Hennink, Monique M
The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...
Lindegaard, Laura Bang
Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge......, not as something that pre-exists or goes beyond the situated interaction. This article, however, challenges not only the first, but also the second position and suggests that it is, after all, possible to do committedly ethnomethodological studies of focus group data that demonstrate how members of a focus group...
A focus group is a small group discussion with professional leadership. Focus groups are used to find out what issues are of most concern for a community or group when little or no information is available.
The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders
Franz, Nancy K.
Facilitating successful focus groups requires both science and art. One element that can fully challenge focus group facilitators includes how to handle the unfocused focus group. This article describes "unfocus" and the benefits and disadvantages of unfocus in focus groups. Lessons learned from and approaches taken on this journey are shared to…
Focus group practitioners have tended to emphasize the capacity of the methodology for exploring how people think about topics that are familiar and that have some grounding in everyday experience. Less articulated in the literature is the role of focus groups as an anticipatory methodology, as a
Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.
In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.
The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST) conducted a focus group with members of the Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), interviews with tribal government representatives, and a survey of Oak Ridge Local Oversight Committee (LOC) and Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) members. The purpose was to understand what members of the interested and involved public want to know about technology development and ways to get that information to them. These data collection activities were used as a follow-up to two previously held focus groups with the general public near Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Most participants from the first two focus groups said they did not have time and/or were not interested in participating in technology decision-making. They said they would prefer to defer to members of their communities who are interested and want to be involved in technology decision-making
A systematic review of pedagogical approaches that can effectively include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms with a particular focus on peer group interactive approaches
Nind, Melanie; Wearmouth, Janice
Background The broad background to this review is a long history of concepts of special pupils and special education and a faith in special pedagogical approaches. The rise of inclusive schools and some important critiques of special pedagogy (e.g. Hart, 1996; Norwich and Lewis, 2001; Thomas and Loxley, 2001) have raised the profile of teaching approaches that ordinary teachers can and do use to include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms. Inclusive education i...
Greenwood, Nan; Ellmers, Theresa; Holley, Jess
Focus groups are commonly used to explore participants' experiences in health and social care research. Although it is suggested that having demographically homogenous groups may help put participants at ease, the evidence is sparse.The aims of the paper are to: explore the impact of relative ethnic homogeneity and heterogeneity of focus group participants on the group discussions; improve understanding of homogeneity and heterogeneity in focus groups; suggest ways to operationalise concepts such as being 'more comfortable' with other focus group participants. Digitally recorded focus groups were undertaken with family carers of stroke survivors and were later transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. Groups were designated as more or less ethnically homogenous. More homogenous groups included, for example, only White British or Asian Indian participants whilst more heterogeneous groups comprised a mixture of, for example, Asian, White British and Black Caribbean participants. Forty-one carers participated in seven focus groups. Analysis revealed differences in discussions around ethnicity between the more or less ethnically homogenous groups. For example, participants in more ethnically homogenous focus groups were more likely to say ethnicity might influence perceptions of social care services. On the other hand, more heterogeneous groups emphasised similarity in carers' experiences, irrespective of ethnicity. Participants in the more homogenous groups were also more likely to make potentially controversial comments relating to ethnic differences. Additionally they appeared to be more at ease with each other discussing the topic. For example, they spontaneously mentioned ethnic differences earlier in these groups.In contrast, analysis of topics not specifically related to ethnicity, such as the difficult experiences of being a carer, produced no discernible patterns when comparing more and less homogenous focus groups. Considerations around focus group
Focus group interviewing is widely used by academic and applied researchers. Given the popularity and strengths of this method, it is surprising how rarely focus group interviewing is taught in the undergraduate classroom and how few resources exist to support instructors who wish to train students to use this technique. This article fills the gap…
Del Rio-Roberts, Maribel
The use of focus groups may provide researchers with important insights into research questions via participant discussion and interaction. As a human services practitioner and researcher, I became interested in learning how to conduct focus groups in order to apply these steps to my research and gain valuable insights about the human experience…
Sharon Moloney PhD
Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.
Eaton, Sarah Elaine
This manual is a practical training guide for graduate and undergraduate research assistants (RAs) working in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary. It may also be applicable to research assistants working in other fields or institutions. The purpose of this manual is to train RAs on how to plan and conduct focus groups for…
Merlin, E; Chausset, A; Verdan, M; Cambon, B; Sarret, C; Kanold, J; Chazal, J; Labbé, A
To assess a new behavioral teaching technique called "focus group pedagogy" (FGP), which consists in a three-step meeting between sick children's parents and medical students (first with students alone, then with parents and students together, then with students alone). This qualitative research ran two sessions (each totaling four to six parents and six students) in which parents were questioned on four main themes: their knowledge of the medical hierarchy, their ability to identify the people in the hospital, their communication with medical staff, and the overall care delivered to their children. A thematic analysis of the verbatim transcript was performed. In the FGP sessions, medical students voiced opinions on their degree of insertion in the medical and paramedical staff, and reported their presence as ambiguous, between care and learning. Parents voiced their experience of their child's hospital stay but also their wider conception of the parent/patient-physician relationship based on their parent-of-patient/parent-as-patient experiences. The meeting of parents and students highlighted divergent narratives on relationships with caregivers, communication, attitudes, knowledge, and competencies. This approach made it possible to hear and learn the point of view "from the other side," which proved beneficial for students, session leaders, and the care unit organization alike. FGP is a novel and easy way to discover diverse narratives and the technique is feasible and beneficial in pediatric settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
DeJoy, David M; Smith, Todd D; Dyal, Mari-Amanda
Firefighting is a hazardous occupation and there have been numerous calls for fundamental changes in how fire service organizations approach safety and balance safety with other operational priorities. These calls, however, have yielded little systematic research. As part of a larger project to develop and test a model of safety climate for the fire service, focus groups were used to identify potentially important dimensions of safety climate pertinent to firefighting. Analyses revealed nine overarching themes. Competency/professionalism, physical/psychological readiness, and that positive traits sometimes produce negative consequences were themes at the individual level; cohesion and supervisor leadership/support at the workgroup level; and politics/bureaucracy, resources, leadership, and hiring/promotion at the organizational level. A multi-level perspective seems appropriate for examining safety climate in firefighting. Safety climate in firefighting appears to be multi-dimensional and some dimensions prominent in the general safety climate literature also seem relevant to firefighting. These results also suggest that the fire service may be undergoing transitions encompassing mission, personnel, and its fundamental approach to safety and risk. These results help point the way to the development of safety climate measures specific to firefighting and to interventions for improving safety performance. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.
In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…
Full Text Available Focus groups are a useful data-generation strategy in qualitative health research when it is important to understand how social contexts shape participants’ health. However, when cross-lingual focus groups are conducted across cultural groups, and in languages in which the researcher is not fluent, questions regarding the usefulness and rigor of the findings can be raised. In this article, we will discuss three different approaches to cross-lingual focus groups used in a community-based participatory research project with pregnant and postpartum, African immigrant women in Alberta, Canada. In two approaches, we moderated focus groups in women’s mother tongue with the support of real-time interpreters, but in the first approach, audio recording was used and in the second approach, audio recording was not used. In the third approach, a bilingual moderator facilitated focus groups in women’s mother tongue, with transcription and translation of audio-recorded data upon completion of data generation. We will describe each approach in detail, including their advantages and challenges, and recontextualize what we have learned within the known literature. We expect the lessons learned in this project may assist others in planning and implementing cross-lingual focus groups, especially in the context of community-based participatory research.
Rosen, Lisa H.; Scott, Shannon R.; DeOrnellas, Kathy
The current qualitative study used a focus group approach to examine teachers' perceptions of student aggressors and victims. Participants in the current study included 35 teachers from public elementary, middle, and high schools. Teachers' responses to five questions about risk factors for aggression and victimization, adaptive and maladaptive…
The objectives of this project are to: (1) assess, through the use of focus groups, vehicle-buyer perceptions, needs, and desires concerning the delivery and presentation of motor vehicle safety-performance data. This includes the existing frontal-ma...
Full Text Available Interaction between group participants is considered the distinct advantage and hallmark of focus group research. It is therefore necessary to include the social interaction dynamics in analysing focus group data. Little information is however available on analysis of the social interaction in the group and the analytical outcome for the content of the data. This paper contributes to the discussion of the value of participant interaction in focus group research by analysing sequences of interaction collected recently during a research project. This project utilized focus groups to investigate the perceptions and meanings of alcohol use in Denmark. As a frame for analysing group interaction, elements of conversation analysis were used. The aim of this paper is to illustrate group interaction and its impact on the content of focus group data, and highlight the role and some of the challenges posed by group interaction for moderating the focus group discussion. The interaction analyses led to the construction of four interactional events: Negotiating and constructing normality in interaction, disagreement and/or consensus, homogeneity and the impact on interaction and content, and coming to and making sense of a dead-end (including the risk of hierarchical issues. The interactional events are followed by considerations on the impact they may have on the role of the moderator.
Cooperman, Julia L; Efuni, Elizaveta; Villagra, Cristina; DuHamel, Katherine; Jandorf, Lina
Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be effectively prevented via screening colonoscopy, yet adherence rates remain low among Latinos. Interventions targeting individual and cultural barriers to screening are needed. We developed an educational brochure to target these barriers faced by a diverse Latino population. The objective was to evaluate the responses of the target population to the culturally and theoretically informed brochure through community member focus groups. Facilitators conducted six focus groups, stratified by gender, language, and prior colonoscopy experience. Topics included: brochure content and layout, cancer knowledge, and CRC screening determinants. Focus groups documented community members' responses to the brochure's overall message and its informational and visual components. Changes to wording, visual aids, and content were suggested to make the brochure culturally more acceptable. Results indicated relevance of the theoretically and culturally guided approach to the development of the brochure leading to refinement of its content and design.
Focus groups discussion is a useful way in built environment for qualitative research practice. Drawing upon recent reviews of focus group discussion and examples of how focus group discussions have been used by researchers and educators, this paper provides what actually happens in focus group discussion as practiced. There is difference between group of people and topic of interest. This article examines the focus group discussions as practiced in built environment. Thus, there is broad form of focus group discussions as practiced in built environment and the applications are varied.
them.” (Female) – “That doesn’t surprise me at all. We’re college kids, we’re teenagers .” (Female) – “You have 4,400 people in a much tighter...compete physically or maybe don’t fit in as well can be demeaned and have their masculinity attacked by calling them something that sounds more feminine ...weaker one of the group or whatever. He might have done something that was kind of feminine that he might be picked on for that.” (Female) – “It
Johnston, Robert J.; Weaver, Thomas F.; Smith, Lynn A.; Swallow, Stephen K.
Despite the many important uses (and potential abuses) of focus groups in survey design, the CV literature presents few guidelines to aid moderators in their interaction with focus group participants. This paper draws on the theory and practice of ethnographic interviewing to introduce general guidelines that can improve focus groups as an aid to CV research. The proposed guidelines illustrate types of questions that should reduce speculation and moderator-introduced bias in focus group respo...
Ryan, Katherine E.; Gandha, Tysza; Culbertson, Michael J.; Carlson, Crystal
In evaluation and applied social research, focus groups may be used to gather different kinds of evidence (e.g., opinion, tacit knowledge). In this article, we argue that making focus group design choices explicitly in relation to the type of evidence required would enhance the empirical value and rigor associated with focus group utilization. We…
Stafstrom, Carl E; Havlena, Janice; Krezinski, Anthony J
Children with epilepsy are at risk for numerous psychological and social challenges. We hypothesized that art therapy focus groups would enhance the self-image of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Sixteen children with epilepsy, ages 7-18 years, were recruited from pediatric neurology clinics at the University of Wisconsin to participate in four art therapy sessions. Pre-group assessments included psychological screens (Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale; Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale; Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale) and art therapy instruments (Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale; Seizure Drawing Task; Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment). Developmental levels of drawings were significantly below age-expected standards. Following completion of focus groups, a repeat Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale showed no differences between pre- and post-test scores on any measure of this scale. However, subjects and parents were uniformly positive about their group experiences, suggesting a qualitative benefit from participation in art therapy focus groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent
The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…
Kristiansen, T. M.; Gronkjaer, M.
employee, negotiating normativity about responsibility for the illness, and negotiating normativity about carrying on. Conclusion: Although the role of interaction in focus group data analysis and its impact on the content of the data should always be viewed in relation to the specific study and study......Aim: This article aims to demonstrate how focus group discussions act as a social arena for the negotiation of social norms and normativity and to discuss the implications for the analysis of focus group discussions. Participants and methods: We have used sequences of group interactions from...... a focus group study on everyday life and chronic illness to demonstrate how methodological tools from conversation analysis and discursive psychology can be used to facilitate a systematic analysis of the negotiation and legitimization of social norms and normativity in focus groups. The empirical data...
Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.
Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…
Lunt, Peter; Livingstone, Sonia
Relates the history of the focus group as a research tool, explores its recent revival, and reappraises the method and its appropriateness for media and communications research. Argues that the focus group discussion should be regarded as a socially situated communication. Discusses the various relations this may bear toward different approaches…
Zupančič, Vesna; Pahor, Majda; Kogovšek, Tina
The article presents an analysis of the use of focus groups in researching community mental health users, starting with the reasons for using them, their implementation in mental health service users' research, and the adaptations of focus group use when researching the experiences of users. Based on personal research experience and a review of scientific publications in the Google Scholar, Web of Science, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, and Scopus databases, 20 articles published between 2010 and 2016 were selected for targeted content analysis. A checklist for reporting on the use of focus groups with community mental health service users, aiming to improve the comparability, verifiability and validity was developed. Adaptations of the implementation of focus groups in relation to participants' characteristics were suggested. Focus groups are not only useful as a scientific research technique, but also for ensuring service users' participation in decision-making in community mental health and evaluating the quality of the mental health system and services .
Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson
With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…
In this paper I discuss some concerns related to the analysis of focus groups: (a) the issue of generalisation; (b) the problems of using numbers and quantifying in the analysis; (c) how the concrete situation of the focus groups could be included in the analysis, and (d) what formats can be used when quoting from focus groups. Problems with…
Pascall, Melvin A.; Lee, Ken; Fraser, Angela; Halim, Linna
A focus group with an educational component was used to help initiate a new research hypothesis. Early-stage development of a new tamper-evident invention was improved with input from a consumer focus group. The focus group comprised consumers who were shown several tamper-evident devices, including a new color-changing cap under active…
Full Text Available The methodological reflections on focus groups presented in this article draw from a research project on middle-class people living in Metropolitan Buenos Aires. The study addresses health discourses and practices in the contemporary scenario characterized by the diversification of specialists, the growing media coverage of recommendations of healthy living and wellbeing, the implementation of public policies on health promotion, and the expansion of the industry of related products and services. The objective of the article is to reflect, based on our fieldwork experience, on two aspects that have received special attention in the recent methodological literature: the criteria to compose the groups and their consequences on the conversational dynamic, and the strategies to account for the group interaction in data analysis. Included in the latter, we explore the potential of GF research to observe health identity work. We frame our study and the decisions about design issues into the current debates on the variety of uses of the research group methodology.
This interim report presents the results ofa focus group session onrailroad : operating rules and compliance. In addition, it summarizes information gathered from : structured interviews with various railroad managers, government officials, and other...
Prates, Lisie Alende; Ceccon, Fernando Gomes; Alves, Camila Neumaier; Wilhelm, Laís Antunes; Demori, Carolina Carbonell; Silva, Silvana Cruz da; Ressel, Lúcia Beatriz
This article discusses an experience using the focus group technique with women from a quilombo, or community of descendants of African slaves in Brazil. This is a descriptive qualitative anthropological study of 13 women from a quilombo in rural Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The focus group technique allowed an approach, interaction, and exchange of knowledge, experiences, perceptions, and feelings, in addition to problematization and in-depth discussion concerning the meaning of women's health care in the quilombo. The focus group was a prime space for learning and understanding the life experiences of quilombola women and the meanings they assigned to the experiences. In order to use the focus group technique, researchers must display creativity, sensitivity, attention, respect, nonjudgmental attitudes, flexibility, prior preparation, and knowledge of the technique and specific study topic.
Mandić, Miroslav; Crnković, Ksenija; Vranešević, Tihomir
Focus groups, as important exploratory and qualitative methods of research, have become ever more present in theory and practice. The object of this research is to explore the applicability of online focus groups and to find out whether the traditional approach could possibly be exchanged with the new one. Also, the object is to summarize new reachable surveys and to compare theory with practice. The data was collected from in-depth interviews and secondary sources. The main questions are: Is...
Fox, Fiona E; Morris, Marianne; Rumsey, Nichola
Although online focus groups are emerging as a worthwhile methodological approach for qualitative researchers, reporting has been constrained in several ways. The majority of studies report asynchronous groups, whereas others employ synchronous exchanges, the efficacy of which with young people has seldom been explored. Considering the popularity of the Internet as a communication tool for young people, this missed opportunity is surprising. Based on a series of synchronous online focus groups with young people, the authors explore why this approach might be an effective way of engaging young people with appearance-related concerns in research. In this article, they discuss the process of hosting and moderating synchronous online focus groups, highlighting some of the ethical, pragmatic, and personal challenges that might face researchers using this method. Through a reflexive approach, they intend to inform and encourage qualitative researchers to consider alternative ways of engaging young people in research.
Holm, Marianne S; Fålun, Nina; Gjengedal, Eva; Norekvål, Tone M
The intensive care unit (ICU) is not only a place to recover from injuries incurred during accidents and from serious illness. For many patients, it is also a place where they might die. Nursing care does not stop when a patient dies; rather, it continues with the care of the deceased and with family support. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the experiences and attitudes of nurses towards the use of ambient music in the ICU during after-death care and (2) to describe the feedback nurses received from relatives when music was used during the viewing. A qualitative design employing focus group interviews was used. Three focus group interviews with 15 nurses were conducted. All the interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six main categories of attitudes emerged from the analysis: (1) different attitudes among nurses towards the use of music; (2) music affects the atmosphere; (3) music affects emotions; (4) use of music was situational; (5) special choice of music and (6) positive feedback from the bereaved. This study demonstrates that music might be helpful for nurses during after-death care as well as for the care of the relatives. Including ambient music in an after-death care programme can help nurses show respect for the deceased as the body is being prepared. Music played during the viewing may be a way of helping relatives in their time of grieving. It may ease the situation by making that event special and memorable. However, standardizing this intervention does not seem appropriate. Rather, the individual nurse and the family must decide whether music is to be used in a particular situation. © 2012 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2012 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.
Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha
The aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between peer-group social capital and the use of alcohol among young people – as this relationship is expressed in focus group interviews. The main point to be made is that social capital affects alcohol use in two different ways: it incites...... some forms of drinking (‘controlled drunkenness’) while restricting others (drinking alone, drinking ‘for the wrong reason’, losing control often). Furthermore, the idea behind this article is that social capital is both a background factor influencing participants’ relationship to alcohol...... and an effect of their drinking experience. We apply Coleman's micro-oriented perspective on local network mechanisms – with a specific focus on collective norms negotiated in the focus groups – in combination with Bourdieu's definition of social capital as resources. The data used in this article come from...
The focus groups (FG) are a “carefully planned series of discussions designed to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest in a permissive, non-threatening environment” (Krueger and Casey, 2000). The aim of the FG is to raise a discussion among the participants that makes the research to see...... a certain phenomenon from the participants’ perspective. In Periscope the Focus Group Methodology (FGM) will be used as a supplement to the quantitative methods in order to obtaining background information on health behavior in the institutions as well as in the family. In addition it will be used...
Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.
Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...
Brümmer, Felix; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the fine-tuning remains modest. In this Letter, we show that such gauge mediation models with “focus point” behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5)×U(3) product group unification
Bruemmer, Felix; Ibe, Masahiro; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the ne-tuning remains modest. In this paper, we show that such gauge mediation models with ''focus point'' behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5) x U(3) product group unification.
...; Focus Group Assessment; and Summary of Results. The entire process was successful. The developers gained useful insight into the needs of the responder community. The results of this survey will enable the developers of ADASHI to make necessary improvements in the software making ADASHI a valuable tool for its users.
Abstract. In this article, we explain how we took an “active” approach to focus group discussions with teachers in three South African schools. The topic of discussion was their views on the implementation of inclusive education. We shall also show how we sought feedback from the participants on their experiences of these ...
van der Spek, N.; Vos, J.; van Uden-Kraan, C.F.; Breitbart, W.; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Cuijpers, P.; de Leeuw, I.M.
Background:Confrontation with a life-threatening disease like cancer can evoke existential distress, which can trigger a search for meaning in people after having survived this disease.Methods:In an effort to gain more insight in the meaning making process, we conducted four focus groups with 23
This study used a focus group interview to examine teacher perceptions of classroom assessment. The interview took place in a school where the researcher had visited and observed classes taught by the majority of the teachers interviewed for the study. The majority of the interviewees seemed to embrace the notion of assessment for learning.…
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J. Brian; Wyche, Karen Fraser; Van Horn, Richard L.; Reyes, Gilbert; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; North, Carol S.
Focus groups were conducted with 23 children and adolescents, aged 9 to 17 years, who relocated from Louisiana to Texas following Hurricane Katrina to explore their disaster, evacuation, and resettlement experiences. The resilience described by some was remarkable and, despite evidence of cultural disparity and stigma, many identified positive…
Background. Physiotherapy in South Africa has not defined its contribution to the management of HIV. As part of developing an appropriate HIV/AIDS physiotherapy curriculum, focus group discussions (FGDs) with physiotherapy clinicians and educators were undertaken. Objectives. To understand the perceptions and ...
Walling, Anne; Istas, Kathryn; Bonaminio, Giulia A; Paolo, Anthony M; Fontes, Joseph D; Davis, Nancy; Berardo, Benito A
Phenomenon: Medical student perspectives were sought about active learning, including concerns, challenges, perceived advantages and disadvantages, and appropriate role in the educational process. Focus groups were conducted with students from all years and campuses of a large U.S. state medical school. Students had considerable experience with active learning prior to medical school and conveyed accurate understanding of the concept and its major strategies. They appreciated the potential of active learning to deepen and broaden learning and its value for long-term professional development but had significant concerns about the efficiency of the process, the clarity of expectations provided, and the importance of receiving preparatory materials. Most significantly, active learning experiences were perceived as disconnected from grading and even as impeding preparation for school and national examinations. Insights: Medical students understand the concepts of active learning and have considerable experience in several formats prior to medical school. They are generally supportive of active learning concepts but frustrated by perceived inefficiencies and lack of contribution to the urgencies of achieving optimal grades and passing United States Medical Licensing Examinations, especially Step 1.
Irving, Michelle J; Tong, Allison; Jan, Stephen; Cass, Alan; Chadban, Steven; Allen, Richard D; Craig, Jonathan C; Wong, Germaine; Howard, Kirsten
Despite broad community support for organ donation, there is a chronic shortage of donor organs for transplantation. This study elicited community attitudes on deceased organ donation and the current Australian organ donation system. Thirteen focus groups with 114 participants aged between 18 and 75 years. Qualitative analysis using a grounded theory approach was used. Participants were generally positive toward deceased organ donation, but this did not always translate to decisions to be a donor. Three main categories of themes emerged. (1) Participants held core beliefs that both encouraged donation, such as "giving is good" and "saving lives," and discouraged donation, such as loss of body dignity, need for body wholeness, and differing medical care for donors. (2) A range of factors could influence how core beliefs were weighted in the decision-making process, including family, knowledge, information, media, grief, apathy, and fear. (3) Participants discussed the need for a simpler consent system where family members could not overrule their donation decision, greater public awareness for organ donation, and the availability of more information on the organ donation process. Opportunities exist to improve deceased organ donation rates by education to improve confidence in the donation process, positive media coverage, and clear information on each religion's stance on organ donation. Options for greater public recognition for organ donors should be explored. Finally, our findings suggest that aspects of the current donation consent system are not aligned with community values, and reforms should be debated publicly.
Boehm, Leanne M; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Mion, Lorraine C
The ABCDE bundle is a multifaceted, interprofessional intervention that is associated with reduced ventilator and delirium days as well as increased likelihood of mobility in intensive care. The aim of this study is to describe organizational domains that contribute to variation in ABCDE bundle implementation as reported by intensive care unit providers and to examine the capability of a conceptual framework for identifying variation in ABCDE bundle implementation. We conducted 2 separate focus groups that included nurses, respiratory therapists, occupational and physical therapists (N = 16) from the surgical and medical intensive care units at 1 academic medical center. All participants had experience performing ABCDE bundle activities. Variation in how the ABCDE bundle was interpreted and executed within and across disciplines was noted. Organizational facets, the physical environment, labor quantity and quality, task burden, provider attitudes, and patient characteristics were noted to influence ABCDE bundle execution. The difficulty coordinating and implementing early mobility was emphasized. The number of disciplines required to perform an activity and individual component complexity was reported to influence ABCDE bundle implementation. Nurses repeatedly described challenges with coordinating care across disciplines. Small tests of change, adequate staffing, interprofessional training and protocol development efforts, and role modeling may be effective methods for successful ABCDE bundle implementation.
Full Text Available Overdiagnosis is considered a risk associated with the diagnosis of osteoporosis-as many people diagnosed won't experience harm from the condition. As yet there's little evidence on community understanding of overdiagnosis outside cancer- where it is an established risk of some screening programs-or effective ways to communicate about it. We examined community understanding around overdiagnosis of osteoporosis, to optimise communication strategies about this problem.Using a qualitative design we recruited a community sample of women, 50-80 years, from the Gold Coast community around Bond University, Australia, using random digit dialing, and conducted 5 focus groups with 41 women. A discussion guide and 4-part presentation were developed and piloted, with independent review from a consumer and clinical experts. Initial discussion had 4 segments: osteoporosis; bone density vs. other risk factors; medication; and overdiagnosis. The second half included the 4 short presentations and discussions on each. Analysis used Framework Analysis method. Initially participants described osteoporosis as bone degeneration causing some fear, demonstrated imprecise understanding of overdiagnosis, had a view osteoporosis couldn't be overdiagnosed as bone scans provided "clear cut" results, expressed belief in early diagnosis, and interest in prevention strategies enabling control. Following presentations, participants expressed some understanding of overdiagnosis, preference for describing osteoporosis as a "risk factor" not "disease", concern about a poor risk-benefit ratio for medications, and surprise and unease the definition of osteoporosis decided bone density of young women was "normal", without age adjustment. Limitations include English-speaking backgrounds of the sample and complex materials.Our findings suggest a gap between community expectations and how experts sometimes arbitrarily set low diagnostic thresholds which label those at risk as "diseased
Moynihan, Ray; Sims, Rebecca; Hersch, Jolyn; Thomas, Rae; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten
Overdiagnosis is considered a risk associated with the diagnosis of osteoporosis-as many people diagnosed won't experience harm from the condition. As yet there's little evidence on community understanding of overdiagnosis outside cancer- where it is an established risk of some screening programs-or effective ways to communicate about it. We examined community understanding around overdiagnosis of osteoporosis, to optimise communication strategies about this problem. Using a qualitative design we recruited a community sample of women, 50-80 years, from the Gold Coast community around Bond University, Australia, using random digit dialing, and conducted 5 focus groups with 41 women. A discussion guide and 4-part presentation were developed and piloted, with independent review from a consumer and clinical experts. Initial discussion had 4 segments: osteoporosis; bone density vs. other risk factors; medication; and overdiagnosis. The second half included the 4 short presentations and discussions on each. Analysis used Framework Analysis method. Initially participants described osteoporosis as bone degeneration causing some fear, demonstrated imprecise understanding of overdiagnosis, had a view osteoporosis couldn't be overdiagnosed as bone scans provided "clear cut" results, expressed belief in early diagnosis, and interest in prevention strategies enabling control. Following presentations, participants expressed some understanding of overdiagnosis, preference for describing osteoporosis as a "risk factor" not "disease", concern about a poor risk-benefit ratio for medications, and surprise and unease the definition of osteoporosis decided bone density of young women was "normal", without age adjustment. Limitations include English-speaking backgrounds of the sample and complex materials. Our findings suggest a gap between community expectations and how experts sometimes arbitrarily set low diagnostic thresholds which label those at risk as "diseased". Optimal
Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha
Danish 14- and 15-year-olds are at the top of the European list when it comes to drinking and drunkenness. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how the struggle for social recognition–with alcohol as the central marker–transpires in groups of teenagers in Denmark. This article shows how...... alcohol experience and positive attitudes towards drinking are related to popularity and influence in the peer group. The function of alcohol in teenagers’ struggle for recognition is so strong that the participants who drink very little or not at all are put under considerable pressure. With alcohol...... as a central marker of maturity–and the drinking teenagers’ parents described as supporters of this view–non-drinking teenagers come out as the potential losers in the negotiation of status in the groups. The data are drawn from a large qualitative study in which 28 focus group interviews were conducted...
Abell, Simon; Ashmore, Jackie; Wilson, Dorothy; Beart, Suzie; Brownley, Peter; Butcher, Adam; Clarke, Zara; Combes, Helen; Francis, Errol; Hayes, Stefan; Hemmingham, Ian; Hicks, Kerry; Ibraham, Amina; Kenyon, Elinor; Lee, Darren; McClimens, Alex; Collins, Michelle; Newton, John; Wilson, Dorothy
In our paper we talk about what it is like to be a group of people with and without learning disabilities researching together. We describe the process of starting and maintaining the research group and reflect on the obstacles that we have come across, and the rewards such research has brought us. Lastly we put forward some ideas about the role…
Ashikali, E.-M.; Dittmar, H.; Ayers, S.
This study examined adolescent girls’ views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15 to 18 (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1)\\ud Dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) Acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) Feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery, and (4) Cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosm...
gender focus groups, similar procedures were used, selecting an equal number of junior and senior men and women to achieve sessions of approximately 10...aspect of gender equality almost brought into CASHA. So it’s not just like about sexual harassment, sexual assault, and don’t do this, don’t do that...wants us to face this is by altering the culture, and if you want to do that you should probably implement something that goes towards gender equality
Adams, Anne; Cox, Anna L.
With fast changing technologies and related human interaction issues, there is an increased need for timely evaluation of systems with distributed users in varying contexts (Pace, 2004). This has led to the increased use of questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus groups in commercial usability and academic research contexts. Questionnaires are usually paper based or delivered online and consist of a set of questions which all participants are asked to complete. Once the questionnaire ha...
Lee, Byoung Sook; Eo, Yong Sook; Lee, Mi Aie
The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the leadership experience of clinical nurses. During 2014, data were collected using focus group interviews. Three focus group interviews were held with a total of 20 clinical nurses participating. All interviews were recorded as they were spoken and transcribed and data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Fifteen categories emerged from the five main themes. 1) Thoughts on the leadership category: to lead others, to cope with problem situations adequately and to serve as a shield against difficulties. 2) Situations requiring leadership: situation that requires correct judgement, coping and situations that need coordination and cooperation. 3-1) Leadership behaviors: other-oriented approach and self-oriented approach. 3-2) Leadership behavior consequences: relevant compensation and unfair termination. 4-1) Facilitators of leadership: confidence and passion for nursing and external support and resources. 4-2) Barriers to leadership: non-supportive organization culture and deficiency in own leadership competencies. 5) Strategies of leadership development: strengthen leadership through self-development and organizational leadership development. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to enhance clinical nurses' leadership role in healthcare. Enhancement can be achieved through leadership programs focused on enlarging leadership experience, constant self-development, leadership training, and development of leadership competencies suited to the nursing environment.
Verkuyl, Margaret; Hughes, Michelle; Tsui, Joyce; Betts, Lorraine; St-Amant, Oona; Lapum, Jennifer L
The use of serious gaming in a virtual world is a novel pedagogical approach in nursing education. A virtual gaming simulation was implemented in a health assessment class that focused on mental health and interpersonal violence. The study's purpose was to explore students' experiences of the virtual gaming simulation. Three focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 20 first-year nursing students after they completed the virtual gaming simulation. Analysis yielded five themes: (a) Experiential Learning, (b) The Learning Process, (c) Personal Versus Professional, (d) Self-Efficacy, and (e) Knowledge. Virtual gaming simulation can provide experiential learning opportunities that promote engagement and allow learners to acquire and apply new knowledge while practicing skills in a safe and realistic environment. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(5):274-280.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan
This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nielsen, Dorthe; Brixen, Kim; Huniche, Lotte
of 16 men aged 51 to 82 years diagnosed with osteoporosis. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed to elicit information about the men's daily lives. The men handled osteoporosis in different ways using different strategies. The authors found patterns......Osteoporotic fractures in men are an increasing public health problem. Male osteoporosis is often a low-prioritized issue, however. To examine men's experiences with osteoporosis and how they handle osteoporosis in their everyday lives, the authors collected data from four focus groups with a total...
Full Text Available This paper is based on the analysis of a focus group interview of a moderator and a group of undergraduate students on the topic of self-regulation of learning. The purpose of the investigation was to identify interaction patterns that appeared in the talk of participants and the moderator. In the stream of communication two rudimentary interaction patterns were recognized. The first pattern was named the Catalogue. It consists of a sequence of turns of participants who respond to a request of the moderator and who provide their answers, one by one, without reacting on the content of the previous partner(s talk. The other interaction pattern was called the Domino. In this pattern participants respond to each other. The Catalogue pattern prevailed in the interview. Alongside with identification of patterns of interaction the study demonstrated the functions of the common ground and its accomplishment in the talk of the moderator and participants.
Berland, Astrid; Bentsen, Signe Berit
To explore registered nurses' experiences of medication errors and patient safety in home care. The focus of care for older patients has shifted from institutional care towards a model of home care. Medication errors are common in this situation and can result in patient morbidity and mortality. An exploratory qualitative design with focus group interviews was used. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 20 registered nurses in home care. The data were analysed using content analysis. Five categories were identified as follows: lack of information, lack of competence, reporting medication errors, trade name products vs. generic name products, and improving routines. Medication errors occur frequently in home care and can threaten the safety of patients. Insufficient exchange of information and poor communication between the specialist and home-care health services, and between general practitioners and healthcare workers can lead to medication errors. A lack of competence in healthcare workers can also lead to medication errors. To prevent these, it is important that there should be up-to-date information and communication between healthcare workers during the transfer of patients from specialist to home care. Ensuring competence among healthcare workers with regard to medication is also important. In addition, there should be openness and accurate reporting of medication errors, as well as in setting routines for the preparation, alteration and administration of medicines. To prevent medication errors in home care, up-to-date information and communication between healthcare workers is important when patients are transferred from specialist to home care. It is also important to ensure adequate competence with regard to medication, and that there should be openness when medication errors occur, as well as in setting routines for the preparation, alteration and administration of medications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Varga-Atkins, Tünde; McIsaac, Jaye; Willis, Ian
In Higher Education Focus Groups and Nominal Group Technique are two well-established methods for obtaining student feedback about their learning experience. These methods are regularly used for the enhancement and quality assurance. Based on small-scale research of educational developers' practice in curriculum development, this study presents…
Nadia van der Spek
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Confrontation with a life-threatening disease like cancer can evoke existential distress, which can trigger a search for meaning in people after having survived this disease. METHODS: In an effort to gain more insight in the meaning making process, we conducted four focus groups with 23 cancer survivors on this topic. Participants responded to questions about experienced meaning making, perceived changes in meaning making after cancer and the perceived need for help in this area. RESULTS: Most frequently mentioned meaning making themes were relationships and experiences. We found that, in general, cancer survivors experienced enhanced meaning after cancer through relationships, experiences, resilience, goal-orientation and leaving a legacy. Some participants, however, also said to have (also experienced a loss of meaning in their lives through experiences, social roles, relationships and uncertainties about the future. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that there is a group of cancer survivors that has succeeded in meaning making efforts, and experienced sometimes even more meaning in life than before diagnosis, while there is also a considerable group of survivors that struggled with meaning making and has an unmet need for help with that. The results of this study contribute to develop a meaning centered intervention for cancer survivors.
Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang
Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.
Chang, S C H; Woo, J S T; Yau, V; Gorzalka, B B; Brotto, L A
Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health
van Leerdam L
Full Text Available Lotte van Leerdam, Lianne Rietveld, Doreth Teunissen, Antoine Lagro-JanssenDepartment of Primary and Community Care, Gender and Women's Health, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsObjectives: One of the goals of the medical master's degree is for a student to become a gender-sensitive doctor by applying knowledge of gender differences in practice. This study aims to investigate, from the students’ perspective, whether gender medicine has been taught in daily practice during clerkship.Methods: A focus group study was conducted among 29 medical students from Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, who had just finished either their internal medicine or surgical clerkships. Data were analyzed in line with the principles of constant comparative analysis.Results: Four focus groups were conducted with 29 participating students. Clinical teachers barely discuss gender differences during students’ clerkships. The students mentioned three main explanatory themes: insufficient knowledge; unawareness; and minor impact. As a result, students feel that they have insufficient competencies to become gender-sensitive doctors.Conclusion: Medical students at our institution perceive that they have received limited exposure to gender-based education after completing two key clinical clerkships. All students feel that they have insufficient knowledge to become gender-sensitive doctors. They suppose that their clinical teachers have insufficient knowledge regarding gender sensitivity, are unaware of gender differences, and the students had the impression that gender is not regarded as an important issue. We suggest that the medical faculty should encourage clinical teachers to improve their knowledge and awareness of gender issues.Keywords: medical education, clerkship, gender, hidden curriculum, clinical teachers
Liedberg, Gunilla M; Björk, Mathilda; Hensing, Gunnel
Women and men are shaped over the courses of their lives by culture, society and human interaction according to the gender system. Cultural influences on individuals' social roles and environment are described in occupational therapy literature, but not specifically from a gender perspective. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how a sample of occupational therapists perceives the 'gender' concept. Four focus group interviews with 17 occupational therapists were conducted. The opening question was: 'How do you reflect on the encounter with a client depending on whether it is a man or a woman?' The transcribed interviews were analysed and two main themes emerged: 'the concept of gender is tacit in occupational therapy' and 'client encounters'. The occupational therapists expressed limited theoretical knowledge of 'gender'. Furthermore, the occupational therapists seemed to be 'doing gender' in their encounters with the clients. For example, in their assessment of the client, they focussed their questions on different spheres: with female clients, on the household and family; with male clients, on their paid work. This study demonstrated that occupational therapists were unaware of the possibility that they were 'doing gender' in their encounters with clients. There is a need to increase occupational therapists' awareness of their own behaviour of 'doing gender'. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate whether gendered perceptions will shorten or lengthen a rehabilitation period and affect the chosen interventions, and in the end, the outcome for the clients. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.
Olivari, Maria Giulia; Cuccì, Gaia; Confalonieri, Emanuela
Using a qualitative method, the purpose of this study was to: (1) obtain information directly from the adolescents on their attitudes and knowledge regarding emergency contraception; and (2) investigate the presence of differences between male and female participants' attitudes and knowledge. This study consisted of 24 single-sex focus groups with 160 adolescents (male = 46.3% (74 of 160); female = 53.7% (86 of 160)) aged 15-19 years conducted among high schools in 3 regions of Italy. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis taking into account gender differences and 2 main themes emerged. The first was labeled "Adolescents' attitudes toward emergency contraception" and it was divided into 3 subthemes: You should be aware; It's a life line; and Everything but a child. The second theme was labeled "Adolescents' knowledge toward emergency contraception" and it was divided into 3 subthemes: False myths; Baseline information; and Just take it. Italian adolescents believed it is important to prevent the risk of unprotected sex by using contraceptive methods and their motivation to use emergency contraception is related to critical attitudes toward the consequences of irresponsible/ineffective contraception. Although adolescents have an awareness of emergency contraception, more comprehensive knowledge is needed. These findings can inform specific interventions aimed at educating adolescents in need of emergency contraception. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T
Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In this study, the effect of solution-focused brief group counseling upon the perceived social competences of teenagers was investigated. The study group included 24 volunteer students who took lower scores rather than the ones obtained from perceived social competence scale pre-test measurements out of 227 students studying at a high school in…
Coyne, Karin S; Margolis, Mary Kay; Kennedy-Martin, Tessa; Baker, Timothy M; Klein, Ronald; Paul, Matthew D; Revicki, Dennis A
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects 50-85% of people with diabetes and may result in visual impairment or blindness. This exploratory qualitative research was conducted to evaluate the symptom experience of DR, its impact on daily activities and health-related quality of life (HRQL), and the applicability of two vision-specific questionnaires. Four focus groups (n = 15) were conducted with people with DR to explore their symptom experience and the impact on functioning and HRQL. Adults with type I or II diabetes and mild, moderate or severe non-proliferative DR (NPDR) or proliferative DR (PDR) were recruited. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Participants described a range of symptoms and impact. Difficulty driving, especially at night, and trouble reading were noted with all levels of severity. Participants with PDR and decreased visual acuity have foregone many other important life aspects such as work, reading and sports. For the severely affected, diabetic care activities (e.g. exercising, reading nutritional labels, preparing insulin injections and glucose testing) were difficult to accomplish. Loss of independence, especially mobility and increased fear of accidents, had a profound impact on social activities. For those patients who had not experienced other complications of diabetes, the threat of vision loss was the most devastating. The loss of independence and mobility associated with decreased visual functioning and visual loss were major concerns. Moderate, severe NPDR and PDR associated with visual impairment have a significant impact on HRQL, particularly in the areas of independence, mobility, leisure and self-care activities.
