlo tolerancing method for illumination systems. Tolerances include shape deviations of optical elements and assembly tolerances. In the absence of standards for free form tolerances and illumination optics tolerancing, communication between optics design, manufacturing and testing is often inefficient. In order to enable a highly automated evaluation of part measurement data to assess compliance with tolerances, we developed an approach to combine information from optics design, mechanical construction, manufacturing and testing into one continuous data chain. The research project is granted by the German Ministry of Education and Research.

  10. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance

  11. Form coefficient of helical toroidal solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, V.Z.; Kunchenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    For toroidal solenoids with continuous spiral coil, winded according to the laws of equiinclined and simple cylindrical spirals with homogeneous, linearly increasing to the coil periphery and ''Bitter'' distribution of current density, the analytical expressions for the dependence between capacity consumed and generated magnetic field, expressions for coefficients of form similar to Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids are obtained and dependence of the form coefficient and relative volume of solenoid conductor on the number of revolutions of screw line per one circumvention over the large torus radius is also investigated. Analytical expressions of form coefficients and graphical material permit to select the optimum geometry as to capacity consumed both for spiral (including ''force-free'') and conventional toroidal solenoids of magnetic systems in thermonulear installations

  12. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  13. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  14. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  15. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  16. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  17. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  18. Positive geometries and canonical forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bai, Yuntao; Lam, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Recent years have seen a surprising connection between the physics of scattering amplitudes and a class of mathematical objects — the positive Grassmannian, positive loop Grassmannians, tree and loop Amplituhedra — which have been loosely referred to as "positive geometries". The connection between the geometry and physics is provided by a unique differential form canonically determined by the property of having logarithmic singularities (only) on all the boundaries of the space, with residues on each boundary given by the canonical form on that boundary. The structures seen in the physical setting of the Amplituhedron are both rigid and rich enough to motivate an investigation of the notions of "positive geometries" and their associated "canonical forms" as objects of study in their own right, in a more general mathematical setting. In this paper we take the first steps in this direction. We begin by giving a precise definition of positive geometries and canonical forms, and introduce two general methods for finding forms for more complicated positive geometries from simpler ones — via "triangulation" on the one hand, and "push-forward" maps between geometries on the other. We present numerous examples of positive geometries in projective spaces, Grassmannians, and toric, cluster and flag varieties, both for the simplest "simplex-like" geometries and the richer "polytope-like" ones. We also illustrate a number of strategies for computing canonical forms for large classes of positive geometries, ranging from a direct determination exploiting knowledge of zeros and poles, to the use of the general triangulation and push-forward methods, to the representation of the form as volume integrals over dual geometries and contour integrals over auxiliary spaces. These methods yield interesting representations for the canonical forms of wide classes of positive geometries, ranging from the simplest Amplituhedra to new expressions for the volume of arbitrary convex

  19. Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, G

    2002-01-01

    Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

  20. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  1. SuperFormLab: showing SuperFormLab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    3D-printing in clay and ceramic objects shaped by your own sounds and movements! Digital form transferred via CNC-milling to ornamental ceramic wall-cladding. Brave New World… Students and their teacher at SuperFormLab, the new ceramic workshop of the School of Design at the Royal Danish Academy...... of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, will be showing results of their investigations into the potential of combining digital technologies with ceramic materials. It is now possible to shape the most complex mathematical, virtual 3D objects through the use of advanced software-programs. And more than that – you can...... now get these objects out of the computer and be able to hold and experience them with your hands. Even made in clay. At SuperFormLab, workshop for the new education in Ceramic Design at the School of Design, the integration of digital technologies in relation to the ceramic materials and techniques...

  2. Stainless steel-zirconium alloy waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, S.M.; Abraham, D.P.; Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Park, J.Y.

    1996-01-01

    An electrometallurgical treatment process has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to convert various types of spent nuclear fuels into stable storage forms and waste forms for repository disposal. The first application of this process will be to treat spent fuel alloys from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Three distinct product streams emanate from the electrorefining process: (1) refined uranium; (2) fission products and actinides extracted from the electrolyte salt that are processed into a mineral waste form; and (3) metallic wastes left behind at the completion of the electrorefining step. The third product stream (i.e., the metal waste stream) is the subject of this paper. The metal waste stream contains components of the chopped spent fuel that are unaffected by the electrorefining process because of their electrochemically ''noble'' nature; this includes the cladding hulls, noble metal fission products (NMFP), and, in specific cases, zirconium from metal fuel alloys. The selected method for the consolidation and stabilization of the metal waste stream is melting and casting into a uniform, corrosion-resistant alloy. The waste form casting process will be carried out in a controlled-atmosphere furnace at high temperatures with a molten salt flux. Spent fuels with both stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding are being evaluated for treatment; thus, stainless steel-rich and Zircaloy-rich waste forms are being developed. Although the primary disposition option for the actinides is the mineral waste form, the concept of incorporating the TRU-bearing product into the metal waste form has enough potential to warrant investigation

  3. Waste Form Evaluation Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-09-01

    This report presents data that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. The waste streams selected for this study include dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash as representative wastes which result from advanced volume reduction technologies and ion exchange resins which remain problematic for solidification using commercially available matrix materials. Property evaluation tests such as compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation and leachability were conducted for polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms over a range of waste-to-binder ratios. Based on the results of the tests, optimal waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash and 30 wt % ion exchange resins were established for polyethylene, although maximum loadings were considerably higher. For modified sulfur cement, optimal loadings of 40 wt % sodium sulfate, 40 wt % boric acid and 40 wt % incinerator ash are reported. Ion exchange resins are not recommended for incorporation into modified sulfur cement because of poor waste form performance even at very low waste concentrations. The results indicate that all waste forms tested within the range of optimal waste concentrations satisifed the requirements of the NRC Technical Position Paper on Waste Form

  4. Hollow fiber membranes and methods for forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Dhaval Ajit; McCloskey, Patrick Joseph; Howson, Paul Edward; Narang, Kristi Jean; Koros, William

    2016-03-22

    The invention provides improved hollow fiber membranes having at least two layers, and methods for forming the same. The methods include co-extruding a first composition, a second composition, and a third composition to form a dual layer hollow fiber membrane. The first composition includes a glassy polymer; the second composition includes a polysiloxane; and the third composition includes a bore fluid. The dual layer hollow fiber membranes include a first layer and a second layer, the first layer being a porous layer which includes the glassy polymer of the first composition, and the second layer being a polysiloxane layer which includes the polysiloxane of the second composition.

  5. A mild form of Proteus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, M.P.; Allmann, K.H.; Langer, M. [Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Uhl, M. [Sektion Kinderradiologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet (Germany); Darge, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung Kinderradiologie, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome. We report on the clinical and radiological appearances of a boy in order to illustrate the typical signs which include subcutaneous masses, in mild forms partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, and bony abnormalities. We discuss how to make the definitive diagnosis on the basis of using a known rating scale, important aspects of differential diagnosis and clinical features, and diagnostic management. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  6. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  7. The discovery of structural form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2008-08-05

    Algorithms for finding structure in data have become increasingly important both as tools for scientific data analysis and as models of human learning, yet they suffer from a critical limitation. Scientists discover qualitatively new forms of structure in observed data: For instance, Linnaeus recognized the hierarchical organization of biological species, and Mendeleev recognized the periodic structure of the chemical elements. Analogous insights play a pivotal role in cognitive development: Children discover that object category labels can be organized into hierarchies, friendship networks are organized into cliques, and comparative relations (e.g., "bigger than" or "better than") respect a transitive order. Standard algorithms, however, can only learn structures of a single form that must be specified in advance: For instance, algorithms for hierarchical clustering create tree structures, whereas algorithms for dimensionality-reduction create low-dimensional spaces. Here, we present a computational model that learns structures of many different forms and that discovers which form is best for a given dataset. The model makes probabilistic inferences over a space of graph grammars representing trees, linear orders, multidimensional spaces, rings, dominance hierarchies, cliques, and other forms and successfully discovers the underlying structure of a variety of physical, biological, and social domains. Our approach brings structure learning methods closer to human abilities and may lead to a deeper computational understanding of cognitive development.

  8. Pre-exposure to moving form enhances static form sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S A Wallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motion-defined form can seem to persist briefly after motion ceases, before seeming to gradually disappear into the background. Here we investigate if this subjective persistence reflects a signal capable of improving objective measures of sensitivity to static form. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented a sinusoidal modulation of luminance, masked by a background noise pattern. The sinusoidal luminance modulation was usually subjectively invisible when static, but visible when moving. We found that drifting then stopping the waveform resulted in a transient subjective persistence of the waveform in the static display. Observers' objective sensitivity to the position of the static waveform was also improved after viewing moving waveforms, compared to viewing static waveforms for a matched duration. This facilitation did not occur simply because movement provided more perspectives of the waveform, since performance following pre-exposure to scrambled animations did not match that following pre-exposure to smooth motion. Observers did not simply remember waveform positions at motion offset, since removing the waveform before testing reduced performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Motion processing therefore interacts with subsequent static visual inputs in a way that can improve performance in objective sensitivity measures. We suggest that the brief subjective persistence of motion-defined forms that can occur after motion offsets is a consequence of the decay of a static form signal that has been transiently enhanced by motion processing.

  9. Form Filling with SCC in a Vertical Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    been produced. To improve identification of the flow (i.e. dead zones, plug flow, laminar flow, turbulent flow, blocking etc.) the form has one transparent acrylic plate and it has shown valuable to change between normal greyish concrete, and a pigmented (red) concrete during the filling process...

  10. 36 CFR 51.5 - What information will the prospectus include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., include, but are not limited to the following: (1) The minimum acceptable franchise fee or other forms of... out by department for the three most recent years; franchise fees charged under the current concession...

  11. Toroidal helical quartz forming machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, K.W.; Cole, T.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Scyllac fusion experimental machine used 10 cm diameter smooth bore discharge tubes formed into a simple toroidal shape prior to 1974. At about that time, it was discovered that a discharge tube was required to follow the convoluted shape of the load coil. A machine was designed and built to form a fused quartz tube with a toroidal shape. The machine will accommodate quartz tubes from 5 cm to 20 cm diameter forming it into a 4 m toroidal radius with a 1 to 5 cm helical displacement. The machine will also generate a helical shape on a linear tube. Two sets of tubes with different helical radii and wavelengths have been successfully fabricated. The problems encountered with the design and fabrication of this machine are discussed

  12. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New...... formulation principles are needed to ensure the stability of amorphous drug forms. The formation of solid dispersions is still the most investigated approach, but additional approaches are desirable to overcome the shortcomings of solid dispersions. Spatial separation by either coating or the use of micro......-containers has shown potential to prevent or delay recrystallization. Another recent approach is the formation of co-amorphous mixtures between either two drugs or one drug and one low molecular weight excipient. Molecular interactions between the two molecules provide an energy barrier that has to be overcome...

  13. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  14. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  15. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  16. Mathematics and Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin Schroeder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Wittgenstein, mathematics is embedded in, and partly constituting, a form of life. Hence, to imagine different, alternative forms of elementary mathematics, we should have to imagine different practices, different forms of life in which they could play a role. If we tried to imagine a radically different arithmetic we should think either of a strange world (in which objects unaccountably vanish or appear or of people acting and responding in very peculiar ways. If such was their practice, a calculus expressing the norms of representation they applied could not be called false. Rather, our criticism could only be to dismiss such a practice as foolish and to dismiss their norms as too different from ours to be called ‘mathematics’.

  17. Capacitor assembly and related method of forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lili; Tan, Daniel Qi; Sullivan, Jeffrey S.

    2017-12-19

    A capacitor assembly is disclosed. The capacitor assembly includes a housing. The capacitor assembly further includes a plurality of capacitors disposed within the housing. Furthermore, the capacitor assembly includes a thermally conductive article disposed about at least a portion of a capacitor body of the capacitors, and in thermal contact with the capacitor body. Moreover, the capacitor assembly also includes a heat sink disposed within the housing and in thermal contact with at least a portion of the housing and the thermally conductive article such that the heat sink is configured to remove heat from the capacitor in a radial direction of the capacitor assembly. Further, a method of forming the capacitor assembly is also presented.

  18. Differential forms on electromagnetic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, N V; Sen Gupta, D P

    2013-01-01

    Differential Forms on Electromagnetic Networks deals with the use of combinatorial techniques in electrical circuit, machine analysis, and the relationship between circuit quantities and electromagnetic fields. The monograph is also an introduction to the organization of field equations by the methods of differential forms. The book covers topics such as algebraic structural relations in an electric circuit; mesh and node-pair analysis; exterior differential structures; generalized Stoke's theorem and tensor analysis; and Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Also covered in the book are the app

  19. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Lucia C.

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development. PMID:23580748

  20. $K_{13}$ transition form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Chueng Ryong Ji

    2001-01-01

    The rainbow truncation of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation is combined with the ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation for the meson bound state amplitudes and the dressed quark-W vertex in a manifestly covariant calculation of the K/sub l3/ transition form factors and decay width in the impulse approximation. With model gluon parameters previously fixed by the chiral condensate, the pion mass and decay constant, and the kaon mass, our results for the K/sub l3/ form factors and the kaon semileptonic decay width are in good agreement with the experimental data. (37 refs).

  1. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  2. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food‐protein‐induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Smooth functors vs. differential forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, U.; Waldorf, K.

    2011-01-01

    We establish a relation between smooth 2-functors defined on the path 2-groupoid of a smooth manifold and differential forms on this manifold. This relation can be understood as a part of a dictionary between fundamental notions from category theory and differential geometry. We show that smooth

  4. Constitutive modelling for composite forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Remko; Lamers, E.A.D.; Long, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Fibre reorientation occurs when forming a reinforced structure such as a fabric onto a doubly curved surface. This leads to a change in the angle between warp and fill yarns. The composite properties change inhomogeneously, corresponding to the varying angle between warp and fill yarns. Many

  5. Generalized forms and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nurowski, P

    2002-01-01

    The calculus of generalized p-forms, -1 <= p <= n, is developed further. On an n-dimensional manifold with metric, M, a (Hodge) star operator, inner product, co-differential and Laplacian operators are introduced. The inner product and Lie derivative with respect to vector fields on M are defined. Applications are made to Hamiltonian mechanics, field theories and Einstein's vacuum equations.

  6. Green Lubricants for Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The increasing focus on legislation towards diminishing the impact on working environment as well as external environment has driven efforts to develop new, environmentally benign lubricants for metal forming. The present paper gives an overview of these efforts to substitute environmentally...