Barlagne, Carla; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Diman, Jean-Louis; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry
In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. The yam production sector is, however, now challenged by the satisfaction of evolving consumers' preferences. Since little is known about consumers' preferences regarding yams' characteristics, product quality, and the drivers of yam purchase, six focus group discussions were conducted (for a total of 31 participants). Among the purchasing criteria, price was considered more important than the others. It was followed by the external damage, the origin, and the size of the tuber. The most frequently cited consumption criteria were the taste, the texture, and color of flesh after cooking. Taste was considered more important than the other criteria. Three consumers' profiles were established reflecting heterogeneity in preferences, especially as concerns the willingness to pay for yam and consumption habits. They were designated as the Hedonistic, the Thrifty and the Flexible. Our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Two main development paths were identified. The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about product attributes such as the cooking mode, the origin, and the mode of production. Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agro-biodiversity and the satisfaction of rapidly evolving consumption habits. The second path is the definition of yam ideotypes that suit consumers' needs. We expect that tailoring the production to consumers' needs will have a positive impact on global food security in the Caribbean region.
Kite, James; Phongsavan, Philayrath
Background Online focus groups have been increasing in use over the last 2 decades, including in biomedical and health-related research. However, most of this research has made use of text-based services such as email, discussion boards, and chat rooms, which do not replicate the experience of face-to-face focus groups. Web conferencing services have the potential to more closely match the face-to-face focus group experience, including important visual and aural cues. This paper provides critical reflections on using a web conferencing service to conduct online focus groups. Methods As part of a broader study, we conducted both online and face-to-face focus groups with participants. The online groups were conducted in real-time using the web conferencing service, Blackboard Collaborate TM . We used reflective practice to assess how the conduct and content of the groups were similar and how they differed across the two platforms. Results We found that further research using such services is warranted, particularly when working with hard-to-reach or geographically dispersed populations. The level of discussion and the quality of the data obtained was similar to that found in face-to-face groups. However, some issues remain, particularly in relation to managing technical issues experienced by participants and ensuring adequate recording quality to facilitate transcription and analysis. Conclusions Our experience with using web conferencing for online focus groups suggests that they have the potential to offer a realistic and comparable alternative to face-to-face focus groups, especially for geographically dispersed populations such as rural and remote health practitioners. Further testing of these services is warranted but researchers should carefully consider the service they use to minimise the impact of technical difficulties.
Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn
Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to describe the need to protect the rights of human subjects participating in nursing research, and procedures for doing so. The path taken to the task at hand was to approach the topic by discussing the philosophical underpinnings of human subject protection and describing the approach for doing this in all cases where humans are used as research subjects. These underpinnings include specific ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, and the procedures used in the U.S. for protecting the rights of human subjects. Once the process was clarified, the considerations necessary to protect the special groups referred to as ''vulnerable'' are discussed. Given the author’s access to U.S. documents and the fact that U.S. government agencies took early steps to formalize rules and regulations for the protection of human subjects, vulnerable or otherwise, the experience of the United States was selected for presentation. It is recognized that there are now relevant international documents that are exceedingly helpful, and also, that various countries may have their own guidelines for investigators to follow. In such cases researchers can engage in comparative analysis between their own guidance and the processes described here, and decide their path accordingly.
Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha
Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.
Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Kadivar, Hajar; Fernandez-Baca, Daniel; Chisholm, TaJuana; Thompson, Lindsay A; Stanford, Jevetta; Shenkman, Elizabeth
Recruiting and enrolling low income, racially and ethnically diverse adolescents into research studies can be a challenge. This paper details our research team's methodology in the recruitment and enrollment of low income and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents in three cities as part of a broader study to understand adolescent perceptions of a health risks. Our team used Florida's Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Plan administrative databases to identify a sample of adolescents for focus group participation. Utilizing geographic information systems software we generated maps of racial and ethnic group clusters in three cities and identified community centers within each cluster to hold the focus groups. We mailed initial focus group introduction letters, conducted follow-up phone calls for recruitment and further implemented techniques to optimize participant confidentiality and comfort. We enrolled 35 participants for eight focus groups in three cities at a total cost of $264 per participant, including personnel, materials, travel, and incentives costs. As a result of our efforts, groups were fairly evenly distributed by both race and gender. Administrative databases provide opportunities to identify and recruit low income and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents for focus groups that might not otherwise have the opportunity to participate in research studies. It is important that researchers ensure these populations are represented when conducting health assessment tool evaluations.
... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups as Used by EPA for Economics Projects (Renewal... the target population for the focus group discussions will vary by project. Title: Focus Groups as... renewal of a generic information collection request (ICR) for the conduct of focus groups and protocol...
Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg; Reininger, Ruben
X-ray beamlines in modern synchrotron radiation sources make extensive use of grazing-incidence reflective optics, in particular Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical mirror systems. These systems can focus the incoming X-rays down to nanometer-scale spot sizes while maintaining relatively large acceptance apertures and high flux in the focused radiation spots. In low-emittance storage rings and in free-electron lasers such systems are used with partially or even nearly fully coherent X-ray beams and often target diffraction-limited resolution. Therefore, their accurate simulation and modeling has to be performed within the framework of wave optics. Here the implementation and benchmarking of a wave-optics method for the simulation of grazing-incidence mirrors based on the local stationary-phase approximation or, in other words, the local propagation of the radiation electric field along geometrical rays, is described. The proposed method is CPU-efficient and fully compatible with the numerical methods of Fourier optics. It has been implemented in the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) computer code and extensively tested against the geometrical ray-tracing code SHADOW. The test simulations have been performed for cases without and with diffraction at mirror apertures, including cases where the grazing-incidence mirrors can be hardly approximated by ideal lenses. Good agreement between the SRW and SHADOW simulation results is observed in the cases without diffraction. The differences between the simulation results obtained by the two codes in diffraction-dominated cases for illumination with fully or partially coherent radiation are analyzed and interpreted. The application of the new method for the simulation of wavefront propagation through a high-resolution X-ray microspectroscopy beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) is demonstrated.
Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Hayes, Jennifer J; Ray, Sarah E; Moultrie, Rebecca R
Virtual focus groups-such as online chat and video groups-are increasingly promoted as qualitative research tools. Theoretically, virtual groups offer several advantages, including lower cost, faster recruitment, greater geographic diversity, enrollment of hard-to-reach populations, and reduced participant burden. However, no study has compared virtual and in-person focus groups on these metrics. To rigorously compare virtual and in-person focus groups on cost, recruitment, and participant logistics. We examined 3 focus group modes and instituted experimental controls to ensure a fair comparison. We conducted 6 1-hour focus groups in August 2014 using in-person (n=2), live chat (n=2), and video (n=2) modes with individuals who had type 2 diabetes (n=48 enrolled, n=39 completed). In planning groups, we solicited bids from 6 virtual platform vendors and 4 recruitment firms. We then selected 1 platform or facility per mode and a single recruitment firm across all modes. To minimize bias, the recruitment firm employed different recruiters by mode who were blinded to recruitment efforts for other modes. We tracked enrollment during a 2-week period. A single moderator conducted all groups using the same guide, which addressed the use of technology to communicate with health care providers. We conducted the groups at the same times of day on Monday to Wednesday during a single week. At the end of each group, participants completed a short survey. Virtual focus groups offered minimal cost savings compared with in-person groups (US $2000 per chat group vs US $2576 per in-person group vs US $2,750 per video group). Although virtual groups did not incur travel costs, they often had higher management fees and miscellaneous expenses (eg, participant webcams). Recruitment timing did not differ by mode, but show rates were higher for in-person groups (94% [15/16] in-person vs 81% [13/16] video vs 69% [11/16] chat). Virtual group participants were more geographically diverse (but
Greenwood, Melanie; Kendrick, Tina; Davies, Hugh; Gill, Fenella J
This paper compares two qualitative approaches used to thematically analyse data obtained from focus groups conducted with critical care nurses from Australia. Focus groups are an effective mechanism to generate understanding and gain insight into the research participants' world. Traditional verbatim transcription of participants' recorded words necessitates significant investment of time and resources. An alternative approach under reported in the literature is to directly analyse the audio recordings. To identify the effectiveness of the audio recording only approach, the study aimed to independently compare two qualitative methods of data analysis, namely the traditional transcribed method with the audio recording method. The study to revise the specialist critical care competency standards included focus groups conducted in each state in Australia (n=12) facilitated by experienced researchers. Two of the research team analysed transcribed focus group data and two team members were blinded to the transcription process and directly analysed audio recordings from the focus groups. A process of thematic analysis used independently by the two teams was used to identify themes. When the findings were compared, the themes generated using each technique were consistent and there were no different themes or subthemes identified. The two techniques appeared to be comparable. Overarching key themes were consistent with the approach. The direct analysis method appears to have advantages. It is cost effective, trustworthy and possibly a superior alternative when used with focus group data. However, the audio only method requires experienced researchers who understand the context and if combining the two approaches takes time to do. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria
Background Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. Objective To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Methods Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Results Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. PMID:25714345
...,420B] Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation...., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers...
... announces changes to the Importer Self- Assessment (ISA) program and describes the requirements for... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Importer Self-Assessment Program and the Focused Assessment The Importer Self-Assessment (ISA) program is a joint government- business initiative designed to build cooperative...
Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini
The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity.
This chapter discuss the question of how the validity of focus group data can be reframed when approaching focus groups as social experiments in a science and technology approach. By using this frame we first of all comes to perceive the focus group discussion as an artificial situation, while...... the interactions going on in the group can be described as natural occurring data (cf. Silverman, 2007). Thus this approach comes to terms with some of the problems addressed within both positivistic as well as constructivist uses of focus group methods. Secondly, framing focus groups as social experiments also...
...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups as Used by... the notice. This notice solicits comments on focus groups as used by FDA to gauge public opinion on... techniques, when appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Focus Groups as Used by the Food and...
Despite their long trajectory in the social sciences, few systematic works analyze how often and for what purposes focus groups appear in published works. This study fills this gap by undertaking a meta-analysis of focus group use over the last 10 years. It makes several contributions to our understanding of when and why focus groups are used in…
... Request; Client Focus Groups and Qualitative Interviews AGENCY: International Trade Administration (ITA... through Quality Assurance Surveys, the CS uses client focus groups as a mechanism to obtain further client feedback and substantiate customer service trends seen in the Surveys. Qualitative client focus group data...
Jones, David B.; Richeson, Nancy E.; Croteau, Karen A.; Farmer, Bonnie Cashin
Focus group methodology was used to explore in depth the perceptions of older adults who had participated in a 12-week pedometer-based intervention. Nineteen women and 8 men, ages 55-86 years, volunteered to take part in the focus groups following participation in the intervention. Four focus groups of six to eight participants were scheduled at…
...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups About Drug... notice solicits comments on focus groups about drug products used by FDA to gauge informally public... of information technology. Focus Groups About Drug Products, as Used by the Food and Drug...
Mayer, Ashley Bramlett; Harrison, Judy A.
In the development of an online food safety education intervention for college students, online focus groups were used to determine the appropriate format and messages. Focus groups are often used in qualitative research and formative evaluation of public health programs, yet traditional focus groups can be both difficult and expensive to…
Massey, Oliver T.
Focus groups have an established history in applied research and evaluation. The fundamental methods of the focus group technique have been well discussed, as have their potential advantages. Less guidance tends to be provided regarding the analysis of data resulting from focus groups or how to organize and defend conclusions drawn from the…
Adèle Lafrance Robinson
Full Text Available Emotion-focused therapy (EFT is an evidence-based treatment for depression and trauma and has shown promise for other presentations including anxiety. Minimal research exists investigating the outcomes of emotion-focused therapy in a group setting. The current research presents a mixed-method single-case study of one client’s experiences and outcomes following a nine-week EFT group for depression and anxiety. Weekly measures of session-feelings evaluations were collected. Follow-up measures, including a qualitative interview, were administered one year post-treatment. Pre-, post-, and follow-up measures assessed depression, anxiety, and emotional regulation. Results showed clinically significant improvements in anxiety, depression, and emotional regulation over time. Indirect and direct evidence of client change were detected. Five super-ordinate themes with sub-themes emerged from the qualitative analysis.
Vincent, Deborah; Clark, Lauren; Zimmer, Lorena Marquez; Sanchez, Jessica
The purpose of this study was to describe factors that facilitate or hinder diabetes self-management and elicit participants' preferences and recommendations about the essential components of a culturally competent diabetes self-management program. Latino patients with type 2 diabetes and their family caregivers were interviewed in focus groups. Four focus groups consisted of patients, and 2 groups consisted of family caregivers for a total of 40 participants. Participants were assigned to groups based on break characteristics of gender and preferred language. "Being in the dark" emerged as an important concern, and patient respondents wanted timely access to information that they deemed understandable about how to manage their diabetes. Family members' support and understanding were crucial in maintaining lifestyle changes. Patient and family caregiver participants wanted a self-management program to incorporate information on how to modify traditional foods, home remedies, and stress management. Preferences for information delivery included group didactic and interactive sessions, written information, and videotapes. Higher technology strategies using computers were not seen as useful. Culturally competent diabetes self-management for Latinos should incorporate the family and include techniques for stress management as well as diet modification. Information delivery should include a variety of techniques.
Kristoffersson, Emelie; Andersson, Jenny; Bengs, Carita; Hamberg, Katarina
Background Research shows that medical education is characterized by unequal conditions for women and men, but there is a lack of qualitative studies investigating the social processes that enable and maintain gender inequalities that include both male and female students. In this focus group study, we therefore explored male as well as female medical students? experiences of the gender climate ? i.e., how beliefs, values, and norms about gender were communicated ? during clinical training an...
..., Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC, and Amway Corporation, Ada, MI; Amended... of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park...
Van Royen, Kathleen; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Andrade, Susana; Ochoa-Avilés, Angélica; Donoso, Silvana; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick
Physical inactivity levels are increasingly prevalent among Ecuadorian adolescents. School-based interventions can be potentially effective in promoting physical activity but must be informed by cultural-specific factors. Twelve focus groups were carried out with adolescents (n = 80) in rural and urban Ecuador to identify factors influencing physical activity. In addition, 4 focus group discussions with parents (n = 32) and 4 with school staff (n = 32) were conducted. Individual and environmental factors were questioned using the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socioecological model as theoretical frameworks. Factors influencing physical activity varied between groups. In the rural area farming and norms for girls impeded leisure-time physical activity, whereas urban groups emphasized traffic and crime concerns. Groups from a low socioeconomic status more frequently mentioned a fear of injuries and financial constraints. Several factors were common for all groups including preferences for sedentary activities, poor knowledge, time constraints and laziness, as well as a lack of opportunities at home and school, unsupportive parental rules and lack of role models. A conceptual framework including the identified factors emerged to inform the design of a cultural-sensitive school-based intervention to improve physical activity among Ecuadorian adolescents. Future interventions should be tailored to each setting.
Ceballo, Rosario; Hurd, Noelle
This study examines the influence of contextual factors on parenting strategies among a sample of 104 Latina, European American, and African American mother-child pairs. The parenting constructs under investigation were selected as part of a collaborative research project among members of the parenting subgroup of the Study Group on Race, Culture,…
Pozzar, Rachel A; Allen, Nancy A; Stamp, Kelly D; Sampson, Deborah A
The success or failure of clinical interventions often rests upon the degree of insight nurse practitioners (NPs) have into their patients' preferences for receiving their care. Therefore, NPs have a vested interest in understanding the perspective of their patients, which can be derived by conducting practice-specific focus groups. This article offers NPs practice guidelines for conducting focus groups to improve practice and quality and making practice-related decisions. An extensive review of the scholarly databases and scientific literature. Focus groups can generate valuable data for NPs in clinical practice settings. Currently, focus groups are rarely used for this purpose; however, data gathered from the population served could be invaluable for improving practice, quality, and decisions made regarding the types of services that NPs provide for their patients. The benefits of an NP clinician conducting focus groups are that they provide a forum for listening to the people they serve and learning from them. The knowledge gained from patients allows the NP to tailor their interventions and care to meet the patient's needs, and may be required to make the practice thrive. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli
Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT
... Furniture Group, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions; Morristown, TN; Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Chicago, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... Adjustment Assistance on May 5, 2010, applicable to workers of Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., including on...
... Access Business Group International, LLC, and Amway Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers from... Business Group International, LLC and Amway Corporation. The notice was published in the Federal Register... issued as follows: All workers of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International, LLC and...
Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino
barriers. The motivational barriers are unwillingness to change eating habits, satisfaction with current diets and misconception about their healthiness; relatively low health consciousness and unwillingness to become excessively health-oriented. Implementation barriers include remembering the change...... and palatable healthy foods appeared to be significant implementation barriers. Older people tended to emphasize that their eating habits, craving for unhealthy food and practical issues hindered healthy eating. In general, in the absence of health problems (and, in some cases, in the presence of illnesses...... Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify barriers to healthy eating among older people and children/adolescents. Method: Four focus groups; two with older people and two with children/adolescents were conducted in Denmark. The focus groups were moderated to discuss the experienced...
Balls-Berry, Joyce; Watson, Christopher; Kadimpati, Sandeep; Crockett, Andre; Mohamed, Essa A; Brown, Italo; Soto, Miguel Valdez; Sanford, Becky; Halyard, Michele; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Dacy, Lea; Davis, Olga Idriss
Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minorities. These disparities persist despite educational efforts to reduce the prevalence of diabetes. Receptiveness of educational efforts for Black men needs to be studied. This study assesses Black men's receptiveness to a barbershop-based program focused on diabetes prevention and awareness in a church-affiliated barbershop in Rochester, Minnesota. The pastor and barber of a church-affiliated barbershop and academic medical researchers designed a community-engaged research study to determine Black men's perception of diabetes. Recruitment for the 90-minute focus group included flyers (n=60), email, and in-person. Units of analysis included focus-group audio recording, transcripts, and field notes. Using traditional content analysis, we categorized data into themes and sub-themes. Thirteen Black men participated (Group 1, n=6; Group 2, n=7) having a mean age of 40.3 years (range 19 to 65), and employed full-time (77%). Themes included diabetes prevention, treatment, prevalence, risks, and health education. Participants identified diet and exercise as essential components of diabetes prevention. Additionally, participants mentioned that family history contributes to diabetes. Participants agreed that barbershops are an appropriate setting for data collection and health education on diabetes for Black men. Findings indicate that Black men are generally aware of diabetes. The community-engaged research process allowed for development of a culturally appropriate research study on diabetes. This study is the foundation for developing a culturally appropriate health education program on diabetes for Black men.
Farquhar, Sandy; Tesar, Marek
This article reports on a focus group study of newly qualified early childhood teachers' experiences during their first year of teaching. It argues that focus groups have the potential to invite dialogical engagement in ways that support teachers' exploration of their own identities, and it emphasises the significant role group context plays in…
In this research, the effect of solution focused group counseling upon high school students struggling with school burnout was analyzed. The research was an experimental study in which a pre-test post-test control group random design was used, depending upon the real experimental model. The study group included 30 students that volunteered from…
Ludden, Alison B; O'Brien, Elizabeth M; Pasch, Keryn E
Caffeinated products are widely available to adolescents, and consumption of caffeine products-energy drinks and coffee in particular-is on the rise in this age group (Branum, Rossen, & Schoendorf, 2014). Yet, little is known about the psychosocial context of caffeine use. Previous studies on adolescent caffeine use have focused on caffeine's acute physiological effects, rather than the psychosocial contexts and beliefs regarding different types of caffeinated beverages (e.g., coffee, energy drinks, soda). The current research examines the contexts and beliefs associated with adolescents' use of caffeinated beverages (e.g., coffee, energy drinks, soda) using a focus group approach. Eleven focus group interviews (49 total participants) addressed adolescents' motivations for and patterns of caffeine use; they were transcribed and axial coding was used to identify common themes. Coffee and energy drinks were perceived to be the most popular caffeinated beverages. Reasons for consuming caffeine included the effect of caffeine as a stimulant, the pleasant feelings experienced when drinking it, and the fact that caffeine was available. As for contexts, coffee was consumed in more diverse social contexts than other caffeinated beverages. Friends and sports were the most popular contexts for energy drink use. The present findings inform adolescent health promotion efforts and provide researchers and practitioners alike detailed information in adolescents' own words about how and why they use caffeine. Adolescents' beliefs about caffeinated products are not uniform; the reasons adolescents articulate regarding their use of coffee, soda, and energy drinks are different across contexts and beverage type.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper
Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to prioritize the children´s perceived barriers. This was verified...... more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls’ requests for more “hanging-out” facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Conclusion: Based on the results from this study, we...
Globe, Denise; Bayliss, Martha S; Harrison, David J
The objective of this qualitative study was to better understand the impact of psoriasis symptoms using a 3-part process: 1) develop a disease model for psoriasis to identify the most important concepts relevant to psoriasis patients; 2) conduct interviews with dermatologists to identify key areas of clinical concern; and 3) explore psoriasis patients' perceptions of the impact of psoriasis. A disease model was developed from a review of the published literature and later revised based on the findings of clinician interviews and patient focus groups. To confirm the clinical relevance of the concepts identified in the disease model, 5 dermatologists were selected and interviewed one-on-one. They were asked to rate major psoriasis symptoms according to importance and bothersomeness level to patients on separate scales of 1 to 10. Results of clinician interviews were used to develop interview guides for patient focus groups. To identify important domains of psoriasis, 39 patients participated in 5 separate concept elicitation focus groups. Four focus groups included patients with severe psoriasis (n = 31) and one included patients with mild psoriasis (n = 8). Patients were asked to describe their current psoriasis symptoms and to rate them on a scale of 1 to 10, according to importance, severity, and troublesomeness. An average mean rating was calculated for each symptom throughout all focus groups. Clinicians most frequently mentioned itch (n = 5), psoriatic arthritis or "joint pains" (n = 4), flaking (n = 4), and pain (n = 3) as primary physical symptoms of psoriasis. Three clinicians gave a rating of 10 for the importance of itch; two clinicians gave ratings of 8 and 7 for importance. The majority of patients rated itch as the most important (31/39), most severe (31/39), and most troublesome (24/39) symptom and noted that itch negatively impacted daily activities (eg, concentration, sleep, ability to attend work or school), as well as emotions (eg, anxiety and
Bayliss Martha S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this qualitative study was to better understand the impact of psoriasis symptoms using a 3-part process: 1 develop a disease model for psoriasis to identify the most important concepts relevant to psoriasis patients; 2 conduct interviews with dermatologists to identify key areas of clinical concern; and 3 explore psoriasis patients' perceptions of the impact of psoriasis. Methods A disease model was developed from a review of the published literature and later revised based on the findings of clinician interviews and patient focus groups. To confirm the clinical relevance of the concepts identified in the disease model, 5 dermatologists were selected and interviewed one-on-one. They were asked to rate major psoriasis symptoms according to importance and bothersomeness level to patients on separate scales of 1 to 10. Results of clinician interviews were used to develop interview guides for patient focus groups. To identify important domains of psoriasis, 39 patients participated in 5 separate concept elicitation focus groups. Four focus groups included patients with severe psoriasis (n = 31 and one included patients with mild psoriasis (n = 8. Patients were asked to describe their current psoriasis symptoms and to rate them on a scale of 1 to 10, according to importance, severity, and troublesomeness. An average mean rating was calculated for each symptom throughout all focus groups. Results Clinicians most frequently mentioned itch (n = 5, psoriatic arthritis or "joint pains" (n = 4, flaking (n = 4, and pain (n = 3 as primary physical symptoms of psoriasis. Three clinicians gave a rating of 10 for the importance of itch; two clinicians gave ratings of 8 and 7 for importance. The majority of patients rated itch as the most important (31/39, most severe (31/39, and most troublesome (24/39 symptom and noted that itch negatively impacted daily activities (eg, concentration, sleep, ability to attend work or school
The aim of this paper is to identify the broad epistemological debates which underpin conflicting statements on 'rigour' and 'good practice' in qualitative research; to relate divergences in statements of 'good practice' in focus group design made by the pre-eminent commentators on focus group methodology to these broader epistemological debates; and to stimulate further reflection on the range of possible uses for focus groups in health services research. Considerations of the analysis of focus group data are beyond the scope of this paper. Focus groups are a popular form of qualitative data collection, and may be defined as a particular form of group interview intended to exploit group dynamics. While qualitative research may be broadly characterized as concerned with exploring people's lived experiences and perspectives in context, it is a heterogeneous field incorporating many theoretical traditions. Consequently, qualitative researchers may be informed by a wide range of assumptions about the nature of knowledge (epistemology). These assumptions, whether implicit or explicit, have important consequences for claims about rigour and 'good practice' in data collection. Thus, while there is broad agreement over the general form of focus groups, statements of 'good practice' in terms of its application are varied. A close reading of texts by the two pre-eminent commentators on the practical application of focus groups identifies differences in 'best practice' focus group design related to their respective epistemological assumptions, and differences principally related to sampling techniques, composition of groups, the perceived role of group interaction and the nature of inference. Explicit consideration of the epistemological basis of divergent statements of 'best practice' in focus group design forces health services researchers to balance the demands of theory with the practicalities of conducting focus group research within complex host organisations; and
... Tag § 35.4140 What must be included in my group's work plan? (a) Your scope of work must clearly... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in my group's work plan? 35.4140 Section 35.4140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND...
Gordon, Elisa J; Mullee, Jack O; Ramirez, Daney I; MacLean, Jessica; Olivero, Maria; Feinglass, Joseph; Carney, Paula; O'Connor, Kate; Caicedo, Juan Carlos
Given the shortage of kidneys for transplant, living kidney donation (LKD) is increasingly used to expand the organ donor pool. Although Hispanics/Latinos need disproportionately more kidney transplants, they receive a smaller proportion of living donor kidney transplants than other ethnic/racial groups. To assess Hispanics' awareness, perceptions, misconceptions, cultural beliefs, and values about and barriers to LKD. Nine focus groups were conducted with 76 adult Hispanics in Chicago, Illinois, between January and March 2012. Focus groups included kidney transplant recipients, living kidney donors, dialysis patients, and the general Hispanic public. Several themes emerged as perceived barriers to LKD. Many participants identified knowledge deficits about LKD, expressing uncertainty about the differences between LKD and deceased donation, and whether kidney disease simultaneously afflicts both kidneys. Many believed that donors experience dramatically shorter life expectancies, are unable to have children, and are more susceptible to kidney disease after donating. Recipients and donors reported that family members were involved in discussions about the donor's decision to donate, with some family members discouraging donation. Financial barriers cited included fear of becoming unable to work, losing one's job, or being unable to pay household bills while recovering. Participants also identified logistic barriers for undocumented immigrants (eg, the inability to obtain government insurance for transplant candidates and uncertainty about their eligibility to donate). Donors desired information about optimizing self-care to promote their remaining kidney's health. Culturally competent interventions are needed to redress Hispanics' knowledge deficits and misconceptions and reduce LKD disparities among Hispanics.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.
Boateng, Beatrice; Nelson, Mary Kathryn; Huett, Amy; Meaux, Julie B; Pye, Sherry; Schmid, Barbara; Berg, Alex; LaPorte, Kelci; Riley, Linda; Green, Angela
Pediatric heart transplant recipients are scarce and widely dispersed. Previous studies of adolescents in this population were limited to small homogenous samples. Although online focus groups are an emerging data collection method, its use in pediatric populations has not been fully realized. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of using online focus groups with pediatric populations. Adolescents (aged 13 to 21 years) at least 6 months post-heart transplant and their parents were recruited from two children's hospitals. An online discussion forum (iTracks) was used to conduct asynchronous focus groups with separate parent and adolescent groups. Six parents and four adolescents participated in the discussions. iTracks provided a framework for conducting focus groups in dispersed populations. Access to the discussion transcripts enhanced data analysis and eliminated transcription costs. Overall, online discussion forums were a feasible and cost-effective option to conduct online focus groups in this pediatric population.
Vonderheid, Susan C; Carrie, S Klima; Norr, Kathleen F; Grady, Mary Alice; Westdahl, Claire M
Centering Pregnancy, an innovative group model of prenatal care, shows promise to reduce persistent adverse maternal-infant outcomes and contain costs. Because this innovation requires systemwide change, clinics reported needing support enrolling women into groups and obtaining organizational buy-in. This study used the 3-step social marketing communication strategy to help clinic staff identify key customers and customer-specific barriers to adopting or supporting Centering Pregnancy. They developed targeted information to reduce barriers and built skills in communicating with different customers through role-playing. Findings provide practical information for others to use this communication strategy to improve implementation of Centering Pregnancy.
Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya
Objectives The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. Setting The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of En...
Full Text Available Annsofie Adolfsson,1,2 Malin Jansson1,21School of Life Sciences, University of Skovde, Skovde, Sweden; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, SwedenBackground: The aim of this study was to pilot test a prototype website called MODIAB-web designed to support pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes.Method: A focus group was undertaken and the results were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results: Eight subthemes were identified, comprising "blood glucose versus insulin," "application for smart phones," "the time aspect," "interface and technology," "forum," "direct link to the diabetes midwife," "ask the expert," and "lack of contact information." These subthemes were condensed into two main themes. The first theme was "easily understood interface, but in need of a more blood-glucose focused orientation" and the second theme was "forum for interaction with both equals and experts." Conclusion: The women in this study had positive impressions of several of the MODIAB-web functions, including a forum for pregnant mothers with type 1 diabetes and the possibility of being able to put their blood glucose levels into a diagram which could be sent directly to the diabetes midwife. Access to articles and information via the "fact" tab and the ability to ask questions of experts were also significantly helpful to women in the focus group. Pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes can gain support from such a Web-based self-help system.Keywords: type 1 diabetes, web support, pregnancy, focus group interview
Full Text Available Abstract Nurses' perceptions and experiences of communication in the operating theatre: a focus group interview Background Communication programmes are well established in nurse education. The focus of programmes is most often on communicating with patients with less attention paid to inter-professional communication or skills essential for working in specialised settings. Although there are many anecdotal reports of communication within the operating theatre, there are few empirical studies. This paper explores communication behaviours for effective practice in the operating theatre as perceived by nurses and serves as a basis for developing training. Methods A focus group interview was conducted with seven experienced theatre nurses from a large London teaching hospital. The interview explored their perceptions of the key as well as unique features of effective communication skills in the operating theatre. Data was transcribed and thematically analysed until agreement was achieved by the two authors. Results There was largely consensus on the skills deemed necessary for effective practice including listening, clarity of speech and being polite. Significant influences on the nature of communication included conflict in role perception and organisational issues. Nurses were often expected to work outside of their role which either directly or indirectly created barriers for effective communication. Perceptions of a lack of collaborative team effort also influenced communication. Conclusion Although fundamental communication skills were identified for effective practice in the operating theatre, there were significant barriers to their use because of confusion over clarity of roles (especially nurses' roles and the implications for teamwork. Nurses were dissatisfied with several aspects of communication. Future studies should explore the breadth and depth of this dissatisfaction in other operating theatres, its impact on morale and importantly
Nestel, Debra; Kidd, Jane
Abstract Nurses' perceptions and experiences of communication in the operating theatre: a focus group interview Background Communication programmes are well established in nurse education. The focus of programmes is most often on communicating with patients with less attention paid to inter-professional communication or skills essential for working in specialised settings. Although there are many anecdotal reports of communication within the operating theatre, there are few empirical studies. This paper explores communication behaviours for effective practice in the operating theatre as perceived by nurses and serves as a basis for developing training. Methods A focus group interview was conducted with seven experienced theatre nurses from a large London teaching hospital. The interview explored their perceptions of the key as well as unique features of effective communication skills in the operating theatre. Data was transcribed and thematically analysed until agreement was achieved by the two authors. Results There was largely consensus on the skills deemed necessary for effective practice including listening, clarity of speech and being polite. Significant influences on the nature of communication included conflict in role perception and organisational issues. Nurses were often expected to work outside of their role which either directly or indirectly created barriers for effective communication. Perceptions of a lack of collaborative team effort also influenced communication. Conclusion Although fundamental communication skills were identified for effective practice in the operating theatre, there were significant barriers to their use because of confusion over clarity of roles (especially nurses' roles) and the implications for teamwork. Nurses were dissatisfied with several aspects of communication. Future studies should explore the breadth and depth of this dissatisfaction in other operating theatres, its impact on morale and importantly on patient safety
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrant children face an increased risk of being overweight. Little is known about how immigrant families perceive school programs that may help prevent obesity, such as walking to school and school breakfast. Methods Six focus groups (n = 53 were conducted with immigrant parents of school-aged children, two each in three languages: Vietnamese, Spanish, and Somali. A facilitator and translator conducted the focus groups using a script and question guide. Written notes and audio transcripts were recorded in each group. Transcripts were coded for themes by two researchers and findings classified according to an ecological model. Results Participants in each ethnic group held positive beliefs about the benefits of walking and eating breakfast. Barriers to walking to school included fear of children's safety due to stranger abductions, distrust of neighbors, and traffic, and feasibility barriers due to distance to schools, parent work constraints, and large families with multiple children. Barriers to school breakfast participation included concerns children would not eat due to lack of appealing/appropriate foods and missing breakfast due to late bus arrival or lack of reminders. Although some parents acknowledged concerns about child and adult obesity overall, obesity concerns did not seem personally relevant. Conclusion Immigrant parents supported the ideals of walking to school and eating breakfast, but identified barriers to participation in school programs across domains of the ecological model, including community, institution, and built environment factors. Schools and communities serving immigrant families may need to address these barriers in order to engage parents and children in walking and breakfast programs.
Crothers, Kristina; Kross, Erin K; Reisch, Lisa M; Shahrir, Shahida; Slatore, Christopher; Zeliadt, Steven B; Triplette, Matthew; Meza, Rafael; Elmore, Joann G
Little is known about vulnerable patients' perceptions and understanding of, and preferences for, lung cancer screening decision aids. To determine, in a low-income, racially diverse population, (1) participants' experience, preferences, and reactions to web-based and paper decision aids, and (2) their understanding of harms and benefits of lung cancer screening. We enrolled outpatients at an urban county hospital in six focus group discussions that included review of a web-based and a paper-based lung-cancer screening decision aid. Participants completed surveys before and after the focus groups. Forty-five patients participated (mean age, 61 yr; 76% current smokers; 24% former smokers); 27% had not completed high school; 50% had an annual income not exceeding $15,000; 42% were nonwhite; and 96% reported chronic illness requiring at least three health care visits yearly. Comparing the proportion with correct answers on pre- and postsurveys, participants' understanding of lung cancer screening increased, particularly of the harms of screening including the potential for false positives, extra testing, and complications. However, after conclusion of the focus groups, more than 50% believed that screening lowered the chance of getting lung cancer. Five major themes emerged from qualitative analyses. Participants (1) were not aware of the purpose of lung cancer screening; (2) wanted to know about the benefits and harms; (3) believed physicians need to communicate more effectively; (4) found decision aids helpful and influential for decision-making about screening; and (5) wanted the discussion to be personalized and tailored. Participants expressed surprise that the magnitude of their lung cancer risk and benefits of screening were lower than anticipated. Vulnerable patients find lung cancer screening decision aids helpful and generally show increased knowledge after reviewing decision aids, particularly of harms. Our results can inform future implementation efforts.
Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...
Diambra, Joel F.; McClam, Tricia; Fuss, Angie; Burton, Bobbie; Fudge, Daniel L.
A semi-structured focus group prompted interaction among 23 human service undergraduates prior to a unique service-learning experience that involved completing a horticultural project and case management tasks with at-risk youth living in a locked psychiatric residential treatment center. The focus group provided an opportunity for university…
Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014
The Center for Community College Student Engagement encourages colleges to hold focus groups with part-time and full-time faculty to learn about differences in the faculty and their experience at their college and to complement survey data. Survey responses tell the "what" about faculty's experiences; through conducting focus groups,…
Nestel, Debra; Ivkovic, Amelie; Hill, Robyn A.; Warrens, Anthony N.; Paraskevas, Paraskeva A.; McDonnell, Jacqueline A.; Mudarikwa, Ruvimbo S.; Browne, Chris
Programme evaluation is essential for quality assurance in education. In this paper, we describe our evaluation strategy for the first year of a new medical programme. Although we used multiple methods in the evaluation, the use of the focus group method was core. This paper reports our experiences of focus groups for this purpose. We describe the…
Guest, Greg; Namey, Emily; McKenna, Kevin
Few empirical studies exist to guide researchers in determining the number of focus groups necessary for a research study. The analyses described here provide foundational evidence to help researchers in this regard. We conducted a thematic analysis of 40 focus groups on health-seeking behaviors of African American men in Durham, North Carolina.…
Zuckerman-Parker, Michelle; Shank, Gary
The town hall focus group method is described in this paper. We start by outlining the circumstances that brought about this unusual research strategy. Then, we describe the tactical decisions we made that allowed this particular effort to be a success. We conclude with a series of concrete suggestions for conducting focus groups with large groups…
Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Nielsen, Pia Bonde; Olesen, Hanne Vebert
and impeding the use of PEWS tools in clinical practice. DESIGN AND METHODS: An exploratory qualitative design was chosen using focus group interviews to gain a deeper understanding of nurses' experiences with PEWS. A total of five focus group interviews were conducted at three hospitals, and a qualitative...
Topor, Robert S.
This guide discusses the use of focus groups in marketing research for higher education. It describes the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, and examines when it is appropriate to use focus group research, when it is not, and why. The guide describes a step-by-step approach in how to plan, formulate, moderate, and report…
Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…
Jarvinen, Margaretha; Demant, Jakob Johan
This paper analyses ‘techniques of neutralisation’ among young people discussing cannabis in focus group interviews. The paper is based on data from focus group interviews with young Danes followed from when they were 14–15 years old in 2004 until they were 18–19 years old in 2008. In this period...
Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi
This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…
Brad R. Weisshaupt; Matthew S. Carroll; Keith A. Blatner; William D. Robinson; Pamela J. Jakes
Focus groups were used to gauge tolerance of smoke from broadcast prescribed forest burning in the wildland-urban interface of the northern Inland West. Focus group participants worked through issues surrounding prescribed burning as a management tool to determine if the origin of smoke made a difference in the acceptance of that smoke. Participant responses across...
Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different
Engström, Anna; Abildsnes, Eirik; Mildestvedt, Thomas
The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents' and young adults' motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. We identified four major themes: 1) motivation, 2) body experience and self-image, 3) relationships and sense of belonging, and 4) the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.
Full Text Available In our article we deal with the problematics of focus groups and their implementation in kinantropological research. The primary target of an analysis of electronic information resources of the Palacky University was to look up research projects built upon the of focus group metodology. The analysis of accessible articles put forward that particularly in the field of kinantropological research, the method is used scarcely. The main objective of our article was to introduce the focus group as a valuable research method and outline the potential applications in kinantropology. On the basis of the summarized information on focus groups research we concluded that the focus groups may represent an effective tool for capturing such phenomenons as the affect of social environment, subcultural aspects, or self efficacy on development of attitudes to lifelong learning in the context of motor activity. The confirmation of the outlined possibilities will be the subject of our further research.
Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.
Park, Sophie E; Allfrey, Caroline; Jones, Melvyn M; Chana, Jasprit; Abbott, Ciara; Faircloth, Sofia; Higgins, Nicola; Abdullah, Laila
Background Patients make a crucial contribution to undergraduate medical education. Although a national resource is available for patients participating in research, none is as yet available for education. Aim This study aimed to explore what information patients would like about participation in general practice based undergraduate medical education, and how they would like to obtain this information. Design and setting Two focus groups were conducted in London-based practices involved in both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Method Patients both with and without teaching experience were recruited using leaflets, posters, and patient participation groups. An open-ended topic guide explored three areas: perceived barriers that participants anticipated or had experienced; patient roles in medical education; and what help would support participation. Focus groups were audiorecorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Results Patients suggested ways of professionalising the teaching process. These were: making information available to patients about confidentiality, iterative consent, and normalising teaching in the practice. Patients highlighted the importance of relationships, making information available about their GPs’ involvement in teaching, and initiating student–patient interactions. Participants emphasised educational principles to maximise exchange of information, including active participation of students, patient identification of student learner needs, and exchange of feedback. Conclusion This study will inform development of patient information resources to support their participation in teaching and access to information both before and during general practice based teaching encounters. PMID:28360073
Background: Social media platforms are useful for creating communities, which can then be utilised as a mean for supportive, professional and social learning. Objective: To explore first year nursing student experiences with social media in supporting student transition and engagement into higher education. Design: Qualitative focus groups. Methods: Ten 1st yearBachelor of Nursing students were included in three face-to-face focus groups. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content ...