  7. New forms of quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Rajasekaran, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new two-parameter deformation of the algebra of creation and destruction operators, which allows the construction of a new family of Hillbert spaces with positive definite inner product is proposed. This provides a continuous interpolation between two new forms of statistics named orthofermi and orthobose statistics. Positivity of the inner product over the two-parameter region is discussed. (author). 8 refs

  8. Biofilm Growth and Fossil Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Petroff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stromatolites can grow under the influence of microbial processes, but it is often unclear whether and how the macroscopic morphology of these rocks records biological processes. Conical stromatolites, which formed in the absence of sedimentation, provide a comparatively simple record of the interplay between microbial growth and lithification. Here, we show that the dynamics shaping conical stromatolites result from diffusive gradients within the overlying microbial mat. These gradients cause minerals to precipitate faster in regions of high curvature, resulting in measurable properties of the shapes of stromatolite laminas. This model allows us to estimate the thickness of ancient stromatolite-forming mats to be approximately 1  mm, consistent with modern systems. Proceeding from the assumption that the ubiquitous process of diffusion is recorded in the translating form of a stromatolite, we derive the shape of a diffusion-driven stromatolite. The conical morphology—a distinctive feature of stromatolites growing in the absence of sedimentation—arises from these dynamics. This form is quantitatively consistent with the shape of conical stromatolites that grew for more than 2.9×10^{9} yrs of Earth history.

  9. Collaborating with Forms in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Aileen Pugliese

    2011-01-01

    Taking students outside is a great opportunity to make art. In this article, the author describes how her students collaborated with forms in nature to create their own visual structures to communicate ideas. This lesson can be done on the beach, in a sand box on the school playground, in grassy areas, or nature can even be brought into the…

  10. Fast form alpha-2-macroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft, Daniel; Gram, Jørgen Brodersen; Larsen, Anette

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated whether an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), that specifically measures the electrophoretic "fast form" of α2-macroglobulin (F-α2M), could be a sensitive and global marker for activation of calcium dependent and in-dependent proteases in plasma exposed to biomaterials...

  11. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically uniqu...

  12. Technetium Immobilization Forms Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-05-01

    Of the many radionuclides and contaminants in the tank wastes stored at the Hanford site, technetium-99 (99Tc) is one of the most challenging to effectively immobilize in a waste form for ultimate disposal. Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the Tc will partition between both the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the tank waste. The HLW fraction will be converted to a glass waste form in the HLW vitrification facility and the LAW fraction will be converted to another glass waste form in the LAW vitrification facility. In both vitrification facilities, the Tc is incorporated into the glass waste form but a significant fraction of the Tc volatilizes at the high glass-melting temperatures and is captured in the off-gas treatment systems at both facilities. The aqueous off-gas condensate solution containing the volatilized Tc is recycled and is added to the LAW glass melter feed. This recycle process is effective in increasing the loading of Tc in the LAW glass but it also disproportionally increases the sulfur and halides in the LAW melter feed which increases both the amount of LAW glass and either the duration of the LAW vitrification mission or the required supplemental LAW treatment capacity.

  13. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds

  14. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga [International Technology Center, 8100 Brownleigh Drive, Suite 120, Raleigh, NC 27617 (United States)], E-mail: oshenderova@itc-inc.org

    2008-06-04

    Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds.

  15. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  16. Lysimeter study of commercial reactor waste forms: waste form acquisition characterization and full-scale leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This report describes work conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) as part of a joint program with Savannah River Laboratory. Typical full-scale (55-gallon drum size) waste forms were acquired by BNL from a boiling water reactor (BWR) and a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Liquid waste stream activity concentrations were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. This information was used to determine the waste from activity inventory, providing the necessary source term for lysimeter and leaching experiments. Predominant radionuclides of interest include 60 Co, 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 54 Mn. A full-scale leaching experiment was initiated by BNL encompassing four representative waste stream-solidification agent combinations. Waste streams tested include PWR evaporator concentrate (boric acid waste), BWR evaporator concentrate (sodium sulfate waste) and BWR evaporator concentrate plus ion exchange resins. Solidification agents include masonry cement, portland type III cement, and vinyl ester-styrene (Dow polymer). Analyses of leachates indicate measurable leach rates of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co from both BWR and PWR cement waste forms. The leach rates for both cesium isotopes in cement are at least two orders of magnitude greater than those for cobalt. Leachates from the BWR Dow polymer waste form include the same isotopes present in cement leachates, with the addition of 54 Mn. Cesium leach rates from the Dow polymer waste form are approximately one order of magnitude lower than from an equivalent cement waste form. The 60 Co cumulative fraction release, however, is approximately three times greater for the Dow polymer waste form

  17. New Visions on Form and Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M

    2005-01-01

    It is now nearly 90 years since the publication of D'Arcy Thompson's book On Growth and Form, a classic work that attempted a unification of pattern-forming phenomena in systems ranging from inanimate to living matter. Thompson's book came early in the development of mathematical techniques in biology. His work has had enormous influence in succeeding decades and has helped inspire the rapid growth in the application of theoretical techniques to biological phenomena. Pelce's book New Visions on Form and Growth takes its inspiration and title directly from D'Arcy Thompson. Furthermore, Pelce attempts what could not be achieved in D'Arcy Thompson's time, namely the presentation of a quantitative analysis of pattern forming phenomena. However, it should be emphasised that the vast majority of this book is concerned with inanimate matter, with rather little discussion of biology. The book begins with a presentation of the basic physics, including surface tension, first-order phase transition kinetics and a brief outline of chemical kinetics. With the essential physics established, Pelce then investigates simple growth forms, before showing how these regular geometries are destabilized into more complex forms by instabilities. The problem of velocity selection of growing patterns is then extensively discussed, before the question of (secondary) instabilities of the more complex growth forms is analysed. A chapter on stochastic patterns is also included. For the most part, the book concentrates on a few intensively studied pattern forming systems in physics, particularly viscous fingering in Hele-Shaw cells, the growth of dendrites, electrodeposition, flames, and, in the chapter on stochastic patterns, diffusion-limited aggregation. Only in a rather brief final chapter is a more speculative link made with biological pattern formation and morphogenesis. In general, I found the book to be a useful reference work on the theory of pattern forming systems. However, the

  18. AGILITY AS A MODERN FORM OF RECREATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Niewiadomska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is one of the main factors to influence human health. The beneficial effects of physical exercise and various forms of active recreation can only be observed, however, after systematic application, which usually occurs when exercise is in line with one's interests and preferences. The increasing number of forms of recreation makes it possible to customize these to suit individual needs. One such recreational activity is agility , i.e. keeping pace with a dog through an obstacle course while leading the dog through the various obstacles in certain ways. The main purpose of the presenting work was to analyze agility’s impact as therapeutic effects on the people of all ages, including children. Currently, agility is developing as a sport and a form of recreation in Poland and over the world. Due to its versatility, agility is suitable for people of all ages. It is a spectator sport, enjoying growing interest among children, adolescents and adults. This form of physical recreation, next to the positive impact on the physical development, also has a considerable positive impact on the human psyche.

  19. Waste Form Features, Events, and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the waste form features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical bases for screening decisions. This information is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with the issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the waste form and the migration of the waste form colloids. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical bases for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This revision addresses the TSPA-LA FEP list (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analyses and resolution of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) associated with the waste form performance in the repository. Forty FEPs were identified that are associated with the waste form performance. This report has been prepared to document the screening methodology used in the process of FEP inclusion and exclusion. The analyses documented in this report are for the license application (LA) base case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). In this design, a drip shield is placed over the waste package and no backfill is placed over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP may include one or more specific issues that are collectively described by a FEP name and a FEP description. The FEP description may encompass a single feature, process or event, or a few closely related or coupled processes if the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs are

  20. Terra firma-forme dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Erkek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terra firma-forme dermatosis is characterized by ′dirty′ brown-grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can simply be eradicated by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. Although affected patients present with typical lesions, the disorder is not well-known by dermatologists. In this report, we describe two patients with terra firma-forme dermatosis in the setting of xerosis cutis and atopic dermatitis. From a clinical point of view, we lay emphasis on its unique expression and diagnosis/treatment. From a histological perspective, we highlight its resemblance to dermatosis neglecta and speculate on the role of ′neglect′ in a patient with seemingly adequate hygiene. The role of urea containing emollients in the development of this disorder remains to be determined.

  1. Strange mesonic transition form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goity, J.L.; Musolf, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The strange-quark vector current ρ-to-π meson transition form factor is computed at one-loop order using strange meson intermediate states. A comparison is made with a φ-meson dominance model estimate. We find that one-loop contributions are comparable in magnitude to those predicted by φ-meson dominance. It is possible that the one-loop contribution can make the matrix element as large as those of the electromagnetic current mediating vector meson radiative decays. However, due to the quadratic dependence of the one-loop results on the hadronic form factor cutoff mass, a large uncertainty in the estimate of the loops is unavoidable. These results indicate that non-nucleonic strange quarks could contribute appreciable in moderate-parallel Q 2 parallel parity-violating electron-nucleus scattering measurements aimed at probing the strange-quark content of the nucleon. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  3. The integral form of supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Catenacci, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Gruppo Nazionale di Fisica Matematica, INdAM,P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Grassi, P.A. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-10-11

    By using integral forms we derive the superspace action of D=3,N=1 supergravity as an integral on a supermanifold. The construction is based on target space picture changing operators, here playing the rôle of Poincaré duals to the lower-dimensional spacetime surfaces embedded into the supermanifold. We show how the group geometrical action based on the group manifold approach interpolates between the superspace and the component supergravity actions, thus providing another proof of their equivalence.

  4. Recall in extensive form games

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers characterizations of perfect recall in extensive form games. It is shown that perfect recall can be expressed in terms of choices without any reference to infomation sets. When information sets are taken into account, it is decomposable into an ordering of information sets and that players do not forget what they knew nor what they did. Thus, if information sets are partially ordered, then perfect recall is implied by the player's inability to refine her information from ...

  5. Terra firma-forme dermatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Emine; Guarneri, Claudio; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Wollina, Uwe; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-03-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) belongs to the group of "dirty dermatoses" and represents a not well-known and surely underestimated vexing skin condition. Firstly described by Duncan, Tschen and Knox in 1987, it accounts for a few case series in the literature and has a still undefined aetiology. The authors present an additional report of TFFD, occurring in a young Caucasian girl, and briefly review the current medical literature on the topic.

  6. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  7. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  8. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  9. Coated particle waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  10. Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.

  11. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  12. EM Form Factors and OLYMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohl Michael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic form factors of the nucleon characterize the distributions of charge and magnetization in momentum space and are important input for calculations of strong interaction phenomena and nuclear structure. The dramatic discrepancy in the observed ratio of elastic proton form factors between the Rosenbluth separation and polarization transfer methods has invoked numerous theoretical and experimental investigations. The previously neglected effect from two-photon exchange has become the favored explanation for the discrepancy. While the effect can not be calculated from first principles, it can be verified experimentally in several ways, most stringently by comparing the positron- proton and electron-proton elastic cross sections. The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY has been carried out to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange using intense stored positron and electron beams along with an internal unpolarized hydrogen target and a large acceptance detector to measure the ratio of the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections. The status of proton form factor measurements and of the experimental efforts to verify the effect of two-photon exchange is presented, with some emphasis on the OLYMPUS experiment.

  13. Testing competing forms of the Milankovitch hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Juselius, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    We test competing forms of the Milankovitch hypothesis by estimating the coefficients and diagnostic statistics for a cointegrated vector autoregressive model that includes 10 climate variables and four exogenous variables for solar insolation. The estimates are consistent with the physical...... ice volume and solar insolation. The estimated adjustment dynamics show that solar insolation affects an array of climate variables other than ice volume, each at a unique rate. This implies that previous efforts to test the strong form of the Milankovitch hypothesis by examining the relationship...... mechanisms postulated to drive glacial cycles. They show that the climate variables are driven partly by solar insolation, determining the timing and magnitude of glaciations and terminations, and partly by internal feedback dynamics, pushing the climate variables away from equilibrium. We argue...

  14. Quaternion orders, quadratic forms, and Shimura curves

    CERN Document Server

    Alsina, Montserrat

    2004-01-01

    Shimura curves are a far-reaching generalization of the classical modular curves. They lie at the crossroads of many areas, including complex analysis, hyperbolic geometry, algebraic geometry, algebra, and arithmetic. The text provides an introduction to the subject from a theoretic and algorithmic perspective. The main topics covered in it are Shimura curves defined over the rational number field, the construction of their fundamental domains, and the determination of their complex multiplication points. The study of complex multiplication points in Shimura curves leads to the study of families of binary quadratic forms with algebraic coefficients and to their classification by arithmetic Fuchsian groups. In this regard, the authors develop a theory full of new possibilities which parallels Gauss' theory on the classification of binary quadratic forms with integral coefficients by the action of the modular group. Each topic covered in the book begins with a theoretical discussion followed by carefully worked...

  15. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  16. The algebraic and geometric theory of quadratic forms

    CERN Document Server

    Elman, Richard; Merkurjev, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive study of the algebraic theory of quadratic forms, from classical theory to recent developments, including results and proofs that have never been published. The book is written from the viewpoint of algebraic geometry and includes the theory of quadratic forms over fields of characteristic two, with proofs that are characteristic independent whenever possible. For some results both classical and geometric proofs are given. Part I includes classical algebraic theory of quadratic and bilinear forms and answers many questions that have been raised in the early stages

  17. Summer School and Conference : Computations with Modular Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Wiese, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains original research articles, survey articles and lecture notes related to the Computations with Modular Forms 2011 Summer School and Conference, held at the University of Heidelberg. A key theme of the Conference and Summer School was the interplay between theory, algorithms and experiment. The 14 papers offer readers both, instructional courses on the latest algorithms for computing modular and automorphic forms, as well as original research articles reporting on the latest developments in the field. The three Summer School lectures provide an introduction to modern algorithms together with some theoretical background for computations of and with modular forms, including computing cohomology of arithmetic groups, algebraic automorphic forms, and overconvergent modular symbols. The 11 Conference papers cover a wide range of themes related to computations with modular forms, including lattice methods for algebraic modular forms on classical groups, a generalization of the Maeda conjecture, ...