Stephanie T Gumuchian
Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood.To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions.Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis.Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a facing a new reality; (b the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d changing family roles; (e social interactions; and (f navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants' lives.Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease.
Koffer Miller, Kaitlin H; Mathew, Mary; Nonnemacher, Stacy L; Shea, Lindsay L
A growing number of individuals with autism spectrum disorder are aging into adulthood. In the United States, Medicaid is the primary payer for services for adults with autism spectrum disorder, yet there are few funded programs that provide dedicated supports to this population. This study examined the experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder in two Medicaid-funded programs in Pennsylvania through focus groups. Researchers conducted 20 focus groups with a total of 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder, 32 family members, 32 direct care staff, and 20 program administrators. Using thematic analysis, we identified three themes: training needs, community engagement and socialization, and employment. There was a need for additional training to meet the varying needs of program participants including co-occurring diagnoses, sexuality, and long-term planning. Adults with autism spectrum disorder prioritized more individualized community activities based on their interests. Finally, barriers to and strategies for successful employment were discussed. It will be crucial for policy makers to utilize the findings to inform program improvement and development based on the experiences of individuals impacted by these services and systems directly. Additionally, researchers should use the findings from this study to design interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorder as it includes their voices.
Mosnaim, Giselle; Kohrman, Claire; Sharp, Lisa K; Wolf, Marion E; Sadowski, Laura S; Ramos, Lori; Grammer, Leslie C
Little is known about how childhood asthma affects immigrant Hispanic families in the United States. Qualitative research is effective for understanding the social, cultural, functional, and structural aspects of asthma in the family context. Furthermore, such knowledge is necessary to develop culturally appropriate interventions for these families. To describe participants' perceptions of their roles in caring for an asthmatic child, to compare family patterns of caring for an asthmatic child by parents' country of origin, to identify barriers to caring for an asthmatic child, and to evaluate specific coping needs of low-income immigrant Hispanic families caring for an asthmatic child. Five focus groups were conducted with low-income, immigrant, Spanish-speaking Hispanic adults caring for an asthmatic child, including community health workers, mothers, fathers, and grandparents, along with women with asthma. Audiotaped focus groups were transcribed verbatim in Spanish, forward translated into English, and back translated into Spanish. Data analysis was performed using qualitative analytic methods. Forty-one participants represented a range of countries of origin. Different themes emerged for community health workers vs parents and grandparents and for women vs men caring for a child with asthma. All the participants reported strong beliefs in using folk medicines. Barriers identified included language, culture, poverty, lack of health insurance, and poor living conditions. Results highlight the lack of asthma self-management skills, diagnostic uncertainty, and the use of folk medicine as factors that should be taken into consideration when tailoring interventions to improve asthma outcomes in this vulnerable population.
van Herpen, E.; Bosmans, A.M.M.
We investigate how the presence of a subcategory influences consumers’ variety perceptions of products in and outside that subcategory. Two experiments show that subcategories trigger in-group heterogeneity and out-group homogeneity: consumers focus on the subcategory of interest, such that
Wong, L P
In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was a part of a contestable rapid response initiative launched by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and the Ministry of Health in response to the 2009 influenza A pandemic. The aim was to provide health authorities in New Zealand with evidence-based practical information to guide the development and delivery of effective health messages for H1N1 and other health campaigns. This study contributed to the initiative by providing qualitative data about community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behavioural change and the differential impact on vulnerable groups in New Zealand. Methods Qualitative data were collected on community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 Ministry of Health H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behaviour and the differential impact on vulnerable groups. Eight focus groups were held in the winter of 2010 with 80 participants from groups identified by the Ministry of Health as vulnerable to the H1N1 virus, such as people with chronic health conditions, pregnant women, children, Pacific Peoples and Māori. Because this study was part of a rapid response initiative, focus groups were selected as the most efficient means of data collection in the time available. For Māori, focus group discussion (hui is a culturally appropriate methodology. Results Thematic analysis of data identified four major themes: personal and community risk, building community strategies, responsibility and information sources. People wanted messages about specific actions that they could take to protect themselves and their families and to mitigate any consequences. They wanted transparent and factual communication where both good and bad news is conveyed by people who they could trust. Conclusions The responses from all groups endorsed the need for community based risk management including information dissemination. Engaging
Full Text Available Introduction: Rural populations have many barriers to quality health care including lack of access to primary care and specialty care and a greater likelihood to be underinsured or uninsured. They are also less likely to use preventive screening, or to participate in self-care and engage in their health when compared to urban residents. The purpose of this paper was to describe patients’ healthcare experiences in a rural western state focusing on their healthcare expectations and engagement. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using a focus group protocol to elicit rural patients’ healthcare experiences. A purposeful sample of English speaking adult residents from a single county who were willing to discuss their healthcare experiences was included. Patients and community members (21 years and older were recruited through a local hospital as well as via flyers posted throughout the community. Each audio-recorded group took about two hours. A total of 15 focus groups were conducted to obtain sufficient text for theoretical saturation and thematic analysis. Each group had a range of 3-8 participants. A $25 visa gift card and lunch were provided for each participant as an incentive. Results: ‘Encounters with Healthcare Professionals’ and ‘Engagement in Health’ were the two dominant dimensions with two themes each. Themes centered around what characterized the best or worst encounters. Trust and Communication - both were based on time spent with the provider and establishment of rapport with the providers. The best encounters were those with health care providers or pharmacists who had sufficient time, adequately explained a diagnosis and new medications did not dismiss patient concerns, and treated individuals with respect. Typical responses describing the worst encounters included examples of misdiagnosis, dismissing patient’s symptoms, healthcare professionals whose attention was not focused on the patient, pushing too
Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean
There is evidence that financial incentive interventions, which include both financial rewards and also penalties, are effective in encouraging healthy behaviours. However, concerns about the acceptability of such interventions remain. We report on focus groups with a cross-section of adults from North East England exploring their acceptance of financial incentive interventions for encouraging healthy behaviours amongst adults. Such information should help guide the design and development of acceptable, and effective, financial incentive interventions. Eight focus groups with a total of 74 adults were conducted between November 2013 and January 2014 in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Focus groups lasted approximately 60 minutes and explored factors that made financial incentives acceptable and unacceptable to participants, together with discussions on preferred formats for financial incentives. Verbatim transcripts were thematically coded and analysed in Nvivo 10. Participants largely distrusted health promoting financial incentives, with a concern that individuals may abuse such schemes. There was, however, evidence that health promoting financial incentives may be more acceptable if they are fair to all recipients and members of the public; if they are closely monitored and evaluated; if they are shown to be effective and cost-effective; and if clear health education is provided alongside health promoting financial incentives. There was also a preference for positive rewards rather than negative penalties, and for shopping vouchers rather than cash incentives. This qualitative empirical research has highlighted clear suggestions on how to design health promoting financial incentives to maximise acceptability to the general public. It will also be important to determine the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives in a range of stakeholders, and in particular, those who fund such schemes, and policy-makers who are likely to be involved with the design
Hospital, Michelle M; Wagner, Eric F; Morris, Staci Leon; Sawant, Meenal; Siqueira, Lorena M; Soumah, Morgan
There is growing evidence that text messaging-"short message service" (SMS)-is useful for health promotion and behavior change. SMS has become a preferred channel of communication among adolescents. Despite burgeoning interest, there remains a critical need for formative research regarding developmentally and culturally appropriate SMS-based health promotion with teenagers. The primary objective was to develop SMS message protocols and procedures effective for reducing underage drinking among Hispanic teens. Using focus groups, we sought our target population's perspectives on SMS parameters including scheduling, frequency, content, themes, and confirmation-of-receipt. We conducted, recorded, and transcribed six mixed-gender focus groups (20 adolescents, 4-5 per group) recruited from the Division of Adolescent Medicine at Miami Children's Hospital. Alcohol-related and "attention control" text messages were assembled from two sources (http://www.mobilehealth4youth.org and the existing literature); these SMSs, along with SMS procedures, were the focus of discussion. The recordings and transcription were reviewed by two researchers who employed a qualitative iterative process analytical approach. Findings revealed distinct preferences among teenagers about the scheduling, frequency, content, themes, and confirmation-of-receipt of SMSs. Moreover, teens were most enthusiastic about SMSs that addressed alcohol-related knowledge, self-efficacy, social support, or future orientation. Conclusion/Importance: Seeking our target population's perspectives on SMS parameters was essential for developing SMS message protocols and procedures with potential effectiveness for reducing underage drinking among Hispanic teens. It is strongly recommended that researchers or clinicians considering SMS-based interventions conduct a similar formative process prior to implementation.
Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor-student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians.
Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.
This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…
Chae, Sun-Mi; Yeo, Ji-Young; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Ji-Hye; Lim, Jiyoung; Kwon, Insook
This qualitative descriptive study sought to identify perceptions about and status of weight control in adolescents from the perspective of adolescents and their teachers. Focus groups were used with six separate groups, 20 adolescents divided into four groups and 14 teachers divided into two groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic analysis in NVivo 11.0. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies (COREQ) were followed. We extracted three themes and 12 sub-themes with 52 meaningful codes. Both adolescents and teachers stated that perceptions about weight control in adolescents were overly weighted toward management of one's appearance. The adolescents reported an increase in weight gained during adolescence, especially after entering high school, and they noted a lack of participation in physical activities and the presence of unhealthy dietary behaviors. However, adolescents perceived excessive weight gain during adolescence as natural, as long as they studied hard. Their teachers and parents were also permissive about weight gain resulted from study. The participants suggested that a weight control program for adolescents should be conducted in schools and should include every student in order to avoid discrimination. In addition, teacher involvement was emphasized to promote participation of adolescents in a school program. Our findings indicate that adolescents, especially those in a society emphasizing academics, need to practice healthy weight control behaviors. A school-based weight control program involving teachers and peers would be suitable and should be provided to all students regardless of weight classification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
David A Cook
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. METHODS: We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. RESULTS: We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity, integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect, currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. CONCLUSION: The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field.
Zh V Puzanova
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research conducted in December 2013 at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia with the method of focus groups. The study aimed at identification not only the differences in understanding healthy lifestyles among students and their attitudes to a healthy lifestyle, but also its components, obstacles for the realization and opportunities to overcome them. The focus group research was just another stage of the project aimed at studying health and healthy lifestyles as values and the characteristics of the formation and manifestation of a health-preserving behavior. Despite many opportunities to motivate a health-preserving behavior among students, we still see obstacles for its formation due to both social and cultural characteristics. The study revealed that the value of health at this stage of life is rather declarative: only a small percentage of respondents are fully aware of the necessity of a health-preserving behavior and do really adopt a healthy lifestyle. The basic factors influencing the formation of the healthy lifestyle among the youth are the family, social environment and mass media. The respondents, in particular, confirm the significant impact of their social circle on the commitment to the bad habits as well as to healthy hobbies. The main factors hindering the healthy lifestyles among students include lack of free time, welfare, Internet addiction, lack of sufficient motivation and self-organization.
Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Nielsen, Pia Bonde; Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Kirkegaard, Hans; Aagaard, Hanne
Pediatric early warning score (PEWS) systems are used to monitor pediatric patients' vital signs and facilitate the treatment of patients at risk of deteriorating. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about nurses' experiences with PEWS and to highlight factors facilitating and impeding the use of PEWS tools in clinical practice. An exploratory qualitative design was chosen using focus group interviews to gain a deeper understanding of nurses' experiences with PEWS. A total of five focus group interviews were conducted at three hospitals, and a qualitative meaning condensation analysis as described by Kvale and Brinkmann was performed. Seven themes were identified, including i) lack of interdisciplinary awareness, ii) clinical judgment and PEWS-a multi-faceted approach, iii) PEWS supports a professional language, iv) monitoring the patient's - a challenge, v) PEWS helps to visualize the need for escalating care, vi) an inflexible and challenging tool, and vii) supportive tools enhance the nurses' experiences of PEWS positively. Our findings suggest that attention should be given to nurses' perceptions of how both clinical judgment and PEWS should be seen as essential in providing nurses with information about the patients' conditions. If not, the risk of failing to recognize patients' deteriorating conditions will remain as this can have an impeding influence on nurses' use of PEWS. From the nurses' perspective, medical doctors seemed unaware of their role in using PEWS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Church, Sarah; Ekberg, Merryn
the aim of this study was to gain an understanding of how midwifery students respond to a range of ethical dilemmas which they may encounter in clinical practice in relation to the use of reproductive technologies. during a series of focus groups, student midwives were asked to consider four novel scenarios, which highlighted some of the most controversial issues in contemporary reproductive ethics. These included assisted reproduction for older women, surrogacy and mental health, sex selection and reproductive cloning. a University in the East Midlands, England. purposeful sampling was adopted which resulted in four focus groups with a total of 16 student midwives. a process of thematic analysis generated four key themes: choice and expectation, consumer society; distributive justice; parental rights and welfare of the child. our results suggest that student midwives are sensitive to the range of ethical dilemmas associated with the increased use of technology in human reproduction, and construct distinct boundaries in relation to what is considered of benefit or good to the mother, parents, the child and to society and what is considered harmful to the individual, the child and society. They also expressed their opposition to the excessive use of technological intervention, preferring instead to maintain a more naturalistic approach to reproduction. This is especially significant where concerns about the welfare of the child are articulated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sheer, Vivian C; Mao, Chang Molly; Chen, Yi-Ru Regina
Adolescence is associated with smoking initiation among men in China. The lack of qualitative studies using Chinese adolescent samples can pose challenges to enacting effective smoking prevention messages that resonate with male Chinese teenagers' thoughts, needs, and wishes. This focus group study was designed to obtain in-depth contextual information on early smoking among male teenagers in China. Twenty focus groups of 7-10 male students from vocational and junior colleges (N = 165) were conducted, approximately half in Shanxi and half in Guangdong. A large number of early smoking activities occurred in homes and schools, and teenagers considered school toilets and dorms safe havens for smoking. Many participants' first cigarettes were offered to them by peers, others first smoked during social interactions, and some started smoking of their own volition. Teenagers were curious about the attributes of cigarette products, smoking techniques, and physical reactions. More participants disclosed negative first smoking experiences than positive experiences. Negative first physical experiences motivated some participants to acquire better smoking techniques. Smoking experimentation was sustained in part by reciprocated cigarette offers. Heavy experimentation occurred before graduation from high school. Conclusions/Importance: The current findings provide an empirical basis for developing intervention strategies that are alternative or complementary to the current conventional health education. These strategies include cognitive response methods to enhance antismoking beliefs, smoke-free social interaction norms, and school-based (e.g., peer education) and home-based (e.g., involving family members) intervention programs.
Sylvetsky, Allison C; Hennink, Monique; Comeau, Dawn; Welsh, Jean A; Hardy, Trisha; Matzigkeit, Linda; Swan, Deanne W; Walsh, Stephanie M; Vos, Miriam B
Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, we aimed to investigate youth's understanding of obesity and to investigate gaps between their nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and perceived susceptibility to obesity and its co-morbidities. A marketing firm contracted by Children's Healthcare of Atlanta facilitated a series of focus group discussions (FGD) to test potential concepts and sample ads for the development of an obesity awareness campaign. Data were collected in August and September of 2010 with both overweight and healthy weight 4th-5th grade and 7th-8th grade students. We conducted a secondary analysis of the qualitative FGD transcripts using inductive thematic coding to identify key themes related to youth reports of family eating habits (including food preparation, meal frequency, and eating environment), perceived facilitators and barriers of healthy diet, and knowledge about obesity and its complications. Across focus group discussions, mixed attitudes about healthy eating, low perceived risk of being or becoming obese, and limited knowledge about the health consequences of obesity may contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity among youth in Georgia. Most youth were aware that obesity was a problem; yet most overweight youth felt that their weight was healthy and attributed overweight to genetics or slow metabolism. Our analysis suggests that urban youth in Georgia commonly recognize obesity as a problem, but there is less understanding of the link to lifestyle choices or the connection to future morbidities, suggesting a need for education to connect lifestyle behaviors to development of obesity.
Webster, Kassi M; Cunningham, Christopher J L
To obtain in-depth community input using qualitative and quantitative methods to guide development and marketing of a bike-share program in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Focus groups and surveys assessed bicycling attitudes, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors of residents, workers, and university students. The authors completed nine focus groups (N = 56): five sessions with downtown workers, three with downtown residents, and one with university students. Health, recreation and transportation benefits of bicycling were commonly identified. Concerns regarding bicycling in traffic are apparent because of lack of facilities and a need for public education on safe motorist and bicyclist behavior. Practical limitations can inhibit bicycling during the day, including shower access and personal hygiene concerns. Public desire for environmental, educational, and enforcement tactics to support safe bicycling was noted. Marketing tactics for bike-share usage should emphasize health, recreational, and transportation benefits. Worksites can reduce barriers related to bicycling and encourage bike-share use. Future studies should assess bike-share impact on perceptions and behavior, as well as the resulting policy and environmental changes.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens
Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls' requests for more "hanging-out" facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment.
Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.
We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at
Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael
Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or 'chunks' of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data 'chunks'. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action.
Veldhuijzen, N.; Nyinawabega, J.; Umulisa, M.; Kankindi, B.; Geubbels, E.; Basinga, P.; Vyankandondera, J.; van de Wijgert, J.
The acceptability and feasibility of microbicide studies and future microbicide use are influenced by existing norms and values regarding sexual and contraceptive behaviour. In preparation for microbicide research in Rwanda, focus group discussions were conducted to assess sexual and contraceptive
This project uses Roadway Reviews and Focus Groups to gain insight into how North Carolina residents assess and prioritize roadway assets. During a three-week period in November 2015, researchers from the Institute for Transportation Research and Edu...
Bletzer, Keith V; Yuan, Nicole P; Koss, Mary P; Polacca, Mona; Eaves, Emery R; Goldman, David
Focus groups provide a source of data that highlight community ideas on a topic of interest. How interview data will be utilized varies by project. With this in mind, we identify ways that focus group data from a particular population (Native American) articulate a health issue of individual tribal concern (alcohol consumption). Taking our analytic framework from linguistics, one of the four fields of inquiry in anthropology, we examine format ties and the performance of humor as stylistic features of tribal focus groups and illustrate how linguistic devices can be used in analyzing aspects of adolescent and adult drinking. Focus group data require systematic review and analysis to identify useful findings that can lead to inquiry points to initiate collaborative work with local experts before the data can be developed and configured into effective program initiatives.
This report presents the test plan for developing, conducting, and analyzing surveys, interviews, and focus groups for evaluating the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Prog...
Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence
To explore the contribution of clinical nurse specialists in intellectual disability nursing in Ireland. While clinical nurse specialists exist since the 1940s, they have only been a reality in Ireland since 2001. While the role of clinical nurse specialist has developed over the years, it still however is often seen as a complex multifaceted role that causes confusion, frustration and controversy. A exploratory qualitative approach using focus groups with Irish intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists (n = 31). Five focus group interviews were conducted to gather qualitative data to gain insight into the attitudes, perceptions and opinions of the participants. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Burnard's (Vital Notes for Nurses: Research for Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare, 2011, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford) framework. Ethical approval was gained from the researcher's university and access granted by the national council for the professional development of nursing/midwifery in Ireland. The study highlights that intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists contribute to and support care delivery across a range of areas including client-focused and family-centred care, staff support, organisation support, community support and supporting other agencies. Overall, the study shows the importance of intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists and their contribution across a range of services, care environments and the support they offer to clients/families/staff/multidisciplinary team members and outside agencies. Ireland is in a unique position to develop knowledge regarding specialist care for people with intellectual disability that can be shared and adapted by other healthcare professionals in other countries that do not have specialised intellectual disability nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kelly, Jaimon T; Campbell, Katrina L; Hoffmann, Tammy; Reidlinger, Dianne P
People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) contend with complex dietary recommendations. The challenge in practice is for clinicians to provide individualized support with the frequency and consistency required to sustain dietary changes. This study aimed to describe the experiences of patients with managing dietary recommendations, including their perspectives on the potential to use telehealth to support dietary management in CKD. Focus group study. Twenty-one adult patients with CKD (nondialysis) and 3 caregivers (total N = 24) purposively sampled to achieve diverse demographic and clinical characteristics, from two nephrology units in Queensland, Australia. Five focus groups were conducted, audio recorded, and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis drawing on the principles of grounded theory. Themes aligned with the research question. We identified five themes: exasperating stagnancy (patronized by redundant advice, confused and unprepared for dietary change, inevitability of failure, and barriers to accessing dietetic services); supporting and sustaining change (receiving regular feedback, incremental and comprehendible modification, practical guidance on food, flexibility in monitoring schedule, and valuing peer advice); fostering ownership (seeking kidney diet information, enacting behavior change, making reminders, and tracking progress against targets); motivators and positive learning instruction (relying on reassurance, positive reinforcement, focusing on allowable foods, and involving family); threats and ambiguities of risk (sugar as the culprit, ubiquity of salt, illegible food labeling, avoiding processed foods, and questioning credibility of sources). Patients with CKD desire a preventative approach to CKD progression and maintaining their health, however, are stymied by dietary restrictions and a lack of reliable dietetic advice. Easy-to-use telehealth options have the potential to overcome the shortcomings in current
Suggestions to Prevent/Mitigate Sexist Behaviors/ Discrimination ...................................88 Repercussions for Reporting Sexual Harassment and Sexist... Discrimination usually comes from the supervisor. They kind of tag you.” (E1–E4 Female) 2015 Focus Groups on Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Among...the topics of sexual harassment, sexual assault, gender discrimination , and retaliation. As this alternative year survey-focus group assessment
Mary E. Northridge
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Methods Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR, this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents, executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. Results While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24 and numbers of participants (n = 194. Conclusions This study adds to the
Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol
Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and
Coenen, Michaela; Stamm, Tanja A; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos
To compare two different approaches to performing focus groups and individual interviews, an open approach, and an approach based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Patients with rheumatoid arthritis attended focus groups (n = 49) and individual interviews (n = 21). Time, number of concepts, ICF categories identified, and sample size for reaching saturation of data were compared. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, and independent t tests were performed. With an overall time of 183 h, focus groups were more time consuming than individual interviews (t = 9.782; P interviews were identified compared to the 231 and 110 respective categories identified in the ICF-based approach. Saturation of data was reached after performing five focus groups and nine individual interviews in the open approach and five focus groups and 12 individual interviews in the ICF-based approach. The method chosen should depend on the objective of the study, issues related to the health condition, and the study's participants. We recommend performing focus groups if the objective of the study is to comprehensively explore the patient perspective.
Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya
The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session ('developing a sense of group belonging') and perceptions of its design and delivery ('creating the conditions for engagement'). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections should be a core feature of a general framework for the design and delivery of group interventions. Published by the
Tavener, Meredith; Mooney, Rosemary; Thomson, Clare; Loxton, Deborah
Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the "hard to reach" character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld.
Rys, Sam; Deschepper, Reginald; Deliens, Luc; Mortier, Freddy; Bilsen, Johan
Continuous Sedation until Death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, has become a common practice in nursing homes in Flanders (Belgium). Quantitative research has suggested that CSD is not always properly applied. This qualitative study aims to explore and describe the circumstances under which nursing home clinicians consider CSD to be justified. Six focus groups were conducted including 10 physicians, 24 nurses, and 14 care assistants working in either Catholic or non-Catholic nursing homes of varying size. Refractory suffering, limited life expectancy and respecting patient autonomy are considered essential elements in deciding for CSD. However, multiple factors complicate the care of nursing home residents at the end of life, and often hinder clinicians from putting these elements into practice. Nursing home clinicians may benefit from more information and instruction about managing CSD in the complex care situations which typically occur in nursing homes. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Habara, Minako; Kawabata, Hidenobu; Sekine, Rikaru; Maezawa, Masaji; Majima, Tokifumi
The current needs of patients with idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head were analyzed for the purpose of seeking effective support programs that would maintain and improve the quality of life of the patients. A focus group interview method was used to collect data. Interviewees included eight patients. They were asked about their opinions and needs with respect to medicine, health care, and welfare. Overall, four needs were revealed as particularly significant: information needs, decision-making in the absence of pre-established treatment, psychological support, and sufficient medical healthcare institutions. These four needs are useful for the foundation of future support systems, whose main concerns will be: counseling support for patients with idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head, currently adopted institutions, and resources that may be required in the future. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the trust relationship in virtual teams in Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC status companies. The study used qualitative method that is phenomenology approach through focus group interviews. In-depth interview were also used with semi-structured and openended questions. The interviews involved six staffs at different position in virtual team (two team leaders, and four team members. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic analysis. Results showed that dimensions on virtual team trust relationship including interpersonal communication, personality, team members size, face-to-face meeting needs, safety information when discussing face-to-face in public places, and difficulty to recall interaction via video conferencing with other team members.
The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking culture of elderly Korean immigrants in Canada. Using a focus group approach, qualitative data were collected from 19 elderly Korean immigrants (14 men; 5 women) residing in Canada. Data were analyzed using the techniques of grounded theory. The findings indicated that elderly Korean immigrants did not dramatically change their understanding of drinking or their ways of drinking. Instead, they modified their drinking behavior in accordance with the social and legal environment of their new country. In particular, Canadian alcohol policies, including the higher cost of alcohol, lower accessibility, and strict law enforcement, discouraged excessive drinking. Policy implications and recommendations for future research are presented.
Full Text Available Background: In response to transforming healthcare and pursuit of the Triple Aim, many health systems have added team members to expand the capabilities and effectiveness of the team to facilitate these aims. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and perceptions of pharmacist-physician collaboration among family medicine residents (FMR, family medicine faculty (FMF, and pharmacist faculty and residents in a practice where clinical pharmacy services were relatively new. Understanding the nuances of pharmacist-physician interactions will provide insight into how to improve FMR education to prepare learners for patient-centered, team-based practice. Methods: An exploratory descriptive qualitative study design was used to articulate perceptions of professional roles and team-based care in an interprofessional family medicine community-based clinical practice. Five, 60-minute focus groups were conducted in a clinical training setting that focuses on preparing family medicine physicians for collaborative rural primary care practice. Results: Twenty-one FMRs, eight FMF, and six clinical pharmacists participated. Three themes emerged from the focus groups and were consistent across the groups: 1 roles of pharmacists recognized by physicians in different settings, 2 benefits to collaboration, and 3 keys to successful pharmacist-physician collaboration which include a developing the relationship, b optimizing communication, c creating beneficial clinical workflow, d clarifying roles and responsibilities, and e increasing opportunities for meaningful interactions. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that by co-locating physicians and pharmacists in the same environment, and providing a basic structure for collaboration, a collaborative working relationship can be initiated. Practices looking to have more effective collaborative working relationships should strive to increase the frequency of interactions of the professions, help the
Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Danner, Marion; Vennedey, Vera; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Fauser, Sascha; Stock, Stephanie
Patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are rarely actively involved in decision-making, despite facing preference-sensitive treatment decisions. This paper presents a qualitative study to prepare quantitative preference elicitation in AMD patients. The aims of this study were (1) to gain familiarity with and learn about the special requirements of the AMD patient population for quantitative data collection; and (2) to select/refine patient-relevant treatment attributes and levels, and gain insights into preference structures. Semi-structured focus group interviews were performed. An interview guide including preselected categories in the form of seven potentially patient-relevant treatment attributes was followed. To identify the most patient-relevant treatment attributes, a ranking exercise was performed. Deductive content analyses were done by two independent reviewers for each attribute to derive subcategories (potential levels of attributes) and depict preference trends. The focus group interviews included 21 patients. The interviews revealed that quantitative preference surveys in this population will have to be interviewer assisted to make the survey feasible for patients. The five most patient-relevant attributes were the effect on visual function [ranking score (RS): 139], injection frequency (RS: 101), approval status (RS: 83), side effects (RS: 79), and monitoring frequency (RS: 76). Attribute and level refinement was based on patients' statements. Preference trends and dependencies between attributes informed the quantitative instrument design. This study suggests that qualitative research is a very helpful step to prepare the design and administration of quantitative preference elicitation instruments. It especially facilitated familiarization with the target population and its preferences, and it supported attribute/level refinement.
This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.
DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.
This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and
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Sullivan, Gavin Brent
Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.
Khadka, Jyoti; Ryan, Barbara; Margrain, Tom H.; Woodhouse, J. Margaret; Davies, Nathan
The purpose of the study was to identify the educational, social and leisure activities and issues that matter to school children and young people with a visual impairment and to compare their lifestyle with fully sighted counterparts. Thirteen focus groups were conducted and the groups were stratified by age, gender, visual status and school…
Billups, Felice D.
Institutional researchers (IRs) are often asked to conduct focus groups as an efficient way to address an institutional concern or problem. Typically, IR professionals depend on external consultants and specialists to conduct these group interviews for them; however, due to recent resource constraints (staffing, budgets), they are increasingly…
Hofman, R.; Empelen, P. van; Vogel, I.; Raat, H.; Ballegooijen, M. van; Korfage, I.J.
Before the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, decisional strategies and factors that could guide HPV vaccination intentions were explored. The authors conducted 4 focus group discussions with 36 parents of children 8-15 years of age. Three groups consisted primarily of Dutch
Sugland, Barbara W.; Wilder, Kathleen J.; Chandra, Anita
Findings in this report summarize the first phase of a larger, multi-year study that is combining qualitative and quantitative methods to outline a conceptual framework to guide future demographic/fertility research, pregnancy prevention programs and policies. Twelve focus groups--involving a multiculturally representative group of male and female…
Plakans, Lia; Alper, Rebecca; Colvin, Carolyn; Aquilino, Mary; Louko, Linda J.; Zebrowski, Patricia; Ali, Saba Rasheed
For over 3 years, 6 faculty members and 1 graduate student have gathered as a working group applying an interdisciplinary focus to public engagement projects involving immigrant families in the rural Midwest. One dimension of the group's effort has been to involve faculty, staff, and students from many disciplines in its examination of pertinent…
Tainsh, Yana I.
This paper examines the contribution of focus groups in evaluating learner satisfaction with a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It explores the views of a group of introductory level Post Compulsory Education learners that have a history of disaffection, impoverished learning and challenged written and communication skills. The outcome of this…
Poma, Stefano Zanone; Grossi, Antonello; Venturini, Monica; Cristina, Contessa; Toniolo, Emanuele
In the prevention of suicide, there is a need to transform clinical studies into health promotion by a cooperation with territorial agencies. A survey on a group of stakeholders was performed with the methodology of focus group. The evaluation criteria used by the participants were practical and not methodological and were closely linked to the…
Amico, K L; Wieland, M L; Weis, J A; Sullivan, S M; Nigon, J A; Sia, I G
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) emphasizes collaborative efforts among communities and academics where all members are equitable contributors. Capacity building through training in research methodology is a potentially important outcome for CBPR partnerships. To describe the logistics and lessons learned from building community research capacity for focus group moderation in the context of a CBPR partnership. After orientation to CBPR principles, members of a US suburban community underwent twelve hours of interactive learning in focus group moderation by a national focus group expert. An additional eight-hour workshop promoted advanced proficiency and built on identified strengths and weaknesses. Ten focus groups were conducted at an adult education center addressing a health concern previously identified by the center's largely immigrant and refugee population. Program evaluation was achieved through multiple observations by community and academic-based observers. Twenty-seven community and academic members were recruited through established relationships for training in focus group moderation, note-taking, and report compilation. Focus group training led to increased trust among community and research partners while empowering individual community members and increasing research capacity for CBPR. Community members were trained in focus group moderation and successfully applied these skills to a CBPR project addressing a health concern in the community. This approach of equipping community members with skills in a qualitative research method promoted capacity building within a socio-culturally diverse community, while strengthening community-academic partnership. In this setting, capacity building efforts may help to ensure the success and sustainability for continued health interventions through CBPR.
Cynthia A. Blum
Full Text Available While preceptors are a vital link in student nurse practice education, ongoing support beyond an initial orientation is often lacking. It has been reported in the literature that preceptors experience stress related to difficulties in handling preceptee situations. They are frustrated by negative experiences centered on preceptor-identified hallmarks of unsafe practice including the inability to demonstrate knowledge and skills; attitude problems; unprofessional behavior; and poor communication skills. Their unrealized expectations for novices threaten their commitment to their preceptor role. As part of a larger study testing the effectiveness of podcasts as an ongoing method of preceptor support, this paper addresses the developmental stage of the podcasts. A team of academic and acute care nurse educators developed scripts for eventual filming of four podcasts focusing on unsafe practice issues, designed to provide continual support through web-based availability. The use of podcast technology is consistent with the learning styles of digital natives and is a demonstrated and valuable educational resource to review, reinforce, and clarify difficult concepts. These podcasts were informed through preceptor focus groups to address situational and environmental realism for student behaviors and preceptor responses.
Sullivan, Greer; Cheney, Ann; Olson, Mary; Haynes, Tiffany; Bryant, Keneshia; Cottoms, Naomi; Reaves, Christina; Curran, Geoff
A number of approaches have been used to obtain community members' health perspectives. Health services researchers often conduct focus groups while political scientists and community groups may hold forums. To compare and contrast these two approaches, we conducted six focus groups (n = 50) and seven deliberative democracy forums (n = 233) to obtain the perspectives of rural African Americans on mental health problems in their community. Inductive qualitative analysis found three common themes: rural African Americans (1) understood stresses of poverty and racism were directly related to mental health, (2) were concerned about widespread mental illness stigma, and (3) thought community members could not identify mental health problems requiring treatment. Deductive analyses identified only minor differences in content between the two approaches. This single case study suggests that researchers could consider using deliberative democracy forums rather than focus groups with marginalized populations, particularly when seeking to mobilize communities to create community-initiated interventions.
Elizabeth R. Peterson
Full Text Available In this article the authors outline an innovative way of using sticky notes, such as Post-its, within focus groups to help facilitators stimulate discussion, draw out reluctant participants, structure information, and help produce a group outcome that all members feel they own. They outline how sticky notes can be used to generate information, check for understanding, and group and sort ideas.
Ramani, Subha; Orlander, Jay D
Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this shift. Yet, essential clinical skills, professionalism, and humanistic patient interactions are best taught at the bedside. Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this decline. This study explored perceptions of teachers and learners on the value of bedside teaching and the humanistic dimensions of bedside interactions that make it imperative to shift clinical teaching back to the bedside. Focus group methodology was used to explore teacher and learner opinions. Four teacher groups consisted of (a) Chief Residents, (b) Residency Program Directors, (c) skilled bedside teachers, and (d) a convenience group of other Department of Medicine faculty at Boston University School of Medicine. Six learner groups consisted 2 each of 3rd-year students, PGY1 medicine residents, and PGY2 medicine residents. Each discussion lasted 60 to 90 minutes. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Teachers and learners shared several opinions on bedside teaching, particularly around humanistic aspects of bedside interactions. The key themes that emerged included (a) patient involvement in discussions, (b) teachers as role models of humanism, (c) preserving learner autonomy, (d) direct observation and feedback of learners at the bedside, (e) interactions with challenging patients, and (e) admitting limitations. Within these themes, participants noted some behaviors best avoided at the bedside. Teachers and learners regard the bedside as a valuable venue in which to learn core values of medicine. They proposed many strategies to preserve these humanistic values and improve bedside teaching. These strategies are essential for true patient-centered care.
Amanda Brummel, PharmD
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the patient-perceived value of MTM services and non-financial barriers preventing patients with insurance coverage from receiving MTM services. Design: Focus groups. Setting: Fairview Pharmacy Services, Minneapolis, MN.Participants: Three focus groups, each with five to nine participants, consisting of different participant populations: (i patients who paid out-of-pocket to receive MTM services; (ii insurance beneficiaries, under which MTM is a covered benefit and participants may have received incentives for receiving MTM services; (iii patients with an insurance plan which covers MTM services who were recruited to receive MTM services but declined. Intervention: MTM services. Main Outcome Measure: Patient-perceived value of MTM services and non-financial barriers. Results: Seven themes were identified relating to the patient-perceived value of MTM services: collaboration of the health care team, MTM pharmacist as a supporter/advocate/confidant, MTM pharmacist as a resource for questions and education, accessibility to the MTM pharmacist, financial incentives for participation in MTM services, MTM pharmacy as a specialty field, and the MTM pharmacist as a coordinator. Three themes were identified regarding patient-perceived non-financial barriers to receiving MTM services, including: availability of the MTM pharmacist, patient/physician lack of knowledge of MTM services, patient’s belief that MTM services are not needed. Conclusion: MTM is a service which patients identify as valuable. Patients are able to identify non-financial barriers that may prevent some patients from receiving MTM services. This study provides preliminary evidence of both the value and barriers perceived by patients.
Allison C. Sylvetsky
Full Text Available Introduction. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, we aimed to investigate youth's understanding of obesity and to investigate gaps between their nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and perceived susceptibility to obesity and its co-morbidities. Methods. A marketing firm contracted by Children's Healthcare of Atlanta facilitated a series of focus group discussions (FGD to test potential concepts and sample ads for the development of an obesity awareness campaign. Data were collected in August and September of 2010 with both overweight and healthy weight 4th-5th grade and 7th-8th grade students. We conducted a secondary analysis of the qualitative FGD transcripts using inductive thematic coding to identify key themes related to youth reports of family eating habits (including food preparation, meal frequency, and eating environment, perceived facilitators and barriers of healthy diet, and knowledge about obesity and its complications. Results. Across focus group discussions, mixed attitudes about healthy eating, low perceived risk of being or becoming obese, and limited knowledge about the health consequences of obesity may contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity among youth in Georgia. Most youth were aware that obesity was a problem; yet most overweight youth felt that their weight was healthy and attributed overweight to genetics or slow metabolism. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that urban youth in Georgia commonly recognize obesity as a problem, but there is less understanding of the link to lifestyle choices or the connection to future morbidities, suggesting a need for education to connect lifestyle behaviors to development of obesity.
Fetters, Michael D; Guetterman, Timothy C; Power, Debra; Nease, Donald E
When recruiting health care professionals to focus group interviews, investigators encounter challenges such as busy clinic schedules, recruitment, and a desire to get candid responses from diverse participants. We sought to overcome these challenges using an innovative, office-based, split-session focus group procedure in a project that elicited feedback from family medicine practices regarding a new preventive services model. This procedure entails allocating a portion of time to the entire group and the remaining time to individual subgroups. We discuss the methodologic procedure and the implications of using this approach for data collection. We conducted split-session focus groups with physicians and staff in 4 primary care practices. The procedure entailed 3 sessions, each lasting 30 minutes: the moderator interviewed physicians and staff together, physicians alone, and staff alone. As part of the focus group interview, we elicited and analyzed participant comments about the split-session format and collected observational field notes. The split-session focus group interviews leveraged the naturalistic setting of the office for context-relevant discussion. We tested alternate formats that began in the morning and at lunchtime, to parallel each practice's workflow. The split-session approach facilitated discussion of topics primarily relevant to staff among staff, topics primarily relevant to physicians among physicians, and topics common to all among all. Qualitative feedback on this approach was uniformly positive. A split-session focus group interview provides an efficient, effective way to elicit candid qualitative information from all members of a primary care practice in the naturalistic setting where they work. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Duffy, O; Iversen, L; Hannaford, P C
To explore the menopause from the perspective of women in the community, with specific emphasis on their experience of menopausal symptoms, management strategies and support post the Women's Health Initiative trial. Four focus groups were conducted with 14 middle-aged women living in the Grampian region of Scotland. The groups lasted up to 2 hours and were analyzed using the framework approach. Symptom experience was multifaceted and varied, depending on factors such as embarrassment from symptoms, loss of identity, expectations, social support and effectiveness of management strategies. Lack of support was highlighted as a reason why some participants felt confused about the symptoms that they could attribute to the menopause and the management strategies available to them. A variety of management strategies had been used including hormone replacement therapy, herbal remedies and lifestyle changes, with varying levels of success. Some women who chose not to use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) preferred to use lifestyle changes or felt that their symptoms did not warrant hormonal therapy. Some women felt that they had to persuade their family doctor to prescribe HRT and felt that their doctors were too restrictive in prescribing this treatment. Although having good social support in general, some respondents felt less supported about the menopause and felt that improved support networks would diminish some of the confusion about symptoms experienced and management strategies available. In spite of the negative publicity surrounding HRT in recent years, a number of women perceived their family doctor as too restrictive when prescribing HRT.