  18. Comments on electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.G.; Wali, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper draws the concept of nucleon form factors further to consider the electromagnetic aspect based on the magnetic moment of the nucleon. These are seen as valid physical interpretations of form factors in electron-nucleon interactions. A linear combination of two functions, associated with charge radius, is derived, which agreed well with experimental results. The paper also expands the specific form to include relativistic cases and consider appropriate frames of reference. (UK)

  19. Process for Forming a High Temperature Single Crystal Canted Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J (Inventor); Ritzert, Frank J (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A process for forming a high temperature single crystal canted spring is provided. In one embodiment, the process includes fabricating configurations of a rapid prototype spring to fabricate a sacrificial mold pattern to create a ceramic mold and casting a canted coiled spring to form at least one canted coil spring configuration based on the ceramic mold. The high temperature single crystal canted spring is formed from a nickel-based alloy containing rhenium using the at least one coil spring configuration.

  20. 12 CFR 563b.270 - What must I include in my proxy statement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What must I include in my proxy statement? 563b... CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Proxy Solicitation § 563b.270 What must I include in my proxy statement? (a) Content requirements. You must prepare your proxy statement in compliance...

  1. Method of forming a dianhydrosugar alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA

    2010-01-19

    The invention includes methods of producing dianhydrosugars. A polyol is reacted in the presence of a first catalyst to form a monocyclic sugar. The monocyclic sugar is transferred to a second reactor where it is converted to a dianhydrosugar alcohol in the presence of a second catalyst. The invention includes a process of forming isosorbide. An initial reaction is conducted at a first temperature in the presence of a solid acid catalyst. The initial reaction involves reacting sorbitol to produce 1,4-sorbitan, 3,6-sorbitan, 2,5-mannitan and 2,5-iditan. Utilizing a second temperature, the 1,4-sorbitan and 3,6-sorbitan are converted to isosorbide. The invention includes a method of purifying isosorbide from a mixture containing isosorbide and at least one additional component. A first distillation removes a first portion of the isosorbide from the mixture. A second distillation is then conducted at a higher temperature to remove a second portion of isosorbide from the mixture.

  2. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  3. How Do Atmospheric Rivers Form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, H.; Martinez-Alvarado, O.; Clark, P. A.; Stringer, M. A.; Lavers, D.

    2017-12-01

    The term "atmospheric river" is used to describe corridors of strong water vapor transport in the troposphere. Filaments of enhanced water vapor, commonly observed in satellite imagery extending from the subtropics to the extratropics, are routinely used as a proxy for identifying these regions of strong water vapor transport. The precipitation associated with these filaments of enhanced water vapor can lead to high-impact flooding events. However, there remains some debate as to how these filaments form. In this study, the authors analyze the transport of water vapor within a climatology of wintertime North Atlantic extratropical cyclones. Results show that atmospheric rivers are formed by the cold front that sweeps up water vapor in the warm sector as it catches up with the warm front. This causes a narrow band of high water vapor content to form ahead of the cold front at the base of the warm conveyor belt airflow. Thus, water vapor in the cyclone's warm sector, not long-distance transport of water vapor from the subtropics, is responsible for the generation of filaments of high water vapor content. A continuous cycle of evaporation and moisture convergence within the cyclone replenishes water vapor lost via precipitation. Thus, rather than representing a direct and continuous feed of moist air from the subtropics into the center of a cyclone (as suggested by the term "atmospheric river"), these filaments are, in fact, the result of water vapor exported from the cyclone, and thus they represent the footprints left behind as cyclones travel poleward from the subtropics.

  4. [Terra firma-forme dermatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallure, V; Ameline, M; Plantin, P; Bessis, D

    2013-11-01

    Terra firma-forme (i.e. resembling dry earth) is a condition chiefly affecting children wrongly considered as dermatosis arising out of negligence and inadequate corporal hygiene. It is in fact an acquired and asymptomatic grey-brown hyperpigmentation of the skin that persists despite normal washing with soap and water, but which subsides on rubbing with isopropyl alcohol 70%. Herein we report 10 new cases of this disorder. Ten patients aged between 7 months in 17 years were seen for acquired macular skin pigmentation, either brown or grey, fragmented and confluent. In six patients, this abnormality was the main reason for the consultation, generally on aesthetic grounds, and more rarely for diagnosis or suspicion of acanthosis nigricans. In all cases, questioning revealed normal hygiene measures. The condition comprised macular or acquired papular pigmentation, either brown or grey, of bilateral and symmetrical disposition and electively affecting the neck, trunk and retro-malleolar area of the ankles. Clinical examination together with a test involving rubbing with isopropyl alcohol 70° confirmed the diagnosis, revealing healthy underlying skin. Terra firma-forme dermatosis is frequently seen in clinical practice but is largely ignored in the French literature, possibly because of relevant indifference towards the condition. It affects both sexes equally, with no predilection for age or ethnicity, although it is classically seen to a greater extent during adolescence. Diagnosis of the condition, which is easily made thanks to the hyperpigmentation of dirty brown appearance on the neck and the ankles in particular, should not mislead the practitioner into blaming patients for supposedly deficient body hygiene. Knowledge of this form of dermatosis is useful because of its potentially harmful aesthetic and social effects, despite the ease of treatment by insistent rubbing of the affected areas with medical alcohol or ether. Early recognition also avoids pointless

  5. Pion form factor in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of the next-to-leading order corrections to pion form factor Fsub(π)(Q) in the QCD shows that analysis of Fsub(π)(Q) is not a short-distance problem up to Q 2 =10 4 -10 6 GeV 2 . A QCD-inspired model is proposed which in a semi-phenomenological way, takes into account the most important confinement effects. The curve obtained for Fsub(π)(Q) is in good agreement with existing experimental data

  6. The forgotten form of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe-Schmidt, Lisbeth

    The forgotten form of knowledge: Similarities between early 18th century Danish journals and nowadays Facebook discourse. Contemplating the early display of the public sphere in the 18th century, one is struck by the ease with which participants conduct themselves within the emerging institution...... the answer through a dual analytical strategy, first an examination of the conceptions of reason, emotion and morality introduced by early Danish journals and second, a sociohistorical study of authors and editors of the journals. The theoretical standpoint is the intersection between theory on the public...

  7. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex......Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...

  8. Terra Firma-forme Dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagha Ramesh Babu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terra firma-forme dermatosis is a cutaneous discoloration. ‘Dirty’ brown grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can be rid off by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads characterize it. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. It poses no medical threat. A 40-year-old male patient presented to the Department of Dermatology with a 2-3 month history of persistent pigmented patches on both upper arms. The lesions were not associated with itching or burning sensation. He gives no history of exacerbation on exposure to the sun.

  9. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register...... the decline of ‘highbrow’ culture which these studies reveal. However, we argue that this shift does not entail the erosion of cultural capital itself, or the rise of the ‘cultural omnivore’, so much as the emergence of a form of ‘cosmopolitan cultural capital’. We argue that this emerging cultural capital...

  10. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    parts. The first material system employs a novel rotated joint design to allow the structural tuning of quasi-reciprocal timber frame elements fabricated from multi-axis machined plywood sheet stock. The second em-loys discontinuous post-tensioning to assemble unique precast concrete components......This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically unique...

  11. Theoretical mechanics for sixth forms

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Forms, Second Edition is a 14-chapter book that begins by elucidating the nature of theoretical mechanics. The book then describes the statics of a particle in illustration of the techniques of handling vector quantities. Subsequent chapters focus on the principle of moments, parallel forces and centers of gravity; and the application of Newton's second law to the dynamics of a particle and the ideas of work and energy, impulse and momentum, and power. The concept of friction is also explained. This volume concludes with chapters concerning motion in a circle an

  12. Preparation techniques for ceramic waste form powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuels result in a chloride waste salt requiring geologic disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing ceramic waste forms which can incorporate this waste. Currently, zeolite- or sodalite-glass composites are produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. Powder preparations include dehydration of the raw zeolite powders, hot blending of these zeolite powders and secondary additives. Various approaches are being pursued to achieve adequate mixing, and the resulting powders have been HIPed and characterized for leach resistance, phase equilibria, and physical integrity

  13. Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Wickham, Kate A.; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2018-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be importa...

  14. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  15. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  16. 12 CFR 1805.401 - Forms of investment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of investment instruments. 1805.401... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.401 Forms of investment instruments. (a) Equity. The Fund may make nonvoting equity investments in an Awardee, including...

  17. Influence of system considerations on waste form design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A.A.; Matthews, S.C.; Peterson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The design of waste forms is constrained by waste management system considerations imposed during generation, treatment, packaging, transportation, storage, and isolation. In the isolation phase, the waste form provides one of the barriers to release in a multibarrier system that includes the natural geologic and hydrologic barriers as well as other engineered barriers

  18. Form finding in elastic gridshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Changyeob; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Jawed, Mohammad K.; Reis, Pedro M.

    2018-01-01

    Elastic gridshells comprise an initially planar network of elastic rods that are actuated into a shell-like structure by loading their extremities. The resulting actuated form derives from the elastic buckling of the rods subjected to inextensibility. We study elastic gridshells with a focus on the rational design of the final shapes. Our precision desktop experiments exhibit complex geometries, even from seemingly simple initial configurations and actuation processes. The numerical simulations capture this nonintuitive behavior with excellent quantitative agreement, allowing for an exploration of parameter space that reveals multistable states. We then turn to the theory of smooth Chebyshev nets to address the inverse design of hemispherical elastic gridshells. The results suggest that rod inextensibility, not elastic response, dictates the zeroth-order shape of an actuated elastic gridshell. As it turns out, this is the shape of a common household strainer. Therefore, the geometry of Chebyshev nets can be further used to understand elastic gridshells. In particular, we introduce a way to quantify the intrinsic shape of the empty, but enclosed regions, which we then use to rationalize the nonlocal deformation of elastic gridshells to point loading. This justifies the observed difficulty in form finding. Nevertheless, we close with an exploration of concatenating multiple elastic gridshell building blocks.

  19. Special Geometry and Automorphic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Berglund, P; Wyllard, N; Berglund, Per; Henningson, Mans; Wyllard, Niclas

    1997-01-01

    We consider special geometry of the vector multiplet moduli space in compactifications of the heterotic string on $K3 \\times T^2$ or the type IIA string on $K3$-fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds. In particular, we construct a modified dilaton that is invariant under $SO(2, n; Z)$ T-duality transformations at the non-perturbative level and regular everywhere on the moduli space. The invariant dilaton, together with a set of other coordinates that transform covariantly under $SO(2, n; Z)$, parameterize the moduli space. The construction involves a meromorphic automorphic function of $SO(2, n; Z)$, that also depends on the invariant dilaton. In the weak coupling limit, the divisor of this automorphic form is an integer linear combination of the rational quadratic divisors where the gauge symmetry is enhanced classically. We also show how the non-perturbative prepotential can be expressed in terms of meromorphic automorphic forms, by expanding a T-duality invariant quantity both in terms of the standard special coord...

  20. Severe forms of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, Emanuel; Lins, Maria das Graças Moura

    To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Search in the Medline database using the terms "severe food allergy," "anaphylaxis and food allergy," "generalized urticaria and food allergy," and "food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome" in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 34521 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Number NHTSA-2010-0085] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from... public comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatement of...

  2. 75 FR 13806 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Number NHTSA-2010-0027] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from... public comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatement of...

  3. 76 FR 52383 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Number NHTSA-2011-0126] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from... public comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatement of...

  4. 76 FR 24957 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ...-0051] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... Control Number: 2127-0518). Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from the public, it... comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatement of previously...

  5. 75 FR 54217 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Number NHTSA-2010-0124] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from... public comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatements of...

  6. 76 FR 17746 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Number NHTSA-2011-0045] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from... public comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatement of...

  7. 78 FR 65038 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    .... NHTSA-2013-0113] Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from the public, it must receive approval from... collections of information, including extensions and [[Page 65039

  8. 75 FR 54218 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Number NHTSA-2010-0123] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from... public comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatement of...

  9. Urban Design, Urban Form, And Employee Travel Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Personal travel behavior choices made by employees appear to be influenced by a number of urban design and urban form characteristics of their work place. Several important attributes include the density of development and the accessibility of non-wo...

  10. Method and Apparatus for Forming Nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, Donald; Forster, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This innovation uses partially miscible fluids to form nano- and microdroplets in a microfluidic droplet generator system. Droplet generators fabricated in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) are currently being used to fabricate engineered nanoparticles and microparticles. These droplet generators were first demonstrated in a T-junction configuration, followed by a cross-flow configuration. All of these generating devices have used immiscible fluids, such as oil and water. This immiscible fluid system can produce mono-dispersed distributions of droplets and articles with sizes ranging from a few hundred nanometers to a few hundred microns. For applications such as drug delivery, the ability to encapsulate aqueous solutions of drugs within particles formed from the droplets is desirable. Of particular interest are non-polar solvents that can dissolve lipids for the formation of liposomes in the droplet generators. Such fluids include ether, cyclohexane, butanol, and ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate is of particular interest for two reasons. It is relatively nontoxic and it is formed from ether and acetic acid, and maybe broken down into its constituents at relatively low concentrations.

  11. Ultrasonographic features of pseudotumorous form of ascariasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Joyce Y.H.; Woo, Patrick C.Y. E-mail: pcywoo@hkucc.hku.hk; Kan, Pan Shing; Lai, Yeong Man; Tang, Alice P.Y

    2001-09-01

    We report the ultrasonographic findings of a 60 year old woman with pseudotumorous form of ascariasis. Real-time ultrasonographic examination using a curved array transducer revealed grossly thickened small bowel loops, multiple small circular deposits throughout the peritoneal cavity, and a moderate amount of ascites. The English literature on the different forms of abdominal ascariasis is reviewed. Specific signs, which include the 'strip' sign, the 'four-lines', 'inner tube', or 'double tube' sign, the 'bull's eye' or 'target' sign, a 'worm mass' or 'spaghetti-like' appearance, and the 'zig-zag' sign can be present in any form of abdominal ascariasis, as they represent the image of the Ascaris worms visualized under ultrasonographic examination. However, the non-specific signs are not peculiar to A. lumbricoides infections, but are results of secondary changes due to A. lumbricoides infections in the corresponding organs.

  12. Flavor content of nucleon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Departamento de Estructura de la Materia, lnstituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, AP 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E [l.N.F.N. and Dipartimento di Fisica, via Dodecaneso 33, Genova, I-16146 (Italy)]. e-mail: bijkernucleares. unam. mx

    2007-12-15

    The flavor content of nucleon form factors is analyzed using two different theoretical approaches. The first is based on a phenomenological two-component model in which the external photon couples to both an intrinsic three-quark structure and a meson cloud via vector-meson dominance. The flavor content of the nucleon form factors is extracted without introducing any additional parameter. A comparison with recent data from parity-violating electron scattering experiments shows a good overall agreement for the strange form factors. A more microscopic approach is that of an unquenched quark model proposed by Geiger and Isgur which is based on valence quark plus glue dominance to which quark-antiquark pairs are added in perturbation. In the original version the importance of ss loops in the proton was studied. Here we present the formalism for a new generation of unquenched quark models which, among other extensions, includes the contributions of uu and dd loops. Finally, we discuss some preliminary results in the closure limit. (Author)

  13. PEER FEEDBACK ON LANGUAGE FORM IN TELECOLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Ware

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed a two-phase, year-long research project that explored the impact of peer feedback on language development. We investigated specifically how and when post-secondary learners of English and Spanish provide corrective feedback on their partners' use of the target language in weekly asynchronous discussions by assigning them to one of two conditions: e-tutoring, in which students were asked to provide peer feedback on any linguistic form they perceived as incorrect; and e-partnering, in which students were not required to provide peer feedback but could do so on their own initiative. We examined the frequency and type of language use by coding the feedback for language-related episodes (Swain & Lapkin, 1998 and for feedback strategies (Ros i Solé & Truman, 2005. The findings indicate that students in both conditions preferred an inclusion of feedback on form as part of their exchange, but such feedback only occurred when explicitly required in the e-tutoring condition. Pedagogical implications include the need to situate peer feedback on form within current models of telecollaboration and to assist students in using feedback strategies such as reformulations, which do not rely on a deep understanding of the target or native language grammar.

  14. FluidForming – Hydroforming reinvented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannock Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The FluidForming technology represents an alternative sheet metal forming approach as compared to the traditional, bladder based hydroforming, metal spinning, and sheet metal stamping processes. The machine construction allows for much higher forming pressures of up to 400 MPa/60,000 psi. The technology also enables material flow into the dies, thus, providing more material in potentially critical areas. Modular die construction allows for very cost effective solutions including plastic dies, 3D printed dies, die nesting, and split dies. This approach, in-turn, allows undercuts in the parts and generates scratch- and mostly distortion-free parts from pre-painted, pre-patterned, and pre-polished materials like AL, SS, CU, TI or any of the new high performance alloys. As a result, the technology enables a new product development approach that can focus on optimization and/or Time-to-Market while maintaining or lowering the overall Cost-to-Market. In fact, the development cycle can be accelerated to be less than a week from the CAD design to the production of highly accurate, repeatable metal parts that may not even be manufacturable with other technologies.

  15. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Van Dongen, M.J.; Hampton, A.S.; Komatsu, C.H.; Trowell, K.T.; Havas, K.C.; Davis, C.M.; DeSanto, C.L. [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Hays, K.; Wagner, M.J. [Chemistry Department, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20052 United States (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, T{sub max} and χ{sub max}, ordering temperatures T{sub c}, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that T{sub max} of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD{sub 2}O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser T{sub max} than do nH{sub 2}O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these. - Highlights: • The magnetism of Ni(II) chloride and bromide dihydrates and monohydrates is studied. • Effects of replacing H{sub 2}O by D{sub 2}O are examined for both hydration states and both halides. • Exchange interactions in bromides are weaker than in corresponding chlorides. • Exchange interactions are weaker in D{sub 2}O than in corresponding H{sub 2}O containing systems. • The unit cell of NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O.

  16. Including geological information in the inverse problem of palaeothermal reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A reliable reconstruction of sediment thermal history is of central importance to the assessment of hydrocarbon potential and the understanding of basin evolution. However, only rarely do sedimentation history and borehole data in the form of present day temperatures and vitrinite reflectance constrain the past thermal evolution to a useful level of accuracy (Gallagher and Sambridge,1992; Nielsen,1998; Trautner and Nielsen,2003). This is reflected in the inverse solutions to the problem of determining heat flow history from borehole data: The recent heat flow is constrained by data while older values are governed by the chosen a prior heat flow. In this paper we reduce this problem by including geological information in the inverse problem. Through a careful analysis of geological and geophysical data the timing of the tectonic processes, which may influence heat flow, can be inferred. The heat flow history is then parameterised to allow for the temporal variations characteristic of the different tectonic events. The inversion scheme applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach (Nielsen and Gallagher, 1999; Ferrero and Gallagher,2002), which efficiently explores the model space and futhermore samples the posterior probability distribution of the model. The technique is demonstrated on wells in the northern North Sea with emphasis on the stretching event in Late Jurassic. The wells are characterised by maximum sediment temperature at the present day, which is the worst case for resolution of the past thermal history because vitrinite reflectance is determined mainly by the maximum temperature. Including geological information significantly improves the thermal resolution. Ferrero, C. and Gallagher,K.,2002. Stochastic thermal history modelling.1. Constraining heat flow histories and their uncertainty. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19, 633-648. Gallagher,K. and Sambridge, M., 1992. The resolution of past heat flow in sedimentary basins from non-linear inversion

  17. The protean nature of Whipple's disease includes multiorgan arteriopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T N

    2001-01-01

    sequentially) may participate in the early pathogenesis of human arterial disease, including atherosclerosis. Given that the coronary plaque represents the cumulative end result of countless earlier injuries and responses, the plaque is not the site to seek evidence of initial pathogenesis although understanding the behavior of coronary plaques is eventually of considerable clinical importance. In the context of original events in pathogenesis, the Whipple bacillus now deserves inclusion in the "total pathogen burden" concept, as it relates not only to coronary disease but to all aspects of atherosclerosis and even other forms of arteriopathy.

  18. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  19. Innovative forms of citizen participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyseth, Torill; Ringholm, Toril; Agger, Annika

    Formal procedures of citizen participation in planning and urban governance in Norway and Denmark share many similarities. Although the planning laws are intended to give all affected stakeholders a chance to air their concerns within a limited time frame, then few use these channels for voice......: What characterises the new and innovative forms of citizen participation in urban planning in terms of innovation? And in what ways and to what degree is input from these processes fed into the formal planning processes? Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the concept of: ‘planning...... as experimentation’ (Hillier 2007, Nyseth et al 2010), ‘co-creation’ (Voorberg m.fl. 2013), and of the approach to participation offered by Clarke et al. (2014), where the traditional approaches are questioned and a contextualised approach is offered. Empirically, the paper draws on two different cases from Denmark...

  20. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference......This paper reviews recent European studies to assess whether cultural capital now has the same characteristics – or may be rather the same functions - as when Distinction was written. The paper will examine empirical applications of the concept of cultural capital in leading European studies...... – and hence are highly appropriate for direct comparisons with that study. This paper will begin by raising general issues regarding the meaning of the concept, and about how one may make assessments and claims about cultural capital. Here we consider how the legitimacy of certain cultural competencies...

  1. Miscellaneous Waste-Form FEPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, A.

    2000-01-01

    The US DOE must provide a reasonable assurance that the performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) potential radioactive-waste repository can be achieved for a 10,000-year post-closure period. The guidance that mandates this direction is under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 63 and the US Department of Energy's ''Revised Interim Guidance Pending Issuance of New US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulations (Revision 01, July 22, 1999), for Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (Dyer 1999 and herein referred to as DOE's Interim Guidance). This assurance must be demonstrated in the form of a performance assessment that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the performance of the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of such FEPs on the performance of the potential geologic repository; (3) estimates the expected annual dose to a specified receptor group; and (4) provides the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs

  2. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    three-dimensional geometries of interfering spheres are created. Textiles are generally a very good sound dampening material. To dampen the sound most effective it should be placed where the sound energy is highest. To find these invisible spots of energy and to reveal the geometry of them, two......Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex...

  3. [Familial form of rheumatoid nodulosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosser, H; Schubert, B; Grosshans, E

    1993-01-01

    We report a familial form of rheumatoid nodulosis where the early lesions appeared in the first years of life in a young man and his son. The numerous papular and nodular skin lesions disclosed an ulcerative evolution leaving atrophic scars mainly near the limbs' joints. In both patients the evolution was characterized by the late onset of polyarthralgias and of a non-destructive seronegative polyarthritis; intra-osseous lesions were present in the metatarsal bones in the father. Rheumatoid nodulosis is a rare disease, sometimes considered as a benign variant of rheumatoid arthritis without destructive joint involvement. A serum rheumatoid factor is inconstantly present and the intra-osseous geodes have been shown to be rheumatoid nodules exhibiting the same histological structures of palisading granulomas as the subcutaneous nodules. The main symptom of the disease is the occurrence of multiple nodules followed by the delayed onset of a polyarthritis with a benign course without systemic involvement.

  4. Forms and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    We present a general theory to obtain linear network codes utilizing forms and obtain explicit families of equidimensional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces intersect in the same small dimension. The theory is inspired by the methods of the author utilizing the osculating...... spaces of Veronese varieties. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possibly altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal...... distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector space is sufficiently large. The vector spaces in our construction are equidistant in the above metric and the distance between any pair of vector spaces is large making...

  5. Slideline verification for multilayer pressure vessel and piping analysis including tangential motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear finite element method (FEM) computer codes with slideline algorithm implementations should be useful for the analysis of prestressed multilayer pressure vessels and piping. This paper presents closed form solutions including the effects of tangential motion useful for verifying slideline implementations for this purpose. The solutions describe stresses and displacements of a long internally pressurized elastic-plastic cylinder initially separated from an elastic outer cylinder by a uniform gap. Comparison of closed form and FEM results evaluates the usefulness of the closed form solution and the validity of the sideline implementation used

  6. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Data sources: Search in the Medline database using the terms “severe food allergy,” “anaphylaxis and food allergy,” “generalized urticaria and food allergy,” and “food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome” in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Summary of data: Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Pulsar average wave forms and hollow-cone beam models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    Pulsar wave forms have been analyzed from observations conducted over a wide radio-frequency range to assess the wave-form morphologies and to measure wave-form widths. The results of the analysis compare favorably with the predictions of a model with a hollow-cone beam of fixed dimensions and with random orientation of both the observer and the cone axis with respect to the pulsar spin axis. A class of three-component wave forms is included in the model by adding a central pencil beam to the hollow-cone hypothesis. The consequences of a number of discrepancies between observations and quantitative predictions of the model are discussed.

  8. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the...

  9. Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Kate A; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2018-03-01

    There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be important in many sporting situations. Caffeinated chewing gum improved endurance cycling performance, and there is limited evidence that repeated sprint cycling and power production may also be improved. Mouth rinsing with caffeine may stimulate nerves with direct links to the brain, in addition to caffeine absorption in the mouth. However, caffeine mouth rinsing has not been shown to have significant effects on cognitive performance. Delivering caffeine with mouth rinsing improved short-duration, high-intensity, repeated sprinting in normal and depleted glycogen states, while the majority of the literature indicates no ergogenic effect on aerobic exercise performance, and resistance exercise has not been adequately studied. Studies with caffeinated energy drinks have generally not examined the individual effects of caffeine on performance, making conclusions about this form of caffeine delivery impossible. Caffeinated aerosol mouth and nasal sprays may stimulate nerves with direct brain connections and enter the blood via mucosal and pulmonary absorption, although little support exists for caffeine delivered in this manner. Overall, more research is needed examining alternate forms of caffeine delivery including direct measures of brain activation and entry of caffeine into the blood, as well as more studies examining trained athletes and female subjects.

  10. [Definition, etiology, classification and presentation forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas Garriga, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is defined as a degenerative process affecting the joints as a result of mechanical and biological disorders that destabilize the balance between the synthesis and degradation of joint cartilage, stimulating the growth of subchondral bone; chronic synovitis is also present. Currently, the joint is considered as a functional unit that includes distinct tissues, mainly cartilage, the synovial membrane, and subchondral bone, all of which are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Distinct risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis have been described: general, unmodifiable risk factors (age, sex, and genetic makeup), general, modifiable risk factors (obesity and hormonal factors) and local risk factors (prior joint anomalies and joint overload). Notable among the main factors related to disease progression are joint alignment defects and generalized osteoarthritis. Several classifications of osteoarthritis have been proposed but none is particularly important for the primary care management of the disease. These classifications include etiological (primary or idiopathic forms and secondary forms) and topographical (typical and atypical localizations) classifications, the Kellgren and Lawrence classification (radiological repercussions) and that of the American College of Rheumatology for osteoarthritis of the hand, hip and knee. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis is 10.2% in Spain and shows a marked discrepancy between clinical and radiological findings. Hand osteoarthritis, with a prevalence of symptomatic involvement of around 6.2%, has several forms of presentation (nodal osteoarthritis, generalized osteoarthritis, rhizarthrosis, and erosive osteoarthritis). Symptomatic osteoarthritis of the hip affects between 3.5% and 5.6% of persons older than 50 years and has different radiological patterns depending on femoral head migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saltman, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or government that require interchange of information, obligations, or monetary value between organizations...

  12. Creep age forming of Al-Cu-Li alloy: Application to thick sheet forming of double curvature aircraft panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Wael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creep-age-forming of a thick Al-Cu-Li sheet is studied. An industrial stamping press is used to form a double curvature panel at a reduced scale. This forming, which includes several relaxation steps, is modelled using ABAQUS. A material model describing an elasto-viscoplastic behaviour with anisotropy effect has been identified and implemented in ABAQUS using Fortran subroutine. The numerical model is validated by comparing experiments and numerical results in terms of deformed shapes and an improved forming cycle is suggested.

  13. Method of forming oriented block copolymer line patterns, block copolymer line patterns formed thereby, and their use to form patterned articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Dong Hyun; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting

    2017-08-01

    A block copolymer film having a line pattern with a high degree of long-range order is formed by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate surface with parallel facets, and annealing the block copolymer film to form an annealed block copolymer film having linear microdomains parallel to the substrate surface and orthogonal to the parallel facets of the substrate. The line-patterned block copolymer films are useful for the fabrication of magnetic storage media, polarizing devices, and arrays of nanowires.

  14. Material obligations: Forms and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper includes a detailed legal framework of the IAEA safeguards agreements, namely basic articles of the IAEA Statute, Treaty and Supply Agreement obligations and basic documents concerning decisions and practices of the Board of Governors. It describes as well the initiation process of the negotiation of safeguards agreements, contents comparison and implementation of the safeguards agreements, protocols to safeguards agreements, subsidiary arrangements, amendments and renegotiation documents

  15. Faith and Form on Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bacon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand any aspect of being-in-the-world in general or cinematic experience in particular, both reductionist and holistic approaches are needed. Psychological accounts can give us only functional explanations of human behaviour or responses to signifying artifacts such as art. To understand the significance of these experiences the psychological must be complemented by a study on a level which may be termed spiritual. This line of thought is applied to analyses of Robert Bresson’s Pickpocket, starting from David Bordwell’s formalist and cognitive account of why many people experience this film as religious despite there being no explicit reference to religion. Paul Schrader’s analysis of the formal structure of this film in terms of his notion of transcendental style in film goes a step forward by explaining how the formal structure as he analyses it suggests a transcendental dimension which cannot be addressed directly. This approach connects in an illuminating way with Slavoj Žižek’s notions of the imaginary and the symbolic sphere. Bordwell’s approach, functioning on the psychological level, is basically reductionist, while Schrader’s, boosted with Žižek’s ideas as appropriated for the purposes of this article, is holistic and operative on the spiritual level. This two-tiered analysis reveals how cinematic form in Pickpocket serves as an indirect expression of faith.