Zwaanswijk, Marieke; van Dulmen, Sandra
Online focus groups (OFGs) are increasingly used as a method of data collection. Although their advantages for research have repeatedly been described, participants' opinions about OFGs have seldom been studied. We investigated OFG participants' preference for participation in an OFG or a face-to-face focus group (FTF), as well as their perceptions of the advantages of both methods. We also investigated whether any differences exist between the perceptions of child, adolescent, and adult participants. Participants' opinions were studied by means of a questionnaire completed by 284 persons (aged 8-72 years) after their participation in one of 50 OFGs. The OFGs were conducted between December 2005 and December 2013 as part of 19 separate studies. Chi square tests with p advantages of OFGs and FTFs between children, adolescents and adults. The most important advantage of OFGs as perceived by OFG participants was the possibility to participate at a moment most convenient to them. Adolescents and adults (90.5% and 95.9%) more often reported this as an advantage than children did (30.8%, p advantage of OFGs was the possibility to participate from home (69.1%). The most important advantage of FTFs was respondents' perception that it is easier to have a discussion with the whole group when there is personal contact with others (48.5%). This advantage was mentioned significantly more often by adults (78.4%) than by children and adolescents (4.8% and 17.7%, p advantages of OFGs as a research method. Whereas respondents generally value the convenience of participating at their own time and place, the anonymity of OFGs and the increased ease to discuss personal issues were mentioned less often as advantages by the participants. An aspect that may need more attention when conducting an OFG, is the absence of a fluid discussion, which is, according to our respondents, easier to achieve in an FTF. This underlines the importance of the moderator in enabling a constructive
Heffron, Mary Claire; Reynolds, Diane; Talbot, Bronwyn
This article proposes how group reflective supervision, informed by the theory of reflective functioning, may provide a powerful method for developing reflective capacity of staff serving families, infants, and young children in multidisciplinary settings. An explanation of reflective functioning, related research, and its relevance to relational treatment and preventive intervention are discussed. Other approaches to reflective practice are referenced. We describe the necessary tension and encounters with distressing affect that mark reflective supervision groups using this focus. In addition, we identify areas of heightened difficulty in infant family work and describe how a group supervision process that enables use of self alongside perspectives of others may address these challenges while leading to increased reflective capacity among participants. Finally, we touch on relevant research on group supervision and parameters of size and focus, and highlight facilitation skills needed to create group safety and coherence. Areas for further study are proposed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Bäck, Lena; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Sjöqvist, Carina; Karlström, Annika
Midwives have a significant impact on the clinical outcome and the birthing experience of women. However, there has been a lack of research focusing specifically on clinical midwives' learning and development of professional competence. The objective of the study was to describe how midwives reflect on learning and the development of professional competence and confidence. A qualitative study based on focus groups with midwives employed in maternity services. Four categories describe the results: (1) Feelings of professional safety evolve over time; (2) Personal qualities affect professional development; (3) Methods for expanding knowledge and competence; and (4) Competence as developing and demanding. The meaning of competence is to feel safe and secure in their professional role. There was a link between the amount of hands-on intrapartum experience and increasing confidence that is, assisting many births made midwives feel confident. Internal rotation was disliked because the midwives felt they had less time to deepen their knowledge and develop competence in a particular field. The midwives felt they were not seen as individuals, and this system made them feel split between different assignments. External factors that contribute to the development of knowledge and competence include the ability to practise hands-on skills in an organisation that is supportive and non-threatening. Internal factors include confidence, self-efficacy, and a curiosity for learning. Midwives working within an organisation should be supported to develop their professional role in order to become knowledgeable, competent and confident. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phillips, Katharine A; Stein, Dan J; Rauch, Scott L; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James
The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Jeffery, Justine; Hewison, Alistair; Goodwin, Laura; Kenyon, Sara
For the past decade, Maternal Mortality Reports, published in the United Kingdom every three years, have consistently raised concerns about maternal observations in maternity care. The reports identify that observations are not being done, not being completed fully, are not recorded on Early Warning Score systems, and/or are not escalated appropriately. This has resulted in delays in referral, intervention and increases the risk of maternal morbidity or mortality. However there has been little exploration of the possible reasons for non-completion of maternal observations. The aim of this study was to explore midwives' experiences of performing maternal observations and escalating concerns in rural and urban maternity settings in the West Midlands of England. A qualitative design involving a series of six focus groups with midwives and Supervisors of Midwives was employed to investigate the facilitators of, and barriers to the completion of maternal observations. Eighteen Midwives and 8 Supervisors of Midwives participated in a total of 6 focus groups. Three key themes emerged from the data: (1) Organisation of Maternal Observations (including delegation of tasks to Midwifery Support Workers, variation in their training, the care model used e.g. one to one care, and staffing issues); (2) Prioritisation of Maternal Observations (including the role of professional judgement and concerns expressed by midwives that they did not feel equipped to care for women with complex clinical needs; and (3) Negotiated Escalation (including the inappropriate response from senior staff to use of Modified Early Warning Score systems, and the emotional impact of escalation). A number of organisational and cultural barriers exist to the completion of maternal observations and the escalation of concerns. In order to address these the following actions are recommended: standardised training for Midwifery Support Workers, review of training of midwives to ensure it addresses the
Lukas, Catherine V.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie
Objective: Focus group (FG) interviews with students and adults were used to obtain a rich understanding of the "Cooking with Kids" classroom experience from the child and adult participant perspectives. Methods: FG topics included students' cooking experiences at school and home and perceptions of "Cooking with Kids". Verified transcripts of…
Rollins, Kathryn; Lewis, Charley; Goeckner, Ryan; Pacheco, Joseph; Smith, T Edward; Hale, Jason; Daley, Sean Makosky; Choi, Won S; Daley, Christine Makosky
Though smokeless tobacco (SLT) use has decreased in many communities, concern for American Indian (AI) SLT use remains, as this population continues to be disproportionally affected by SLT-related diseases. Tobacco has cultural significance to many AI tribes, therefore tobacco cessation messages portraying tobacco as entirely negative may be ineffective. As a part of our formative research for an SLT cessation intervention, we sought to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about SLT among AI community members. We describe two independent focus group studies conducted in Montana (ten focus groups, 54 participants) and Kansas (six focus groups, 27 participants). Predominant themes emerged from three major topic areas (SLT use, program development, and recreational SLT use) during the discussions from both studies. The formative approach and data from these studies will allow us to more appropriately address SLT-related health disparities across multiple AI communities.
Nolette, Shaun; Nguyen, Alyssa; Kogan, David; Oswald, Catherine; Whittaker, Alana; Chakraborty, Arup
Formative evaluation is a process utilized to improve communication between students and faculty. This evaluation method allows the ability to address pertinent issues in a timely manner; however, implementation of formative evaluation can be a challenge, especially in a large classroom setting. Using mediated formative evaluation, the purpose of this study is to determine if a student based focus group is a viable option to improve efficacy of communication between an instructor and students as well as time management in a large classroom setting. Out of 140 total students, six students were selected to form a focus group - one from each of six total sections of the classroom. Each focus group representative was responsible for collecting all the questions from students of their corresponding sections and submitting them to the instructor two to three times a day. Responses from the instructor were either passed back to pertinent students by the focus group representatives or addressed directly with students by the instructor. This study was conducted using a fifteen-question survey after the focus group model was utilized for one month. A printed copy of the survey was distributed in the class by student investigators. Questions were of varying types, including Likert scale, yes/no, and open-ended response. One hundred forty surveys were administered, and 90 complete responses were collected. Surveys showed that 93.3% of students found that use of the focus group made them more likely to ask questions for understanding. The surveys also showed 95.5% of students found utilizing the focus group for questions allowed for better understanding of difficult concepts. General open-ended answer portions of the survey showed that most students found the focus group allowed them to ask questions more easily since they did not feel intimidated by asking in front of the whole class. No correlation was found between demographic characteristics and survey responses. This may
McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Bowman, Carolyn; Fenton, Nancy; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David
To examine use, knowledge, and perceptions of caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) among youth. Qualitative research using focus group discussions (n = 4). Two Canadian cities (Toronto and Montreal). Youth aged 12-18 years (n = 41). Perceived definitions of CEDs, reasons for use, knowledge of health effects, use with alcohol, marketing perceptions, and use and understanding of cautionary statements on packaging. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth identified CEDs as products that provide energy and contain caffeine and sugar. Compared with mainstream CED brands and energy shots, youth were less likely to perceive Gatorade, Coca-Cola, and a Starbucks beverage as energy drinks, despite some ambiguity. The majority of participants believed that CEDs, including mixed with alcohol, were not necessarily harmful in moderation and that marketing was targeted toward older youth and young adults. Awareness of cautionary statements on CEDs was low; cautionary statements were perceived as difficult to find and read owing to the design and small font. Findings suggest a need to increase public education regarding the potential risks of CED consumption, including enhancements to the mandated cautionary statements, with greater attention to the impact of CED marketing on youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Southgate, Erica; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley; Bohatko-Naismith, Joanna; Rivett, Darren; Guest, Maya
Few studies have examined the return-to-work process for nurses who are injured at work. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that facilitate or impede the successful return to work of nurses who have sustained a workplace injury from the perspective of return-to-work coordinators. A qualitative, descriptive study was conducted and 25 return-to-work coordinators from 14 different organizations participated in focus group discussions. The participants were recruited from healthcare settings in metropolitan and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. These included aged-care, residential, and community disability support services, public and private hospitals, and the community health sector. Workforce shortages, individual life circumstances and nurses' work, and nurses' qualifications, specialization, experience, and job tenure were identified as the factors that influence the timely, safe, and sustainable return to work of injured nurses. This study provides insight into how workforce shortages have driven innovative practice in accommodating a nurse's life circumstances when developing the return-to-work plan. Barriers to nurses' return to work included a lack of qualifications, specialization, and the casualization of the workforce. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Boydell, Nicola; Fergie, Gillian; McDaid, Lisa; Hilton, Shona
The increasing prominence of the Internet in everyday life has prompted methodological innovations in qualitative research, particularly the adaptation of established methods of data collection for use online. The alternative online context brings with it both opportunities and challenges. To date the literature on online focus groups has focused mainly on the suitability of the method for qualitative data collection, and the development of approaches to facilitation that maximise interaction. By reflecting on our experiences of designing and attempting to recruit participants to online focus groups for two exploratory research projects, we aim to contribute some novel reflections around the less articulated issues of sampling and recruitment for online focus groups. In particular, we highlight potentially problematic issues around offline recruitment for an online method of data collection; the potential of using social media for recruitment; and the uncertainties around offering incentives in online recruitment, issues which have received little attention in the growing literature around online focus groups. More broadly, we recommend continued examination of online social practices and the social media environment to develop appropriate and timely online recruitment strategies and suggest further areas for future research and innovation. PMID:28127272
Hirschberg, Rainer; Meyer, Birgit
A short description outlines the development of commission focused short-term therapy (AFoG) for children and adolescents. Subsequently the generic principles of psychotherapy are applied to AFoG in order to underline the basic assumptions of this variation of systemic group therapy. Behavioural changes arising in different contexts (school, family, group therapy) show the need for an appropriate flexibility of group therapy techniques. The evaluation was accomplished using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL 4-18) at the beginning and 3 month after the end of the group therapy. The results show positive effects which finally are discussed critically.
Nurmasitah, Sita; Faridi, Abdurrachman; Utomo, Aryo Baskoro; Astuti, Pudji
The aims of the study were to implement the focus group discussion in teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) speaking skill for prospective Vocational School teacher and also to find out its effectiveness in improving their English speaking skill in ESP course. Quasi-experimental design was employed in this research. Thirty students of Family Welfare Vocational Education Study Program who were taking ESP course, were divided into two classes; experimental and control class. The research data were collected through interview, observation and the students' speaking assessment. The result showed that the implementation of focus group discussion method in the experimental class effectively increased the students' speaking skill compared to the control class.
van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; Lenzen, Stephanie Anna; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; Daniëls, Ramon; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna
The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development in primary care. A qualitative study, including four semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 4). In total, a heterogeneous group of experts (n = 16) and health care professionals (n = 15) participated. Participants discussed viewpoints, barriers, and facilitators regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development. The data were analysed by means of inductive content analysis. The findings show a variety of factors influencing the interprofessional collaboration in developing a care plan. Factors can be divided into 5 key categories: (1) patient-related factors: active role, self-management, goals and wishes, membership of the team; (2) professional-related factors: individual competences, domain thinking, motivation; (3) interpersonal factors: language differences, knowing each other, trust and respect, and motivation; (4) organisational factors: structure, composition, time, shared vision, leadership and administrative support; and (5) external factors: education, culture, hierarchy, domain thinking, law and regulations, finance, technology and ICT. Improving interprofessional collaboration regarding care plan development calls for an integral approach including patient- and professional related factors, interpersonal, organisational, and external factors. Further, the leader of the team seems to play a key role in watching the patient perspective, organising and coordinating interprofessional collaborations, and guiding the team through developments. The results of this study can be used as input for developing tools and interventions targeted at executing and improving interprofessional
Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14-17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as 'fun' and having 'great flavourings'. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube 'vaping tricks', prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Zhu, Wei; Flaitz, Jeffra
Assessing students' language needs is the indispensable first step in EAP (English for Academic Purposes) curriculum development. In this article, we report a portion of the results from a needs assessment study whose ultimate purpose was to inform curriculum development in EAP contexts. We used the focus group methodology to examine learner needs…
Codjoe, Henry M.; Helms, Marilyn M.
Retaining students is a critical topic in higher education. Methodologies abound to gather attrition data as well as key variables important to retention. Using the theories of total quality management and focus groups, this case study gathers and reports data from current college students. Key results, suggestions for replication, and areas for…
Daneva, Maia; Ahituv, Niv; Loucoloulos, P.; Cavarero, J.L.
This focus group study presents our first validation of practices for engineering the coordination requirements in cross-organizational Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects. The study evaluates 13 practices addressing a variety of coordination aspects crucial to ERP projects. These practices
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn; Traulsen, Janine Morgall
the consequences of the Human Genome Project over the next 40 years, and asked to give advice to politicians and the pharmaceutical industry. A dominating theme in the focus groups was the expectation that drugs developed based on pharmacogenomics will be more expensive than conventional mass produced drugs...
Shek, Daniel Tan Lei; Yu, Lu; Wu, Florence Ka Yu; Chai, Wen Yu
Under the new four-year undergraduate programme, a general education framework titled "General University Requirements" (GUR) has been developed and implemented since 2012/2013 at Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU). To evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the GUR in its first year, focus group interviews with students…
Powell, Karen; Edelson, Vaughn; O'Leary, James; Christianson, Carol; Henrich, Vincent
The "Does It Run In The Family?" booklets provide educational materials about family health history (FHH) and basic genetics to readers of all levels and are customizable for local communities. Purpose: The booklets were customized and provided to focus groups to evaluate their usefulness in conveying health information at a low reading…
Warner, Laura A.
As change agents, Extension educators may begin their program planning by identifying the audience's perceived barriers and benefits to adopting some behavior that will benefit the community. Extension professionals and researchers have used in-person focus groups to understand an audience, and they can also administer them as…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.
Although focus group discussions (FGDs) represent a popular data collection tool for researchers, they contain an extremely serious flaw: FGD researchers have ultimate power over all decisions made at every stage of the research process--from the conceptualization of the research, to the planning of the research study, to the implementation of the…
Theadore, Geraldine; Laurent, Amy; Kovarsky, Dana; Weiss, Amy L.
Reflective practice requires that professionals carefully examine and integrate multiple sources of information when designing intervention and evaluating its effectiveness. This article describes the use of focus group discussion as a form of qualitative research for understanding parents' perspectives of a university-based intervention program…
Kelly, Aoife C.; Boyd, Sara M.; Henehan, Gary T. M.
Objective: It is a legal requirement for employees in noisy workplaces such as nightclubs to be provided with suitable information regarding their noise exposure risks, used a focus group approach to examine employees' attitudes to workplace noise and to hearing protection use. The subsequent analysis was based on an adapted Health Belief Model.…
Herrman, Judith W.; Kelley, Andrea; Haigh, Katherine M.
Teens' own thoughts on fostering safe sexual practice are important perspectives in promoting adolescent sexual health yet are relatively absent in the literature. This focus group study explored teens' perceptions about the supports and challenges that exist as teens strive to engage in healthy sexual practices. Seventy-five teens participated in…
Li, Rashel; Orthia, Lindy A.
In this paper, we discuss a little-studied means of communicating about or teaching the nature of science (NOS)--through fiction television. We report some results of focus group research which suggest that the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" (2007-present), whose main characters are mostly working scientists, has influenced…
Holt, Cheryl L.; Shipp, Michele; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Clay, Kimberly S.; Smith-Janas, Mary Ann; Janas, Michael John; Britt, Kristi; Norena, Maria; Fouad, Mona N.
Screening is available and effective in colorectal cancer (CRC) control, but underutilized. The purpose of this study was to use focus group data to develop recommendations for the development of educational interventions to increase CRC screening, using an audience segmentation strategy. Demographic segments were based on urban-rural residence,…
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie
New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group disc...
McGee, Bernestine B.; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda S.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Yadrick, Kathleen; Ndirangu, Murugi; Goolsby, Susan; Watkins, Debra; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hyman, Edith; Stigger, Flavelia; Bogle, Margaret L.; Kramer, Tim R.; Strickland, Earline; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly
Objective: To identify perceptions of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) residents regarding factors that influence a change in healthful food consumption behavior to assist in planning sustainable nutrition interventions in the LMD. Design: Nine focus groups were conducted with LMD residents in 9 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. One…
Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to presents the results of a focus group with students in veterinary medicine, asked about their preferred delivery methods. The research is a preliminary one in a longer series of studies dedicated to the design and implementation of a problem-based learning methodology for the students. The materials used consisted in a series of questions that were submitted for debate during a focus group organised with 12 students in veterinary medicine. The method used was the focus group. The degree of novelty of the paper is high. Results show that students in veterinary medicine have already used problem-based learning without even knowing it. The research limitations consist in the fact that the authors organised the focus group on a small sample of students. The usefulness of the paper consists in the fact that it will help other academics see better through the eyes of their students and try to meet their expectations. The originality of the paper is real: there has been no such research in Romanian higher education in veterinary medicine. The importance of the paper resides in its disclosure of facts and feelings unknown to both the authors of the paper and readers.
Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann
The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…
Karlin, Shary; Harnish, Dorothy
This report describes results of focus group evaluation of the first year of Georgia's CrossRoads program, an alternative public school program to provide chronically disruptive, committed, and/or non-attending students (grades 6-12) with the social services and individualized instruction they require and to make the public schools more secure by…
Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…
McCarty, Catherine A; Garber, Ann; Reeser, Jonathan C; Fost, Norman C
The Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP) is a population-based biobank with more than 20,000 adult participants in central Wisconsin. A Community Advisory Group (CAG) and Ethics and Security Advisory Board (ESAB) provide ongoing feedback. In addition, the study newsletter is used as a two-way communication tool with study participants. The aim of this study was to assess and compare feedback received from these communication/consultation strategies with results from focus group discussions in relation to protocol changes. In summer 2009, enrollee focus groups were held addressing these topics: newsletter format, readability, and content of three articles written to solicit PMRP subject feedback. The CAG and ESAB jointly reviewed focus group results, discussed protocol changes to access residual blood samples, and made recommendations about the general communication approach. Nearly everyone in three focus groups stated that they wanted more information about PMRP. No focus group participant said that accessing stored samples would have changed their enrollment decision. Most said they wanted to be informed directly about changes affecting their original consent. For minimal-risk PMRP protocol changes, the community, CAG, and ESAB were comfortable with an opt-out model because of the initial broad consent. The planned duration of the biobank extends for decades; therefore regular, ongoing communication to enrollees is necessary to maintain awareness and trust, especially relating to protocol changes reflecting evolving science. The multi-faceted approach to communication including newsletters, external advisory boards, and focus group discussions has been successful for the PMRP biobank and may be a model for others to consider. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Genetics and organic chemistry are areas of science that students regard as difficult to learn. Part of this difficulty is derived from the disciplines having representations as part of their discourses. In order to optimally support students’ meaning-making, teachers need to use representations to structure the meaning-making experience in thoughtful ways that consider the variation in students’ prior knowledge. Using a focus group setting, we explored 43 university students’ reasoning on representations in introductory chemistry and genetics courses. Our analysis of eight focus group discussions revealed how students can construct somewhat bewildered relations with disciplinary-specific representations. The students stated that they preferred familiar representations, but without asserting the meaning-making affordances of those representations. Also, the students were highly aware of the affordances of certain representations, but nonetheless chose not to use those representations in their problem solving. We suggest that an effective representation is one that, to some degree, is familiar to the students, but at the same time is challenging and not too closely related to “the usual one”. The focus group discussions led the students to become more aware of their own and others ways of interpreting different representations. Furthermore, feedback from the students’ focus group discussions enhanced the teachers’ awareness of the students’ prior knowledge and limitations in students’ representational literacy. Consequently, we posit that a focus group setting can be used in a university context to promote both student meaning-making and teacher professional development in a fruitful way.
Full Text Available Markus Krautter,1 Sven Andreesen,2 Nadja Köhl-Hackert,2 Katja Hoffmann,3 Wolfgang Herzog,2 Christoph Nikendei2 1Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, 2Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, 3Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective.Purpose: To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors.Methods: A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80. The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants. The discussions were analyzed using content analysis.Results: The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available.Conclusion: On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance
Sánchez-García, María Remedios; Moreno-Rodríguez, Marina; Hueso-Montoro, César; Campos-Calderón, Concepción; Varella-Safont, Ana; Montoya-Juárez, Rafael
To identify the facilitators and barriers experienced by professional related to end of life care in nursing homes. Descriptive qualitative research with phenomenological orientation, through content analysis. Nursing Homes at Primary Care District in Granada (Spain). Fifteen clinical professionals with, at least 6 months of experience in nursing homes, without specific background in palliative care. Three focus groups were undertaken with professionals of different disciplines and nursing homes. Interviews were recorded and transcribed literally. An open and axial coding was performed to identify relevant categories. Professionals identified difficulties in the communication with families related to relatives' feelings of guilt, difficulty in understanding the deterioration of their relative, and addressing too late the issue of death. Regarding decision making, professionals recognized that they do not encourage participation of patients. Advance directives are valued as a necessary tool, but they do not contemplate implementing them systematically. Other difficulties that professionals highlighted are lack of coordination with other professionals, related to misunderstanding of patients' needs, as well as lack of training, and lack of material and human resources. Facilitators include relationships with primary care teams. It is necessary to improve communication among nursing homes professionals, families, patients and other health workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Zhan, Jenny; Porter, Michelle M; Polgar, Jan; Vrkljan, Brenda
Safe driving in older adulthood depends not only on health and driving ability, but also on the driving environment itself, including the type of vehicle. However, little is known about how safety figures into the older driver's vehicle selection criteria and how it ranks among other criteria, such as price and comfort. For this purpose, six focus groups of older male and female drivers (n=33) aged 70-87 were conducted in two Canadian cities to explore vehicle purchasing decisions and the contribution of safety in this decision. Themes emerged from the data in these categories: vehicle features that keep them feeling safe, advanced vehicular technologies, factors that influence their car buying decisions, and resources that inform this decision. Results indicate older drivers have gaps with respect to their knowledge of safety features and do not prioritize safety at the time of vehicle purchase. To maximize the awareness and uptake of safety innovations, older consumers would benefit from a vehicle design rating system that highlights safety as well as other features to help ensure that the vehicle purchased fits their lifestyle and needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Anna; Meong, Anna; Seo, Minjeong
The generic competency domains of advanced nursing practice have been reported on in numerous countries, but rather few studies have examined competencies specific to pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs). We identified the core clinical competencies of PNPs in South Korea and related these identified competencies to the five patterns of knowing in nursing. Focus group interviews were conducted with five PNP students and four PNPs using two thematic questions, one on clinical competencies required for PNPs and the other on competencies specific to Korean PNPs. A purposive sampling method was used to choose nurses with varying work experience and age from different hospital units. The inclusion criterion for PNP students was having at least two years of clinical experience and that for PNPs was having at least two years of clinical experience as a PNP in pediatric units in tertiary hospitals. The verbatim transcriptions of these interviews were analysed by two researchers using inductive content analysis. Six clinical competency domains were identified including advanced pediatric-specific knowledge and clinical skills, education and counseling, utilization and engagement in research, professional identity development, clinical and professional leadership, and holistic care. Some competencies identified were related to empirical and ethical knowledge that could be taught in nursing, whereas others were based on esthetic and personal knowledge, which can be mastered through professional experience. To provide holistic care for children and families, PNPs must acquire all necessary patterns of knowing through continuing education and individual reflection on personal practice.
Vance, David E; Gakumo, C Ann; Childs, Gwendolyn D; Enah, Comfort; Fazeli, Pariya L
Nearly 50% of adult persons living with HIV (PLWH) experience HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), which is associated with deteriorating brain health and cognitive functioning. Multimodal interventions that simultaneously improve physical activity, nutrition, and sleep hygiene may be of value for adult PLWH, especially as they age and become vulnerable to HAND. We used four focus groups of PLWH (N = 30; ages ≥ 50 years) to solicit feedback about Cognitive Prescriptions, a multimodal cognitive intervention. Lifestyle and health behaviors pertaining to Cognitive Prescriptions were assessed, including: (a) physical activity, (b) mental activity, (c) nutrition, (d) social engagement, (e) emotional health, (f) sleep hygiene, and (g) substance use. When presented a template of the intervention, participants expressed favorable opinions and remarked they would want to work with a clinician, paraprofessional, or peer to implement such a program into their own daily routines. From this, implications for practice and research are provided. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Angermeyer, Matthias C; Schulze, Beate; Dietrich, Sandra
Stigmatization of people with mental illness has been investigated in numerous studies. Little research, however, has been done to explore how relatives of people with schizophrenia perceive and experience stigmatization and how they can fight such stigmatization. Aiming to explore stigma from the perspective of relatives of people with schizophrenia, focus group interviews were conducted with 122 members of advocacy groups from different parts of Germany. Focus group sessions were tape- and video-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using an inductive method, generating categories (domains) from the material. The analysis of focus group data shows that, contrary to previous research findings, discrimination and disadvantages encountered by relatives of schizophrenia patients reach far beyond the spheres of direct social interaction and access to social roles. Our study revealed two additional domains in which relatives encounter stigmatization: structural discrimination and public images of mental illness. Furthermore, psychiatry has been identified as one important source of stigma. Relatives also suggested numerous anti-stigma interventions. These can be grouped into five main categories: communication measures, support for the ill and their relatives, changes in mental health care, education and training, and control and supervision. Based on our findings,ways of how relatives of schizophrenia patients and mental health professionals can fight against stigma are discussed.
Spooner, Amy J; Aitken, Leanne M; Corley, Amanda; Chaboyer, Wendy
Despite increasing demand for structured processes to guide clinical handover, nursing handover tools are limited in the intensive care unit. The study aim was to identify key items to include in a minimum dataset for intensive care nursing team leader shift-to-shift handover. This focus group study was conducted in a 21-bed medical/surgical intensive care unit in Australia. Senior registered nurses involved in team leader handovers were recruited. Focus groups were conducted using a nominal group technique to generate and prioritise minimum dataset items. Nurses were presented with content from previous team leader handovers and asked to select which content items to include in a minimum dataset. Participant responses were summarised as frequencies and percentages. Seventeen senior nurses participated in three focus groups. Participants agreed that ISBAR (Identify-Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendations) was a useful tool to guide clinical handover. Items recommended to be included in the minimum dataset (≥65% agreement) included Identify (name, age, days in intensive care), Situation (diagnosis, surgical procedure), Background (significant event(s), management of significant event(s)) and Recommendations (patient plan for next shift, tasks to follow up for next shift). Overall, 30 of the 67 (45%) items in the Assessment category were considered important to include in the minimum dataset and focused on relevant observations and treatment within each body system. Other non-ISBAR items considered important to include related to the ICU (admissions to ICU, staffing/skill mix, theatre cases) and patients (infectious status, site of infection, end of life plan). Items were further categorised into those to include in all handovers and those to discuss only when relevant to the patient. The findings suggest a minimum dataset for intensive care nursing team leader shift-to-shift handover should contain items within ISBAR along with unit and patient specific
Yick, Alice G; Gupta, Rashmi
The purpose of this qualitative study is to describe Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans' attitudes and practices about death, dying, and bereavement. To this end, three focus groups were conducted with social work graduate students, pastors and religious leaders, and service providers working in the Chinese American community in New York City. The United States is becoming increasingly multicultural, and Chinese Americans are the most rapidly growing Asian American group. Findings from this study revealed that many Chinese attitudes and practices about death and dying are rooted in Asian cultural values such as filial piety, centrality of the family, and emphasis of hierarchy. In addition, strains of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and local folklore are embedded in these death attitudes and practices. Based on themes extrapolated from the focus groups, recommendations are delineated for service providers in order to implement culturally-sensitive bereavement practices.
North, Carol S; Barney, Carissa J; Pollio, David E
Much of the mental health research that has emerged from the September 11 (9/11) attacks has been focused on posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptoms. To better understand the broader experience of individuals following a disaster, focus groups were conducted with individuals from affected companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere in New York City. Twenty-one focus groups with a total of 140 participants were conducted in the second post-9/11 year. Areas of identified concern were coded into the following themes: Disaster Experience, Emotional Responses, Workplace Issues, Coping, and Issues of Public Concern. Discussions of focus groups included material represented in all five themes in companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere. The emphasis and the content within these themes varied between the Ground Zero and other companies. Content suggesting symptoms of PTSD represented only a minority of the material, especially in the company groups not at Ground Zero. This study's findings revealed an array of psychosocial concerns following the 9/11 attacks among employees of companies in New York City that extended far beyond PTSD. This study's results provide further evidence that trauma exposure is central to individuals' post-disaster experience and focus, and to individuals' adjustment and experience after disaster.
Westerståhl, Anna; Björkelund, Cecilia
To reflect on and further understand mechanisms of heteronormativity in the consultation, with special focus on the relative invisibility of lesbian women. Tape-recorded focus group interviews transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative methods. General practitioners (GPs) from the city of Göteborg, Sweden, who had formerly answered a postal questionnaire about lesbian women in the consultation, were invited to take part in subsequent focus groups. Ten GPs from the questionnaire who accepted the invitation and volunteered to participate in focus groups. A discourse analytical approach using interaction regarding consensus and disagreement between informants in creating major and minor themes. Consultation skills were forwarded as a major tool in receiving optimal information from patients. However, traditional concepts of family and sexuality restricted information and hampered an accepting attitude. Bringing up issues of sexual identity/orientation was left to the lesbian patient and strongly related to her reason for attending. Consultation skills are a useful but not sufficient means of making lesbian women visible in the doctor-patient relationship. Doctors also need to transcend traditional concepts of family and sexuality and reflect on what is a relevant issue from the patient's perspective.
Guise, Veslemøy; Wiig, Siri
The implementation and use of telecare requires significant changes to healthcare service organisation and delivery, including new ways of working for staff. Competency development and training for healthcare professionals is therefore required to enable necessary adaptation of clinical practice and ensure competent provision of telecare services. It is however unclear what skills healthcare staff need when providing care at a distance and there is little empirical evidence on effective training strategies for telecare practice. Training should however emphasise the experiences and preferences of prospective trainees to ensure its relevance to their educational needs. The aim of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' perceptions of training related to the general use of telecare, and to identify specific training needs associated with the use of virtual visits in the home healthcare services. Six focus group interviews were held with a total of 26 participants working in the home healthcare services in Norway, including registered nurses, enrolled nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social workers, health workers, and healthcare assistants. The data material was analysed by way of systematic text condensation. The analysis resulted in five categories relevant to telecare training for healthcare professionals: Purposeful training creates confidence and changes attitudes; Training needs depend on ability to cope with telecare; The timing of training; Training must facilitate practical insight into the patients' perspective; and Training content must focus on the telecare process. Findings are discussed in light of implications for the form and content of a training program for healthcare professionals on how to undertake virtual home healthcare visits. Appropriate preparation and training for telecare use is important for healthcare professionals and must be taken seriously by healthcare organisations. To facilitate the knowledge, skills
Burgess, Annette; Goulston, Kerry; Oates, Kim
Role modelling by clinicians assists in development of medical students' professional competencies, values and attitudes. Three core characteristics of a positive role model include 1) clinical attributes, 2) teaching skills, and 3) personal qualities. This study was designed to explore medical students' perceptions of their bedside clinical tutors as role models during the first year of a medical program. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed Year 1 of the Sydney Medical Program in 2013. A total of nine focus groups (n = 59) were conducted with medical students following completion of Year 1. Data were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. Students identified both positive and negative characteristics and behaviour displayed by their clinical tutors. Characteristics and behaviour that students would like to emulate as medical practitioners in the future included: 1) Clinical attributes: a good knowledge base; articulate history taking skills; the ability to explain and demonstrate skills at the appropriate level for students; and empathy, respect and genuine compassion for patients. 2) Teaching skills: development of a rapport with students; provision of time towards the growth of students academically and professionally; provision of a positive learning environment; an understanding of the student curriculum and assessment requirements; immediate and useful feedback; and provision of patient interaction. 3) Personal qualities: respectful interprofessional staff interactions; preparedness for tutorials; demonstration of a passion for teaching; and demonstration of a passion for their career choice. Excellence in role modelling entails demonstration of excellent clinical care, teaching skills and personal characteristics. Our findings reinforce the important function of clinical bedside tutors as role models, which has implications for faculty development and
Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David
Melbourne, Australia has the largest tram/streetcar network in the world including the largest mixed traffic tram operating environment. Therefore, Melbourne tram drivers are responsible for controlling one of the heaviest vehicles on road ranging from shared tram lanes to exclusive tram lanes. In addition to different tram lane configurations, tram drivers need to follow different traffic signal phases at intersections including tram priority signals as well as need to serve passengers at various types of closely spaced tram stops. Despite all these challenges, no research has explored tram driver perceptions of the risk factors on different tram route road design configurations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate how tram drivers' safety perceptions alter along various tram route sections, signal settings and stop configurations. A tram driver focus group approach was adopted for this research involving thirty tram drivers (4 female and 26 male drivers). The tram drivers' age ranged from 29 to 63 years, with an average age of 47.6 years (standard deviation of 10.1 years), and their experience of tram driving ranged from 1.17 to 31 years, with an average experience of 12.5 years (standard deviation of 10.2 years). The participating tram drivers perceived that the raised tram tracks and tramways with raised yellow curbing beside tracks are safer lane priority features on the Melbourne tram network compared to full-time, part-time and mixed traffic tram lanes. They regarded 'hook turns' as a safe form of tram signal priority treatment at intersections and platform tram stops as the safest tram stop design for all passengers among all other tram stop designs in Melbourne. Findings of this research could enhance the understanding of crash risk factors for different tram route features and thus can offer effective planning strategies for transit agencies to improve tram road safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tobacco companies have a long tradition of including promotional material within cigarette packs, such as cigarette cards and coupons. Only in Canada are they required, by the government, to include educational material within cigarette packs, in the form of inserts highlighting the benefits of quitting or providing tips on how to do so. Twenty focus groups were conducted in Glasgow and Edinburgh in 2015, with smokers (n=120) segmented by age (16-17, 18-24, 25-35, 36-50, >50), gender and social grade, to explore perceptions of the inserts used in Canada. The consensus was that these inserts would capture attention and be read due to their novelty and visibility before reaching the cigarettes, and as they can be removed from the pack. While they may be ignored or discarded, and rotation was considered necessary, they were generally thought to prolong the health message. The positive style of messaging was described as refreshing, educational, encouraging, reassuring and inspirational and thought to increase message engagement. It was regarded as more sympathetic than command-style messaging, offering smokers 'a bit of hope'. The inserts were often considered preferable to the on-pack warnings, although it was felt that both were needed. Some participants suggested that inserts could encourage them to stop smoking, and they were generally viewed as having the potential to alter the behaviour of others, particularly younger people, would-be smokers and those wanting to quit. Inserts are an inexpensive means of communication and offer regulators a simple way of supplementing on-pack warnings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Meyer-Kalos, Piper S; Lee, Michael G; Studer, Lynette M; Line, Tanya A; Fisher, Colleen M
This qualitative study assessed the experiences of assertive community treatment (ACT) team members regarding the integration of physical and mental health self-management for persons with serious mental illness. Three focus groups elicited information from participants concerning barriers, strategies, and recommendations. Findings from inductive analyses revealed six overarching themes: (1) collaboration with primary care, (2) improvements in engagement, (3) team-focused roles, (4) education and training, (5) recommendations for system level barriers, and (6) systems collaboration. Participant recommendations suggest that ACT teams are well positioned to integrate mental and physical health treatment, but further research is needed to support integrated care.
E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti
PURPOSE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Two focus-group discussions were conducted...... with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically...
Sheff, Alex; Park, Elyse R; Neagle, Mary; Oreskovic, Nicolas M
Care coordination programs for high-risk, high-cost patients are a critical component of population health management. These programs aim to improve outcomes and reduce costs and have proliferated over the last decade. Some programs, originally designed for Medicare patients, are now transitioning to also serve Medicaid populations. However, there are still gaps in the understanding of what barriers to care Medicaid patients experience, and what supports will be most effective for providing them care coordination. We conducted two focus groups (n = 13) and thematic analyses to assess the outcomes drivers and programmatic preferences of Medicaid patients enrolled in a high-risk care coordination program at a major academic medical center in Boston, MA. Two focus groups identified areas where care coordination efforts were having a positive impact, as well as areas of unmet needs among the Medicaid population. Six themes emerged from the focus groups that clustered in three groupings: In the first group (1) enrollment in an existing medical care coordination programs, and (2) provider communication largely presented as positive accounts of assistance, and good relationships with providers, though participants also pointed to areas where these efforts fell short. In the second group (3) trauma histories, (4) mental health challenges, and (5) executive function difficulties all presented challenges faced by high-risk Medicaid patients that would likely require redress through additional programmatic supports. Finally, in the third group, (6) peer-to-peer support tendencies among patients suggested an untapped resource for care coordination programs. Programs aimed at high-risk Medicaid patients will want to consider programmatic adjustments to attend to patient needs in five areas: (1) provider connection/care coordination, (2) trauma, (3) mental health, (4) executive function/paperwork and coaching support, and (5) peer-to-peer support.
Barnathan Julia A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.
Hesselgreaves, Hannah; Watson, Anne; Crawford, Andy; Lough, Murray; Bowie, Paul
Medication-related safety incidents are a source of concern to patients, policy makers and clinicians. The role of education in improving safety-critical practices in health care is poorly appreciated. This pilot study aimed to initiate collective discussion among professional groups of clinical staff about a range of medicine-related patient safety issues which were identified from a local incident reporting system. In engaging staff to collectively reflect on reported medication incidents we attempted to uncover a deeper understanding of local contextual issues and potential educational needs. A mixed method study was conducted involving categorical analysis of 1058 medication incident reports (Phase 1) and the use of three mixed focus groups of clinical staff (Phase 2) in three acute hospitals in one locality in NHS Scotland. Focus group transcript analysis produced four main themes (e.g. the medical role) and 12 related sub-themes (e.g. pharmacological education and skill mix for administration of medicines) concerning medication-related practices and possible educational interventions. While it is necessary to review reported incident data and disseminate the educational messages for the improvement of quality, this traditional risk management process is inadequate on its own. Reporting systems can be enhanced by collective examination of reported information about medicines by local clinical teams. We identified a strong message from the focus groups for learning about each other and from each other, and that the method piloted may be an important inter-professional mechanism for improvement. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions on disability pensions are based, among others, on medical reports. The way these medical assessments are performed is largely unclear. The aim of the study was to determine which grounds are used by social insurance physicians (SIPs in these assessments and to determine if the identification of these grounds can help improve the quality of assessments in social insurance practice. The article describes a focus group study and a questionnaire study with SIPs in four different countries. Method Using focus group discussions of SIPs discussing the same case in Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Slovenia (N = 29 we determined the arguments and underlying grounds as used by the SIP's. We used a questionnaire study among other SIPs (N = 60 in the same countries to establish a first validation of these grounds. Results Grounds in the focus groups were comparable between the countries studied. The grounds were also recognized by SIPs who had not participated in the focus groups. SIPs agreed most on grounds with regard to the claimant's health condition, and about the claimant's duty to explore rehabilitation and work resumption, but less on accepting permanent incapacity when all options for treatment were exhausted. Conclusion Grounds that SIPs use refer to a limited group of key elements of disability evaluation. SIPs interpret disability in social insurance according to the handicapped role and strive at making their evaluation fair trials. ICF is relevant with regard to the health condition and to the process of evaluation. Identification of grounds is a valuable instrument for controlling the quality of disability evaluation. The grounds also appear to be internationally comparable which may enhance scientific study in this area.
Choi, Sarah E; Kwon, Ivy; Chang, Emiley; Araiza, Daniel; Thorpe, Carol Lee; Sarkisian, Catherine A
To gain better understanding of (i) beliefs and knowledge about stroke; (ii) attitudes about walking for stroke prevention; and (iii) barriers and facilitators to walking among Korean seniors for the cultural tailoring of a stroke prevention walking programme. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for stroke. Korean immigrant seniors are one of the most sedentary ethnic groups in the United States. An explorative study using focus group data. Twenty-nine Korean immigrant seniors (64-90 years of age) who had been told by a doctor at least once that their blood pressure was elevated participated in 3 focus groups. Each focus group consisted of 8-11 participants. Focus group audiotapes were transcribed and analysed using standard content analysis methods. Participants identified physical and psychological imbalances (e.g. too much work and stress) as the primary causes of stroke. Restoring 'balance' was identified as a powerful means of stroke prevention. A subset of participants expressed that prevention may be beyond human control. Overall, participants acknowledged the importance of walking for stroke prevention, but described barriers such as lack of personal motivation and unsafe environment. Many participants believed that providing opportunities for socialisation while walking and combining walking with health information sessions would facilitate participation in and maintenance of a walking programme. Korean immigrant seniors believe strongly that imbalance is a primary cause of stroke. Restoring balance as a way to prevent stroke is culturally special among Koreans and provides a conceptual base in culturally tailoring our stroke prevention walking intervention for Korean immigrant seniors. A stroke prevention walking programme for Korean immigrant seniors may have greater impact by addressing beliefs about stroke causes and prevention such as physical and psychological imbalances and the importance of maintaining emotional well-being. © 2016 John
Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.
This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…
Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R
In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947-1961], 43 from France [1986-2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2') A5(B3'), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Hamnes, Bente; Rønningen, Aud; Skarbø, Åse
The present study aimed to explore the experiences of individuals with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) who had participated in return-to-work group programmes (RTW-GPs) and to assess whether the programmes had had an impact on their work disability. Three focus group interviews and one individual interview were conducted involving 17 women (mean age = 47) with MSDs who had completed RTW-GPs. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analyses. Participant experiences were categorised into three main themes: changed way of thinking, the importance of being able to work, and a changed lifestyle. The respondents said that participation in the RTW-GPs had enabled them to shift their focus from problems to opportunities. They had become more aware of strategies to enhance their energy levels and continue working. Several participants had reduced their work hours to achieve a better balance between work and daily life. Many participants had also changed their lifestyle habits, which had led to weight reduction, more energy and less pain. The study participants had attained a heightened awareness of what they could do to continue working. Many participants had introduced changes in their daily lives, with consequences for employment, social life and lifestyle. The findings suggest that RTW-GPs can help people with MSDs to remain in employment and prevent absenteeism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Milanese, Maria Magdalena
This is a short review of the research done by the Dense Plasma Focus Group (GPDM) presently working in Tandil, Argentina, from its origin, more than three decades ago, as part of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of Buenos Aires University (the first one in Latin-America where experiments in plasma focus have been made) up to the present. The interest has been mainly experimental studies on plasma focus and, in general, fast electrical discharges. The plasma focus has extensively been studied as neutron producer, including its possibility to play a role in nuclear fusion. It was also researched not only for basic plasma studies, but also for other important applications. Conception, design, construction and study of devices and diagnostics suitable for each application have been made on basis of developed criteria
Lennon, S; Ashburn, A
The Bobath concept, usually known as neuro-developmental treatment (NDT) in America, is one of the major approaches used to rehabilitate patients following stroke; however since the last publication of Bobath (1990), the concept has been taught via an oral tradition on postgraduate courses. This study therefore aimed to explore with experienced therapists firstly how the Bobath concept had changed since 1990, and secondly what they considered its main theoretical assumptions to be using a focus group research design. Eight peer-nominated expert physiotherapists agreed to participate in two focus groups organized according to specialist interest in either neurology (group A) or elderly care (group B). Therapists were asked to discuss six topics based on a review of published literature. Data analysis involved several readings of verbatim transcriptions, from which key themes and concepts were developed. All therapists agreed on the following core themes defining Bobath: analysis of normal movement, control of tone and facilitation of movement. Neuroplasticity was described as the primary rationale for treatment with therapists using afferent information to target the damaged central nervous system. In addition group A discussed motor learning, whereas group B discussed patient focused goals and relating treatment to function. This study highlighted changes in theory, terminology, and techniques. Tone remained a major problem in the rehabilitation management of the hemiplegic patient; however much attention was also directed towards the musculoskeletal system. Both facilitation of normal movement components and task specific practice using specific manual guidance were considered critical elements of the Bobath concept. For Bobath therapists, physiotherapy has an important impact on both the performance components of movement and functional outcomes. In view of the small numbers involved in this preliminary study, further studies are now needed to determine if these
Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe
Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...
Wnuk, Susan M; Greenberg, Les; Dolhanty, Joanne
This study provides outcome pilot data for an outpatient emotion-focused therapy group for 12 women with DSM-IV diagnoses of binge-eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified. The emotion-focused therapy group involved 16 weekly sessions that targeted problematic emotions connected to eating disorder symptoms. Semi-structured clinical interviews were conducted pre- and post-treatment and self-report questionnaires were administered. From pre- to post-treatment, changes in binge eating and scores on self-report measures were statistically significant. Participants reported a decrease in the frequency of binge episodes, improvements in mood, and improvements in emotion regulation and self-efficacy.
Shui, Bin; Lin , Haiyan; Song, Bo; Halverson, Mark A.; Evans, Meredydd; Zhu, Xiaojiao
A focus group meeting is a very effective quality research approach to collect information on a specific project. Through focus group meetings at both Changchun and Ningbo in August 2010, the project team gained a more complete understandings of key stakeholders (such as their education level), their training needs and expectations, key factors influencing their decision making, and incurred implementation difficulties. In addition, the meeting helped the project team (especially PNNL) improve its understanding of the implementation status of building energy codes in other regions (such as small cities and counties neighboring to urban areas, small townships and rural areas distant from urban areas). The collected feedbacks will serve as important input not only for better design of training materials and the development of an on-line training website, but also for development of follow-up projects to promote building energy codes in China.
Vaportzis, Eleftheria; Clausen, Maria Giatsi; Gow, Alan J
New technologies provide opportunities for the delivery of broad, flexible interventions with older adults. Focus groups were conducted to: (1) understand older adults' familiarity with, and barriers to, interacting with new technologies and tablets; and (2) utilize user-engagement in refining an intervention protocol. Eighteen older adults (65-76 years old; 83.3% female) who were novice tablet users participated in discussions about their perceptions of and barriers to interacting with tablets. We conducted three separate focus groups and used a generic qualitative design applying thematic analysis to analyse the data. The focus groups explored attitudes toward tablets and technology in general. We also explored the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using tablets, familiarity with, and barriers to interacting with tablets. In two of the focus groups, participants had previous computing experience (e.g., desktop), while in the other, participants had no previous computing experience. None of the participants had any previous experience with tablet computers. The themes that emerged were related to barriers (i.e., lack of instructions and guidance, lack of knowledge and confidence, health-related barriers, cost); disadvantages and concerns (i.e., too much and too complex technology, feelings of inadequacy, and comparison with younger generations, lack of social interaction and communication, negative features of tablets); advantages (i.e., positive features of tablets, accessing information, willingness to adopt technology); and skepticism about using tablets and technology in general. After brief exposure to tablets, participants emphasized the likelihood of using a tablet in the future. Our findings suggest that most of our participants were eager to adopt new technology and willing to learn using a tablet. However, they voiced apprehension about lack of, or lack of clarity in, instructions and support. Understanding older adults' perceptions of technology
AuYong H.N.; Yip C.Y.; Woo K.H.; Senadjki A.
Background of the Research: This study examines the factors influencing housing prices in Malaysia. The study explores qualitatively whether there is housing bubble in Malaysia, and whether the housing prices are associated with changes in construction cost, land cost, compliance cost, housing speculation, and mortgage rate. Methodology: The paper is exploratory in nature. The data were collected via focus group discussions among nine property industry players in Malaysia and were analysed us...
Maes, Sofie DJ; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann
The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce process: the ability to construct meaning about their parents' decision to divorce and their feeling to count in the process of family transition. Ch...
The IT field, by its nature and evolution, requires a special attention to the online communication strategy. If for most IT companies, the marketing strategy is customized according to their product, customers, marketing objectives, budget, marketing team size, etc., there is a common perception of the digital communication strategy. Therefore, this article, which is based on two Focus-group research projects, aims to present the attitudes, experiences and opinions of online marketers rel...
Sylvetsky, Allison C.; Hennink, Monique; Comeau, Dawn; Welsh, Jean A.; Hardy, Trisha; Matzigkeit, Linda; Swan, Deanne W.; Walsh, Stephanie M.; Vos, Miriam B.
Introduction. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, we aimed to investigate youth's understanding of obesity and to investigate gaps between their nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and perceived susceptibility to obesity and its co-morbidities. Methods. A marketing firm contracted by Children's Healthcare of Atlanta facilitated a series of focus group discussions (FGD) to test potential concepts and sample ads for the development of an obesity awareness cam...
Aljuburi, Ghida; Phekoo, Karen J; Okoye, Nv Ogo; Anie, Kofie; Green, Stuart A; Nkohkwo, Asaah; Ojeer, Patrick; Ndive, Comfort; Banarsee, Ricky; Oni, Lola; Majeed, Azeem
To assess sickle cell disease (SCD) patient and carer perspectives on the primary care services related to SCD that they receive from their general practitioner (GP). A focus group discussion was used to elicit the views of patients about the quality of care they receive from their primary health-care providers and what they thought was the role of primary care in SCD management. The focus group discussion was video recorded. The recording was then examined by the project team and recurring themes were identified. A comparison was made with notes made by two scribes also present at the discussion. Sickle Cell Society in Brent, UK. Ten participants with SCD or caring for someone with SCD from Northwest London, UK. Patients' perceptions about the primary care services they received, and a list of key themes and suggestions. Patients and carers often bypassed GPs for acute problems but felt that GPs had an important role to play around repeat prescriptions and general health care. These service users believed SCD is often ignored and deemed unimportant by GPs. Participants wanted the health service to support primary health-care providers to improve their knowledge and understanding of SCD. Key themes and suggestions from this focus group have been used to help develop an educational intervention for general practice services that will be used to improve SCD management in primary care.
Sloand, Elizabeth; Lowe, Victoria; Pennington, Amy; Rose, Linda
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore beliefs about breastfeeding among Latina mothers. The focus groups were part of a sequential mixed methods study. Two focus groups were conducted. Participants were Spanish-speaking mothers with infants younger than 12 months. Focus groups were conducted in Spanish and audiorecorded. The researchers performed open coding of the data, compared and converged codes, and identified common themes and relationships among the themes. Mothers described concerns about adequacy of breastfeeding for their infants' needs, the continued goodness of breast milk, and weaning. They expressed lack of knowledge about using breast pumps and other assists that could help them breastfeed. Culturally tailored breastfeeding education and support have not been adequately implemented in this urban clinic and likely in other similar settings. More targeted attention to this population could improve exclusive breastfeeding of infants and ultimately result in better child health. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hannes, Karin; Leys, Marcus; Vermeire, Etienne; Aertgeerts, Bert; Buntinx, Frank; Depoorter, Anne-Marie
Over the past years concerns are rising about the use of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) in health care. The calls for an increase in the practice of EBM, seem to be obstructed by many barriers preventing the implementation of evidence-based thinking and acting in general practice. This study aims to explore the barriers of Flemish GPs (General Practitioners) to the implementation of EBM in routine clinical work and to identify possible strategies for integrating EBM in daily work. We used a qualitative research strategy to gather and analyse data. We organised focus groups between September 2002 and April 2003. The focus group data were analysed using a combined strategy of 'between-case' analysis and 'grounded theory approach'. Thirty-one general practitioners participated in four focus groups. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants. A basic classification model documents the influencing factors and actors on a micro-, meso- as well as macro-level. Patients, colleagues, competences, logistics and time were identified on the micro-level (the GPs' individual practice), commercial and consumer organisations on the meso-level (institutions, organisations) and health care policy, media and specific characteristics of evidence on the macro-level (policy level and international scientific community). Existing barriers and possible strategies to overcome these barriers were described. In order to implement EBM in routine general practice, an integrated approach on different levels needs to be developed.
Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Mike A. Kilgore; Mae A. Davenport
In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were...
West, Lorna Marie; Diack, Lesley; Cordina, Maria; Stewart, Derek
Background The World Health Organization states that globally more than half of all medication is inappropriately prescribed, dispensed or sold with a need to implement wastage reduction strategies. Developing processes which include behaviour change theories, such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), significantly impacts the positive implementation of evidence into healthcare practice. Objective To describe and understand the beliefs and behaviours regarding medication wastage of the Maltese public and healthcare professionals (HCPs) and to explore potential solutions. Malta. Method Five 90 min audio recorded focus groups (2 public and 3 HCPs) were conducted with a purposive sample who responded to a previous survey study and were willing to participate in focus groups in Malta. The guide was based upon the TDF with interview questions derived from findings of the questionnaire phase. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was carried using the framework approach. Main outcome measure Beliefs and behaviours regarding medication wastage and potential solutions to reduce medication wastage. Results A total of eleven pharmacists, six doctors and six members of the public consented to participate. Focus groups conducted with HCPs and the general public identified the following four key themes aligned with the TDF domains to address proposed solutions to minimise medication wastage: (1) practitioner effects; (2) patients effects; (3) political effects; (4) societal effects. Conclusion This study has employed a theoretical framework to obtain a better understanding of facilitators which require attention as part of strategic development.
Norma Ruth Arlene Romm
Full Text Available In this article I consider some examples of conducting focus groups in South Africa with school teachers in a manner which takes into account indigenous ways of knowing. Indigenous knowing (within various indigenous cultural heritages can be defined as linked to processes of people collectively constructing their understandings by experiencing their social being in relation to others. I indicate how the conduct of focus groups can be geared towards taking into account as well as strengthening knowing as a relational activity defined in this way. Once facilitators of focus groups appreciate this epistemology they can set up a climate in which people feel part of a research process of relational discussion around issues raised. This requires an effort on the part of facilitators to make explicit to participants the type of orientation to research that is being encouraged via the focus group session. I offer examples of attempts to practice such an approach to facilitation, including examples of feedback obtained from participants regarding their experience of the research process. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150120
Dickinson, Denise M; Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Tworek, Cindy; Tessman, Greta K; Alexander, Jennifer
The consumption of cigar products has increased since 2000. The multiple product types within this category, combined with the varied language with which consumers refer to them, present challenges for accurately assessing the prevalence of cigar product use. Surveillance is also complicated by the fact that these products can be used to smoke marijuana, as "blunts"-cigars in which the tobacco is removed and replaced with marijuana. Few studies exist regarding the language and terminology used to describe these products. Sixteen focus groups were conducted in five cities in the United States between March and May of 2014. Participants (N = 123) included adults who had used cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars in the past 30 days. A semi-structured moderator guide was used to gather data on the terms used to identify cigar product subtypes and the language used to describe the products and their use. Participants used a variety of terms for each product subtype. Brand names were often used, as well as slang terms, including terms describing cigars modified for marijuana use. Some subtypes were less likely than others to be considered "cigars." Participants had mixed opinions about whether users of cigar products are "smokers." Users of cigar products may classify or label products differently from researchers and policy makers, and many refer to their product by brand name or a slang term. These findings have implications for future research, instrument design, and public health messaging about cigar products. This study adds to the body of evidence highlighting the challenges for measurement and surveillance of non-cigarette tobacco products, including cigars. Findings illustrate the myriad terms used by consumers to describe their use of cigar product subtypes, as well as the complexity of distinguishing between use of cigar products as intended, versus as a vehicle for smoking marijuana. Future research aimed to enhance specificity of cigar use measures will
Marie-Anne S Rosemberg
Full Text Available This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths′ recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents.
Arya, Sumedha; Xue, Siqi; Embuldeniya, Amanda; Narammalage, Harsha; da Silva, Tricia; Williams, Shehan; Ravindran, Arun
Psychosocial consequences of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) have been well documented in Western populations, but there is no published literature on such incidence in the Sri Lankan population. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychosocial impact of SCI in a Sri Lankan population and to examine this population's coping mechanisms. Participants were recruited purposively at the Ragama Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Hospital, the sole rehabilitation facility for SCI patients in Sri Lanka. Focus groups were conducted with 23 consenting individuals. Interview transcripts were analysed using descriptive thematic analysis. Four domains of life impact, three types of active coping strategies and four types of external supports were identified. Decreased ambulation and burden on family life were significant concerns for male and female participants alike. Religious practices were reported most frequently as active coping strategies, followed by positive reframing and goal-setting. Reported external supports included guided physiotherapy, informational workshops, social support and peer networks. Rehabilitation efforts for Sri Lankan SCI patients should be sensitive to psychosocial concerns in addition to physical concerns in order to help patients re-integrate into their family lives and community. Furthermore, religious practices should be respected as possible aids to rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitative efforts should be conscientious of patients' psychosocial well-being in addition to their physical well-being. Hospital-based rehabilitative efforts for traumatic spinal cord injury patients should promote functional independence and community re-integration. Spiritual and/or religious practices should be respected as ways by which traumatic spinal cord injury patients may confront personal challenges that arise following injury.
Sharratt Michael T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Components of the built environment are associated with active living behaviors, but research in this area has employed surveys and other quantitative methods almost exclusively. Qualitative approaches can provide additional detail about how neighborhoods influence physical activity, including informing the extent to which such relationships are causal in nature. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of residents' attitudinal and behavioral responses to living in a neighborhood designed to be walkable. Methods Focus groups were conducted with residents of a planned retail and residential development that was designed to embody many attributes of walkability and was located within a large city in southwestern Ontario. In total, 31 participants provided qualitative data about neighborhood resources and dynamics, use of local services, physical activity behavior, and other related issues. The data were transcribed and coded for themes relevant to the study purpose. Results Salient themes that emerged emphasized the importance of land use diversity, safety, parks and trails, aesthetics, and a sense of community, with the latter theme cutting across all others. The data also revealed mechanisms that explain relationships between the built environment and behavior and how sidewalks in the neighborhood facilitated diverse health behaviors and outcomes. Finally, residents recited several examples of changes in behavior, both positive and negative, since moving to their current neighborhood. Conclusions The results of this study confirmed and expanded upon current knowledge about built and social environment influences on physical activity and health. That many residents reported changes in their behaviors since moving to the neighborhood permitted tentative inferences about the causal impact of built and social environments. Future research should exploit diverse methods to more fully understand how
Hutting, Nathan; Oswald, Wiebke; Staal, J Bart; Engels, Josephine A; Nouwens, Elvira; Nijhuis van-der Sanden, Maria Wg; Heerkens, Yvonne F
Musculoskeletal disorders are a major health problem resulting in negative effects on wellbeing and substantial costs to society. Work participation is associated with positive benefits for both mental and physical health. Potentially, generalist physical therapists (GPTs) can play an important role in reducing absenteeism, presenteeism and associated costs in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. However, work participation is often insufficiently addressed within generalist physical therapy practice (GPTP). Therefore, this study evaluates whether GPTs take work participation into account as a determining factor in patients with musculoskeletal disorders, and how this might be improved. This qualitative study consisted of seven focus groups involving 30 participants: 21 GPTs and 9 occupational physical therapists (OPTs). Based on an interview guide, participants were asked how they integrate work participation within their practice, how they collaborate with other professionals, and how GPTs can improve integration of the patient's work within their practice. Although participants recognized the importance of work participation, they mentioned that the integration of this item in their GPTP could be improved. Generally, GPTs place insufficient priority on work participation. Moreover, there is a lack of cooperation between the generalist physical therapist and (other) occupational healthcare providers (including OPTs), and the borderlines/differences between generalist physcial therapy and occupational health physcial therapy were sometimes unclear. GPTs showed a lack of knowledge and a need for additional information about several important work-related factors (e.g. work content, physical and psychosocial working conditions, terms of employment). Although a patient's work is important, GPTs take insufficient account of work participation as a determining factor in the treatment of patients with musculoskeletal disorders. GPTs often lack specific knowledge
Kaczynski, Andrew T; Sharratt, Michael T
Components of the built environment are associated with active living behaviors, but research in this area has employed surveys and other quantitative methods almost exclusively. Qualitative approaches can provide additional detail about how neighborhoods influence physical activity, including informing the extent to which such relationships are causal in nature. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of residents' attitudinal and behavioral responses to living in a neighborhood designed to be walkable. Focus groups were conducted with residents of a planned retail and residential development that was designed to embody many attributes of walkability and was located within a large city in southwestern Ontario. In total, 31 participants provided qualitative data about neighborhood resources and dynamics, use of local services, physical activity behavior, and other related issues. The data were transcribed and coded for themes relevant to the study purpose. Salient themes that emerged emphasized the importance of land use diversity, safety, parks and trails, aesthetics, and a sense of community, with the latter theme cutting across all others. The data also revealed mechanisms that explain relationships between the built environment and behavior and how sidewalks in the neighborhood facilitated diverse health behaviors and outcomes. Finally, residents recited several examples of changes in behavior, both positive and negative, since moving to their current neighborhood. The results of this study confirmed and expanded upon current knowledge about built and social environment influences on physical activity and health. That many residents reported changes in their behaviors since moving to the neighborhood permitted tentative inferences about the causal impact of built and social environments. Future research should exploit diverse methods to more fully understand how neighborhood contexts influence active living.
Randmaa, Maria; Engström, Maria; Swenne, Christine Leo; Mårtensson, Gunilla
To investigate different professionals' (nurse anaesthetists', anaesthesiologists', and postanaesthesia care unit nurses') descriptions of and reflections on the postoperative handover. A focus group interview study with a descriptive design using qualitative content analysis of transcripts. One anaesthetic clinic at two hospitals in Sweden. Six focus groups with 23 healthcare professionals involved in postoperative handovers. Each group was homogeneous regarding participant profession, resulting in two groups per profession: nurse anaesthetists (n=8), anaesthesiologists (n=7) and postanaesthesia care unit nurses (n=8). Patterns and five categories emerged: (1) having different temporal foci during handover, (2) insecurity when information is transferred from one team to another, (3) striving to ensure quality of the handover, (4) weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the bedside handover and (5) having different perspectives on the transfer of responsibility. The professionals' perceptions of the postoperative handover differed with regard to temporal foci and transfer of responsibility. All professional groups were insecure about having all information needed to ensure the quality of care. They strived to ensure quality of the handover by: focusing on matters that deviated from the normal course of events, aiding memory through structure and written information and cooperating within and between teams. They reported that the bedside handover enhances their control of the patient but also that it could threaten the patient's privacy and that frequent interruptions could be disturbing. The present findings revealed variations in different professionals' views on the postoperative handover. Healthcare interventions are needed to minimise the gap between professionals' perceptions and practices and to achieve a shared understanding of postoperative handover. Furthermore, to ensure high-quality and safe care, stakeholders/decision makers need to pay attention
Peterson, Erin; Harrell, Melissa; Springer, Andrew; Medina, José; Martinez, Lucía; Perry, Cheryl; Estol, Diego
This qualitative research study investigated intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors that shape young adolescent tobacco use behaviors in Uruguay. Focus groups were conducted in the summer of 2012 and fall of 2013 in four secondary schools in Montevideo, Uruguay, including two private schools and two public schools. A total of four focus groups were led in each school, composed of 4-6 students each, 16 focus groups in total. Data analysis utilized NVivo software and included deductive and inductive content analysis. Overwhelmingly, students reported that the onset of smoking occurred in the second year of secondary school. The primary intrapersonal factors that were found to be universal among respondents identified that smoking was a performance in groups, to garner attention from their peers. Students interviewed most often stated that the greatest interpersonal factors for smoking were to look older, as a rite of passage, and for group membership. Environmental factors cited most often indicate that they smoked during unsupervised time, either at night or around the short Uruguayan school day. Focus group interviews revealed that adolescents had easy access to cigarettes for purchase through small family owned grocery stores, even though laws exist preventing the sale of cigarettes to minors. Few differences were cited between strata related to cigarette use in adolescents. The differences that do exist are most apparent across gender, though there were a few observed differences when stratified by public and private school. Findings from this study indicate that key factors across ecological levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental) should be taken into consideration when designing tobacco prevention programs for youth in Uruguay. A multiple-component approach which addresses risk factors at all of these levels, implemented in schools, may be particularly well-suited to this setting.
Neale, Joanne; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John
To explore potential study participants' views on willingness to join clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use to inform and improve future recruitment strategies. Qualitative focus group study [six groups: oral methadone (two groups); buprenorphine tablets (two groups); injectable opioid agonist treatment (one group); and former opioid agonist treatment (one group)]. Drug and alcohol services and a peer support recovery service (London, UK). Forty people with experience of opioid agonist treatment for heroin dependence (26 males, 14 females; aged 33-66 years). Data collection was facilitated by a topic guide that explored willingness to enrol in clinical pharmacological trials. Groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcribed data were analysed inductively via Iterative Categorization. Participants' willingness to join pharmacological trials of medications for opioid dependence was affected by factors relating to study burden, study drug, study design, study population and study relationships. Participants worried that the trial drug might be worse than, or interfere with, their current treatment. They also misunderstood aspects of trial design despite the researchers' explanations. Recruitment of participants for clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use could be improved if researchers became better at explaining clinical trials to potential participants, dispelling misconceptions about trials and increasing trust in the research process and research establishment. A checklist of issues to consider when designing pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use is proposed. © 2018 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
Mi, Jianguo; Zhong, Chongli; Li, Yi-Gui
In our previous work [J. Mi, C. Zhong, Yi.-G. Li, J. Chen, Chem. Phys., 305 (2004) 37-45], an equation of state (EOS) based on the combination of renormalization group theory (RG) and the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) was proposed for describing pure fluid thermodynamic properties both inside and outside critical region, which was extended to binary mixtures in this work. A variety of binary systems were considered in this work, including nonpolar/nonpolar, nonpolar/polar, nonpolar/associating and associating/associating mixtures. Two adjustable parameters are required by the new EOS for each binary system, which are obtained by fitting the vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data at one temperature. The calculated results show that the new EOS gives satisfactory predictions for critical properties as well as the VLE at other temperatures, both inside and outside critical region. This work demonstrates that RG theory is a very useful tool for accurately describing fluid properties inside critical region, and a combination of it with SAFT EOS can lead to a new EOS possessing the advantages of both theories, applicable to the whole phase equilibrium region of binary mixtures.
Drewes, Yvonne M; Koenen, Julia M; de Ruijter, Wouter; van Dijk-van Dijk, D J Annemarie; van der Weele, Gerda M; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Reis, Ria; Assendelft, Willem J J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn
Preventive care traditionally aims to prevent diseases or injuries. For older people, different aims of prevention, such as maintenance of independence and wellbeing, are increasingly important. To explore GPs' perspectives on preventive care for older people. Qualitative study comprising six focus groups with GPs in the Netherlands. The focus-group discussions with 37 GPs were analysed using the framework analysis method. Whether or not to implement preventive care for older people depends on the patient's individual level of vitality, as perceived by the GP. For older people with a high level of vitality, GPs confine their role to standardised disease-oriented prevention on a patient's request; when the vitality levels in older people fall, the scope of preventive care shifts from prevention of disease to prevention of functional decline. For older, vulnerable people, GPs expect most benefit from a proactive, individualised approach, enabling them to live as independently as possible. Based on these perspectives, a conceptual model for preventive care was developed, which describes GPs' different perspectives toward older people who are vulnerable and those with high levels of vitality. It focuses on five main dimensions: aim of care (prevention of disease versus prevention of functional decline), concept of care (disease model versus functional model), initiator (older persons themselves versus GP), target groups (people with requests versus specified risk groups), and content of preventive care (mainly cardiovascular risk management versus functional decline). GPs' perspectives on preventive care are determined by their perception of the level of vitality of their older patients. Preventive care for older people with high levels of vitality may consist of a standardised disease-oriented approach; those who are vulnerable will need an individualised approach to prevent functional decline.
Full Text Available Wolter Paans, Inge Wijkamp, Egbert Wiltens, Marca V Wolfensberger Research and Innovation Group Talent Development in Higher Education and Society, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, The Netherlands. Background: Determining what constitutes an excellent allied health care professional (AHCP is important, since this is what will guide the development of curricula for training future physical therapists, oral hygienists, speech therapists, diagnostic radiographers, and dietitians. This also determines the quality of care. Aim: To describe perspectives of AHCPs on which characteristics are commonly associated with an excellent AHCP. Methods: AHCPs' perspectives were derived from three focus group discussions. Twenty-one health care professionals participated. The final analysis of the focus group discussions produced eight domains, in which content validity was obtained through a Delphi panel survey of 27 contributing experts. Results: According to the survey, a combination of the following characteristics defines an excellent AHCP: (1 cognizance, to obtain and to apply knowledge in a broad multidisciplinary health care field; (2 cooperativity, to effectively work with others in a multidisciplinary context; (3 communicative, to communicate effectively at different levels in complex situations; (4 initiative, to initiate new ideas, to act proactively, and to follow them through; (5 innovative, to devise new ideas and to implement alternatives beyond current practices; (6 introspective, to self-examine and to reflect; (7 broad perspective, to capture the big picture; and (8 evidence-driven, to find and to use scientific evidence to guide one's decisions. Conclusion: The AHCPs perspectives can be used as a reference for personal improvement for supervisors and professionals in clinical practice and for educational purposes. These perspectives may serve as a guide against which talented students can evaluate themselves. Keywords: clinical
Hjörleifsson, Stefán; Hammer, Elise; Díaz, Esperanza
Immigrants comprise 16.8% of the population in Norway and meet General Practitioners (GPs) as their first point of contact with most health care services as do others in Norway. While Norwegian GPs are not trained in cultural competence, little is known about the extent to which they see good care for immigrants as relying on specific strategies. To explore the thoughts of GPs in Norway about strategies they might use with immigrant patients. We performed focus groups posing the question 'What strategies do you use when meeting immigrant patients?' to three groups of GPs working in Norway. Two groups comprised 10 trainee GPs each; the final group comprised eight certified GPs. Verbatim transcripts were analysed by systematic text condensation. Strategies for consultations with immigrants emerged gradually throughout the focus groups, coalescing around (i) Respect and learn about immigrant culture. (ii) Particularize diagnosis and care, accommodating epidemiological and cultural knowledge for a given group, while keeping a keen eye on the individual. (iii) Inform about Norwegian health care. (iv) Organize resources such as time, translators and interdisciplinary teams. Other core elements of cultural competence, including reflections on the GP's own cultural background, were conspicuously absent, however. Given the growing numbers of immigrants and the early transfer of refugees to general practice, our study points to the urgent need of supplementing teaching in patient-centred clinical method with cultural competence. Our study also highlights the potential of educational GP groups to develop strategies for cross-cultural consultations.
Kim, Jinyoung; Lee, Sungkyu
To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents' curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products.
Brown, Sharon A; García, Alexandra A; Steinhardt, Mary A; Guevara, Henry; Moore, Claire; Brown, Adama; Winter, Mary A
The purpose was to conduct focus groups with Hispanic employees to obtain input into adaptation of previous DSME interventions for use as a workplace diabetes prevention program. From a list of interested Hispanic employees who attended a local health fair (n = 68), 36 were randomly selected to participate in focus groups held during supper mealtime breaks. An experienced bilingual moderator directed the sessions, using interview guidelines developed by the research team. Participants' ages ranged from 22 to 65 years (mean = 50.4, n = 36, SD = 10.7), 7 males and 29 females attended, and 53% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Employees expressed a keen interest in diabetes classes and recommended a focus on preparing healthier Hispanic foods. Primary barriers to promoting healthier lifestyles were work schedules; many employees worked 2 part-time or full-time jobs. Administrators and direct supervisors of the employees were highly supportive of a workplace diabetes prevention program. The consistent message was that a workplace program would be the ideal solution for Hispanic employees to learn about diabetes and healthy behaviors, given their busy schedules, family responsibilities, and limited resources. If found to be effective, such a workplace program would be generalizable to other service employees who have disproportionate diabetes rates. © 2015 The Author(s).
Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.
In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex
Morken, Tone; Johansen, Ingrid H; Alsaker, Kjersti
Prevention and management of workplace violence among health workers has been described in different health care settings. However, little is known about which phenomena the emergency primary health care (EPC) organization should attend to in their strategies for preventing and managing it. In the current study, we therefore explored how EPC personnel have dealt with threats and violence from visitors or patients, focusing on how organizational factors affected the incidents. A focus group study was performed with a sample of 37 nurses and physicians aged 25-69 years. Eight focus group interviews were conducted, and the participants were invited to talk about their experiences of violence in EPC. Analysis was conducted by systematic text condensation, searching for themes describing the participants' experiences. Four main themes emerged for anticipating or dealing with incidents of threats or violence within the system: (1) minimizing the risk of working alone, (2) being prepared, (3) resolving the mismatch between patient expectations and the service offered, and (4) supportive manager response. Our study shows a potential for development of better organizational strategies for protecting EPC personnel who are at risk from workplace violence.
Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Holmes-Burns, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Petersell, J. [AIMS, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Schwendiman, L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex.
Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit
The aim of this study was to investigate how bullied schoolchildren experience solution-focused brief therapy support groups, and to examine how members of the support group experience their participation in the group. An explorative qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19…
Eklund, Wakako; Kenner, Carole
The neonatal nurses are the key component of the essential workforce necessary to address the healthcare needs of the infants globally. The paucity of the data regarding the availability and training of the neonatal workforce challenges the stakeholders at the regional, national, and global levels. The lack of these data makes strategic planning for initiatives especially in low-resourced countries difficult. Up-to-date data are critically needed to describe the role neonatal nurses play in global newborn health outcomes. The purpose of the COINN Global Neonatal Provider Database Initiative (CGNPD) was to develop a workforce database by developing survey questions, conducting a focus group to determine the key reasons such a database was needed and how best to implement it, and incorporating these comments into the workforce survey and launch. Pilot testing of the draft survey instrument was done. This article reports on the findings from the focus group and the development of the survey. A qualitative design using the focus group method was used. The focus group discussions were guided by semi-structured interview questions that had been developed prior to the focus group by neonatal experts. A convenience sample of 14 members from the international delegates and project advisory members who attended the COINN 2013 in Belfast, Northern Ireland, participated. These participants represented 10 countries. Thematic analysis was conducted using verbatim transcripts of the focus group data. Four main themes emerged: (1) the invisibility of neonatal nurses, (2) benchmarking needs for quality and standards, (3) need for partnership to implement the database, and (4) setting priorities for variables needed for the most salient database. The questionnaire examined participants' perceptions of the significance of and the future utilization of the workforce database and elements that should be included in the survey. The global neonatal workforce database is needed to
Tierney, William M
The focus and funding of US healthcare is evolving from volume to value-based, and healthcare leaders, managers, payers, and researchers are increasingly focusing on managing populations of patients. Simultaneously, there is increasing interest in getting "upstream" from disease management to promote health and prevent disease. Hence, the term "population health" has both clinical and community-based connotations relevant to the tripartite mission of US medical schools. To seek broad input for the strategic development of the Department of Population Health in a new medical school at a tier 1 research university. Focus groups with facilitated consensus development. Eighty-one persons representing the Dell Medical School and other schools at the University of Texas at Austin, city/county government, community nonprofit organizations, and faculty from other local university schools along with selected national academic leaders. Focus groups with subsequent consensus development of emphases identified premeeting by participants by e-mail exchanges. The resulting departmental strategic plan included scope of work, desired characteristics of leaders, and early impact activities in seven areas of interest: community engagement and health equity, primary care and value-based health, occupational and environment medicine, medical education, health services and community-based research, health informatics and data analysis, and global health. Medical schools should have a primary focus in population, most effectively at the departmental level. Engaging relevant academic and community stakeholders is an effective model for developing this emerging discipline in US medical schools.
Bükki, Johannes; Neuhaus, Petra M; Paal, Piret
Therapeutic options for nursing home residents focus on functional improvement, while inadequate hospital admissions in the dying phase are frequent. The aim of this study was to explore views, attitudes, and concerns among staff and to embark on a process that facilitates end-of-life care on an institutional level. Three focus group interviews were conducted with nursing home staff (nurses, care managers, physicians). The discussants (22) expressed the following issues: workload; ethical conflicts; additional resources; "living palliative care"; deleterious effect of restorative aims; lack of training; fear; knowledge and skills; rituals; lack of attachment, frustration, and abuse; team; discouragement; resilience enhanced by good care; style of communication; avoidance; the "palliative status"; legal concerns and hospital admissions. Nursing home staff expressed willingness to care for the dying. Providing good end of life care may promote professional resilience and personal integrity. Therefore, team issues, fears, and avoidance should be addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wright, Caroline A.; Jolly, Brian; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Baird, Marilyn A.
Purpose: This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to investigate how Australian radiation therapists define fitness to practise. Method: A qualitative approach was taken to data collection with focus groups being employed to gather the data. Analysis was informed by grounded theory. Following ethics approval, three homogeneous focus groups were conducted comprising a total of 21 participants, with 5-8 participants per group. The discussions were transcribed, verified by the researcher and participants, then unitised, coded and a sample checked by a second coder. Findings: There was no consensus on the definition of fitness to practise. The terms professionalism and competence were used interchangeably in some definitions. Four themes emerged from the data, these were; fitness as a continuum (individual differences and longevity in the profession), fitness as behaviour and conduct (professionalism and competence), fitness as a state of mind (attitudes and intangible elements) and fitness as being qualified (course completion means fitness to practise). Three concepts which were not raised were illegal behaviour, impaired practice and dose errors. Conclusion: There is no consensus among radiation therapists about fitness to practise. There was confusion with how Fitness to practise relates to professionalism and competence with little mention of how impairment is interwoven into the notion of fitness to practise. Without an unambiguous definition and robust criteria, making the 'judgement call' as to whether a practitioners' fitness to practise is impaired will continue to be a challenge for educators, departmental managers and registration boards.
The newly approved Reality condom is the first female-controlled method to offer protection from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, aggressive, creative promotional approaches must be developed to enable women to overcome initial distaste with the bulkiness of the device and discomfort with touching their own genitalia. A focus group format has been effective in creating positive attitudes toward the condom among low-income black women--a population group that has traditionally lacked power in the sexual decision-making process. Attitudinal changes occurred once black women received education about their high risk of contracting acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (Although African-Americans comprise only 12% of the US population, they account for 29% of total AIDS cases and 53% of cases of AIDS in women.) Less acceptance of the female condom is anticipated among Hispanic women due to its conspicuousness and fears of accusations of infidelity from their husbands. Teenagers and college students--another sector lacking sexual negotiation skills and comfort in touching their own bodies--will be targeted for future focus group discussions.
Pivetti, Monica; Montali, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Giorgia
This study explores the underlying values and beliefs that guide women's reasoning on prenatal genetic test (PGT) uptake, as framed by their own words, during a group discussion, in a Catholic country such as Italy. Women's reasoning was explored by means of five focus group consisting of seven pregnant women and 13 new mothers. The focus group material content was analysed using the Nudist software. The discourse around PGT was rooted into four frames of reference: The usefulness dimension was used to express the positions in favour of PGT, whereas morality, risk and trust were used to express negative evaluations on such a technology. Participants advocated for themselves the choice of being tested, besides giving some credit to the partner's opinion. Moreover, participants reported little knowledge on PGT. The research shed some light on the frames of reference used by participants to build their positions on PGT uptake, confirming the public's ability to translate scientific accounts into personally meaningful information. A more complete understanding of the reasons for decisions to test would help counsellors to better communicate with women and couples, and to better assist them to make a better informed testing decision. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2 prevention program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. RESULTS: Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. CONCLUSIONS: Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.
Dasgupta, Kaberi; Da Costa, Deborah; Pillay, Sabrina; De Civita, Mirella; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Leong, Aaron; Bacon, Simon; Stotland, Stephen; Chetty, V Tony; Garfield, Natasha; Majdan, Agnieszka; Meltzer, Sara
We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM) diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevention program. Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.