  16. Filtrating forms of soil bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van'kova, A. A.; Ivanov, P. I.; Emtsev, V. T.

    2013-03-01

    Filtrating (ultramicroscopic) forms (FF) of bacteria were studied in a soddy-podzolic soil and the root zone of alfalfa plants as part of populations of the most widespread physiological groups of soil bacteria. FF were obtained by filtering soil solutions through membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.22 μm. It was established that the greater part of the bacteria in the soil and in the root zone of the plants has an ultramicroscopic size: the average diameter of the cells is 0.3 μm, and their length is 0.6 μm, which is significantly less than the cell size of banal bacteria. The number of FF varies within a wide range depending on the physicochemical conditions of the habitat. The FF number's dynamics in the soil is of a seasonal nature; i.e., the number of bacteria found increases in the summer and fall and decreases in the winter-spring period. In the rhizosphere of the alfalfa, over the vegetation period, the number of FF and their fraction in the total mass of the bacteria increase. A reverse tendency is observed in the rhizoplane. The morphological particularities (identified by an electron microscopy) and the nature of the FF indicate their physiological activity.

  17. Miscellaneous Waste-Form FEPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Schenker

    2000-12-08

    The US DOE must provide a reasonable assurance that the performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) potential radioactive-waste repository can be achieved for a 10,000-year post-closure period. The guidance that mandates this direction is under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 63 and the US Department of Energy's ''Revised Interim Guidance Pending Issuance of New US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulations (Revision 01, July 22, 1999), for Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (Dyer 1999 and herein referred to as DOE's Interim Guidance). This assurance must be demonstrated in the form of a performance assessment that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the performance of the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of such FEPs on the performance of the potential geologic repository; (3) estimates the expected annual dose to a specified receptor group; and (4) provides the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs.

  18. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15

    with CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with Mo and Zr removed. Waste streams that contain Mo must be produced in reducing environments to avoid Cs-Mo oxide phase formation. Waste streams without Mo have the ability to be melt processed in air. A path forward for further optimizing the processing steps needed to form the targeted phase assemblages is outlined in this report. Processing modifications including melting in a reducing atmosphere, and controlled heat treatment schedules are anticipated to improve the targeted elemental partitioning.

  19. International Recognition of FormAkademisk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Beate Reitan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available FormAkademisk was invited to the Design Journal Editors' Meeting at the College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP, University of Cincinnati in late October, as the only design research journal from the Nordic region. The meeting was organized in advance of the International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR 2017 conference.Liv Merete Nielsen, who initiated the creation of  FormAkademisk and has been a Section Editor since the start-up and I, who have been the Editor-in-Chief for the entire period, travelled to the meeting.FormAkademisk   was in good company - among the others invited, we can mention the American Design Issues and the British Design Studies, both of which are at Level 2 of the Norwegian Science Index - NVI. Other reputable journals invited were the International Journal of Design from Taiwan, She Ji - The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation from Tongji University in Shanghai, China, Design and Culture from the United States, Co-Design from the United Kingdom, Information Design Journal published in the Netherlands with an international editorial board, Journal of Design, Business & Society with an international editorial board, the French Sciences du Design and Visible Language published at the University of Cincinnati, USA who hosted the meeting.First, we warmed up by describing each journal's editorial profile. For FormAkademisk we emphasized that we have two equal focuses – research in design, but also research in design education for the general public. This combination seems to be unique internationally.Common issues we discussed further were challenges with the quality of submitted articles and obtaining qualified peer reviewers. We also discussed whether we would agree on a common understanding of what it means to be included as an author of an article. Based on the discussions, FormAkademisk comes well prepared compared to the other internationally leading design research

  20. The integration of solid-form informatics into solid-form selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeder, Neil; Pidcock, Elna; Reilly, Anthony M; Sadiq, Ghazala; Doherty, Cheryl L; Back, Kevin R; Meenan, Paul; Docherty, Robert

    2015-06-01

    To demonstrate how the use of structural informatics during drug development assists with the assessment of the risk of polymorphism and the selection of a commercial solid form. The application of structural chemistry knowledge derived from the hundreds of thousands of crystal structures contained in the Cambridge Structural Database to drug candidates is described. Examples given show the comparison of intermolecular geometries to database-derived statistics, the use of Full Interaction Maps to assess polymorph stability and the calculation of hydrogen bond propensities to provide assurance of a stable solid form. The software tools used are included in the Cambridge Structural Database System and the Solid Form Module of Mercury. The early identification of an unusual supramolecular motif in the development phase of maraviroc led to further experimental work to find the most stable polymorph. Analyses of two polymorphs of a pain candidate drug demonstrated how consideration of molecular conformation and intermolecular interactions were used for the assessment of relative stability. Informatics analysis confirmed that the solid form of crizotinib, a monomorphic system, had a low risk of polymorphism. The application of informatics-based assessment of new chemical entities complements experimental studies and provides a deeper understanding of the qualities of the structure. The information provided by structural analyses is incorporated into the assessment of risk. Informatics techniques are quick to apply and are straightforward to use, allowing an assessment of progressing drug candidates. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 160 - Model Privacy Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include companies with a [common corporate identity of financial institution] name; financial companies... institution may include a corporate logo on any page of the notice, so long as it does not interfere with the... notice or a common identity of affiliated institutions jointly providing the notice on the form wherever...

  2. 76 FR 11848 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... information on those who are to respond, including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical... defects and noncompliances remedied. \\1\\ http://www-odi.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/recalls/register... of information on respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques of other forms of...

  3. 77 FR 9725 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... the burden of the collection of information on respondents, including the use of automated collection... collection. The 1984 Theft Act was amended by the Anti Car Theft Act (ACTA) of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-519). NHTSA... collection of information on respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms...

  4. 78 FR 34152 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g... smaller sections on air bags, on general driving (including speed), and on drinking and driving because of... 1994. The survey included questions related to seat belts, child safety seats, air bags, and Emergency...

  5. Delivery Device and Method for Forming the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peter X. (Inventor); Liu, Xiaohua (Inventor); McCauley, Laurie (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A delivery device includes a hollow container, and a plurality of biodegradable and/or erodible polymeric layers established in the container. A layer including a predetermined substance is established between each of the plurality of polymeric layers, whereby degradation of the polymeric layer and release of the predetermined substance occur intermittently. Methods for forming the device are also disclosed herein.

  6. 75 FR 51093 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information... of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the...: Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

  7. A Framework for Interactively Helpful Web Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohøj, Morten; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Gammelmark, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    AdapForms is a framework for adaptive forms, consisting of a form definition language designating structure and constraints upon acceptable input, and a software architecture that continuously validates and adapts the form presented to the user. The validation is performed server-side, which...

  8. 29 CFR 1904.29 - Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Basic requirement. You must use OSHA 300, 300-A, and 301 forms, or equivalent forms, for recordable injuries and illnesses. The OSHA 300 form is called the Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses, the 300-A is the Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses, and the OSHA 301 form is called the Injury...

  9. Forms of cohesion in confinement institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina D. Slobodenyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the diversity of cohesion forms in confinement institutions. Methods qualitative analyses based on indepth semistructured interviews. Results the study included adaptation of Western methodologies of the cohesion phenomenon analysis to the Russian reality and operationalization of the moral bases of group cohesion. This served as the bases for designing a guide for indepth semistructured interviews 10 interviews were conducted with people recently released from general and strict regime colonies. Content analysis of the interviews revealed a number of structural sections that demonstrate the diversity of cohesion forms alongside with one that is most meaningful to the prisoners and therefore the most well perceived and articulated by respondents. Analysis of the latter allowed to identify a set of groups showing different degree and nature of cohesion. By the degree of cohesion one can identify the poorly cohesive groups quotloutsquot moderately cohesive quotredsquot quotthievesquot and highly cohesive quotfightersquot. By the nature of cohesion in the prisonersrsquo community there are both groups united on the basis of social morality quotredsquot quotthievesquot and groups demonstrating a high degree of cohesion based on the social justice morality quotfightersquot. A detailed analysis of the latter group also showed that the cohesion can have both traits of morality social justice and features of social order moral. Scientific novelty using the sociopsychological theory of the moral motives in determining the bases of cohesion. Practical significance the research results can be applied for the development of sociopsychological techniques for the penal system reform.

  10. DSNF AND OTHER WASTE FORM DEGRADATION ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to select and/or abstract conservative degradation models for DOE-(US. Department of Energy) owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) and the immobilized ceramic plutonium (Pu) disposition waste forms for application in the proposed monitored geologic repository (MGR) postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Application of the degradation models abstracted herein for purposes other than TSPA should take into consideration the fact that they are, in general, very conservative. Using these models, the forward reaction rate for the mobilization of radionuclides, as solutes or colloids, away from the waste fondwater interface by contact with repository groundwater can then be calculated. This forward reaction rate generally consists of the dissolution reaction at the surface of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in contact with water, but the degradation models, in some cases, may also include and account for the physical disintegration of the SNF matrix. The models do not, however, account for retardation, precipitation, or inhibition of the migration of the mobilized radionuclides in the engineered barrier system (EBS). These models are based on the assumption that all components of the DSNF waste form are released congruently with the degradation of the matrix

  11. Glass forming ability of calcium aluminosilicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of......The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite......-wollastonite-tridymite and that of anorthite-wollastonite-gehlenite. The series includes the eutectic compositions as end members. The second series consists of five compositions on a line parallel to the joining line on the alumina rich side. In the present work, GFA is described in terms of glass stability, i.e., the ability of a glass...... to resist crystallization during reheating. In addition, the fragility index (m) is derived by fitting the viscosity data with the Avramov-Milchev equation. The results show that m is inversely proportional to the glass stability for the two series of melts, implying that m is an indirect measure of GFA...

  12. Extension of Chern-Simons forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konitopoulos, Spyros; Savvidy, George

    2014-06-01

    We investigate metric independent, gauge invariant, and closed forms in the generalized Yang-Mills (YM) theory. These forms are polynomial on the corresponding fields strength tensors - curvature forms and are analogous to the Pontryagin-Chern densities in the YM gauge theory. The corresponding secondary characteristic classes have been expressed in integral form in analogy with the Chern-Simons form. Because they are not unique, the secondary forms can be dramatically simplified by the addition of properly chosen differentials of one-step-lower-order forms. Their gauge variation can also be found yielding the potential anomalies in the gauge field theory.

  13. Southwest Caves Reveal New Forms of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, J. Judson; Drost, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Caves in northern Arizona and western New Mexico are being researched and inventoried by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies. Southwestern caves have been little studied, and scientists are now finding that these lightless and nutrient-poor natural systems are home to life forms found nowhere else on Earth. This research has identified unique communities of arthropods (insects, arachnids, and crustaceans) that include 3 new genera, or groups of species, and at least 15 new species - some only known to exist in a single cave. This exciting research is yielding information that will be used by resource managers to better understand and protect fragile and important Southwestern cave ecosystems.

  14. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2014-09-09

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  15. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors and intermediate products formed by such methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2012-12-04

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  16. Electroweak form factors of the Skyrmion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, E.; Sze-Man Tse; Willcox, C.

    1986-01-01

    The electroweak form factors of baryons are studied in the semiclassical approximation to the Skyrme model. General expressions for the form factors are given for arbitrary choices of the Skyrme-model Lagrangian. They are applied to the original two-parameter Skyrme model to compute the electric, magnetic, and axial-vector form factors of the nucleon and the electromagnetic nucleon-Δ transition form factors. The dependence of the form factors on the momentum transfer is compared with phenomenological dipole parametrizations

  17. Cross-platform digital assessment forms for evaluating surgical skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Arild Wuyts Andersen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A variety of structured assessment tools for use in surgical training have been reported, but extant assessment tools often employ paper-based rating forms. Digital assessment forms for evaluating surgical skills could potentially offer advantages over paper-based forms, especially in complex assessment situations. In this paper, we report on the development of cross-platform digital assessment forms for use with multiple raters in order to facilitate the automatic processing of surgical skills assessments that include structured ratings. The FileMaker 13 platform was used to create a database containing the digital assessment forms, because this software has cross-platform functionality on both desktop computers and handheld devices. The database is hosted online, and the rating forms can therefore also be accessed through most modern web browsers. Cross-platform digital assessment forms were developed for the rating of surgical skills. The database platform used in this study was reasonably priced, intuitive for the user, and flexible. The forms have been provided online as free downloads that may serve as the basis for further development or as inspiration for future efforts. In conclusion, digital assessment forms can be used for the structured rating of surgical skills and have the potential to be especially useful in complex assessment situations with multiple raters, repeated assessments in various times and locations, and situations requiring substantial subsequent data processing or complex score calculations.

  18. Trapping Dust to Form Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Growing a planet from a dust grain is hard work! A new study explores how vortices in protoplanetary disks can assist this process.When Dust Growth FailsTop: ALMA image of the protoplanetary disk of V1247 Orionis, with different emission components labeled. Bottom: Synthetic image constructed from the best-fit model. [Kraus et al. 2017]Gradual accretion onto a seed particle seems like a reasonable way to grow a planet from a grain of dust; after all, planetary embryos orbit within dusty protoplanetary disks, which provides them with plenty of fuel to accrete so they can grow. Theres a challenge to this picture, though: the radial drift problem.The radial drift problem acknowledges that, as growing dust grains orbit within the disk, the drag force on them continues to grow as well. For large enough dust grains perhaps around 1 millimeter the drag force will cause the grains orbits to decay, and the particles drift into the star before they are able to grow into planetesimals and planets.A Close-Up Look with ALMASo how do we overcome the radial drift problem in order to form planets? A commonly proposed mechanism is dust trapping, in which long-lived vortices in the disk trap the dust particles, preventing them from falling inwards. This allows the particles to persist for millions of years long enough to grow beyond the radial drift barrier.Observationally, these dust-trapping vortices should have signatures: we would expect to see, at millimeter wavelengths, specific bright, asymmetric structures where the trapping occurs in protoplanetary disks. Such disk structures have been difficult to spot with past instrumentation, but the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has made some new observations of the disk V1247 Orionis that might be just what were looking for.Schematic of the authors model for the disk of V1247 Orionis. [Kraus et al. 2017]Trapped in a Vortex?ALMAs observations of V1247 Orionis are reported by a team of scientists led by Stefan

  19. 7 CFR 1755.98 - List of telecommunications specifications included in other 7 CFR parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of telecommunications specifications included in... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.98 List of telecommunications specifications...