Buckley, Barbara A; McCarthy, Danielle M; Forth, Victoria E; Tanabe, Paula; Schmidt, Michael J; Adams, James G; Engel, Kirsten G
Previous research indicates that patients have difficulty understanding ED discharge instructions; these findings have important implications for adherence and outcomes. The objective of this study was to obtain direct patient input to inform specific revisions to discharge documents created through a literacy-guided approach and to identify common themes within patient feedback that can serve as a framework for the creation of discharge documents in the future. Based on extensive literature review and input from ED providers, subspecialists, and health literacy and communication experts, discharge instructions were created for 5 common ED diagnoses. Participants were recruited from a federally qualified health center to participate in a series of 5 focus group sessions. Demographic information was obtained and a Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) assessment was performed. During each of the 1-hour focus group sessions, participants reviewed discharge instructions for 1 of 5 diagnoses. Participants were asked to provide input into the content, organization, and presentation of the documents. Using qualitative techniques, latent and manifest content analysis was performed to code for emergent themes across all 5 diagnoses. Fifty-seven percent of participants were female and the average age was 32 years. The average REALM score was 57.3. Through qualitative analysis, 8 emergent themes were identified from the focus groups. Patient input provides meaningful guidance in the development of diagnosis-specific discharge instructions. Several themes and patterns were identified, with broad significance for the design of ED discharge instructions. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Santacana, Martí; Montoro, María; Rosado, Silvia; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Fullana, Miquel A
In the context of psychological treatment, a sudden gain is a large and enduring improvement in symptom severity that occurs between two single therapy sessions. The influence of sudden gains on long-term outcomes and functional impairment in anxiety disorders is not well understood, and little is known with regard to panic disorder in particular. In addition, previous research on patients with anxiety disorders has produced inconsistent results regarding the relationship between sudden gains and cognitive change. We examined the incidence of sudden gains in a large sample (n = 116) of panic disorder patients undergoing exposure-focused cognitive-behavioral group therapy, and compared panic severity, functional impairment, and cognitive change in patients with and without sudden gains at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. Participants who experienced sudden gains displayed lower levels of panic severity and functional impairment at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up than those who did not experience sudden gains. However, we observed no difference in cognitive changes between groups, either at posttreatment or at follow-up. Our results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of sudden gains on therapeutic outcomes not only extend to long-term and functional outcome measures but are also evident in less cognitive (i.e., exposure-focused) forms of psychological treatment. Sudden gains are common in panic disorder patients undergoing exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Sudden gains during exposure-focused therapy are linked to greater improvement in panic disorder severity and functional impairment. The positive impact of sudden gains on panic disorder severity and functional impairment is maintained in the long term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQL brings together various aspects of an individual's subjective experience that relate both directly and indirectly to health, disease, disability, and impairment. Although asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, information on pediatric patients' views on asthma-specific HRQL has not been described before. The aim of this study was to establish the components of asthma-specific HRQL, as experienced by primary school-aged asthmatic children. The generated components will be used to develop an individualized HRQL instrument for childhood asthma. Methods Primary school-aged asthmatic children were invited to participate in three consecutive focus group sessions. A total of five focus groups were formed. Two reviewers independently 1 identified trends in the statements and relations between HRQL components, 2 clustered the components into a small number of domains and, 3 made a model on asthma-specific HRQL based on the transcribed statements of the children. The results were compared between the two reviewers and resulted in a final model. Results Asthma influenced the life of the children physically, emotionally and socially. The most important components of HRQL were the effects on, and consequences of asthma on peer relationships (e.g., being bullied, the dependence on medication, shortness of breath, cough, limitations in activities and limitations due to the response on cigarette smoke exposure. Conclusion The outcome of the focus group meetings indicates that asthma influences the life of children in various ways. Not all essential components of HRQL, according to the children, are part of existing asthma-specific HRQL instruments.
Full Text Available Background: Across the industrialized world, more couples are living together without marrying. Although researchers have compared cohabitation cross-nationally using quantitative data, few have compared union formation using qualitative data. Objective: We use focus group research to compare social norms of cohabitation and marriage in Australia and nine countries in Europe. We explore questions such as: what is the meaning of cohabitation? To what extent is cohabitation indistinguishable from marriage, a prelude to marriage, or an alternative to being single? Are the meanings of cohabitation similar across countries? Methods: Collaborators conducted seven to eight focus groups in each country using a standardized guideline. They analyzed the discussions with bottom-up coding in each thematic area. They then collated the data in a standardized report. The first and second authors systematically analyzed the reports, with direct input from collaborators. Results: The results describe a specific picture of union formation in each country. However, three themes emerge in all focus groups: commitment, testing, and freedom. The pervasiveness of these concepts suggests that marriage and cohabitation have distinct meanings, with marriage representing a stronger level of commitment. Cohabitation is a way to test the relationship, and represents freedom. Nonetheless, other discourses emerged, suggesting that cohabitation has multiple meanings. Conclusions: This study illuminates how context shapes partnership formation, but also presents underlying reasons for the development of cohabitation. We find that the increase in cohabitation has not devalued the concept of marriage, but has become a way to preserve marriage as an ideal for long-term commitment.
Sharon L. Moore
Full Text Available A qualitative intervention was used to explore how older adults living in a long-term care environment (nursing home understand hope and experience being participants in a group in which a hope intervention was carried out. A group project in which each session focused intentionally on a hope strategy was carried out with a convenience sample of 10 women (ages 75–99 who were members of an existing group. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis of the interviews (conducted before the group intervention was carried out and again at the end, field notes, and collaborative conversations regarding emerging themes. Findings from this study suggest that hope is not static and that it can change over time in response to one’s situations and circumstances. Also evident in this study is the potential for using a group process in long-term care to foster hope in an intentional way to make it more visible in the lives of the residents and their environment suggesting that one is “never too old for hope.”
Bener, Abdulbari; Honein, Gladys; Carter, Anne O; Da'ar, Zahra; Miller, Campbell; Dunn, Earl V
To explore perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast cancer and its screening among Emirati national women in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. A qualitative study using focus group methods. Primary healthcare centers and a community-based women's association in the United Arab Emirates. 41 women, aged 25-45 years. Four 90-minute focus group discussions exploring perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding breast cancer were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed. Social and cultural themes related to breast cancer and its screening. Focus group methodology worked well in this setting. The women's perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding cancer and screening, together with aspects of the healthcare system and social milieu, appeared to strongly influence the women's preventive practices. Some of these factors had an encouraging effect on the women's practices, and others had a deterring effect. The encouraging factors included feelings of susceptibility, high levels of knowledge in some women, attitudes and beliefs about personal responsibility for health, and a supportive social milieu. Deterring factors included anxiety and fear leading to denial; lack of knowledge about cancer and the screening program; fear, embarrassment, and mistrust of health care; and belief in predestination. Health planners and healthcare providers must capitalize on encouraging factors and minimize deterring factors to optimize breast cancer screening practices among these women. Identifying and accounting for the factors that encourage or deter women in their breast cancer screening practices will help to optimize screening programs.
Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth
This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women.
The Internet and the development of more user-engaging applications have opened a whole new world for researchers as a means of recruitment and data collection source. This paper describes the methodological approach of a research study that explored the experiences of Australian military spouses who packed up their family and home to accompany their spouse on an overseas posting. The study used Facebook as a recruitment tool and then as a data source through the conduct of an asynchronous virtual focus group. This paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of this unique data source as a means of capturing the voices of a hard-to-reach population.
Full Text Available The IT field, by its nature and evolution, requires a special attention to the online communication strategy. If for most IT companies, the marketing strategy is customized according to their product, customers, marketing objectives, budget, marketing team size, etc., there is a common perception of the digital communication strategy. Therefore, this article, which is based on two Focus-group research projects, aims to present the attitudes, experiences and opinions of online marketers related to the digital communication strategy of the IT companies based in Romania.
Mangurian, Christina; Modlin, Chelsea; Williams, Lindsey; Essock, Susan; Riano, Nicholas S; Shumway, Martha; Newcomer, John W; Dilley, James W; Schillinger, Dean
We sought to understand stakeholder perspectives on barriers to metabolic screening for people with severe mental illness. We additionally assessed the feasibility of expanding psychiatrists' scope of practice to include treatment of cardiometabolic abnormalities. We conducted four focus groups among patients with severe mental illness, community psychiatrists, primary care providers, and public health administrators. Focus group transcripts were thematically analyzed. Three domains emerged: challenges with patient navigation of the complex health care system, problem list prioritization difficulties, and concern that treatment of cardiometabolic abnormalities were beyond the scope of practice of psychiatrists. Stakeholders agreed that navigating the health care system was challenging for this population and led to undertreatment of cardiometabolic risk factors. Expansion of psychiatrists' scope of practice within community mental health appears acceptable to patients and may be a mechanism to improve cardiometabolic care among people with severe mental illness.
Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students’ eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students’ eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products
Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte
College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European
Kim, Mi Ja; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Ahn, Yang-Heui; Kim, Euisook; Yun, Soon-Nyoung; Lee, Kwang-Ja
The rapidly increasing number of nursing doctoral programs has caused concern about the quality of nursing doctoral education, including in Korea. To describe the perceived quality of Korean nursing doctoral education in faculty, student, curriculum and resources. Focus group. Fourteen Korean nursing doctoral programs that are research focused and include coursework. Four groups of deans, faculty, students and graduates; students completed three semesters of doctoral program; and graduates completed doctoral programs within the most recent 3 years. Focus groups examined the strengths and weaknesses of faculty, students, curriculum, and resources. Faculty strengths were universities' recognition of faculty research/scholarship and the ability of faculty to attract extramural funding. Faculty weaknesses were aging faculty; high faculty workload; insufficient number of faculty; and teaching without expertise in nursing theories. Student strengths were diverse student backgrounds; multidisciplinary dissertation committee members, and opportunities to socialize with peers and graduates/faculty. Students' weaknesses were overproduction of PhDs with low academic quality; a lower number and quality of doctoral applicants; and lack of full-time students. Curriculum strengths were focusing on specific research areas; emphasis on research ethics; and multidisciplinary courses. Curriculum weaknesses were insufficient time for curriculum development; inadequate courses for core research competencies; and a lack of linkage between theory and practice. Resources strengths were inter-institutional courses with credit transfer. Weaknesses were diminished university financial support for graduate students and limited access to school facilities. Variations in participant groups (providers [deans and faculty] vs. receivers [students and graduates]) and geographical location (capital city vs. regional) were noted on all the four components. The quality characteristics of faculty
Gothberg, June E.
The purpose of this study was to examine the equivalence or non-inferiority for comparisons of telephone focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, Internet video-based focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, and Internet video-based focus group venue to telephone focus group venue. Research questions examined the…
Bud Angelica Mariana
Full Text Available This paper seeks to underline the main problems faced in implementing and using European Union (EU funds in Romania within the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD during the first programing period 2007-2013. The problems and barriers revealed were identified during a focus-group for the second interim evaluation of SOPHRD, organized by the Management Authority of this program in Nord-Vest region, in November 2014. The focus-group represents a small part of the entire process of evaluating the programme for the development of human resources during its implementation, with the purpose of finding beneficiaries opinions about the efficiency, effectiveness and relevance of interventions financed through SOP HRD. Beliefs, personal recommendations from the participants are presented in order to improve the use of European funds for development of human resources (in particular and the use of structural instruments (in general. These results and solutions can be efficiently used during the next financial period 2014-2020 to create the framework for every priority axis and key areas of intervention, during the implementation of new projects and within the entire process that these funds require in order to successfully use the structural instruments to catch up with developed countries. Moreover, some of the problems identified can be found in other operational programmes and therefore, this research can be useful for every one that wants to use this kind of financing or has a project of this kind in implementation, without taking into account the European funding source. Besides the qualitative approach given by focus-group research method, this paper is going to present a general approach over SOP HRD in Romania during 2007-2013, from a quantitative perspective (number of projects submitted, approved, contracted, payment rate, absorption rate. Moreover solutions linked to knowledge management practices will be proposed
McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Collie, Kate R; Fraser, Gertrude; Shufflebarger, Cindy; Lloyd, Bronwyn; Norman Oliver, M
This study about maternal feeding practices and beliefs was conducted as background for the development of a childhood obesity prevention program for multi-ethnic parents in the USA receiving services from a federal government supplemental nutrition program for low-income mothers. Using a grounded theory approach, focus groups were conducted with low-income African American, white non-Hispanic (i.e. the majority Caucasian American population), Hispanic and Vietnamese parents to collect cross-cultural perspectives on: (a) infant and child feeding practices, (b) childhood overweight, (c) healthy dietary intake, (d) physical activity and inactivity, and (e) infant feeding information sources. A content analysis of the data yielded three main themes common to all four groups: (a) lack of awareness of the relationship between increased physical activity and health, (b) the use of food to influence behavior, and (c) the loss of parental control over feeding when a child starts child care or school, and revealed perspectives on age-appropriate food, infant satiety, overweight and information sources that were specific to each group. Interventions that enhance parent self-efficacy that build on themes that are specific to ethnic groups toward preventing childhood obesity are needed. There is also a need for culturally appropriate information for governmental nutrition programs that is in the client's own language and takes into account ethnic differences in beliefs and traditions.
Reddy, Shalini T; Zegarek, Matthew H; Fromme, H Barrett; Ryan, Michael S; Schumann, Sarah-Anne; Harris, Ilene B
Despite the importance of feedback, the literature suggests that there is inadequate feedback in graduate medical education. We explored barriers and facilitators that residents in anesthesiology, emergency medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery experience with giving and receiving feedback during their clinical training. Residents from 3 geographically diverse teaching institutions were recruited to participate in focus groups in 2012. Open-ended questions prompted residents to describe their experiences with giving and receiving feedback, and discuss facilitators and barriers. Data were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method associated with a grounded theory approach. A total of 19 residents participated in 1 of 3 focus groups. Five major themes related to feedback were identified: teacher factors, learner factors, feedback process, feedback content, and educational context. Unapproachable attendings, time pressures due to clinical work, and discomfort with giving negative feedback were cited as major barriers in the feedback process. Learner engagement in the process was a major facilitator in the feedback process. Residents provided insights for improving the feedback process based on their dual roles as teachers and learners. Time pressures in the learning environment may be mitigated by efforts to improve the quality of teacher-learner relationships. Forms for collecting written feedback should be augmented by faculty development to ensure meaningful use. Efforts to improve residents' comfort with giving feedback and encouraging learners to engage in the feedback process may foster an environment conducive to increasing feedback.
Yap, Tracey L; Kennerly, Susan; Corazzini, Kirsten; Porter, Kristie; Toles, Mark; Anderson, Ruth A
The purpose of the manuscript is to describe long-term care (LTC) staff perceptions of a music cueing intervention designed to improve staff integration of pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention guidelines regarding consistent and regular movement of LTC residents a minimum of every two hours. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) model guided staff interviews about their perceptions of the intervention's characteristics, outcomes, and sustainability. This was a qualitative, observational study of staff perceptions of the PrU prevention intervention conducted in Midwestern U.S. LTC facilities (N = 45 staff members). One focus group was held in each of eight intervention facilities using a semi-structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis, and summaries for each category were compared across groups. The a priori codes (observability, trialability, compatibility, relative advantage and complexity) described the innovation characteristics, and the sixth code, sustainability, was identified in the data. Within each code, two themes emerged as a positive or negative response regarding characteristics of the innovation. Moreover, within the sustainability code, a third theme emerged that was labeled "brainstormed ideas", focusing on strategies for improving the innovation. Cueing LTC staff using music offers a sustainable potential to improve PrU prevention practices, to increase resident movement, which can subsequently lead to a reduction in PrUs.
Tracey L. Yap
Full Text Available The purpose of the manuscript is to describe long-term care (LTC staff perceptions of a music cueing intervention designed to improve staff integration of pressure ulcer (PrU prevention guidelines regarding consistent and regular movement of LTC residents a minimum of every two hours. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI model guided staff interviews about their perceptions of the intervention’s characteristics, outcomes, and sustainability. Methods: This was a qualitative, observational study of staff perceptions of the PrU prevention intervention conducted in Midwestern U.S. LTC facilities (N = 45 staff members. One focus group was held in each of eight intervention facilities using a semi-structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis, and summaries for each category were compared across groups. Results: The a priori codes (observability, trialability, compatibility, relative advantage and complexity described the innovation characteristics, and the sixth code, sustainability, was identified in the data. Within each code, two themes emerged as a positive or negative response regarding characteristics of the innovation. Moreover, within the sustainability code, a third theme emerged that was labeled “brainstormed ideas”, focusing on strategies for improving the innovation. Implications: Cueing LTC staff using music offers a sustainable potential to improve PrU prevention practices, to increase resident movement, which can subsequently lead to a reduction in PrUs.
Dowding, Dawn W; Russell, David; Onorato, Nicole; Merrill, Jacqueline A
Elevated hospital readmission rates from home care are an indicator of poor care quality, and rates are particularly high for patients with heart failure. Readmissions may be avoided by optimizing continuity of care. To explore perceptions among home care clinicians of the barriers they face and the information they need to improve care continuity for patients with heart failure. Focus groups were conducted with teams of home care clinicians at a large certified home healthcare agency in the Northeastern United states. In total, there were 61 participants across 6 focus groups. Three overarching themes emerged: continuity of care and communication on care transitions, maintaining continuity of care during a home care episode (with subthemes tracking signs and symptoms and patient teaching), and health information technology (HIT) characteristics to support communication and care continuity. Our study highlights areas of improvement for HIT solutions that could support care delivery for patients with heart failure in a home care setting. Home care agencies planning to introduce technology can use these findings to assess if and how potential systems can support nurses to provide continuity of care across healthcare organizations and home care visits.
Davis, Michaela; Reeves, Pauline
The research presented in this paper is taken from a larger study whose aims were to devise a holistic picture of how diagnostic radiographers approach child protection issues and to explore how radiographers and other professionals see the role of radiographers in the chain of evidence in relation to child protection as this applies to children who present at the Imaging Department with suspected non-accidental injuries (NAI). A focus group methodology was used with focus groups being conducted in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The results indicated that both United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland radiographers agreed that they had a role in child protection; however, they identified a wide interpretation as to the extent of that role. Although radiographers in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland work within different legal systems there were themes identified which were common to both countries. Although radiographers referred to a duty to the child as to all patients, no radiographer specifically mentioned the system and child care law under which it is assumed they operate. This research revealed an area which would benefit from more detailed research using a wider audience. However, the study revealed a need for training in relation to possible NAI indicators and the correct procedure for documenting their suspicions and initiating an NAI referral
Grey, Charlotte N B; Schmieder-Gaite, Tina; Jiang, Shiyu; Nascimento, Christina; Poortinga, Wouter
Cold homes and fuel poverty have been identified as factors in health and social inequalities that could be alleviated through energy efficiency interventions. Research on fuel poverty and the health impacts of affordable warmth initiatives have to date primarily been conducted using quantitative and statistical methods, limiting the way how fuel poverty is understood. This study took a longitudinal focus group approach that allowed exploration of lived experiences of fuel poverty before and after an energy efficiency intervention. Focus group discussions were held with residents from three low-income communities before (n = 28) and after (n = 22) they received energy efficiency measures funded through a government-led scheme. The results show that improving the energy efficiency of homes at risk of fuel poverty has a profound impact on wellbeing and quality of life, financial stress, thermal comfort, social interactions and indoor space use. However, the process of receiving the intervention was experienced by some as stressful. There is a need for better community engagement and communication to improve the benefits delivered by fuel poverty programmes, as well as further qualitative exploration to better understand the wider impacts of fuel poverty and policy-led intervention schemes.
Yavuz van Giersbergen, Meryem; Ozsaker, Esma; Dirimese, Elif; Alcan, Aliye Okgun
The purpose of this study was to evaluate operating room (OR) experiences of student nurses. The focus group interview from qualitative research methods was used. This study was carried out between February and March 2011 in an OR practice at a university school of nursing. The grounded theory method was used to collect and analyze semistructured interview. Interviews were held with a total of 26 students in three focus group interviews. Each interview was tape recorded and was supported by taking notes. The audiotapes were listened and relistened by the researchers and transcribed. Four themes were determined as a result of this study. These are information, determination of career preference, period of internship and/or rotation, and fear and/or anxiety. The students stated that the period of OR practice was insufficient, the opportunities for being able to implement were limited, they mostly observed, and they experienced feelings of being alone and fear in the OR. Despite all of these, the students stated that the OR practice provided a major contribution to their education and was effective in the determination of their career preferences after graduation. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ciao, Anna C; Ohls, Olivia C; Pringle, Kevin D
Most evidence-based body image programs for college students (e.g., the Body Project) are designed for female-only audiences, although body dissatisfaction is not limited to female-identified individuals. Furthermore, programs do not explicitly discuss diversity, although individuals with marginalized gender, racial, and sexual identities may be particularly vulnerable to body image disturbances. Making programs more inclusive may increase their disseminability. This qualitative study examined the feasibility of adapting the Body Project for universal and inclusive use with college students. Participants (N = 36; M age = 21.66 years; 73% female-identified; 20% sexual minority; 23% racial minority) attended one of five semi-structured focus groups to explore the inclusivity of appearance-based cultural norms using adapted Body Project activities and discuss the feasibility of universal and inclusive interventions. Inductive qualitative content analysis with three-rater consensus identified focus group themes. There was consensus that inclusive interventions could have a positive impact (broadening perspectives, normalizing body image concerns, increasing awareness) despite potential barriers (poor diversity representation, vulnerability). There was strong consensus regarding advice for facilitating inclusive interventions (e.g., skilled facilitation, education, increasing diversity). Results suggest that inclusive body image programs are desirable and provide a framework for creating the EVERYbody Project, a program for more universal audiences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bruner, D W; Boyd, C P
Cancer and cancer therapies impair sexual health in a multitude of ways. The promotion of sexual health is therefore vital for preserving quality of life and is an integral part of total or holistic cancer management. Nursing, to provide holistic care, requires research that is meaningful to patients as well as the profession to develop educational and interventional studies to promote sexual health and coping. To obtain meaningful research data instruments that are reliable, valid, and pertinent to patients' needs are required. Several sexual functioning instruments were reviewed for this study and found to be lacking in either a conceptual foundation or psychometric validation. Without a defined conceptual framework, authors of the instruments must have made certain assumptions regarding what women undergoing cancer therapy experience and what they perceive as important. To check these assumptions before assessing women's sexuality after cancer therapies in a larger study, a pilot study was designed to compare what women experience and perceive as important regarding their sexuality with what is assessed in several currently available research instruments, using the focus group technique. Based on the focus group findings, current sexual functioning questionnaires may be lacking in pertinent areas of concern for women treated for breast or gynecologic malignancies. Better conceptual foundations may help future questionnaire design. Self-regulation theory may provide an acceptable conceptual framework from which to develop a sexual functioning questionnaire.
Matheson, Catriona; Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter
The modern primary healthcare workforce needs to be resilient. Early research framed professional resilience as avoiding 'burnout'; however, more recent literature has introduced the concept of positive adaptation to professional challenges, which results in individuals thriving in their role. To explore what primary health professionals working in challenging environments consider to be characteristics of resilience and what promotes or challenges professional resilience. A qualitative focus group in north east Scotland. Five focus groups were held with 20 health professionals (six GPs, nine nurses, four pharmacists, and a practice manager) based in rural or deprived city areas in the north east of Scotland. Inductive thematic analysis identified emerging themes. Personal resilience characteristics identified were optimism, flexibility and adaptability, initiative, tolerance, organisational skills, being a team worker, keeping within professional boundaries, assertiveness, humour, and a sense of self-worth. Workplace challenges were workload, information overload, time pressures, poor communication, challenging patients, and environmental factors (rural location). Promoters of professional resilience were strong management support, teamwork, workplace buffers, and social factors such as friends, family, and leisure activities. A model of health professional resilience is proposed that concurs with existing literature but adds the concept of personal traits being synergistic with workplace features and social networks. These facilitate adaptability and enable individual health professionals to cope with adversity that is inevitably part of the everyday experience of those working in challenging healthcare environments. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Full Text Available Objectives To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Results Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents’ curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products.
Lesnovska, Katarina Pihl; Hollman Frisman, Gunilla; Hjortswang, Henrik; Hjelm, Katarina; Börjeson, Sussanne
The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of health care among persons living with inflammatory bowel disease. The quality of care plays an important role in the life of persons with a chronic disease. To define what persons with inflammatory bowel disease perceive as high-quality care, greater focus must be placed on the individual's own perspective of living with the condition. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted based on focus groups. Five focus groups were conducted with adult persons living with inflammatory bowel disease, 14 men and 12 women aged 19-76 years. The interviews were performed between January-June 2014. The perceptions of health care from the perspective of persons living with inflammatory bowel disease were summarised in two categories: 'professional attitudes of healthcare staff' and 'structure of the healthcare organisation'. Persons with inflammatory bowel disease want to be encountered with respect, experience trust and obtain information at the right time. They also expect shared decision-making, communication and to encounter competent healthcare professionals. Furthermore, the expectations on and perceptions of the structure of the healthcare organisation comprise access to care, accommodation, continuity of care, as well as the pros and cons of specialised care. The findings show the importance of establishing a respectful and trusting relationship, facilitating healthcare staff and persons with inflammatory bowel disease to work as a team in fulfilling individual care needs - but there is room for improvement in terms of quality of care. A person-centred approach, which places the individual and her/his family at the centre, considering them experts on their own health and enabling them to collaborate with healthcare staff, seems important to reach a high-quality healthcare organisation for patients with Inflammatory bowel disease. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fosse, Anette; Ruths, Sabine; Malterud, Kirsti; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase
Doctors often find dialogues about death difficult. In Norway, 45% of deaths take place in nursing homes. Newly qualified medical doctors serve as house officers in nursing homes during internship. Little is known about how nursing homes can become useful sites for learning about end-of-life care. The aim of this study was to explore newly qualified doctors' learning experiences with end-of-life care in nursing homes, especially focusing on dialogues about death. House officers in nursing homes (n = 16) participated in three focus group interviews. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Lave & Wenger's theory about situated learning was used to support interpretations, focusing on how the newly qualified doctors gained knowledge of end-of-life care through participation in the nursing home's community of practice. Newly qualified doctors explained how nursing home staff's attitudes taught them how calmness and acceptance could be more appropriate than heroic action when death was imminent. Shifting focus from disease treatment to symptom relief was demanding, yet participants comprehended situations where death could even be welcomed. Through challenging dialogues dealing with family members' hope and trust, they learnt how to adjust words and decisions according to family and patient's life story. Interdisciplinary role models helped them balance uncertainty and competence in the intermediate position of being in charge while also needing surveillance. There is a considerable potential for training doctors in EOL care in nursing homes, which can be developed and integrated in medical education. This practice based learning arena offers newly qualified doctors close interaction with patients, relatives and nurses, teaching them to perform difficult dialogues, individualize medical decisions and balance their professional role in an interdisciplinary setting.
The items discussed include the presentation and adoption of the Group Working Paper on: terms of reference, prime objectives, topics and assessments, criteria for proliferation resistance, the organization of the Group, including the establishment of two sub-groups, schedule of work, assignment of work to be done, and the contributions to be made by international organizations
Chavez, Margeaux; Nazi, Kim; Antinori, Nicole; Melillo, Christine; Cotner, Bridget A; Hathaway, Wendy; Cook, Ashley; Wilck, Nancy; Noonan, Abigail
Background The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has multiple health information technology (HIT) resources for veterans to support their health care management. These include a patient portal, VetLink Kiosks, mobile apps, and telehealth services. The veteran patient population has a variety of needs and preferences that can inform current VA HIT redesign efforts to meet consumer needs. Objective This study aimed to describe veterans’ experiences using the current VA HIT and identify their vision for the future of an integrated VA HIT system. Methods Two rounds of focus group interviews were conducted with a single cohort of 47 veterans and one female caregiver recruited from Bedford, Massachusetts, and Tampa, Florida. Focus group interviews included simulation modeling activities and a self-administered survey. This study also used an expert panel group to provide data and input throughout the study process. High-fidelity, interactive simulations were created and used to facilitate collection of qualitative data. The simulations were developed based on system requirements, data collected through operational efforts, and participants' reported preferences for using VA HIT. Pairwise comparison activities of HIT resources were conducted with both focus groups and the expert panel. Rapid iterative content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Descriptive statistics summarized quantitative data. Results Data themes included (1) current use of VA HIT, (2) non-VA HIT use, and (3) preferences for future use of VA HIT. Data indicated that, although the Secure Messaging feature was often preferred, a full range of HIT options are needed. These data were then used to develop veteran-driven simulations that illustrate user needs and expectations when using a HIT system and services to access VA health care services. Conclusions Patient participant redesign processes present critical opportunities for creating a human-centered design. Veterans value virtual health
Marsteller, Jill A; Hsu, Yea-Jen; Chan, Kitty S; Lubomski, Lisa H
This study assesses content validity and user feedback on the Team Check-up Tool (TCT), an instrument used for measuring dynamic context of quality improvement (QI) teams and their implementation of QI activities. We conducted two focus groups and one larger feedback session with TCT users to assess feasibility, importance of areas of inquiry and barriers to use. A panel of eight QI experts evaluated the item-by-item content (content validity) of TCT by rating the relevance of each item to implementation success. We calculated item-level and scale-level content validity using the content validity index (CVI). Scale-level CVI was 0.872. Highly rated items included implementation of recommended interventions, educational activities, team review of performance data, team sharing of performance data with staff and specific barriers to progress. Four items were rated relatively low: presentation of performance data to the hospital/health system board; manner of provision of feedback of data to staff; to what other units the team attempted to spread and turnover of QI team members. Items identified in user focus groups as important included whether there were events distracting staff from the initiative, number of team meetings and turnover of QI team members. Focus groups also identified barriers to the completion of the tool, including lack of feedback and response fatigue during stable activity periods. The findings support the conclusion that the TCT measures meaningful areas of context and implementation in team-based QI initiatives, particularly intervention activity tracking, review and sharing of performance data and team progress barriers. We offer a modified instrument with a framework for real-time measurement of important elements of implementation and context of QI teams based on the findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Zannini, Lucia; Cattaneo, Cesarina; Peduzzi, Paolo; Lopiccoli, Silvia; Auxilia, Francesco
Background Clinical governance is considered crucial in primary care. Since 2005, clinical pathways have been experimentally implemented at the Local Health Authority of Monza Brianza (ASLMB), Italy, to develop general practitioners’ (GPs) care of patients affected by some chronic diseases. The experimentation was aimed at introducing clinical governance in primary care, increasing GPs’ involvement in the care of their patients, and improving both patients’ and professionals’ satisfaction. In the period 2005-2006, 12% of the 763 employed GPs in the ASLMB were involved in the experiment, while this percentage increased to 15-20% in 2007-2008. Design and Methods Twenty-four GPs were purposively sampled, randomly divided into two groups and asked to participate in focus groups (FGs) held in 2008, aimed at evaluating their perception of the experiment. The FGs were audio-recorded, dialogues were typed out and undergone to a thematic analysis, according to the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. Results Four major themes emerged: i) clinical pathways can result in GPs working in a more efficient and effective fashion; ii) they can assure higher levels of both patient and professional satisfaction, since they sustain a caring approach and strengthen the GPs’ role; iii) nevertheless, clinical pathways increase the bureaucratic workload and problems can arise in relationships among GPs and the LHA; iv) the implementation of clinical pathways can be improved, especially by reducing bureaucracy and by assuring their continuity. Conclusions Managerial aspects should be considered with care in order to experimentally introduce clinical pathways in general practice, and continuity of the experimentation should be guaranteed to improve GPs’ adherence and commitment. Acknowledgments the Authors thank Dr. AP. Cantù and Dr D. Cereda who participated in the two focus groups as observers. PMID:25181354
In order to promote cooperation in the implementation of GIS in regional offices, a GIS Regional Workgroup was established by the ten Regions in 1989. Since that time the GIS Work Group evolved and now consists of members from each of the ten EPA Regional Offices, the Office of A...
... workers are related to the supply of service desk/help desk services providing the first level of... Employment and Training Administration Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group... Assistance on October 20, 2010, applicable to workers of Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery...
Zaal, M.; van Laar, Colette; Stahl, T.; Ellemers, N.; Derks, B.
Self-interested behavior may have positive consequences for individual group-members, but also negatively affects the outcomes of the group when group-level and individual-level interests are misaligned. In two studies, we examined such self-interested, group-undermining behavior from the perspective of regulatory focus theory. We predicted that when individual and group interests are out of alignment, individuals under promotion focus would be more likely than individuals under prevention fo...
Azmi Bayram Ilbay
Full Text Available This research was done to analyze the effects of Coping with Burnout Program, developed on the basis of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on the burnout levels of university students. To select the subjects that would participate in the research, Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey was applied on 461 university students from the University of Sakarya. As a result of pre-interviews, 24 students who had experienced student burnout voluntarily participated in a Coping with Burnout Program. The students were randomly appointed to one of the experimental and control groups. At this stage, a six-session Coping with Burnout Program developed by the researcher was applied on the students from the experimental group. No application was performed on the students from the control group. A 2x3 design (experimental/ control groups X pretest/ posttest/ follow up was used in the research. The scores from the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey formed the dependent variable of the research, and the application of Coping with Burnout Program formed the independent variable of the research. The scale used in the research was applied on the groups as pretest two weeks before the sessions started, and as posttest two weeks after the sessions ended, and as follow-up two months after the posttest in order to determine the resistance of the experimental process. In the analysis of the data obtained through these processes, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to determine whether or not there was a significant difference between groups and the survey. The data obtained through the research proved that the Coping with Burnout Program decreased the burnout levels of the students in the experimental group as were determined with the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey, and follow up tests showed that the situation remained the same. It was seen that there was no significant difference between the scores of the participants of the control
Abraham, Traci H; Wright, Patricia; White, Penny; Booth, Brenda M; Cucciare, Michael A
Although rates of unhealthy drinking are high among women Veterans with mental health comorbidities, most women Veterans with mental comorbidities who present to primary care with unhealthy drinking do not receive alcohol-related care. Barriers to alcohol-related treatment could be reduced through patient-centered approaches to care, such as shared decision-making. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a telephone-delivered shared decision-making intervention for promoting alcohol behavior change in women Veterans with unhealthy drinking and co-morbid depression and/or probable post-traumatic stress disorder. We used 3, 2-hour focus group discussions with 19 women Veterans to identify barriers and solicit recommendations for using the intervention with women Veterans who present to primary care with unhealthy drinking and mental health comorbidities. Transcripts from the focus groups were qualitatively analyzed using template analysis. Although participants perceived that the intervention was feasible and acceptable for the targeted patient population, they identified the treatment delivery modality, length of telephone sessions, and some of the option grid content as potential barriers. Facilitators included strategies for enhancing the telephone-delivered shared decision-making sessions and diversifying the treatment options contained in the option grids. Focus group feedback resulted in preliminary adaptations to the intervention that are mindful of women Veterans' individual preferences for care and realistic in the everyday context of their busy lives.
Gibbs, S M; Brown, M J; Muir, W J
People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have higher levels of health needs compared with the general population, many of which are unrecognised and unmet. While there has been interest and research into the primary health provision for this group, there has been a more limited focus on addressing their care received in general hospitals. Access to health care has predominated in the literature, with less attention being paid to the experiences of people with ID as users of general hospital care. A qualitative focus group methodology was used. Eleven adults with ID, nine parents and five paid carers of adults with ID participated. The focus groups were audiotaped and transcriptions were analysed using principles of grounded theory. The analysed data highlighted key themes identified from the experiences of participants. These were the interrelated issues of feelings, particularly anxiety and fear, communication and behaviour problems; the practicalities of being in or attending hospitals, including the role played by carers; and issues around perceived discrimination and negative comments. The experiences of participants in this study concur with and add to concern expressed in recent reports and published research. Wide ranging implications are discussed for further research, wider policy development, clinical practice, local health service provision and education of health professionals.
Sutcliffe, Caroline L; Jasper, Rowan; Roe, Brenda; Jolley, David; Crook, Anthony; Challis, David J
Many people living with dementia are supported at home using a variety of health and social care services. This paper reports the findings from a focus group study undertaken with staff in community mental health teams to explore areas for improvement in relation to national policies and recommendations for dementia care. Two focus groups were held with staff (n = 23) in 2011 to discuss topics including service delivery, information and communication, and provision of health and community care for people with dementia. Respondents identified problems with information sharing and incompatible electronic systems; inflexibility in home care services; and poor recognition of dementia in hospital settings. General practitioners had developed a greater awareness of the disease and some community services worked well. They felt that budgetary constraints and a focus on quality indicators impeded good dementia care. Key areas suggested by staff for improvements in dementia care included the implementation of more flexible services, dementia training for health and social care staff, and better quality care in acute hospital settings. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hall, Louise H; Johnson, Judith; Heyhoe, Jane; Watt, Ian; Anderson, Kevin; O'Connor, Daryl B
Primary care physicians are particularly prone to high levels of burnout and poor well-being. Despite this, no qualitative studies have specifically investigated the best ways to improve well-being and prevent burnout in primary care physicians. Previous interventions within primary care have been person-oriented and mainly focused on mindfulness, but there has been no prior research on whether general practitioners (GPs) deem this to be the best approach. To explore strategies that could improve GP well-being and reduce or prevent burnout, based on GP perceptions of the workplace factors that affect their levels of well-being and burnout. Five focus groups were conducted, with 25 GPs (locums, salaried, trainees, and partners) in the UK, between September 2015 and February 2016. Focus groups took place in GP practices and private meeting rooms. Discussions were centered on the workplace factors that they perceived to influence their well-being, along with strategies that they use either personally, or as a practice, to try and prevent burnout. Furthermore, strategies that could feasibly be implemented by individuals and practices to improve well-being, as well as changes that are needed by groups or organizations that are external to their practice (e.g., the government) to improve the working conditions, were explored. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcripts. Based on the contributors to burnout and workplace well-being that the participants identified, the following feasible strategies were suggested: compulsory daily coffee breaks, increasing self- and organizational awareness of the risks of burnout and mentoring or buddy systems. System-level organizational changes were voiced as vital, however, to improve the well-being of all primary care physicians. Increasing resources seemed to be the ideal solution, to allow for more administrative staff and GPs. These strategies merit further consideration by researchers, physicians, healthcare organizations
Aim To explore the use of focus groups, specifically those involving a meal, as a method for phenomenological data collection. Method Six focus groups were conducted, in order to examine participants’ perceptions of the authenticity of food. The data were analysed using Descriptive, and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). This is somewhat controversial as many commentators maintain that focus groups cannot be used to collect phenomenological data, however, Smith (2004, p. 50) main...