  20. Tornadoes: Nature's Most Violent Storms. A Preparedness Guide Including Safety Information for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This preparedness guide explains and describes tornadoes, and includes safety information for schools. A tornado is defined as a violently rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground. The guide explains the cause of tornadoes, provides diagrams of how they form, describes variations of tornadoes, and classifies tornadoes by…

  1. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  2. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  3. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  4. Dictionary of scientific units including dimensionless numbers and scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrard, H.G; McNeill, D.B

    1992-01-01

    .... The text includes the most recently accepted values of all units. Several disciplines, which have in the past employed few scientific principles and the dictionary has been extended to include examples of these.

  5. Including Voices from the World through Global Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Elizabeth E.

    2008-01-01

    Linking to voices from the world is exciting for both students and teachers, but everyone needs to understand that global education is a form of citizenship education. The activities of the nation have a great effect on people in the rest of the world, whether in the realm of economics, diplomacy, the media, or the environment. Some states, like…

  6. Swarm Robotics with Circular Formation Motion Including Obstacles Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The robots science has been developed over the past few years, where robots have become used to accomplish difficult, repetitive or accurate tasks, which are very hard for humans to carry out. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to control the motion of a swarm of robots and make them able to avoid obstacles. The proposed solution is based on forming the robots in circular fashion. A group set of robots consists of multiple groups of robots, each group of robots consists of robots forming a circular shape and each group set is a circular form of robots. The proposed algorithm is concerned with first locating the randomly generated robots in groups and secondly with the swarm robot motion and finally with the swarm obstacle avoidance and swarm reorganization after crossing the obstacle. The proposed algorithm has been simulated with five different obstacles with various numbers of randomly generated robots. The results show that the swarm in the circular form can deal with the obstacles very effectively by passing the obstacles smoothly. The proposed algorithm has been compared with flocking algorithm and it is shown that the circular formation algorithm does not need extensive computation after obstacle avoidance whereas the flocking algorithm needs extensive computation. In addition, the circular formation algorithm maintains every robot in its group after avoiding the obstacles whereas with flocking algorithm does not.

  7. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  8. PASSIVATION LAYER STABILITY OF A METALLIC ALLOY WASTE FORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.; Mickalonis, J.; Fisher, D.; Sindelar, R.

    2010-01-01

    Alloy waste form development under the Waste Forms Campaign of the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development program includes the process development and characterization of an alloy system to incorporate metal species from the waste streams generated during nuclear fuel recycling. This report describes the tests and results from the FY10 activities to further investigate an Fe-based waste form that uses 300-series stainless steel as the base alloy in an induction furnace melt process to incorporate the waste species from a closed nuclear fuel recycle separations scheme. This report is focused on the initial activities to investigate the formation of oxyhydroxide layer(s) that would be expected to develop on the Fe-based waste form as it corrodes under aqueous repository conditions. Corrosion tests were used to evaluate the stability of the layer(s) that can act as a passivation layer against further corrosion and would affect waste form durability in a disposal environment.

  9. Cross-platform digital assessment forms for evaluating surgical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2015-01-01

    assessment situations. In this paper, we report on the development of cross-platform digital assessment forms for use with multiple raters in order to facilitate the automatic processing of surgical skills assessments that include structured ratings. The FileMaker 13 platform was used to create a database...... containing the digital assessment forms, because this software has cross-platform functionality on both desktop computers and handheld devices. The database is hosted online, and the rating forms can therefore also be accessed through most modern web browsers. Cross-platform digital assessment forms were...... developed for the rating of surgical skills. The database platform used in this study was reasonably priced, intuitive for the user, and flexible. The forms have been provided online as free downloads that may serve as the basis for further development or as inspiration for future efforts. In conclusion...

  10. New CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) forms

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    New versions of the following forms for claims and requests to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) have been released:   form for claiming reimbursement of medical expenses,   form for requesting advance reimbursement, and   dental estimate form (for treatments foreseen to exceed 800 CHF).   The new forms are available in French and English. They can either be completed electronically before being printed and signed, or completed in paper form. New detailed instructions can be found at the back of the claim form; CHIS members are invited to read them carefully. The electronic versions (PDF) of all the forms are available on the CHIS website and on the UNIQA Member Portal. CHIS Members are requested to use these new forms forthwith and to discard any previous version. Questions regarding the above should be addressed directly to UNIQA (72730 or 022.718 63 00 or uniqa.assurances@cern.ch).

  11. A novel form of pectinesterase in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrilow, A G; Turner, R J; Jones, M G

    1994-03-01

    The pectinesterases in tomato pericarp were fractionated by cation exchange into four forms (A-D). Form A was the most abundant and C the second most abundant. Forms A-C were further purified by gel filtration, and antibodies were raised against A and C. Comparison of the different forms by dot blots and Western blots showed that although all three forms shared common immunological characteristics, there were also differences in their behaviour, indicative of structural differences. Form A had an N-terminal sequence identical to that published previously for the major pectinesterase in tomato fruit. In contrast, form C had a completely novel N-terminal sequence. Form A was absent from hypocotyls and roots. Forms B and C were present in comparable amounts in hypocotyls, while from C predominated in roots.

  12. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding: Progress and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarized recent progress in metal superplasticity and the application of Superplastic Forming/Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB or SPF/Welding in typical structures. Various aerospace components such as three dimensional lattice structures made by SPF/DB have been demonstrated. In addition, some newly developed technologies, such as melt droplet spreading/thermo-mechanical forming (MDS/TMF, were also included. Finally, the future potential of SPF/DB technology was predicted.

  13. DARK TOURISM - NEW FORM OF TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rabontu Cecilia Irina; Vasile Madalina Cristina

    2014-01-01

    It is discussing,increasingly more often, in contemporary tourism, about new elements that enhances the appearance and development of new forms of tourism, including dark tourism which is based on the increasingly desire of modern tourist to achieve spiritual journeys, which have as attractions- deaths, disasters, atrocities, torture methods and other such issues. This subject has awoke our interest because we can find in Romania demand for this form of tourism but also various po...

  14. Psychohistory and general historical forms of personality in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Ruiz, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is a synthesis of the theoretical and methodological investigations about the general historical forms of personality in Peru, which is developed from the fields of psychohistory and neurosciences. We propose and develop the category of general historical forms of personality. We explain their development in the evolution of people from Peru, from the prehispanic time, until the republican period, including the colony. The historical and social data of each time are integrat...

  15. Carbon nanotubes and methods of forming same at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biris, Alexandru S.; Dervishi, Enkeleda

    2017-05-02

    In one aspect of the invention, a method for growth of carbon nanotubes includes providing a graphitic composite, decorating the graphitic composite with metal nanostructures to form graphene-contained powders, and heating the graphene-contained powders at a target temperature to form the carbon nanotubes in an argon/hydrogen environment that is devoid of a hydrocarbon source. In one embodiment, the target temperature can be as low as about 150.degree. C. (.+-.5.degree. C.).

  16. Modifications to standard forms of contract: the impact on readability

    OpenAIRE

    Raufdeen Rameezdeen; Anushi Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Lack of clarity in contract documents can lead to disputes between contracting parties. Standard form contracts have evolved due to construction business becoming increasingly complex and the difficulty in drafting bespoke conditions of contract for each project. Numerous advantages have been identified in using standard forms of contract. However, clients often modify some clauses in order to include specific requirements for a project. While the consequences of ill-modifications to standard...

  17. 76 FR 21946 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 990-BL; Schedule A (Form 990-BL), Form 6069

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Initial Excise Tax Return for Black Lung Benefit Trusts and Certain Related Persons, and Form 6069, Return of Excise Tax on Excess Contributions to Black Lung Benefit Trust Under Section 4953 and Computation...: Form 990-BL, Schedule A (Form 990-BL), Information and Initial Excise Tax Return for Black Lung Benefit...

  18. Development and characterization of cermet forms for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    Cermets designed to isolate high-level wastes in a solid form are a composite consisting of various ceramic phase particles uniformly dispersed in and microencapsulated by an iron-nickel base alloy matrix. The metal matrix provides this waste form with many advantageous features including excellent thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. These cermets are formed by first dissolving the waste in molten urea, precipitating and calcining all the constituents, compacting the calcine, and sintering and reduction to form the final product. The exact formulation of cermets through additions to the waste is designed to fix most of the fission products in stable, leach resistant ceramic phases which are subsequently microencapsulated by an alloy matrix. The alloy matrix, which is derived primarily from the waste itself and includes the reducible fission and activation products from the waste, can be compositionally adjusted through additions to optimize its corrosion resistance under conditions existing in various disposal environments. The processes by which cermets are formed include several new and unique materials preparation options that are being developed to permit engineering scale-up and to be compatible with remote operations. Cermets formed by alternate processing methods are being characterized. Initially, cermet samples were prepared using a laboratory scale, batch process developed for the preparation of special ceramics having high compositional uniformity and excellent sinterability. The modification of this batch process to one suitable for scale-up and remote operation is the subject of this paper. Cermet characterization is also discussed

  19. Inherited ichthyosis: Non-syndromic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, Takuya; Akiyama, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Inherited ichthyoses are a group of genetic disorders characterized by generalized dry skin, scaling and hyperkeratosis, and often associated with erythroderma. These manifestations are due to mutations in genes mostly involved in skin barrier formation. Inherited ichthyoses consist of non-syndromic ichthyoses and ichthyosis syndromes. Non-syndromic ichthyoses are characterized by the phenotypic expression of the disorder being seen only in the skin. Non-syndromic ichthyoses include ichthyosis vulgaris, recessive X-linked ichthyosis, autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, keratinopathic ichthyosis and other forms. This review focuses on updates for each type of non-syndromic ichthyosis, highlighting molecular mechanisms and phenotype/genotype correlations. Included in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis are three of the major phenotypes (harlequin ichthyosis, lamellar ichthyosis and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma) and three of the minor subtypes (self-healing collodion baby, acral self-healing collodion baby and bathing suit ichthyosis). Keratinopathic ichthyosis is proposed as an umbrella term for ichthyoses caused by mutations in keratin genes. Next-generation sequencing technologies have become powerful tools for the diagnosis of inherited ichthyoses and the discovery of their genetic causes. This article reviews the current understanding of molecular pathomechanisms for non-syndromic ichthyoses and explores future perspectives. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Suncor Energy Inc. annual information form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This information form presents five year highlights of the company's performance, a narrative description of the company's business, including operations, leasehold interests and royalties, estimated synthetic crude reserves, exploration and production, marketing pipeline and other operations. It also contains certain predictions with respect to Suncor's plans for the future, based on current perceptions of the situation in the oil and gas industry, and assumptions in light of Suncor's own experience and interpretation of historical trends. Some of the risk, uncertainties and other factors that could influence actual results include: (1) changes in the general economic and business conditions; (2) fluctuations in supply and demand for Suncor's products, (3) fluctuations in commodity prices, (4) fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, (5) Suncor's ability to respond to changing markets, (6) the ability of Suncor to receive timely regulatory approvals, in particular in connection with Project Millennium, (7) the integrity and reliability of Suncor's capital assets, (8) the cumulative impact of other resource development projects, (9) Suncor's ability to comply with current and future environmental laws, and (10) increased competition from other oil and gas companies. tabs

  1. Methods, forms and means of forming the religious literacy among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimov Vladimir Fedorovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the range of problems related to the formation of religious literacy among the students. The author specifically notes that this aspect is formed in an ideological key and includes understanding of the nature and typology of religions, their historical origins and current status, and the presence of tolerance towards persons with different beliefs, and ability to fruitful (without violence to conscience someone coexistence and social interaction. To achieve this purpose the article presents and uses the described methodological tools.

  2. 75 FR 16513 - B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70, 975A] B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From B&C Services... October 2, 2009, applicable to workers of B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, including on-site...

  3. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  4. Nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics including dissipation and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrgang, Marlene; Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Leupold, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We present a consistent theoretical approach for the study of nonequilibrium effects in chiral fluid dynamics within the framework of the linear σ model with constituent quarks. Treating the quarks as an equilibrated heat bath, we use the influence functional formalism to obtain a Langevin equation for the σ field. This allows us to calculate the explicit form of the damping coefficient and the noise correlators. For a self-consistent derivation of both the dynamics of the σ field and the quark fluid, we have to employ the 2PI (two-particle irreducible) effective action formalism. The energy dissipation from the field to the fluid is treated in the exact formalism of the 2PI effective action where a conserved energy-momentum tensor can be constructed. We derive its form and comment on approximations generating additional terms in the energy-momentum balance of the entire system.

  5. Structure and applications of point form relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    The framework of point form relativistic quantum mechanics is used to construct mass and current operators for hadronic systems with finite degree of freedom. For the point form all of the interactions are in the four-momentum operator and, since Lorentz transformations are kinematic, the theory is manifestly covariant. In the Bakamjian-Thomas version of the point form the four-momentum operator is written as a product of the four-velocity operator and mass operator, where the mass operator is the sum of free and interacting mass operators. Interacting mass operators can be constructed from vertices, matrix elements of local field operators evaluated at the space-time point zero, where the states are eigenstates of the four-velocity. Applications include the study of the spectra and widths of vector mesons, viewed as bound states of quark-antiquark pairs. Besides mass operators, current operators are needed to compute form factors. Form factors are matrix elements of current operators on mass operator eigenstates and are often calculated with one-body current operators (in the point form this is called the point form spectator approximation); but in a properly relativistic theory there must also be many-body current operators. Minimal currents needed to satisfy current conservation in the presence of hadronic interactions (called dynamically determined currents) are shown to be easily calculated in the point form. (author)

  6. Migration path for structured documentation systems including standardized medical device data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Ann-Kristin; Ingenerf, Josef; Halkaliev, Stoyan; Handels, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    A standardized end-to-end solution has been implemented with the aim of supporting the semantic integration of clinical content in institution spanning applications. The approach outlined is a proof-of-concept design. It has shown that the standards chosen are suitable to integrate device data into forms, to document the results consistently and finally enable semantic interoperability. In detail the implementation includes a standardized device interface, a standardized representation of data entry forms and enables the communication of structured data via HL7 CDA. Because the proposed method applies a combination of standards semantic interoperability and the possibility of a contextual interpretation at each stage can be ensured.

  7. FormCalc 9 and extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, T.; Passehr, S.; Schappacher, C.

    2016-04-01

    We present Version 9 of the Feynman-diagram calculator FormCalc and a flexible new suite of shell scripts and Mathematica packages based on FormCalc, which can be adapted and used as a template for calculations.

  8. Strategic surfaces in sheet metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bay, Niels

    Out-line: Introduction to tribology in sheet metal forming Developed strategic surfaces Tribological testing of strategic surfaces Conclusion......Out-line: Introduction to tribology in sheet metal forming Developed strategic surfaces Tribological testing of strategic surfaces Conclusion...

  9. Green Supplier Network Manufacturer Commitment Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online form expressing interest in committing to be a Green Supplier; this form expresses your intent to participate in a confidential Green Suppliers Network assessment, implement recommended environmental improvements and complete a NIST MEP follow-up.

  10. Trajectories of Form in Modern Japanese Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Beville, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Form is central to poetry, if not all artistic endeavor. The Japanese literary tradition contains an array of poetic forms since its earliest extant texts, though some, like waka and kanshi, dominated poetic production for centuries. With Japan’s increased exposure to Western literary forms after the start of the Meiji era in 1868, the variety of new forms expanded rapidly. For many of Japan’s readers and poets, exposure to European and American literature was initially mediated by translatio...

  11. Dimeric forms of cholinesterase in Sipunculus nudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talesa, V; Principato, G B; Giovannini, E; Di Giovanni, M V; Rosi, G

    1993-07-15

    In developing a research on the cholinesterase (ChE) evolution in Invertebrata, this enzyme was studied in the unsegmented marine worm Sipunculus nudus. ChE activity was solubilized through three successive steps of extraction. These fractions are noted as low-salt (LSS), detergent (DS) and high-salt soluble (HSS) and represent 27%, 68% and 5% of total activity, respectively. LSS and DS ChE were purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on edrophonium-Sepharose gel. Purification factors of 1700 (LSS) and 1090 (DS) were obtained. The small amount of HSS ChE prevented a similar purification and an extensive characterization. Based on SDS/PAGE and density-gradient centrifugation, both LSS and DS enzymes show a M(r) value of about 130,000 and are likely G2 globular dimers of a 67,000 subunit. Moreover, LSS ChE seems to be an amphiphilic form including a hydrophobic domain, while DS ChE is probably linked to the cell membrane by a phosphatidylinositol anchor. Both LSS and DS enzymes hydrolyze at the highest rate propionylthiocholine. However, they also show a fairly high catalytic efficiency with other thiocholine esters as substrates, thus suggesting a wide and little-specialized conformation of the active site. Based on immunological cross-reactivity trials, LSS and DS ChE from S. nudus show a reduced structural affinity with a molluscan (Murex brandaris) enzyme. HSS ChE, an acetylcholinesterase, is also solubilized by heparin, like typical vertebrate HSS asymmetric enzymes. However, it lacks fast-sedimenting forms and an enzyme-anchoring collagenous structure.

  12. Do evaporating black holes form photospheres?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGibbon, Jane H.; Carr, B. J.; Page, Don N.

    2008-01-01

    Several authors, most notably Heckler, have claimed that the observable Hawking emission from a microscopic black hole is significantly modified by the formation of a photosphere around the black hole due to QED or QCD interactions between the emitted particles. In this paper we analyze these claims and identify a number of physical and geometrical effects which invalidate these scenarios. We point out two key problems. First, the interacting particles must be causally connected to interact, and this condition is satisfied by only a small fraction of the emitted particles close to the black hole. Second, a scattered particle requires a distance ∼E/m e 2 for completing each bremsstrahlung interaction, with the consequence that it is improbable for there to be more than one complete bremsstrahlung interaction per particle near the black hole. These two effects have not been included in previous analyses. We conclude that the emitted particles do not interact sufficiently to form a QED photosphere. Similar arguments apply in the QCD case and prevent a QCD photosphere (chromosphere) from developing when the black hole temperature is much greater than Λ QCD , the threshold for QCD particle emission. Additional QCD phenomenological arguments rule out the development of a chromosphere around black hole temperatures of order Λ QCD . In all cases, the observational signatures of a cosmic or Galactic halo background of primordial black holes or an individual black hole remain essentially those of the standard Hawking model, with little change to the detection probability. We also consider the possibility, as proposed by Belyanin et al. and D. Cline et al., that plasma interactions between the emitted particles form a photosphere, and we conclude that this scenario too is not supported.

  13. Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it…

  14. Focus on Form: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2016-01-01

    "Focus on form" (FonF) is a central construct in task-based language teaching. The term was first introduced by Michael Long to refer to an approach where learners' attention is attracted to linguistic forms as they engage in the performance of tasks. It contrasts with a structure-based approach--"focus on forms" (FonFs)--where…

  15. Matlab Code for Sorted Real Schur Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    In Matlab, there exists a standard command to generate a real Schur form, and another command transforms a real Schur form into a complex one. In Golub and Van Loan (1996), a Matlab-like routine is sketched that sorts a complex Schur form: given a target value ? in the complex plane, the diagonal

  16. Two Forms of Philosophical Argument or Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, James D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the author looks at two forms of philosophical argument or critique. These are derived by himself from the work of the late Kantian scholar, Stephan Korner who, in his book "What is Philosophy?" (1969), draws a number of distinctions between different forms of "philosophical" argument or critique. The two forms of derived argument,…

  17. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United...

  18. 24 CFR 220.822 - Claim computation; items included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim computation; items included. 220.822 Section 220.822 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... computation; items included. (a) Assignment of loan. Upon an acceptable assignment of the note and security...

  19. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  20. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this section...

  1. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  2. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory are...

  3. A framework for including family health spillovers in economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health

  4. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to mean... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency...

  5. Effects of Processing Parameters on the Forming Quality of C-Shaped Thermosetting Composite Laminates in Hot Diaphragm Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, X. X.; Gu, Y. Z.; Sun, J.; Li, M.; Liu, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of processing temperature and vacuum applying rate on the forming quality of C-shaped carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite laminates during hot diaphragm forming process were investigated. C-shaped prepreg preforms were produced using a home-made hot diaphragm forming equipment. The thickness variations of the preforms and the manufacturing defects after diaphragm forming process, including fiber wrinkling and voids, were evaluated to understand the forming mechanism. Furthermore, both interlaminar slipping friction and compaction behavior of the prepreg stacks were experimentally analyzed for showing the importance of the processing parameters. In addition, autoclave processing was used to cure the C-shaped preforms to investigate the changes of the defects before and after cure process. The results show that the C-shaped prepreg preforms with good forming quality can be achieved through increasing processing temperature and reducing vacuum applying rate, which obviously promote prepreg interlaminar slipping process. The process temperature and forming rate in hot diaphragm forming process strongly influence prepreg interply frictional force, and the maximum interlaminar frictional force can be taken as a key parameter for processing parameter optimization. Autoclave process is effective in eliminating voids in the preforms and can alleviate fiber wrinkles to a certain extent.

  6. Electromagnetic N-N* transition form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devenish, R.C.E.; Eisenschitz, T.S.; Koerner, J.G.

    1975-11-01

    We define constraint-free electromagnetic N-N*(J) transition form factors for general abnormal and normal parity transitions and relate them to multipole and helicity transition form factors. Possible parametrizations of the constraint-free form factors are discussed, and various theoretically motivated simplifications are considered which are then compared to the available transition form factor data. If analysed in terms of the constraint-free form factors, a very simple picture is obtained for the three leading resonances P 33 , D 13 , and F 15 . (orig.) [de

  7. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  8. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues

  9. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  10. Including estimates of the future in today's financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Barth

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains why the question is how, not if, today's financial statements should include estimates of the future. Including such estimates is not new, but their use is increasing. This increase results primarily because standard setters believe asset and liability measures that reflect current economic conditions and up-to-date expectations of the future will result in more useful information for making economic decisions, which is the objective of financial reporting. This is why sta...

  11. Disposal criticality analysis methodology for fissile waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Gottlieb, P.

    1998-03-01

    A general methodology has been developed to evaluate the criticality potential of the wide range of waste forms planned for geologic disposal. The range of waste forms include commercial spent fuel, high level waste, DOE spent fuel (including highly enriched), MOX using weapons grade plutonium, and immobilized plutonium. The disposal of these waste forms will be in a container with sufficiently thick corrosion resistant barriers to prevent water penetration for up to 10,000 years. The criticality control for DOE spent fuel is primarily provided by neutron absorber material incorporated into the basket holding the individual assemblies. For the immobilized plutonium, the neutron absorber material is incorporated into the waste form itself. The disposal criticality analysis methodology includes the analysis of geochemical and physical processes that can breach the waste package and affect the waste forms within. The basic purpose of the methodology is to guide the criticality control features of the waste package design, and to demonstrate that the final design meets the criticality control licensing requirements. The methodology can also be extended to the analysis of criticality consequences (primarily increased radionuclide inventory), which will support the total performance assessment for the respository

  12. Irreducible forms of matrix product states: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    De las Cuevas, Gemma; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Schuch, Norbert; Perez-Garcia, David

    2017-12-01

    The canonical form of Matrix Product States (MPS) and the associated fundamental theorem, which relates different MPS representations of a state, are the theoretical framework underlying many of the analytical results derived through MPS, such as the classification of symmetry-protected phases in one dimension. Yet, the canonical form is only defined for MPS without non-trivial periods and thus cannot fully capture paradigmatic states such as the antiferromagnet. Here, we introduce a new standard form for MPS, the irreducible form, which is defined for arbitrary MPS, including periodic states, and show that any tensor can be transformed into a tensor in irreducible form describing the same MPS. We then prove a fundamental theorem for MPS in irreducible form: If two tensors in irreducible form give rise to the same MPS, then they must be related by a similarity transform, together with a matrix of phases. We provide two applications of this result: an equivalence between the refinement properties of a state and the divisibility properties of its transfer matrix, and a more general characterisation of tensors that give rise to matrix product states with symmetries.

  13. Optical filter including a sub-wavelength periodic structure and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Sumanth; Stallard, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    An optical filter includes a dielectric layer formed within a resonant optical cavity, with the dielectric layer having formed therein a sub-wavelength periodic structure to define, at least in part, a wavelength for transmission of light through the resonant optical cavity. The sub-wavelength periodic structure can be formed either by removing material from the dielectric layer (e.g. by etching through an electron-beam defined mask), or by altering the composition of the layer (e.g. by ion implantation). Different portions of the dielectric layer can be patterned to form one or more optical interference filter elements having different light transmission wavelengths so that the optical filter can filter incident light according to wavelength and/or polarization. For some embodiments, the optical filter can include a detector element in optical alignment with each optical interference filter element to quantify or measure the filtered light for analysis thereof. The optical filter has applications to spectrometry, colorimetry, and chemical sensing.

  14. An Algorithm for Higher Order Hopf Normal Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y.T. Leung

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal form theory is important for studying the qualitative behavior of nonlinear oscillators. In some cases, higher order normal forms are required to understand the dynamic behavior near an equilibrium or a periodic orbit. However, the computation of high-order normal forms is usually quite complicated. This article provides an explicit formula for the normalization of nonlinear differential equations. The higher order normal form is given explicitly. Illustrative examples include a cubic system, a quadratic system and a Duffing–Van der Pol system. We use exact arithmetic and find that the undamped Duffing equation can be represented by an exact polynomial differential amplitude equation in a finite number of terms.

  15. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  16. International Conference on Automorphic Forms and Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Baali, Mehiddin; Ibukiyama, Tomoyoshi; Rupp, Florian

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume presents a collection of carefully refereed articles covering the latest advances in Automorphic Forms and Number Theory, that were primarily developed from presentations given at the 2012 “International Conference on Automorphic Forms and Number Theory,” held in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. The present volume includes original research as well as some surveys and outlines of research altogether providing a contemporary snapshot on the latest activities in the field and covering the topics of: Borcherds products Congruences and Codes Jacobi forms Siegel and Hermitian modular forms Special values of L-series Recently, the Sultanate of Oman became a member of the International Mathematical Society. In view of this development, the conference provided the platform for scientific exchange and collaboration between scientists of different countries from all over the world. In particular, an opportunity was established for a close exchange between scientists and students of Germany, Oman, and J...

  17. Single Point Incremental Forming using a Dummy Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, Beatriz; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A new version of single point incremental forming (SPIF) is presented. This version includes a dummy sheet on top of the work piece, thus forming two sheets instead of one. The dummy sheet, which is in contact with the rotating tool pin, is discarded after forming. The new set-up influences...... the process and furthermore offers a number of new possibilities for solving some of the problems appearing in SPIF. Investigations of the influence of dummy sheet on: formability, wear, surface quality and bulging of planar sides is done by forming to test shapes: a hyperboloid and a truncated pyramid....... The possible influence of friction between the two sheets is furthermore investigated. The results show that the use of a dummy sheet reduces wear of the work piece to almost zero, but also causes a decrease in formability. Bulging of the planar sides of the pyramid is reduced and surface roughness...