Carlin, Angela; Murphy, Marie H; Gallagher, Alison M
Many children and adolescents are failing to meet current physical activity (PA) guidelines and consequently not achieving the benefits associated with regular participation in PA, with girls consistently less active than boys. In order to design interventions to increase physical activity in adolescents it is important to understand their perceptions of and preferences for physical activity. One hundred eighty participants, mean (SD) age 12.1 (0.5) years, completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) and had height and weight measured. This information was used to select a subsample of participants (n64; mean (SD) age 12.3 (0.4) years; 39 females; 25 males; 25 % overweight/obese) to take part in focus group discussions. Participants were grouped based on PAQ-C responses into 'low-active' and 'highly-active' groups, so that those with similar existing levels of PA were in the same focus group. A semi-structured discussion guide was employed to explore the key influences on current PA participation and to actively seek ideas on how best to promote future PA in this population. In total, nine focus groups (mixed-gender) were conducted within the school setting. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. A number of themes emerged in relation to influences on current PA including friendship and peers, family and other people, the consequences of not taking part in PA, changing priorities, and cost and access to resources. With regards to the future provision of PA, participants favoured opportunities to try new activities, increased provision of school-based activities which can be undertaken with friends and activities which incorporated the use of technology and encouragement through rewards and incentives. Gender differences were apparent in relation to the types of activities participants preferred taking part in. Differences were also observed between 'low-active' and 'highly-active' groups in
Rodríguez, Charo; Pozzebon, Marlei
Since 2002 the Health Ministry of Québec (Canada) has been implementing a primary care organizational innovation called 'family medicine groups'. This is occurring in a political context in which the reorganization of primary care is considered necessary to improve health care system performance. More specifically, the purpose of this reform has been to overcome systemic deficiencies in terms of accessibility and continuity of care. This paper examines the first years of implementation of the family medicine group program, with a focus on the emergence of the organizational identity of one of the pilot groups located in the urban area of Montreal. An in-depth longitudinal case study was conducted over two and a half years. Face to face individual interviews with key informants from the family medicine group under study were conducted over the research period considered. Data was gathered throuhg observations and documentary analysis. The data was analyzed using temporal bracketing and Fairclough's three-dimensional critical discourse analytical techniques. Three different phases were identified over the period under study. During the first phase, which corresponded to the official start-up of the family medicine group program, new resources and staff were only available at the end of the period, and no changes occurred in medical practices. Power struggles between physicians and nurses characterized the second phase, resulting in a very difficult integration of advanced nurse practitioners into the group. Indeed, the last phase was portrayed by initial collaborative practices associated with a sensegiving process prompted by a new family medicine group director. The creation of a primary care team is a very challenging process that goes beyond the normative policy definitions of who is on the team or what the team has to do. To fulfil expectations of quality improvement through team-based care, health care professionals who are required to work together need
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002 the Health Ministry of Québec (Canada has been implementing a primary care organizational innovation called 'family medicine groups'. This is occurring in a political context in which the reorganization of primary care is considered necessary to improve health care system performance. More specifically, the purpose of this reform has been to overcome systemic deficiencies in terms of accessibility and continuity of care. This paper examines the first years of implementation of the family medicine group program, with a focus on the emergence of the organizational identity of one of the pilot groups located in the urban area of Montreal. Methods An in-depth longitudinal case study was conducted over two and a half years. Face to face individual interviews with key informants from the family medicine group under study were conducted over the research period considered. Data was gathered throuhg observations and documentary analysis. The data was analyzed using temporal bracketing and Fairclough's three-dimensional critical discourse analytical techniques. Results Three different phases were identified over the period under study. During the first phase, which corresponded to the official start-up of the family medicine group program, new resources and staff were only available at the end of the period, and no changes occurred in medical practices. Power struggles between physicians and nurses characterized the second phase, resulting in a very difficult integration of advanced nurse practitioners into the group. Indeed, the last phase was portrayed by initial collaborative practices associated with a sensegiving process prompted by a new family medicine group director. Conclusions The creation of a primary care team is a very challenging process that goes beyond the normative policy definitions of who is on the team or what the team has to do. To fulfil expectations of quality improvement through team-based care
Priebe, Stefan; Sinclair, Julia; Burton, Alexandra; Marougka, Stamatina; Larsen, John; Firn, Mike; Ashcroft, Richard
Offering financial incentives to achieve medication adherence in patients with severe mental illness is controversial. To explore the views of different stakeholders on the ethical acceptability of the practice. Focus group study consisting of 25 groups with different stakeholders. Eleven themes dominated the discussions and fell into four categories: (1) 'wider concerns', including the value of medication, source of funding, how patients would use the money, and a presumed government agenda behind the idea; (2) 'problems requiring clear policies', comprising of practicalities and assurance that incentives are only one part of a tool kit; (3) 'challenges for research and experience', including effectiveness, the possibility of perverse incentives, and impact on the therapeutic relationship; (4) 'inherent dilemmas' around fairness and potential coercion. The use of financial incentives is likely to raise similar concerns in most stakeholders, only some of which can be addressed by empirical research and clear policies.
questions that need to be clarified but also contains the participants' comments and advice to SSI. The material is summarised in a more overarching way in the discussion and there is a brief evaluation of the main results of the project. The conclusion is that there is still a strong commitment in the site selection municipalities to contribute to and develop the work in the process of creating a Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The discussions in the focus groups in the municipalities of Oskarshamn and Oesthammar showed a) that people have substantial points of view on the content and formulation of the general guidelines that can be useful for SSI in the ongoing work, and b) that the need for knowledge and points of view of committed people now extend far beyond the framework specifying the work with the general guidelines. They include questions both about general concepts and detailed technical calculations as well as legal, health, organisational and social aspects and consequences of the work, from the present until far into the distant future
Hall, Scott S; Kandiah, Jayanthi; Saiki, Diana; Nam, Jinhee; Harden, Amy; Park, Soonjee
Technological advances in monitoring vulnerable care-recipients are on the rise. Recent and future development of Smart Wear technology (devices integrated into clothing that monitor care-recipients) might assist family caregivers with tasks related to caring for young children, relatives with disabilities, and frail spouses or parents. However, the development and use of this technology in family caregiving contexts is in its infancy. Focus group interviews of family caregivers were conducted to explore perspectives regarding the potential integration of Smart Wear technology into their family caregiving. Responses were analyzed qualitatively for themes related to perceptions of how Smart Wear could impact relationships between caregivers and care-recipients. Three major themes emerged: quality and quantity of interaction, boundary issues, and implications for anxiety. Implications and recommendations are discussed regarding maximizing the potential benefits of Smart Wear technology in ways that promote and protect healthy relationships among caregivers and care-recipients.
This paper challenges the view that attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) crops in agriculture are "utterly resistant to persuasion", as Scholderer (2005) humorously suggests in a review of the literature. Methodologically, this is achieved by studying opinions as they emerge in situated...... interaction (Myers 2004), in casu in focus groups interviews with both GM-experts and lay persons without specific knowledge on GM-crops. The paper analyses the lay persons' responses to persuasive expert utterances as inventive contributions to the discussion, not just as reactions showing either support...... or rejection. That is, the paper analyses the topoi, the argumentative ‘places', realized by the lay persons in dealing with and making sense of the new knowledge presented by the experts. Finally, the paper identifies the social identities as participants in a public debate, which are enacted by the lay...
Ybarra, Michele L; DuBois, L Zachary; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Prescott, Tonya L; Mustanski, Brian
Seventy-five 14-18-year-old gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) males provided feedback about how their participation in national, online focus groups (FG) about GBQ sexual health related topics resulted in behavioral and attitudinal changes. Most sexually experienced youth agreed that their participation positively changed their views and behavioral intentions. Some said that being in the FG made them more comfortable talking about sex, their sexuality, and making safer choices such as negotiating condoms. Others indicated intentions to become more involved in the LGBT community. Sexually inexperienced FG participants similarly said that the FG discussion positively affected them-most commonly by reducing their sense of isolation as young GBQ men who were waiting to have sex. Many also thought that they would become more vocal advocates of abstinence and/or safe sex. Online FGs and facilitated discussion boards should be further explored as a low-cost HIV prevention program for GBQ youth.
Undergraduate students can learn how to be innovative in partnerships with health care institutions and private enterprises. This study portrays how a three phase innovation model was applied in an interprofessional health education context at a Danish university college. The aim of the study was to explore midwifery, nutrition and health as well physiotherapy students' perceptions of participating in a real-life innovation project situated in antenatal care. A total of eighteen students participated in five focus group interviews. Thematic analysis was used to interpret data findings. Data analysis revealed three themes: 'Navigating in uncertainty', 'Being part of a team' and 'Impact of project learning'. Students found project learning to be the most relevant with regards to their clinical practice. Furthermore, study findings suggest that innovation is promoted by teamwork, interprofessional participation, mentor support and external partnerships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Postpartum care is an essential part of the experience of childbirth and parenthood. This study explores what women want from postnatal care. Three focus groups, using a semi-structured format, were conducted. A total of 12 mothers, up to six weeks postpartum, participated in the study, which was conducted in two clinics in the Western Cape Metropole. Data was transcribed from taped sessions and analysed using Burnard’s (1991 model of “thematic content analysis” . Seven major categories were identified: Information, Support, Organisation of services, Attitudes of the health team, Contact with other mothers, Practical assistance and Other services. Listening to women is an essential element in the provision of flexible and responsive postnatal care that meets the felt needs of women and families.
We discuss here a case study about risk communication. It concerns a consultation of citizens who live in the direct vicinity of a heavily polluting factory. While this pollution has been going on for decades, local residents have only recently been given an opportunity to participate in focus group debates on improvement measures. Government and experts tend to believe that the population loses no sleep over the issue. Consultation of the population has shown that the lack of visible concern over health risks does not mean that people do not worry. However, different aspects of the situation appear to be competing for attention, which creates the impression that diverging, contradictory responses are drawn from the population. Which lessons can be learnt in the context of contemporary risk communication?
Full Text Available Background of the Research: This study examines the factors influencing housing prices in Malaysia. The study explores qualitatively whether there is housing bubble in Malaysia, and whether the housing prices are associated with changes in construction cost, land cost, compliance cost, housing speculation, and mortgage rate. Methodology: The paper is exploratory in nature. The data were collected via focus group discussions among nine property industry players in Malaysia and were analysed using qualitative research methodology. Main Findings: The study reaches the qualitative outcomes that rising housing prices are mainly due to cost factors and housing speculation but may not necessarily be influenced by mortgage rate. The findings suggest that the residential property market is currently not facing housing bubble issue. However the problem is partly due to PTPTN blacklisted borrowers. Conclusion: It is imperative for the Malaysian government to put in further efforts to control housing prices in order to maintain affordability of homeownership.
Willassen, Elin Thove; Jacobsen, Inger Lise Smith; Tveiten, Sidsel
The use of World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Safe Surgery checklist is an established practice worldwide and contributes toward ensuring patient safety and collaborative teamwork. The aim of this study was to elucidate operating room nurses’ and operating room nursing students’ experiences and opinions about execution of and compliance with checklists. We chose a qualitative design with semistructured focus group discussions. Qualitative content analysis was conducted. Two main themes were identified; the Safe Surgery checklists have varied influence on teamwork and patient safety, and taking responsibility for executing the checks on the Safe Surgery checklist entails practical and ethical challenges. The experiences and opinions of operating room nurses and their students revealed differences of practices and attitudes toward checklist compliance and the intentions of checklist procedures. These differences are related to cultural and professional distances between team members and their understanding of the Safe Surgery checklists as a tool for patient safety. PMID:29623287
Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N; McGeown, Sarah; Niven, Ailsa; Sproule, John; Saunders, David H; Reilly, John J
The purposes of this study were to review the evidence on longitudinal associations between child and adolescent obesity and academic achievement and to provide perceptions of adolescents with obesity and their parents on this topic. Synthesis of 31 studies (from 17 cohorts) suggested that relationships between obesity and academic achievement are not well established, except for adolescent girls' maths attainment, potentially mediated by both weight-related bullying and executive cognitive functions. Focus groups with adolescent girls with obesity confirmed experiences of psychosocial distress at school particularly during Physical Education. Adolescents perceived that obesity was not related to academic achievement directly, but by their attitude to school. Interventions are warranted to promote psychosocial wellbeing and cognitive abilities linked to academic achievement in adolescent girls with obesity. Physical Education should be a positive experience for children and adolescents with obesity.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper
by a thematic analysis of data from the open discussions and go-along interviews. Results: The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identifying the same......Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment Methods: Data were collected through 17 focus groups consisting of 111 children...
Full Text Available Background: While some studies directly address the issue of changes in union formation in Russia and Eastern Europe, few have focused on attitudes and norms regarding marriage and cohabitation. In Russia cohabitation has risen sharply in the last decades, but recently its level has stabilized and even decreased slightly. Objective: We intend to highlight gender and educational differences in perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of cohabitation vs. marriage. Methods: We conducted 8 focus groups in Moscow in January 2012 (4 with men, 4 with women, half with higher educated participants and half with lower educated participants. Results: Participants claimed that trust between men and women underlies preferences for marriage or cohabitation. Participants‟ religious beliefs form a 'three stages of union' theory: cohabitation in the beginning, civil marriage later when trust has developed, and finally a church wedding when trust is established. In union formation the participants‟ ideals are the values of responsibility, freedom, fidelity, and trust. The level of trust is highest for proponents of marriage and ideational cohabitors. People without a strong preference for a certain type of union have the lowest level of interpersonal trust. Conclusions: In a society that currently can be considered anomic, interpersonal trust was found to be the most important factor underlying expressed ideals in choice of union type. It takes different forms for adherents of marriage ("trust with closed eyes" and adherents of cohabitation ("trust with open eyes".
Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.
In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Working Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury contaminated mixed wastes. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated mixed waste. The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury related treatment technologies at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded that will address DOE's needs for separation removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the HgWG to date through these various activities
Lone Marie Larsen
Full Text Available Background. Because of the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood in the Western world, focus on the management in general practice has also increased. Objective. To explore the experiences of general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT comparing two management programmes in general practice for children who are overweight or obese. Methods. Three focus groups with GPs and nurses participating in the RCT. Transcribed data were analysed using systematic text condensation followed by thematic analysis. Results. Health professionals considered it their responsibility to offer a management programme to overweight children. They recognised that management of overweight during childhood was a complex task that required an evidence-based strategy with the possibility of supervision. Health professionals experienced a barrier to addressing overweight in children. However, increasing awareness of obesity in childhood and its consequences in society was considered helpful to reach an understanding of the articulations concerning how best to address the issue. Conclusions. Health professionals in general practice recognised that they have a special obligation, capacity, and role in the management of obesity in childhood. Implementation of future management programmes must address existing barriers beyond an evidence-based standardised strategy.
Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars
Aim This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). Method A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Conclusion Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Agnes Yunie Purwita Sari
Full Text Available Background Improving breastfeeding in sick infants is essential. During the neonatal care, health care staff play an important role in promoting breastfeeding. Therefore, it is important to study in depth how healthcare staff can improve breastfeeding practice in sick neonates. Objective To compare breastfeeding rates in sick infants before and after a focused group discussion (FGD of health care staff on how to improve breastfeeding. Methods This study was an operational study using FGD and in-depth interviews as an intervention. A fish bone diagram was used to assess problems that may prevent mothers from breastfeeding their sick infants. Breastfeeding achievement was compared before and after the FGD. Results Of 257 sick infants, 177 subjects were in the before FGD group and 80 subjects were in the after FGD group. Significantly more after FGD subjects were breastfed during hospitalization than before FGD subjects [97.5% vs. 82.9%, respectively; (x2 =9.43; P=0.002]. Breastfeeding initiation within 0-4 hours of birth was also significantly higher in the after FGD group [10 (12.5% vs. 6 (3.5%, respectively; (x2 = 52.5; P<0.001]. The solutions for breastfeeding problems were: 1 support of hospital management, 2 support of healthcare workers for breastfeeding mothers, 3 support of husbands and families for breastfeeding mothers, 4 financial support, 5 other factors such as level of care and consistent FGD events, and 6 a prospective cohort study. Conclusion The FGD with health care staff significantly increases breastfeeding achievement during infant hospitalization, and accelerated breastfeeding initiation. A fish bone diagram is used to effectively assess the problems with breastfeeding programs for sick babies.
Wong, Li Ping
It has been a little more than a year ago since the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) was released in Malaysia. Little is known about parental knowledge and acceptability of the vaccine. The objective of this study is to assess the mother's knowledge and attitudes toward HPV vaccination. The results are aimed to provide insights into the provision of appropriate educational and promotional program for effective immunization uptake. Purposive sampling method was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total of 47 mothers participated across 8 focus group discussions carried out between October and November 2007. The transcribed group discussions were analyzed using open-, axial-, and selective-coding procedures. Respondents have low awareness about the newly released vaccine and the link between HPV and cervical cancer. When provided with information about HPV and cervical cancer, most mothers were in favor of protecting their daughters from cervical cancer using the vaccine. As with any new vaccine, efficacy and safety were the major concern, particularly when the vaccine is recommended to preadolescent. Many expressed concern about the high cost of the vaccine and hope that the inoculation could be at least partially subsidized by the government. A minority were concerned that the sexually transmitted disease-related vaccine would promote sexual activities, and some opposed making vaccination mandatory. For Muslim respondents, the kosher issue of HPV vaccine was an important factor for acceptance. Developing public health messages that focus on the susceptibility of HPV infection and its link to cervical cancer to educate parents may have the greatest impact on improving the uptake of the vaccine. Apart from the major concern about safety and efficacy, affordability, and acceptability of vaccinating young children, religious and ethnic backgrounds were important considerations when recommending the HPV vaccine. To foster broad acceptance
Cohen, Jessica; Cox, Alex; Dickens, William; Maloney, Kathleen; Lam, Felix; Fink, Günther
In Uganda, as in most other malaria-endemic countries, presumptive treatment for malaria based on symptoms without a diagnostic blood test is still very common. While diagnostic testing in public sector facilities is increasing, many people in Uganda who suspect malaria visit private sector outlets to purchase medications. Increasing the availability and uptake of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria in private outlets could help increase diagnostic testing for malaria but raises questions about the patient demand for and valuation of testing that are less critical for public sector introduction. In preparation for a behaviour change campaign to encourage and sustain the demand for RDTs in drug shops, eight focus group discussions with a total of 84 community members were conducted in six districts across Uganda's Eastern Region in November-December 2011. Focus groups explored incentives and barriers to seeking diagnosis for malaria, how people react to test results and why, and what can be done to increase the willingness to pay for RDTs. Overall, participants were very familiar with malaria diagnostic testing and understood its importance, yet when faced with limited financial resources, patients preferred to spend their money on medication and sought testing only when presumptive treatment proved ineffective. While side effects did seem to be a concern, participants did not mention other potential costs of taking unnecessary or ineffective medications, such as money wasted on excess drugs or delays in resolution of symptoms. Very few individuals were familiar with RDTs. In order to boost demand, these results suggest that private sector RDTs will have to be made convenient and affordable and that targeted behaviour change campaigns should strive to increase the perceived value of diagnosis.
Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana
In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.
Phase 1 of this study examined student, mentor and clinical manager's perceptions of a 'Hub and Spoke' practice learning model in year 1 of an undergraduate nursing programme. Findings from Phase 1 suggested that the model had significant educational merit in orientating students to clinical learning and emphasising the primacy of the mentor relationship in developing and supporting students. Following the students through year 2 of their programme, wherein they experienced a 'rotational' practice learning model, which provided an opportunity to explore student perceptions of both models. To explore undergraduate nurses' perceptions of two experienced practice learning models: hub and spoke model, and the classical rotational model. In a previous study the hub and spoke model appeared to develop 1st year students' sense of belongingness, continuity and quality of practice learning, there for it was important to understand what students reported about these issues when recounting their 2nd year experience in the clinical setting that was organised according to a classical rotational model. Qualitative approach utilising focus groups. 10 under-graduate student nurses at the end of 2nd year. Focus group interviews. Students responded in ways that indicate they believed the experiences of year 1 had raised their faith in their ability to cope with the practice learning and educational demands of nursing. They saw themselves as being better prepared for year 2 as a result of their exposure to hubs and spokes. The study has identified traits of resilience, continued belongingness and self-confidence in orientation to learning in clinical practice in hub and spoke experienced students. The student nurses found the hub and spoke model valid in 1st year, whilst stating that for 2nd year the rotational model can be valid. This supports earlier findings that student nurses require a structured and supportive 1st year learning environment to enable development of resilience
Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly
This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16(th) December, 2011 and 12(th) May, 2012. The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments.
... the treatment of corporate equity reduction transactions (CERTs), including the treatment of multiple.... Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential, as required by 26 U.S.C. 6103... of the loss. The corporate equity reduction transaction rules of section 172(b)(1)(E) and (h) were...
Hanratty, Catherine E; Kerr, Daniel P; Wilson, Iseult M; McCracken, Martin; Sim, Julius; Basford, Jeffrey R; McVeigh, Joseph G
Shoulder pain resulting from subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) is a common problem with a relatively poor response to treatment. There is little research exploring physical therapists' perspectives on the management of the syndrome. The study objective was to investigate physical therapists' perceptions and experiences regarding the use of exercise in the treatment of patients with SAIS. This was a qualitative focus group study. Three 60- to 90-minute focus group sessions containing 6 to 8 experienced musculoskeletal physical therapists (total number=20) were conducted. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze transcripts and develop core themes and categories. Exercise was seen as key in the management of SAIS. The overarching theme was the need to "gain buy-in to exercise" at an early stage. The main subtheme was patient education. Therapists identified the need to use education about SAIS etiology to foster buy-in and "sell" self-management through exercise to the patient. They consistently mentioned achieving education and buy-in using visual tools, postural advice, and sometimes a "quick fix" of pain control. Furthermore, experienced practitioners reported including educational interventions much earlier in treatment than when they first qualified. Therapists emphasized the need for individually tailored exercises, including: scapular stabilization; rotator cuff, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscle strengthening; and anterior shoulder and pectoralis minor muscle stretching. Quality of exercise performance was deemed more important than the number of repetitions that the patients performed. Expanding the geographical area over which the focus groups were conducted and including therapists with less than 5 years of postgraduate experience may have strengthened the findings of this study. Experienced musculoskeletal physical therapists believe that exercise is central in treating patients with SAIS and that gaining patient buy-in to its
Niels C.L. Jacobs
Full Text Available Because of the negative effects of cyberbullying; and because of its unique characteristics; interventions to stop cyberbullying are needed. For this purpose, more insightful information is needed about cyberbullying victims’ (i.e., the target group experiences, perceptions, attitudes and motivations related to (coping with cyberbullying. Five schools with 66 low-educated Dutch adolescents between 12 and 15 (53% female participated in 10 focus group interviews. Results show that victims do not perceive all behaviors as cyberbullying and traditional bullying is generally perceived as worse than cyberbullying. Cyberbullies are perceived as sad, cowards and embarrassing themselves. Victims are perceived as easy targets; they wear strange clothes, act in a provocative manner and have a bad appearance. These perceptions often depend on context, the level of anonymity, being in a fight or not, the person sending the message and his/her behavior. Further, victims reacted to cyberbullying by acting nonchalant, by not actually saying anything and seeking help from others (i.e., parents are not often asked for help because they do not want to bother them; fear of restricted Internet privileges. It can be concluded that asking cyberbullying victims about their experiences in an open manner, and allowing them to discuss these experiences, likely results in new and insightful information compared to using self-reports. In this questioning the perception of adolescents is key to see what is perceived as cyberbullying.
Meisel, S F; Side, L; Fraser, L; Gessler, S; Wardle, J; Lanceley, A
A population-based risk stratification programme for ovarian cancer (OC) may improve OC survival by identifying women at increased risk and implementing an appropriate risk management strategy. The present study explored attitudes towards an OC risk stratification programme incorporating predictive genetic testing and risk-stratified screening as part of a larger study investigating OC screening. Focus groups consisting of 56 members of the general public (mean age 45 years; 34% non-white) were conducted using a hypothetical scenario. The group sessions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework Analysis. There was strong support for the proposed programme. Genetic testing and risk-stratified screening was thought to raise awareness, offer reassurance and offer opportunities for early intervention. Anxiety was only mentioned in relation to receiving a diagnosis of OC and not with screening per se. Perhaps because lay models of cancer already embrace both environmental and genetic factors, a low-risk result was not anticipated to result in a false sense of immunity. Unexpectedly, participants also wanted to receive cancer prevention advice in conjunction with genetic testing; screening alone was not regarded as sufficient. The encouraging results from this small study warrant further large-scale research into risk-stratified OC screening. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Background Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. Methods A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing “junk food” and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Results Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a
Peek, Sebastiaan Theodorus Michaël; Wouters, Eveline J M; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M
There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults' needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying differences emerged, for example, with regard
Horing, Norman J. M.
This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green's function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green's function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green's function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function). The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ (x ) -potential profile. This retarded Green's function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green's function for the system without the δ (x ) -potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green's function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.
Norman J. M. Horing
Full Text Available This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green’s function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green’s function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green’s function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function. The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ(x-potential profile. This retarded Green’s function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green’s function for the system without the δ(x-potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green’s function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.
Kurth, Elisabeth; Krähenbühl, Katrin; Eicher, Manuela; Rodmann, Susanne; Fölmli, Luzia; Conzelmann, Cornelia; Zemp, Elisabeth
The length of postpartum hospital stay is decreasing internationally. Earlier hospital discharge of mothers and newborns decreases postnatal care or transfers it to the outpatient setting. This study aimed to investigate the experiences of new parents and examine their views on care following early hospital discharge. Six focus group discussions with new parents (n = 24) were conducted. A stratified sampling scheme of German and Turkish-speaking groups was employed. A 'playful design' method was used to facilitate participants communication wherein they used blocks and figurines to visualize their perspectives on care models The visualized constructions of care models were photographed and discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Text and visual data was thematically analyzed by a multi-professional group and findings were validated by the focus group participants. Following discharge, mothers reported feeling physically strained during recuperating from birth and initiating breastfeeding. The combined requirements of infant and self-care needs resulted in a significant need for practical and medical support. Families reported challenges in accessing postnatal care services and lacking inter-professional coordination. The visualized models of ideal care comprised access to a package of postnatal care including monitoring, treating and caring for the health of the mother and newborn. This included home visits from qualified midwives, access to a 24-h helpline, and domestic support for household tasks. Participants suggested that improving inter-professional networks, implementing supervisors or a centralized coordinating center could help to remedy the current fragmented care. After hospital discharge, new parents need practical support, monitoring and care. Such support is important for the health and wellbeing of the mother and child. Integrated care services including professional home visits and a 24-hour help line may help meet the needs of
... North One Including On-Site Leased Workers From Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc... Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc., Integrated Human Capital, MagRabbit, Manpower, and... reports that workers leased from Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc., Integrated Human Capital...
Ma, Z.; Masters, G.
We have developed a technique that uses cluster analysis method to efficiently measure Rayleigh wave phase and amplitude anomalies. Amplitude anomaly measurements have been made on the vertical components of all permanent stations recording LHZ data from IRIS. We currently consider earthquakes with Ms>5.5 between 1990 and 2004 and correct for source phase and magnitude according to the CMT. This technique leads to a large set of amplitude measurements at 7mHz, 10mHz, 15mHz and 20mHz. We discard data with erroneously large amplitude anomalies (|dlnA|>1) and inconsistent instrument responses and we only use earthquakes recorded by more than 30 stations. Out of about 250000 raw measurements for each frequency, about 140000 measurements are retained for inverting for attenuation structure. Similar to Dalton and Ekstrom (2006), phase and amplitude data are inverted together for phase velocity maps, attenuation maps, and source and receiver terms. However, we use the 2D finite frequency amplitude kernel of Zhou et al, (2004) to model the focusing-defocusing effects. Ray theory, which has been used to date, gives amplitude anomaly predictions which depend strongly on short wavelength structure and so are very sensitive to how phase velocity maps are smoothed. Our resulting attenuation maps show structures correlating well with surface tectonics, with high attenuation in regions of ridges, back-arc basins and western North America, and low attenuation in stable continental shields. The success of getting reasonable attenuation structures demonstrates the feasibility of applying 2D finite frequency amplitude kernel to real data.
Thomas Kristie A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL can be measured by a wide range of instruments, many of which have been designed for specific conditions or uses. "Preference-based" measures assess the value individuals place on health, and are included in economic evaluations of treatments and interventions (such as cost effectiveness analysis. As economic evaluation becomes more common, it is important to assess the applicability of preference-based health related quality of life (HRQOL measures to public health issues. This study investigated the usefulness of such instruments in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV, a public health concern that that can seriously affect quality of life. Methods The study consisted of focus groups with abused women to determine the aspects of life affected by IPV, and an analysis of existing HRQOL measures. Eight focus groups (n = 40 were conducted in which participants discussed the domains of health affected by IPV. Results were content analyzed and compared with the domains of health included in four commonly-used, preference-based HRQOL measures. Results The average focus group participant was 43 years old, unemployed, African American, with 3 children. Domains of health reported to be affected by IPV included physical functioning, emotional and psychological functioning, social functioning and children's functioning. Psychological health was the most severely affected domain. The Short Form 36, the Health Utilities Index, the EuroQol 5D, and the Quality of Well-being Scale were found to vary in the degree to which they include domains of health important in IPV. Psychological health is included to a limited extent, and the spill-over effect of a condition on other family members, including children, is not included at all. Conclusion Emotional and psychological health plays an important role in the overall HRQOL of abused women but is relatively underemphasized in preference-based HRQOL
... Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of Express Personnel Services and the La Salle Network, Bloomingdale, IL; Havi Logistics, North America, Lisle, IL..., applicable to workers of HAVI Logistics, North America, a subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP, including on-site...
Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori
With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…
Strandbu, Åse; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin
This study explores how body ideals are discussed among adolescent boys and girls in 5 mixed-gender focus groups (n = 37). The ways in which boys and girls talk about bodies differed clearly within the focus group conversations as well as in the everyday situations described in the interviews. The boys were more concrete in their description of…
Trevisonno, Jordan; Balram, Bhairavi; Netchiporouk, Elena; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe
Physical urticaria (PU) is a subset of chronic urticaria (CU) induced by physical stimuli. To date, there is no consensus in the literature on the prevalence of PU among patients with CU. Our objective was to review the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of PU and to estimate the prevalence of PU in CU patients. We performed a narrative review of PU and conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis to determine the pooled estimates of the prevalence of PU among patients with CU in the literature up to September 2014. We searched four databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE and Web of Science) of published work for which full text was available in English or French. Studies were eligible if they measured the prevalence of PU in adults or children with CU worldwide and ineligible if CU cases were not differentiated from total urticaria cases. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata, version 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). In addition, the quality and validity of the articles included in the meta-analysis was assessed. Ten studies were included in our meta-analysis. Sample sizes ranged from 202 to 4157 patients. The pooled prevalence estimate of PU including and excluding cholinergic forms among all cases of CU were 13.1% (95% CI: 12.5, 13.6) and 14.9% (95% CI: 14.3, 15.7), respectively. Our results must be viewed with circumspection because of the small number of eligible articles and heterogeneity among studies. Even so, the results suggest that PU is an important subset of CU and that physicians should be aware of this important condition in order to manage patients appropriately.
Flayelle, Maèva; Maurage, Pierre; Billieux, Joël
Background and aims Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors underlying this behavior, as reflected by the paucity of available studies, most merely focusing on its potential harmfulness by applying the classic criteria used for other addictive disorders without exploring the uniqueness of binge-watching. This study thus aimed to take the opposite approach as a first step toward a genuine understanding of binge-watching behaviors through a qualitative analysis of the phenomenological characteristics of TV series watching. Methods A focus group of regular TV series viewers (N = 7) was established to explore a wide range of aspects related to TV series watching (e.g., motives, viewing practices, and related behaviors). Results A content analysis identified binge-watching features across three dimensions: TV series watching motivations, TV series watching engagement, and structural characteristics of TV shows. Most participants acknowledged that TV series watching can become addictive, but they all agreed having trouble recognizing themselves as truly being an "addict." Although obvious connections could be established with substance addiction criteria and symptoms, such parallelism appeared to be insufficient, as several distinctive facets emerged (e.g., positive view, transient overinvolvement, context dependency, and low everyday life impact). Discussion and conclusion The research should go beyond the classic biomedical and psychological models of addictive behaviors to account for binge-watching in order to explore its specificities and generate the first steps toward an adequate theoretical rationale for these emerging problematic behaviors.
Merrett, Alexandra; Jones, Daniel; Sein, Kim; Green, Trish; Macleod, Una
A key element of the NHS is universal access to a GP. Recently, UK general practice has been described as being in crisis, with training places unfilled and multiple practices reporting vacancies or facing closure. The recruitment of GPs continues to be a key focus for both the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) and the government. To understand the attitudes of newly qualified doctors towards a career in general practice, to appreciate potential reasons for the crisis in GP recruitment, and to recommend ways to improve recruitment. A qualitative study comprising five focus groups with 74 Foundation Year 1 (FY1) doctors from one Yorkshire deanery. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Foundation Year 1 doctors' thoughts towards a career in general practice were summarised in four themes: quality of life, job satisfaction, uncertainty surrounding the future of general practice, and the lack of respect for GPs among both doctors and the public. Participants felt that general practice could provide a good work-life balance, fair pay, and job stability. Job satisfaction, with the ability to provide care from the cradle to the grave, and to work within a community, was viewed positively. Uncertainties around future training, skill levels, pay, and workload, together with a perceived stigma experienced in medical schools and hospitals, were viewed as a deterrent to a career in general practice. This study has gathered the opinions of doctors at a critical point in their careers, before they choose a future specialty. Findings highlight areas of concern and potential deterrents to a career in general practice, together with recommendations to address these issues. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Ghebriou, Djamel; Avenin, Danièle; Caillet, Philippe; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Durdux, Catherine; Massard, Christophe; Culine, Stéphane
Bladder cancer is diagnosed more often in the elderly. The most effective treatment strategies are mostly very aggressive and are not applicable to all patients in a very heterogeneous population. However, effective options exist to treat the most vulnerable subjects. A multidisciplinary approach including a geriatric assessment is essential for optimal adaptation of treatment. The FRancilian Oncogeriatric Group (FROG) conducted a comprehensive literature search in order to review the applicable therapeutic options according to oncological and geriatric settings. International recommendations are essential to harmonize the management of elderly patients with bladder cancer.
Linnakoski, Riikka; Jankowiak, Robert; Villari, Caterina; Kirisits, Thomas; Solheim, Halvor; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J
Two species of blue-stain fungi with similar morphologies, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum and Ophiostoma clavatum, are associates of bark beetles infesting Pinus spp. in Europe. This has raised questions whether they represent distinct taxa. Absence of herbarium specimens and contaminated or mistakenly identified cultures of O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum have accentuated the uncertainty regarding their correct identification. The aim of this study was to reconsider the identity of European isolates reported as O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum by applying DNA-based identification methods, and to provide appropriate type specimens for them. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, βT, TEF-1α and CAL gene sequences revealed that the investigated isolates represent a complex of seven cryptic species. The study confirmed that ITS data is insufficient to delineate species in some Ophiostoma species clusters. Lectotypes and epitypes were designated for O. clavatum and O. brunneo-ciliatum, and three new species, Ophiostoma brunneolum, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum, are described in the newly defined O. clavatum-complex. The other two species included in the complex are Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma tapionis. The results suggest co-evolution of these fungi in association with specific bark beetles. The results also confirm the identity of the fungus associated with the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus as O. clavatum, while O. brunneo-ciliatum appears to be mainly associated with another pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus.
Dwyer, T A; Mosel Williams, L; Mummery, K
The endorsement of the chain of survival concept and early defibrillation has challenged health professionals to reconsider their beliefs about how they respond to in-hospital resuscitation. In the rural context, where 24 hour coverage is not available nurse-initiated defibrillation is expected. Despite literature and policy change in Australia to allow nurses to initiate defibrillation, there is no current research that uses a systemic theoretical approach to investigate the specific beliefs of nurses and their use of defibrillators. The purpose of this study was to elicit a beginning understanding of the defibrillation beliefs of rural nurses. This research used focus groups within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior to describe the defibrillation beliefs of rural registered nurses. The sites selected for this study were two acute care hospitals in rural Australia (RRMA Classification). Each of these hospitals was in located 'other rural areas' (RRMA Classification) in separate towns and had 25 and 30 beds. The study sample consisted of 10 females and two males. Focus group questions were designed to elicit salient beliefs within the theoretical framework. Three constructs of behavioral, normative and control beliefs guided the development of the question and analysis of the discussions. In accordance with the authors of the theoretical framework, content analysis was used to analyse the data from the study. Two behavioral beliefs, four control beliefs and four normative belief categories were elicited. Two behavioral beliefs categories emerged from the open-ended question: 'What, if any are the advantages of you being able to use a defibrillator?' Participants were congruent when discussing the advantages of nurses initiating defibrillation. The two categories were 'quicker response times' (15 responses) and 'increased success with resuscitation' (8 responses). Participants were asked to identify any events that might influence their decision to use
Bohman, Doris M; Ericsson, Terese; Borglin, Gunilla
Nowadays, nursing research is seen as an integral part of professional nursing although implementing knowledge derived from nursing research into the practice setting is still problematic. Current research, conducted mainly with a descriptive quantitative design, highlights the struggle experienced by Registered Nurses (RNs) to use and implement research findings in clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this naturalistic inquiry was to explore nurses' perception of nursing research and its implementation in a clinical context. A qualitative approach was chosen, and four focus group discussions were conducted. The groups comprised a total of 16 RNs (three men and 13 women) working in a secondary care setting. The transcribed texts were analysed, inspired by Burnard's description of content analysis. The texts were interpreted as representing three predominant themes: scholastic, individual and contextual influences highlighted as influential components impacting on the RNs' views on research and its implementation as well as on their readiness to accept and support it. However, the most influential aspect permeating our themes was their educational background--the type of qualification they held. In general, the RNs with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing viewed research and the implementation of knowledge in practice more favourably than those RNs with a diploma. Our findings, although based on a small qualitative study, are congruent with others, indicating that further research is warranted concerning the impact of education on RNs' views of nursing research and its implementation. Hence, it might well be that the RNs' educational point of departure needs to be stressed more than what so far have been anticipated. In the meanwhile, it is possible that a number of strategies could be tested to promote a more favourable view in these issues and where the nursing education has the possibility to influence this endeavour. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of
Full Text Available Background. Clinical governance is considered crucial in primary care. Since 2005, clinical pathways have been experimentally implemented at the Local Health Authority of Monza Brianza (ASLMB, Italy, to develop general practitioners’ (GPs care of patients affected by some chronic diseases. The experimentation was aimed at introducing clinical governance in primary care, increasing GPs’ involvement in the care of their patients, and improving both patients’ and professionals’ satisfaction. In the period 2005-2006, 12% of the 763 employed GPs in the ASLMB were involved in the experiment, while this percentage increased to 15-20% in 2007-2008. Design and Methods. Twenty-four GPs were purposively sampled, randomly divided into two groups and asked to participate in focus groups (FGs held in 2008, aimed at evaluating their perception of the experiment. The FGs were audio-recorded, dialogues were typed out and undergone to a thematic analysis, according to the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. Results. Four major themes emerged: i clinical pathways can result in GPs working in a more efficient and effective fashion; ii they can assure higher levels of both patient and professional satisfaction, since they sustain a caring approach and strengthen the GPs’ role; iii nevertheless, clinical pathways increase the bureaucratic workload and problems can arise in relationships among GPs and the LHA; iv the implementation of clinical pathways can be improved, especially by reducing bureaucracy and by assuring their continuity. Conclusions. Managerial aspects should be considered with care in order to experimentally introduce clinical pathways in general practice, and continuity of the experimentation should be guaranteed to improve GPs’ adherence and commitment.
Dheensa, Sandi; Fenwick, Angela; Lucassen, Anneke
Clinical genetics guidelines from 2011 conceptualise genetic information as confidential to families, not individuals. The normative consequence of this is that the family's interest is the primary consideration and genetic information is shared unless there are good reasons not to do so. We investigated healthcare professionals' (HCPs') views about, and reasoning around, individual and familial approaches to confidentiality and how such views influenced their practice. 16 focus groups with 80 HCPs working in/with clinical genetics services were analysed, drawing on grounded theory. Participants raised seven problems with, and arguments against, going beyond the individual approach to confidentiality. These problems fell into two overlapping categories: 'relationships' and 'structures'. Most participants had never considered ways to-or thought it was impossible to-treat familial genetic information and personal information differently. They worried that putting the familial approach into practice could disrupt family dynamics and erode patient trust in the health service. They also thought they had insufficient resources to share information and feared that sharing might change the standard of care and make them more vulnerable to liability. A familial approach to confidentiality has not been accepted or adopted as a standard, but wider research suggests that some of the problems HCPs perceived are surmountable and sharing in the interest of the family can be achieved. However, further research is needed to explore how personal and familial genetic information can be separated in practice. Our findings are relevant to HCPs across health services who are starting to use genome tests as part of their routine investigations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Smith, Teresa M; Dunton, Genevieve F; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L
The purpose of the present study was to explore food preparation behaviours, attitudes, meal planning and shopping among Mexican-American mothers. Data were collected through four focus groups with mothers of Mexican origin/ancestry who considered themselves to be the primary food preparer. Topics included food preparation behaviours and influencers (culture, family, attitudes, barriers, meal planning and shopping). Data were analysed using a qualitative grounded theory approach. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded for themes. Data were collected in southern California, USA in 2013. Of the sample of twenty-one Mexican-American mothers, thirteen were born outside the USA and the mean household size was five members. Participants reported that food was often prepared using traditional staples and food preparation behaviours were learned from maternal family members. Participants also suggested that health was influenced by foods eaten and how they were prepared. Salient factors influencing food preparation behaviours included culture and tradition, maternal family members' food preparation behaviours, food preparation self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating. Time and busy schedules were cited as barriers. Future interventions should consider utilizing family-based approaches and teaching culturally relevant food preparation skills, especially to youth, while reinforcing more healthful dietary practices.
Thomas, K Jackson; Lancaster, Carol
The purpose of this inquiry was to examine preferences between presentation methods among graduate students enrolled in a research seminar course. Participants consisted of 34 second year students enrolled in the Master of Science degree program in physical therapy in the College of Health Professions at the Medical University of South Carolina. All were required to present a published research article on the general topic of exercise in elderly individuals. However, before the student presentations took place, the instructor presented two different published research papers, both of which were done in sequential time segments during a single class period. For Time Segment 1, the instructor/author used a formal, "lecture," or "platform" type presentation, embellished by power point slides with textual information and graphs. For Time Segment 2, the instructor conducted an informal discussion of the background, methods, and findings of the research paper. After the presentations were completed, students were assigned to focus groups for the purpose of providing verbal and written feedback. Examination of the findings using content analysis revealed a variety of opinions regarding presentation techniques, but showed a general preference for the method employed in Time Segment 1. Among the reasons cited were the structure, the visual aids, and past familiarity and comfort with formal, "lecture" type presentations. Also noted was the predominant view that presenter style was a major factor in judging effectiveness. These findings merit further exploration of presentation styles and teaching methodologies for augmenting teaching effectiveness and enhancing the scholarship of teaching.
Simons, Monique; de Vet, Emely; Hoornstra, Sjoukje; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; Chinapaw, Mai
Active games require whole-body movement and may be an innovative tool to substitute sedentary pastime with more active time and may therefore contribute to adolescents' health. To inform strategies aimed at reducing sedentary behavior by replacing non-active with active gaming, perceptions and context of active and non-active gaming are explored. Six focus groups were conducted with adolescents 12-16 years old representing a range of education levels. A semistructured question route was used containing questions about perceptions and the context of gaming. The adolescents had positive attitudes toward active gaming, especially the social interactive aspect, which was greatly appreciated. A substantial number of adolescents enjoyed non-active games more than active ones, mainly because of better game controls and more diversity in non-active games. Active games were primarily played when there was a social gathering. Few game-related rules and restrictions at home were reported. Given the positive attitudes of adolescents and the limited restrictions for gaming at home, active videogames may potentially be used in a home setting as a tool to reduce sedentary behavior. However, to make active games as appealing as non-active games, attention should be paid to the quality, diversity, and sustainability of active games, as these aspects are currently inferior to those of traditional non-active games.