  18. Materials research and development for nuclear weapons applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Highlights of a comprehensive summary of materials research and development being conducted at Sandia in support of the nuclear weapons development programs are presented. The developments include foams, encapsulants, metals with memories, material equations-of-state, composites, glass-to-metal bonds, and design processes

  19. Perspectives on Golgi apparatus form and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, H H; Morré, D J

    1991-01-01

    In 1898, Camillio Golgi reported a new cellular constituent with the form of an extensive intracellular network (the apparato reticolare interno), which now bears his name. However, the history of Golgi's apparatus is replete with controversy regarding its reality, what components of the cell should be included under its aegis, and what terminology should be used when referring to it. Electron microscopy has resolved many of these controversies and it is appropriate that this volume emphasize that aspect of Golgi apparatus discovery. The principal structural component of the Golgi apparatus is the stack of cisternae, or dictyosome. As determined both biochemically and at the level of electron microscopy, the dictyosome is a highly ordered and polarized structure. The maintenance of order within the stack is thought to result from either intercisternal bonding constituents, or filamentous structures (or both) that bridge the space between adjacent cisternae. Mechanisms proposed for movement of membrane and product into and out of the dictyosome (i.e., the Golgi apparatus stack) include a serial mode which functions exclusively by the formation, displacement, and loss of cisternae from the stack, and a parallel mode which functions exclusively by the movement of membrane, product, or precursor molecules directly into the peripheral edges of the cisternae. In the parallel mode, all cisternae can be accessed either singly or simultaneously, at least in theory, at any position within the stack. It is probable that both the serial and the parallel modes function concomitantly and need not be mutually exclusive. Finally, the peripheral tubules of the cisternae represent a major membranous constituent of the cell with potentially unique functions. These tubules interconnect cisternae of adjacent stacks and may represent the major site of receptors for the shuttle (i.e., parallel) type of transfer among cisternae. Peripheral tubules as extensions of the cisternal lumina

  20. Advanced topics in linear algebra weaving matrix problems through the Weyr form

    CERN Document Server

    O'Meara, Kevin; Vinsonhaler, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Weyr matrix canonical form is a largely unknown cousin of the Jordan canonical form. Discovered by Eduard Weyr in 1885, the Weyr form outperforms the Jordan form in a number of mathematical situations, yet it remains somewhat of a mystery, even to many who are skilled in linear algebra. Written in an engaging style, this book presents various advanced topics in linear algebra linked through the Weyr form. Kevin O'Meara, John Clark, and Charles Vinsonhaler develop the Weyr form from scratch and include an algorithm for computing it. A fascinating duality exists between the Weyr form and the

  1. The Causal Priority of Form in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Koslicki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In various texts (e.g., Met. Z.17, Aristotle assigns priority to form, in its role as a principle and cause, over matter and the matter-form compound. Given the central role played by this claim in Aristotle's search for primary substance in the Metaphysics, it is important to understand what motivates him in locating the primary causal responsibility for a thing's being what it is with the form, rather than the matter. According to Met. Theta.8, actuality [energeia/entelecheia] in general is prior to potentiality [dunamis] in three ways, viz., in definition, time and substance. I propose an explicitly causal reading of this general priority claim, as it pertains to the matter-form relationship. The priority of form over matter in definition, time and substance, in my view, is best explained by appeal to the role of form as the formal, efficient and final cause of the matter-form compound, respectively, while the posteriority of matter to form according to all three notions of priority is most plausibly accounted for by the fact that the causal contribution of matter is limited to its role as material cause. When approached from this angle, the work of Met. Theta.8 can be seen to lend direct support to the more specific and explicitly causal priority claim we encounter in Met. Z.17, viz., that form is prior to matter in its role as the principle and primary cause of a matter-form compound's being what it is.

  2. A behavioral database for masked form priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S; Johnson, Rebecca L; McCormick, Samantha F; McKague, Meredith; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Bowers, Jeffrey S; Perry, Jason R; Lupker, Stephen J; Forster, Kenneth I; Cortese, Michael J; Scaltritti, Michele; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Coane, Jennifer H; White, Laurence; Yap, Melvin J; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Colin J

    2014-12-01

    Reading involves a process of matching an orthographic input with stored representations in lexical memory. The masked priming paradigm has become a standard tool for investigating this process. Use of existing results from this paradigm can be limited by the precision of the data and the need for cross-experiment comparisons that lack normal experimental controls. Here, we present a single, large, high-precision, multicondition experiment to address these problems. Over 1,000 participants from 14 sites responded to 840 trials involving 28 different types of orthographically related primes (e.g., castfe-CASTLE) in a lexical decision task, as well as completing measures of spelling and vocabulary. The data were indeed highly sensitive to differences between conditions: After correction for multiple comparisons, prime type condition differences of 2.90 ms and above reached significance at the 5% level. This article presents the method of data collection and preliminary findings from these data, which included replications of the most widely agreed-upon differences between prime types, further evidence for systematic individual differences in susceptibility to priming, and new evidence regarding lexical properties associated with a target word's susceptibility to priming. These analyses will form a basis for the use of these data in quantitative model fitting and evaluation and for future exploration of these data that will inform and motivate new experiments.

  3. Evaluation of control strategies in forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmano Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of forming processes are subject to quality fluctuations due to uncertainty in semi-finished part properties as well as process conditions and environment. An approach to cope with these uncertainties is the implementation of a closed-loop control taking into account the actual product properties measured by sensors or estimated by a mathematical process model. Both methods of uncertainty control trade off with a financial effort. In case of sensor integration the effort is the cost of the sensor including signal processing as well as the design and manufacturing effort for integration. In case of an estimation model the effort is mainly determined by the time and knowledge needed to derive the model, identify the parameters and implement the model into the PLC. The risk of mismatch between model and reality as well as the risk of wrong parameter identification can be assumed as additional uncertainty (model uncertainty. This paper evaluates controlled and additional uncertainty by taking into account process boundary conditions like the degree of fluctuations in semi-finished part properties. The proposed evaluation is demonstrated by the analysis of exemplary processes.

  4. Laboratory procedures for waste form testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The 100 and 300 areas of the Hanford Site are included on the US Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Soil washing is a treatment process that is being considered for the remediation of the soil in these areas. Contaminated soil washing fines can be mixed or blended with cementations materials to produce stable waste forms that can be used for beneficial purposes in mixed or low-level waste landfills, burial trenches, environmental restoration sites, and other applications. This process has been termed co-disposal. The Co-Disposal Treatability Study Test Plan is designed to identify a range of cement-based formulations that could be used in disposal efforts in Hanford in co-disposal applications. The purpose of this document is to provide explicit procedural information for the testing of co-disposal formulations. This plan also provides a discussion of laboratory safety and quality assurance necessary to ensure safe, reproducible testing in the laboratory

  5. Laboratory procedures for waste form testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, E.S.

    1994-09-19

    The 100 and 300 areas of the Hanford Site are included on the US Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Soil washing is a treatment process that is being considered for the remediation of the soil in these areas. Contaminated soil washing fines can be mixed or blended with cementations materials to produce stable waste forms that can be used for beneficial purposes in mixed or low-level waste landfills, burial trenches, environmental restoration sites, and other applications. This process has been termed co-disposal. The Co-Disposal Treatability Study Test Plan is designed to identify a range of cement-based formulations that could be used in disposal efforts in Hanford in co-disposal applications. The purpose of this document is to provide explicit procedural information for the testing of co-disposal formulations. This plan also provides a discussion of laboratory safety and quality assurance necessary to ensure safe, reproducible testing in the laboratory.

  6. Classical evolution and quantum generation in generalized gravity theories including string corrections and tachyons: Unified analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2005-01-01

    We present cosmological perturbation theory based on generalized gravity theories including string theory correction terms and a tachyonic complication. The classical evolution as well as the quantum generation processes in these varieties of gravity theories are presented in unified forms. These apply both to the scalar- and tensor-type perturbations. Analyses are made based on the curvature variable in two different gauge conditions often used in the literature in Einstein's gravity; these are the curvature variables in the comoving (or uniform-field) gauge and the zero-shear gauge. Applications to generalized slow-roll inflation and its consequent power spectra are derived in unified forms which include a wide range of inflationary scenarios based on Einstein's gravity and others

  7. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-08-16

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  8. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  9. Manichaean exonyms and autonyms (including Augustine’s writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils A. Pedersen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Did the Western Manichaeans call themselves ‘Manichaean’ and ‘Christian’? A survey of the evidence, primarily Latin and Coptic, seems to show that the noun and adjective uses of ‘Manichaean’ were very rarely used and only in communication with non-Manichaeans. The use of ‘Christian’ is central in the Latin texts, which, however, is not written for internal use, but with a view to outsiders. The Coptic texts, on the other hand, are written for an internal audience; the word ‘Christian’ is only found twice and in fragmentary contexts, but it is suggested that some texts advocate a Christian self-understanding (Mani’s Epistles, the Psalm-Book whilst others (the Kephalaia are striving to establish an independent identity. Hence, the Christian self-understanding may reflect both the earliest Manichaeism and its later Western form whilst the attempt to be independent may be a secondary development.

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding including coagulopathies and other menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Karountzos, Vasileios

    2018-04-01

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is a frequent cause of visits to the emergency department and a major reason for concern among adolescents and their families. The most common cause of AUB, in otherwise healthy adolescents, is ovulatory dysfunction, although 5-36% of adolescents who present with heavy menstrual bleeding, have an underlying bleeding disorder (BD). The most common form of BDs is von Willebrand Disease, reflecting 13% of adolescents with AUB. Management of AUB depends on the underlying etiology, the bleeding severity, as well as the need for hospitalization. Treatment of adolescents with an underlying coagulopathy depends on the severity of the BD, while therapeutic interventions are summarized in supportive measures, hormonal treatments (e.g. Combined Oral Contraceptives), non-hormonal treatments (e.g. tranexamic acid and desmopressin), surgical options (e.g. dilatation & curettage) and treatment options in specific conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  12. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  13. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 573 - Model Privacy Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... affiliates, state, as applicable: “Our affiliates include companies with a [common corporate identity of... corporate logo on any page of the notice, so long as it does not interfere with the readability of the model... identity of affiliated institutions jointly providing the notice on the form wherever [name of financial...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 716 - Model Privacy Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... affiliates, state, as applicable: “Our affiliates include companies with a [common corporate identity of... corporate logo on any page of the notice, so long as it does not interfere with the readability of the model... identity of affiliated institutions jointly providing the notice on the form wherever [name of financial...

  16. Functionalized sorbent for chemical separations and sequential forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, Glen E [Kennewick, WA; Zemanian, Thomas S [Richland, WA

    2012-03-20

    A highly functionalized sorbent and sequential process for making are disclosed. The sorbent includes organic short-length amino silanes and organic oligomeric polyfunctional amino silanes that are dispersed within pores of a porous support that form a 3-dimensional structure containing highly functionalized active binding sites for sorption of analytes.

  17. A Problem-Centered Approach to Canonical Matrix Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines a problem-centered approach to the topic of canonical matrix forms in a second linear algebra course. In this approach, abstract theory, including such topics as eigenvalues, generalized eigenspaces, invariant subspaces, independent subspaces, nilpotency, and cyclic spaces, is developed in response to the patterns discovered…

  18. 77 FR 51609 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... NHTSA-2012-0121] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety.... SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from the public, it must receive approval... public comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatements of...

  19. 78 FR 68902 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    .... NHTSA-2013-0112] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from the public, it must receive approval from... collections of information, including extensions and reinstatements of previously approved collections. This...

  20. 76 FR 71122 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    .... NHTSA-2011-0162] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from the public, it must receive approval from... comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatements of previously...

  1. 76 FR 34139 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... NHTSA-2011-0073] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... Federal agency can collect certain information from the public, it must receive approval from the Office... information, including extensions and reinstatements of previously approved collections. This document...

  2. 75 FR 55627 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    .... NHTSA-2010-0105] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from the public, it must receive approval from... comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatements of previously...

  3. 75 FR 21385 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    .... NHTSA-2010-0023] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from the public... public comment on proposed collections of information, including extensions and reinstatements of...

  4. 75 FR 55629 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    .... NHTSA-2010-0130] Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from the public, it must receive approval from... collections of information, including extensions and reinstatements of previously approved collections. This...

  5. 77 FR 48608 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    .... NHTSA-2012-0094] Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from the public, it must receive approval from... collections of information, including extensions and reinstatements of previously approved collections. This...

  6. General form of effective Lagrangian in path integral quantization formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Tu Tung Sheng; Yuan Tu Nan

    1980-01-01

    The general form of the effective lagrangian in path integral formalism is obtained. The effective lagrangian includes the classical lagrangian, the term proportional to delta (0) given by Lee and Yang (see Phys. Rev., vol.128, p.885, 1962) and the additional term which is presented explicitly in the series expansion. The formalism is explicitly covariant. (6 refs).

  7. Overpartitions and class numbers of binary quadratic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Lovejoy, Jeremy

    2009-04-07

    We show that the Zagier-Eisenstein series shares its nonholomorphic part with certain weak Maass forms whose holomorphic parts are generating functions for overpartition rank differences. This has a number of consequences, including exact formulas, asymptotics, and congruences for the rank differences as well as q-series identities of the mock theta type.

  8. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 04: PARENT PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data collection form is used to identify the activity patterns of the preschool children and possible sources and routes of exposure. The parent is asked questions on their child's activities indoors and outdoors at the home. These include questions on their child's frequenc...

  9. 78 FR 71714 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... information on those who are to respond, including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical... Quality Grading Standard. OMB Control Number: 2127-0519. Affected Public: All passenger car tire manufacturers and brand name owners offering passenger car tires for sale in the United States. Form Number: The...

  10. 77 FR 35473 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... each survey. Information on attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and behavior would be collected through... regarding their experience of the programs, including their awareness, perception, and knowledge of the... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic...

  11. 49 CFR 551.31 - Form of communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... communications. Any communication in writing relating to official business (including formal documents) shall be... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Form of communications. 551.31 Section 551.31... other documents that are attached to communications shall be folded to this size, if possible. The left...

  12. 28 CFR 73.3 - Form of notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Affairs, Criminal Division. The letter, telex, or facsimile shall include the information set... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of notification. 73.3 Section 73.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATIONS TO THE ATTORNEY GENERAL BY AGENTS...

  13. Future cancer treatment using antiparticles form the exotic "antiworld"

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "An international research team has taken the first, but nevertheless promisiong step towards a new form of radiotherapy for cancer. This team includes scientists at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, the University of Aarhus, as well as the Department of Medical Physics and the Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, the Aarhus University Hospital." (1 page)

  14. 76 FR 37189 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... those who are to respond, including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other... lighting for the purposes of reducing traffic accidents and their tragic results by providing adequate... use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Issued on: June 21...

  15. 75 FR 14164 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... of multi-drug resistance, and surveillance programs, CDC is requesting approval from the Office of... request includes changes to the Results Form and re-introduction of the Laboratory Practices Questionnaire... susceptibility testing. Participation in this program is one way laboratories can ensure high-quality laboratory...

  16. 77 FR 75255 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Number NHTSA-2011-0126] Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... two hours, and will include eight participants. Trends heard throughout various conversations will... concise fashion. However, you may attach necessary additional documents to your comments. There is no...

  17. Transforming paper-based assessment forms to a digital format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lunn, Tine Bieber; Helle, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this paper is to provide the reader with an overall impression of the stepwise user-centred design approach including the specific methods used and lessons learned when transforming paper-based assessment forms into a prototype app, taking the Housing Enabler as an example...

  18. 76 FR 39878 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... collection requests under review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in compliance with the... Officer, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503 or by fax to (202) 395- 5806. Written... years. The application form and added materials, including an agenda, curriculum vitae, and course...

  19. 76 FR 29243 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... collection requests under review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in compliance with the... Officer, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503 or by fax to (202) 395- 5806. Written... years. The application form and added materials, including an agenda, curriculum vitae, and course...

  20. 75 FR 38104 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Budget (OMB) in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). To request a copy of..., gender, and race/ethnicity. Other variables for segmentation may include, but not be limited to...