Kamps Willem A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines in paediatric oncology encourage health care providers to share relevant information with young patients and parents to enable their active participation in decision making. It is not clear to what extent this mirrors patients' and parents' preferences. This study investigated communication preferences of childhood cancer patients, parents, and survivors of childhood cancer. Methods Communication preferences were examined by means of online focus groups. Seven patients (aged 8–17, 11 parents, and 18 survivors (aged 8–17 at diagnosis participated. Recruitment took place by consecutive inclusion in two Dutch university oncological wards. Questions concerned preferences regarding interpersonal relationships, information exchange and participation in decision making. Results Participants expressed detailed and multi-faceted views regarding their needs and preferences in communication in paediatric oncology. They agreed on the importance of several interpersonal and informational aspects of communication, such as honesty, support, and the need to be fully informed. Participants generally preferred a collaborative role in medical decision making. Differences in views were found regarding the desirability of the patient's presence during consultations. Patients differed in their satisfaction with their parents' role as managers of the communication. Conclusion Young patients' preferences mainly concur with current guidelines of providing them with medical information and enabling their participation in medical decision making. Still, some variation in preferences was found, which faces health care providers with the task of balancing between the sometimes conflicting preferences of young cancer patients and their parents.
Dixon, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Meagher-Lundberg, Patricia; Widdowson, Deborah
Energy expenditure studies have shown that playing Active Video Games (AVGs) is positively associated with increases in heart rate and oxygen consumption. It is proposed that playing AVGs may be a useful means of addressing inactivity and obesity in children. This study explored children's and parents' perceptions of AVGs and the likely facilitators and barriers to sustained use of AVGs. Data were gathered using focus group interviews: seven with children, four with adults. Both children and parents reported that AVGs offered a way to increase activity and improve fitness. Barriers to sustained engagement, according to parents, were the cost of AVGs and lack of space in the home to play the games. According to children, the likelihood of long-term engagement with AVGs depended on game content and child age, with AVGs being seen as more appropriate for younger children than teenagers. It would appear that there is potential for AVGs to reduce inactivity in young people. However, barriers to widespread, sustainable adoption would need to be addressed if this potential is to be realized.
Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Jones, Denise R.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.
Trajectory-based operations (TBO) is a key concept in the Next Generation Air Transportation System transformation of the National Airspace System (NAS) that will increase the predictability and stability of traffic flows, support a common operational picture through the use of digital data sharing, facilitate more effective collaborative decision making between airspace users and air navigation service providers, and enable increased levels of integrated automation across the NAS. NASA has been developing trajectory-based systems to improve the efficiency of the NAS during specific phases of flight and is now also exploring Advanced 4-Dimensional Trajectory (4DT) operational concepts that will integrate these technologies and incorporate new technology where needed to create both automation and procedures to support gate-to-gate TBO. A TBO Prototype simulation toolkit has been developed that demonstrates initial functionality of an Advanced 4DT TBO concept. Pilot and controller subject matter experts (SMEs) were brought to the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at NASA Langley Research Center for discussions on an Advanced 4DT operational concept and were provided an interactive demonstration of the TBO Prototype using four example scenarios. The SMEs provided feedback on potential operational, technological, and procedural opportunities and concerns. This paper describes an Advanced 4DT operational concept, the TBO Prototype, the demonstration scenarios and methods used, and the feedback obtained from the pilot and controller SMEs in this focus group activity.
Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter
Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are purported to increase energy and improve performance, but have been associated with adverse health effects and death. EDs are popular among adolescents and young adults, yet little is known about their use among young adolescents. This study explored perceptions, patterns, and contexts of ED use in six focus groups with 40 adolescents aged 12-15 years from two regional Australian schools. A thematic analysis of the data was used to investigate knowledge about ED brands and content, ED use, reasons for ED use, physiological effects, and influences on ED use. Participants were familiar with EDs and most had used them at least once but had limited knowledge of ED ingredients, and some had difficulty differentiating them from soft and sports drinks. EDs were used as an alternative to other drinks, to provide energy, and in social contexts, and their use was associated with short-term physiological symptoms. Parents and advertising influenced participants' perceptions and use of EDs. These findings suggest young adolescents use EDs without knowing what they are drinking and how they are contributing to their personal risk of harm. The advertising, appeal, and use of EDs by adolescents appear to share similarities with alcohol and tobacco. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings, informed by the lessons learned in alcohol research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leak, Tashara M; Benavente, Lisa; Goodell, L Suzanne; Lassiter, Annie; Jones, Lorelei; Bowen, Sarah
To identify ways to effectively use social media to communicate nutrition-related information to low-income populations. The authors conducted 4 focus groups with female Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates who used social media at least twice a week (n = 26 total). Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify key themes. For participants, page content, page maintenance, and networking opportunities with others were important aspects of a nutrition education social media page. Trust emerged as a central theme, because participants expressed a need for reliable information from known, credible sources and safe places to share ideas. Using social media to provide nutrition-related messages may be an effective way to encourage sustained positive behavior changes resulting from educational programming and to engage participants beyond class time. Establishing the trustworthiness of the social media site is essential to its use among low-income participants. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sarkadi, Anna; Rosenqvist, Urban
This study explored if and how women perceived diabetes as affecting their social and sexual intimacy and if they wished to receive professional attention for any sexual disturbances that they experience. A series of five focus group interviews were conducted with 33 women with type 2 diabetes, ages 44 to 80 years, who also completed a questionnaire on sexual functioning: Two thirds were married and one third were sexually active. Categories resulting from the qualitative analysis were guilt and embarrassment in diabetes; female intimacy and shame; sexual dysfunction, an invisible problem; and the female patient. Asking women about intimacy revealed self-blame and embarrassment regarding their diabetes and sexual functioning. Several women who had experienced sexual dysfunction described barriers that made it difficult to obtain optimal care and/or self-care measures to cope with vaginal dryness, pain during intercourse, and decreased desire. Many of the women had the social and emotional resources to cope with their disease. Nonetheless, they experienced guilt, shame, and embarrassment, which are potentially oppressive features of having type 2 diabetes. Asking women with type 2 diabetes about intimacy in a contextually adequate way at routine follow-up visits could give them a chance to discuss both sexual and social intimacy concerns related to their diabetes.
Walsh, Tasanee R; Irwin, Debra E; Meier, Andrea; Varni, James W; DeWalt, Darren A
To understand differences in perceptions of patient-reported outcome domains between children with asthma and children from the general population. We used this information in the development of patient-reported outcome items for the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatrics project. We conducted focus groups composed of ethnically, racially, and geographically diverse youth (8-12, 13-17 years) from the general population and youth with asthma. We performed content analysis to identify important themes. We identified five unique and different challenges that may confront youth with asthma as compared to general population youth: (1) They experience more difficulties when participating in physical activities; (2) They may experience anxiety about having an asthma attack at anytime and anywhere; (3) They may experience sleep disturbances and fatigue secondary to their asthma symptoms; (4) Their health condition has a greater effect on their emotional well-being and interpersonal relationships; and (5) Youth with asthma report that asthma often leaves them with insufficient energy to complete their school activities, especially physical activities. The results confirm unique experiences for children with asthma across a broad range of health domains and enhance the breadth of all domains when creating an item bank.
Ferreiro-Losada, M T; Díaz-Sanisidro, E; Martínez-Romero, M D; Rial-Boubeta, A; Varela-Mallou, J; Clavería-Fontán, A
Delivery care giving is undergoing excessive interventionism today, not supported by scientific evidence, neglecting organisational aspects and individualisation. This study analyses the perception of mothers during their delivery, postpartum and breastfeeding periods in the Galician Health Service, in order to inform and help to improve this service. A total of 14 focus group meetings were held (one in each Galician public hospital), consisting of women who, in 2008, delivered by vaginal delivery or those who were not scheduled for a caesarean section. The process of birth analysis can identify a sequence of important elements both positive and negative, for mothers, and may lead to suggestions for improvement. Their experiences and opinions, especially in aspects such as participation in decision-making, mechanisation of labour and lactation, may help to conduct an assessment of the maternity ward operating. When investigating expectations and demands from users, information from perceived quality is received, and also mothers' experience is shared. Mothers call for humanity, empathy, information and participation. Facing the implementation of these elements, the key processes for working harder are the dilation stage and hospital staying. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Khan, Sheraz; Iqbal, Mazhar; Tariq, Muhammad; Baig, Shahid M; Abbas, Wasim
HIV-1 latency allows the virus to persist until reactivation, in a transcriptionally silent form in its cellular reservoirs despite the presence of effective cART. Such viral persistence represents a major barrier to HIV eradication since treatment interruption leads to rebound plasma viremia. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have recently got a considerable attention in regulating HIV-1 post-integration latency as they are involved in the repression of proviral gene expression through the methylation of histones. This epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latency. In fact, PcG proteins act in complexes and modulate the epigenetic signatures of integrated HIV-1 promoter. Key role played by PcG proteins in the molecular control of HIV-1 latency has led to hypothesize that PcG proteins may represent a valuable target for future HIV-1 therapy in purging HIV-1 reservoirs. In this regard, various small molecules have been synthesized or explored to specifically block the epigenetic activity of PcG. In this review, we will highlight the possible therapeutic approaches to achieve either a functional or sterilizing cure of HIV-1 infection with special focus on histone methylation by PcG proteins together with current and novel pharmacological approaches to reactivate HIV-1 from latency that could ultimately lead towards a better clearance of viral latent reservoirs.
Dritsakis, Giorgos; van Besouw, Rachel M; O' Meara, Aoife
To study the aspects of the quality of life (QoL) on which music has an impact in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. Thirty adult CI users aged between 18 and 81 years old with a wide range of patient characteristics and musical backgrounds participated in the study. Six focus group discussions about music in everyday life were conducted and data were analysed using template analysis based on the QoL model of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life BREF questionnaire. A theoretical framework of the impact of music on the QoL was developed. Music was reported to contribute to many aspects of physical, psychological, and social well-being in adult CI users. These positive effects of music on QoL were similar to what has been reported in the literature for normal-hearing adults. However, difficulties in music perception and enjoyment were found to have a negative impact on CI users' QoL, especially by causing unpleasant feelings and limited participation in music-related or routine daily activities. These findings suggest that an improvement in music experiences of CI users may lead to improvements in QoL and therefore support the need for music rehabilitation. However, the relative importance of music overall and of specific aspects of music for each individual should be measured for an accurate assessment of the impact of music on the QoL of CI users.
Hartnell, Nicole; MacKinnon, Neil; Sketris, Ingrid; Fleming, Mark
The under-reporting of medication errors can compromise patient safety. A qualitative study was conducted to enhance the understanding of barriers to medication error reporting in healthcare organisations. Focus groups (with physicians, pharmacists and nurses) and in-depth interviews (with risk managers) were used to identify medication error reporting beliefs and practices at four community hospitals in Nova Scotia, Canada. Audio tapes were transcribed verbatim and analysed for thematic content using the template style of analysis. The development and analysis of this study were guided by Safety Culture Theory. Incentives for medication error reporting were thematised into three categories: patient protection, provider protection and professional compliance. Barriers to medication error reporting were thematised into five categories: reporter burden, professional identity, information gap, organisational factors and fear. Facilitators to encourage medication error reporting were classified into three categories: reducing reporter burden, closing the communication gap and educating for success. Participants indicated they would report medication errors more frequently if reporting were made easier, if they were adequately educated about reporting, and if they received timely feedback. Study results may lead to a better understanding of the barriers to medication error reporting, why these barriers exist and what can be done to successfully overcome them. These results could be used by hospitals to encourage reporting of medication errors and ultimately make organisational changes leading to a reduction in the incidence of medication errors and an improvement in patient safety.
Veronis, Luisa; McLeman, Robert
There is limited empirical evidence of how environmental conditions in the Global South may influence long-distance international migration to the Global North. This research note reports findings from seven focus groups held in Ottawa-Gatineau, Canada, with recent migrants from the Horn of Africa and francophone sub-Saharan Africa, where the role of environment in migration decision-making was discussed. Participants stated that those most affected by environmental challenges in their home countries lack the financial wherewithal to migrate to Canada. Participants also suggested that internal rural-urban migration patterns generated by environmental challenges in their home countries underlay socioeconomic factors that contributed to their own migration. In other words, environment is a second- or third-order contributor in a complex chain of interactions in the migrant source country that may lead to long-distance international migration by skilled and educated urbanites. These findings have informed the scope and detail of a larger, ongoing empirical study of environmental influences on immigration to Canada.
Devan, Hemakumar; Carman, Allan B; Hendrick, Paul A; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Hale, Leigh A
This study explored the perceptions of people with a lower limb amputation as to important factors contributing to their low back pain (LBP). Semi-structured interviews were conducted (three focus groups and two individual interviews), with 11 participants with lower limb amputation and on-going LBP. The discussions were analysed using the General Inductive Approach. Five major categories were identified with "uneven posture and compensatory movements" of the back perceived to be the main contributor to LBP. "Fatigue" during functional activities and "prosthesis-related factors" may affect the "uneven movements" of the back further leading to LBP. "Multiple pain conditions" (i.e. phantom limb pain, non-amputated limb pain) could influence the pain perceptions contributing to LBP. "Self-management strategies" in the form of maintaining optimal physical fitness and support from health care professionals helped to manage LBP symptoms, thereby assisted in preventing chronicity. The results suggest "uneven movements" of the back affected by "fatigue" and "prosthesis-related factors" may alter the mechanical loading of the spine during functional activities and contribute to LBP. While being physically active helped participants cope with their LBP, identifying and addressing "uneven movements" in the back during the performance of functional activities may be important to devise prevention strategies for LBP.
Devakumar, Delan; Qureshi, Zeshan; Mannell, Jenevieve; Baruwal, Manju; Sharma, Neha; Rehfuess, Eva; Saville, Naomi M; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David
Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions.
Welz, Alexandra N; Emberger-Klein, Agnes; Menrad, Klaus
The use of herbal medicine, as one element of complementary and alternative medicine, is increasing worldwide. Little is known about the reasons for and factors associated with its use. This study derives insights for the use of herbal medicine in Germany regarding the usage aims, role played by the type of illness, reasons for preferred usage and sources of information. Using a qualitative methodological approach, six focus groups (n = 46) were conducted. Two groups with young, middle-aged and elderly participants, respectively. After audiotaping and verbatim transcription, the data were analysed with a qualitative content analysis. We found that treating illnesses was the most frequently discussed aim for using herbal medicine over all age groups. Preventing illnesses and promoting health were less frequently mentioned overall, but were important for elderly people. Discussions on herbal medicine were associated with either mild/moderate diseases or using herbal medicine as a starting treatment before applying conventional medicine. In this context, participants emphasized the limits of herbal medicine for severe illnesses. Dissatisfaction with conventional treatment, past good experiences, positive aspects associated with herbal medicine, as well as family traditions were the most commonly-mentioned reasons why herbal medicine was preferred as treatment. Concerning information sources, independent reading and family traditions were found to be equally or even more important than consulting medicinal experts. Although herbal medicine is used mostly for treating mild to moderate illnesses and participants were aware of its limits, the combination of self-medication, non-expert consultation and missing risk awareness of herbal medicine is potentially harmful. This is particularly relevant for elderly users as, even though they appeared to be more aware of health-related issues, they generally use more medicine compared to younger ones. In light of our finding
Cecilia Chau; Stephan Van den Broucke
A qualitative study was performed using the focus group methodology with first year university students in Greater Lima, to learn about their drinking habits and explore the main determinants of their alcohol consumption. Four homogeneous focus groups (bygender and social class) were organized, with group sizes between 5 and 9. Content analysis of the discussions revealed that the stressors experienced by these students are similar to those of other western adolescents, yet that economic diff...
McQuaid, Fiona; Pask, Sophie; Locock, Louise; Davis, Elizabeth; Stevens, Zoe; Plumb, Jane; Snape, Matthew D
Antenatal vaccination has become a part of routine care during pregnancy in the UK and worldwide, leading to improvements in health for both pregnant women and their infants. However, uptake remains sub-optimal. Other antenatal vaccines targeting major neonatal pathogens, such as Group B streptococcus (GBS), the commonest cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonatal period, are undergoing clinical trials but more information is needed on how to improve acceptance of such vaccines. Qualitative study using focus groups and interviews; involving 14 pregnant women, 8 mothers with experience of GBS, and 28 maternity healthcare professionals. Questions were asked regarding antenatal vaccines, knowledge of GBS, attitudes to a potential future GBS vaccine and participation in antenatal vaccine trials. All participants were very cautious about vaccination during pregnancy, with harm to the baby being a major concern. Despite this, the pregnant women and parents with experience of GBS were open to the idea of an antenatal GBS vaccine and participating in research, while the maternity professionals were less positive. Major barriers identified included lack of knowledge about GBS and the reluctance of maternity professionals to be involved. In order for a future GBS vaccine to be acceptable to both pregnant women and the healthcare professionals advising them, a major awareness campaign would be required with significant focus on convincing and training maternity professionals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whittaker, Anne; Williams, Nigel; Chandler, Amy; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; McGorm, Kelly; Mathews, Gillian
Parenting and family support are key prevention and intervention strategies for improving outcomes for children and families affected by parental drug misuse. However, little is known about the delivery of parenting support for drug-dependent parents, particularly within universal healthcare services. This study aimed to explore the way healthcare practitioners engage with this challenging agenda. Four multidisciplinary focus groups involving a purposive sample of 18 experienced healthcare professionals were conducted in Scotland. Participants included general practitioners, midwives, public health nurses and addiction staff who work together to provide care for vulnerable families. A focus group topic guide was developed to explore the views and experiences of these healthcare professionals in relation to providing parenting support for drug-using parents, predominantly those receiving opioid substitution therapy. Data were analysed using a constant comparison method and thematic approach. The overarching narrative which united the focus group discussions was about the 'burden of care' that these families pose for frontline healthcare professionals. Recurring themes centred on three key issues: the problematic nature of drug-using parents themselves; clinical challenges in living up to the ideals of professional practice; and the wider context in which current practice is governed. Professionals expressed ambivalence over their parenting support role; anxiety over responsibility for intervening with this 'hard-to-engage' population; and concern over 'dwindling' resources and lack of organisational support. Nevertheless, strategies and opportunities for providing parenting support were acknowledged and there was consensus about the need for further skills training. Despite a proliferation of policy and good practice guidance on the delivery of parenting support for drug-dependent parents, the findings of this study suggest that significant challenges remain
Stolper, Erik; van Bokhoven, Marloes; Houben, Paul; Van Royen, Paul; van de Wiel, Margje; van der Weijden, Trudy; Jan Dinant, Geert
General practitioners sometimes base clinical decisions on gut feelings alone, even though there is little evidence of their diagnostic and prognostic value in daily practice. Research into these aspects and the use of the concept in medical education require a practical and valid description of gut feelings. The goal of our study was therefore to describe the concept of gut feelings in general practice and to identify their main determinants Qualitative research including 4 focus group discussions. A heterogeneous sample of 28 GPs. Text analysis of the focus group discussions, using a grounded theory approach. Gut feelings are familiar to most GPs in the Netherlands and play a substantial role in their everyday routine. The participants distinguished two types of gut feelings, a sense of reassurance and a sense of alarm. In the former case, a GP is sure about prognosis and therapy, although they may not always have a clear diagnosis in mind. A sense of alarm means that a GP has the feeling that something is wrong even though objective arguments are lacking. GPs in the focus groups experienced gut feelings as a compass in situations of uncertainty and the majority of GPs trusted this guide. We identified the main determinants of gut feelings: fitting, alerting and interfering factors, sensation, contextual knowledge, medical education, experience and personality. The role of gut feelings in general practice has become much clearer, but we need more research into the contributions of individual determinants and into the test properties of gut feelings to make the concept suitable for medical education.
Haun, Jolie N; Chavez, Margeaux; Nazi, Kim; Antinori, Nicole; Melillo, Christine; Cotner, Bridget A; Hathaway, Wendy; Cook, Ashley; Wilck, Nancy; Noonan, Abigail
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has multiple health information technology (HIT) resources for veterans to support their health care management. These include a patient portal, VetLink Kiosks, mobile apps, and telehealth services. The veteran patient population has a variety of needs and preferences that can inform current VA HIT redesign efforts to meet consumer needs. This study aimed to describe veterans' experiences using the current VA HIT and identify their vision for the future of an integrated VA HIT system. Two rounds of focus group interviews were conducted with a single cohort of 47 veterans and one female caregiver recruited from Bedford, Massachusetts, and Tampa, Florida. Focus group interviews included simulation modeling activities and a self-administered survey. This study also used an expert panel group to provide data and input throughout the study process. High-fidelity, interactive simulations were created and used to facilitate collection of qualitative data. The simulations were developed based on system requirements, data collected through operational efforts, and participants' reported preferences for using VA HIT. Pairwise comparison activities of HIT resources were conducted with both focus groups and the expert panel. Rapid iterative content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Descriptive statistics summarized quantitative data. Data themes included (1) current use of VA HIT, (2) non-VA HIT use, and (3) preferences for future use of VA HIT. Data indicated that, although the Secure Messaging feature was often preferred, a full range of HIT options are needed. These data were then used to develop veteran-driven simulations that illustrate user needs and expectations when using a HIT system and services to access VA health care services. Patient participant redesign processes present critical opportunities for creating a human-centered design. Veterans value virtual health care options and prefer standardized, integrated
David B. Nicholas PhD
Full Text Available In this study the authors examined Internet-mediated qualitative data collection methods among a sample of children with chronic health conditions. Specifically, focus groups via Internet technology were contrasted to traditional face-to-face focus groups. Internet focus groups consisted of asynchronous text-based chat rooms lasting a total of one week in duration. Participants comprised 23 children with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, or cystic fibrosis, who were assigned to either an Internet or face-to-face focus group. Focus group analysis and follow-up participant interviews identified a range of content outcomes and processes as well as participant experiences and preferences. Findings yielded differences in terms of the volume and nature of online and face-to-face data, and participants' affinity to focus group modality appeared to reflect differences in participant expectations for social engagement and interaction. This study identifies both benefits and limitations of asynchronous, text-based online focus groups. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
Renata Cristina Claudino de Oliveira Tenório
Full Text Available Astyanax is a diverse group of Neotropical fishes, whose different forms occupy different environments. This great diversity is also reflected on cytogenetic aspects and molecular markers, which have repeatedly been demonstrated by cytogenetic studies. In order to characterize the karyotype of species of this genus, six species were studied: Astyanax altiparanae, A.argyrimarginatus, A. elachylepis, A. xavante, and two new species provisionally called Astyanax sp. and A. aff. bimaculatus. A detailed cytogenetic study based on conventional staining with Giemsa, AgNORs, C-banding, base-specific fluorochromes, and FISH using ribosomal genes 18S and 5S was conducted, aiming to understand some of the chromosomal mechanisms associated with the high diversification that characterizes this group and culminated with the establishment of these species. The results showed 2n = 50 chromosomes for five species and a karyotype with 52 chromosomes in Astyanax sp. Small variations in the macrostructure of the karyotypes were identified, which were quite relevant when analyzed by classical banding, fluorochromes, and FISH methods. These differences among Astyanax spp. (2n = 50 are largely due to changes in the amount and types of heterochromatic blocks. Astyanax sp (2n = 52, in addition to variations due to heterochromatic blocks, has its origin possibly by events of centric fission in a pair of chromosomes followed by minor rearrangements.These results show an interesting karyotypic diversity in Astyanax and indicate the need of a review of the group referred as A. aff. bimaculatus and the description of Astyanax sp., including the possibility of inclusion of this unit in another genus.
Shao, Jung-Hua; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Chen, Su-Hui
To revise items in the Cardiac Diet Self-Efficacy Scale, Chinese version (CDSE-C) using focus groups. There is limited literature on using focus groups with older adults as well as nursing and nutrition professionals to revise a questionnaire. A qualitative research with multi-perspective focus-group approach was used from February through June 2009. Four serial focus groups were conducted including two focus groups of older adults from Taipei County (n = 6) and Yilan County (n = 6), one group of 5 nursing professionals, and one group of 4 nutritionists. Serial focus group discussions added one category to the CDSE-C (reducing salt) and 3 items, resulting in an 18-item scale with six categories: healthy eating behaviors, reducing fat and cholesterol, resisting relapse, increasing fiber and vegetable, reducing sugar, and reducing salt. This revised measure can serve as a reliable tool for assessing older Chinese adults' healthy eating self-efficacy to evaluate and improve nutritional status in this population.
Dybowski, Christoph; Harendza, Sigrid
To ensure the highest quality of education, medical schools have to be aware of factors that influence the motivation of teachers to perform their educational tasks. Although several studies have investigated motivations for teaching among community-based practitioners, there is little data available for hospital-based physicians. This study aimed to identify factors influencing hospital-based physicians' motivations to teach. We conducted 3 focus group discussions with 15 clinical teachers from the Medical Faculty at Hamburg University. Using a qualitative inductive approach, we extracted motivation-related factors from the transcripts of the audio-recorded discussions. Three main multifaceted categories influencing the motivation of teachers were identified: the teachers themselves, the students, and the medical faculty as an organization. Participants showed individual sets of values and beliefs about their roles as teachers as well as personal notions of what comprises a "good" medical education. Their personal motives to teach comprised a range of factors from intrinsic, such as the joy of teaching itself, to more extrinsic motives, such as the perception of teaching as an occupational duty. Teachers were also influenced by the perceived values and beliefs of their students, as well as their perceived discipline and motivation. The curriculum organization and aspects of leadership, human resource development, and the evaluation system proved to be relevant factors as well, whereas extrinsic incentives had no reported impact. Individual values, beliefs, and personal motives constitute the mental framework upon which teachers perceive and assess motivational aspects for their teaching. The interaction between these personal dispositions and faculty-specific organizational structures can significantly impair or enhance the motivation of teachers and should therefore be accounted for in program and faculty development.
Full Text Available Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 Dutch participants, collected in 2012 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Many participants discussed differences and similarities between cohabitation and marriage in a context of high divorce rates, and frequently viewed cohabitation as a risk-reduction strategy. At the same time, marriage was often seen as ―the real deal‖, in terms of legal arrangements, but also as a symbol of utmost commitment. Less educated participants viewed more financial advantages in cohabitation compared to marriage, and felt more strongly about the symbolic value of marriage than their highly educated counterparts. There was strong consensus that there is not, and should not be, a social norm to marry. Conclusions: In a context of high relationship instability, cohabitation has become a risk-reduction strategy. When norms to marry are weak, people may marry in order to emphasize the uniqueness of their relationship. However, the individualistic nature of Dutch society is mirrored in respondents' reluctance to set standards or proscribe norms on why and when to marry and their emphasis that cohabitation can also imply high levels of commitment.
Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.
Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346
Tong, Allison; Ralph, Angelique F; Chapman, Jeremy R; Wong, Germaine; Gill, John S; Josephson, Michelle A; Craig, Jonathan C
The unmet demand for kidney transplantation has generated intense controversy about introducing incentives for living kidney donors to increase donation rates. Such debates may affect public perception and acceptance of living kidney donation. This study aims to describe the range and depth of public opinion on financial reimbursement, compensation, and incentives for living kidney donors. Twelve focus groups were conducted with 113 participants recruited from the general public in three Australian states in February 2013. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Five themes were identified: creating ethical impasses (commodification of the body, quandary of kidney valuation, pushing moral boundaries), corrupting motivations (exposing the vulnerable, inevitable abuse, supplanting altruism), determining justifiable risk (compromising kidney quality, undue harm, accepting a confined risk, trusting protective mechanisms, right to autonomy), driving access (urgency of organ shortage, minimizing disadvantage, guaranteeing cost-efficiency, providing impetus, counteracting black markets), and honoring donor deservingness (fairness and reason, reassurance and rewards, merited recompense). Reimbursement and justifiable recompense are considered by the Australian public as a legitimate way of supporting donors and reducing disadvantage. Financial payment beyond reimbursement is regarded as morally reprehensible, with the potential for exploitative commercialism. Some contend that regulated compensation could be a defensible strategy to increased donation rates provided that mechanisms are in place to protect donors. The perceived threat to community values of human dignity, goodwill, and fairness suggests that there could be strong public resistance to any form of financial inducements for living kidney donors. Policy priorities addressing the removal of disincentives may be more acceptable to the public. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
De Groot, Kim; Maurits, Erica E M; Francke, Anneke L
Many western countries are experiencing a substantial shortage of home-care nurses due to the increasing numbers of care-dependent people living at home. In-depth knowledge is needed about what home-care nurses find attractive about their work in order to make recommendations for the recruitment and retention of home-care nursing staff. The aims of this explorative, qualitative study were to gain in-depth knowledge about which aspects home-care nurses find attractive about their work and to explore whether these aspects vary for home-care nurses with different levels of education. Discussions were conducted with six online focus groups in 2016 with a total of 38 Dutch home-care nurses. The transcripts were analysed using the principles of thematic analysis. The findings showed that home-care nurses find it attractive that they are a "linchpin", in the sense of being the leading professional and with the patient as the centre of care. Home-care nurses also find having autonomy attractive: autonomy over decision-making about care, freedom in work scheduling and working in a self-directed team. Variety in patient situations and activities also makes their work attractive. Home-care nurses with a bachelor's degree did not differ much in what they found attractive aspects from those with an associate degree (a nursing qualification after completing senior secondary vocational education). It is concluded that autonomy, variety and being a "linchpin" are the attractive aspects of working in home care. To help recruit and retain home-care nursing staff, these attractive aspects should be emphasised in nursing education and practice, in recruitment programmes and in publicity material. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Evans, Alexandra E; Weiss, Samantha R; Meath, Kerry J; Chow, Sherman; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Ness, Roberta B
Menu labelling has been identified as a potential strategy to help individuals make healthier choices when eating out. Although adolescents eat out often, little research involving menu labelling has been conducted with this population. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) gather qualitative information from adolescents regarding use of menu labels when eating out; (ii) gather adolescents' suggestions for optimal ways to design menu labels; and (iii) examine differences between adolescents living in communities of different socio-economic status. Qualitative. Five focus groups of five to ten participants. Austin, TX, USA, 2012. Forty-one adolescents living in diverse communities recruited using a snowballing technique at public and private recreation centres (twenty-four females; twenty-two African American). Participants reported that menu labelling, in general, does not influence food selections when eating out. Among participants living in low-income communities, food purchases were based on price, taste and familiarity. Among participants living in high-income areas, food purchases were based on quality and ability to satiate (among boys). According to participants, effective ways to present menu labels are by matching calorie levels with physical activity equivalents or through simple graphics. For adolescents, providing menu labels in their current format may not be an effective strategy to increase healthy food selection. Given that the current menu label format has been set by federal policy in the USA cannot be easily changed, research to determine how this format can be best presented or enhanced so that it can have an impact on all US sub-populations is warranted.
Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Nagihara, S.; Williams, D. R.; Chi, P.; Taylor, P. T.; Schmidt, G. K.; Grayzeck, E. J.
On the six Apollo landed missions, the Astronauts deployed the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) science stations which measured active and passive seismic events, magnetic fields, charged particles, solar wind, heat flow, the diffuse atmosphere, meteorites and their ejecta, lunar dust, etc. Today's scientists are able to extract new information and make new discoveries from the old ALSEP data utilizing recent advances in computer capabilities and new analysis techniques. However, current-day investigators are encountering problems trying to use the ALSEP data. In 2007 archivists from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) estimated only about 50 percent of the processed ALSEP lunar surface data-of-interest to current lunar science investigators were in the NSSDC archives. The current-day lunar science investigators found most of the ALSEP data, then in the NSSDC archives. were extremely difficult to use. The data were in forms often not well described in the published reports and rerecording anomalies existed in the data which could only be resolved by tape experts. To resolve this problem, the DPS Lunar Data Node was established in 2008 at NSSDC and is in the process of successfully making the existing archived ALSEP data available to current-day investigators in easily useable forms. In July of 2010 the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) at Ames Research Center established the Recovery of Missing ALSEP Data Focus Group in recognition of the importance of the current activities to find the raw and processed ALSEP data missing from the NSSDC archives.
del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.
The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56
Kling, Leslie; Cotugna, Nancy; Snider, Sue; Peterson, P Michael
Traditional nutrition education has not been shown to consistently produce behavior change. While it has been suggested that using emotion-based messages may be a better way to influence nutrition behavior change, this has not been well tested. Producing emotion-based messages is a multi-step process that begins with exploring subconscious barriers to behavior change rather than the more obvious and typically reported barriers. The purpose of this research was to uncover the emotional reasons, sometimes referred to as emotional pulse points, for mothers' choosing or not choosing to have more family meals. This would then serve as the first step to developing emotion-based messages promoting the benefits of family meals. Five focus group interviews were conducted with 51 low-income Black (n=28) and white (n=23) mothers. Metaphorical techniques were used to determine underlying feelings toward family and family meals. Discussions were video-taped, transcribed, and manually analyzed using a content-driven, immersion/crystallization approach to qualitative data analysis. Four themes emerged around the definition of family: acceptance, sharing, chaos, and protective/loyal. Some mothers felt mealtime was merely obligatory, and described it as stressful. Some reported a preference for attending to their own needs instead of sitting down with their children, while others felt that mealtime should be used to interact with and educate children and felt guilty when they were not able to provide family meals. Three themes emerged around feelings towards having or not having family meals: unimportant, important, and guilty. When explored further, mothers indicated that using the feeling of guilt to encourage family meals might be effective. Data obtained are being used to develop innovative, emotion-based messages that will be tested for effectiveness in promoting family meals.
Wu, Lin Chieh; Lie, Désirée; Malhotra, Rahul; Allen, John C; Tay, Julie S L; Tan, Thiam Chye; Ostbye, Truls
to explore midwives' reasons for performing or avoiding episiotomies and motivation to change episiotomy practice in a large tertiary maternity hospital. using purposive sampling, three focus groups were conducted to achieve theme saturation. Open-ended questions elicited personal reasons for performing or avoiding episiotomy, information sources, and opinions about past and future practice trends. Sessions were audiotaped, and transcripts independently examined by three researchers who coded for themes. An iterative process was used to achieve consensus. Grounded theory was used to interpret data and to derive a theoretical framework for understanding the reasoning that influences episiotomy practice. a high volume delivery unit in Singapore. 20 of 79 licensed midwives, aged 28-70, who performed independent deliveries at the delivery unit. participants recognised maternal, fetal and other factors affecting their own decision to perform episiotomies. Patient request, better healing, midwife's reputation and job satisfaction were cited as main reasons to avoid episiotomy. Key sources informing practice were past training, delivery experience, anecdotal learning and lack of a protocol. There was no consensus on current trends in episiotomy practice. There was an absence of recognition of individual roles in reducing episiotomy rates. Clinicians were perceived as having both positive and negative influence. midwives' reasons for performing episiotomies were attributed to midwifery training, fear of doing harm and perceived clinician expectation, and were not consistent with current international practice guidelines. Reasons for avoiding episiotomies were associated with patient-centeredness and job satisfaction. Midwives agreed on the need to reduce episiotomy rates. with reduction in episiotomy rates as a goal, a combination of guideline education, feedback, peer coaching and collaborative care with doctors may be needed to achieve desired outcomes. Views and
Full Text Available Medienereignisse wie auch die Einführung und Verbreitung neuer Medientechnologien und Formate bringen mannigfaltige Wege des „Eintretens von Medien ins Leben“ mit sich. Im Projekt Globale Mediengenerationen (GMG wurden Medienerinnerungen aus der Kindheit im Kontext von Gruppendiskussionen am Beispiel dreier Generationen aus verschiedenen Ländern aller Kontinente untersucht. Dabei wurden medienbezogene Wissensbestände von drei Alterskohorten globaler Generationen analysiert. Der Artikel diskutiert methodologische Aspekte des Projekts und komplexe und selektive Prozesse des Erinnerns vergangener Ereignisse. Er untersucht Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede des GMG-Ansatzes mit dem dokumentarischen Ansatz von Ralf Bohnsack, die beide in der Wissenssoziologie von Karl Mannheim verwurzelt sind. Darüber hinaus wird Medialität als basale methodologische Kategorie in Erwägung gezogen, nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Klärung begrifflicher Grundlagen, sondern auch als inhärente Dimension von Forschungsprozessen. Media events in general and the introduction and divulgence of new media technologies and formats in particular implicate various (new ways of “media entering life.” In the Global Media Generations (GMG research project, articulation of individuals’ memories of childhood experiences with the media was afforded by context of focus groups of three generations in different countries of six continents. In this project media related knowledge segments of different age cohorts have been analyzed and interpreted. The article deals with methodological questions of the project and complex processes of ‘remembering’ past events. It explores commonalities and differences of the GMG approach with Ralf Bohnsack’s documentary approach, both rooted in the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim. Furthermore, mediality is taken into consideration as a basic methodological category, which means that it is perceived not only as subject matter to
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4657-001] Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Apple Group LLC...
Bevis, Zoe L; Semeraro, Hannah D; van Besouw, Rachel M; Rowan, Daniel; Lineton, Ben; Allsopp, Adrian J
In order to preserve their operational effectiveness and ultimately their survival, military personnel must be able to detect important acoustic signals and maintain situational awareness. The possession of sufficient hearing ability to perform job-specific auditory tasks is defined as auditory fitness for duty (AFFD). Pure tone audiometry (PTA) is used to assess AFFD in the UK military; however, it is unclear whether PTA is able to accurately predict performance on job-specific auditory tasks. The aim of the current study was to gather information about auditory tasks carried out by infantry personnel on the frontline and the environment these tasks are performed in. The study consisted of 16 focus group interviews with an average of five participants per group. Eighty British army personnel were recruited from five infantry regiments. The focus group guideline included seven open-ended questions designed to elicit information about the auditory tasks performed on operational duty. Content analysis of the data resulted in two main themes: (1) the auditory tasks personnel are expected to perform and (2) situations where personnel felt their hearing ability was reduced. Auditory tasks were divided into subthemes of sound detection, speech communication and sound localization. Reasons for reduced performance included background noise, hearing protection and attention difficulties. The current study provided an important and novel insight to the complex auditory environment experienced by British infantry personnel and identified 17 auditory tasks carried out by personnel on operational duties. These auditory tasks will be used to inform the development of a functional AFFD test for infantry personnel.
Keane, Sheila; Lincoln, Michelle; Smith, Tony
Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD); the impact of management; and career progression. 'Pull factors' favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. 'Push factors' discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel); limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by informants. While personal factors affecting recruitment and
Full Text Available Background. During the past decade, virtual reality (VR has become a new component in the treatment of patients after stroke. Therefore aims of the study were (a to get an insight into experiences and expectations of physiotherapists and occupational therapists in using a VR training system and (b to investigate relevant facilitators, barriers, and risks for implementing VR training in clinical practice. Methods. Three focus groups were conducted with occupational therapists and physiotherapists, specialised in rehabilitation of patients after stroke. All data were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The study was analysed based on a phenomenological approach using qualitative content analysis. Results. After code refinements, a total number of 1289 codes emerged out of 1626 statements. Intercoder reliability increased from 53% to 91% until the last focus group. The final coding scheme included categories on a four-level hierarchy: first-level categories are (a therapists and VR, (b VR device, (c patients and VR, and (d future prospects and potential of VR developments. Conclusions. Results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is needed to develop future VR technology and to devise VR implementation strategies in clinical practice. In principal, VR technology devices were seen as supportive for a general health service model.
Mehra, S.; Dadema, T.; Kröse, B.J.A.; Visser, B.; Engelbert, R.H.H.; Van Den Helder, J.; Weijs, P.J.M.
Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise
Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Kröse, Ben J A; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Van Den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J M
Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise
Full Text Available Introduction: The communication between faculty and students is a vital component of optimal facilitation of knowledge and learning. Various factors influence this dynamic. Aim: To assess communication levels between students and teachers in a dental college scenario via focus group discussion. Materials and Methods: The focus group discussion consisted of 10 groups; 5 groups representing the teachers, and 5 groups representing the students. Each group consisted of 6 participants. Hence there were a total of 30 teacher and 30 student participants. Focus group discussion was conducted for each of the groups for 30–45 min duration in the presence of a moderator and a note-taker. Open-ended questions were put across by the moderator to initiate and continue the discussions. The hand-written data taken by the note-taker were transcribed onto a computer on the same day of the discussion. Based on the transcription, domains were created for the student and teacher groups. Results: The issues raised by both the teacher and student groups in this focus group discussion were broadly classified into the following themes: (1 Past versus current scenario, (2 attitudes toward communication and learning, (3 hindrances to effective communication, and (4 potential solutions. Conclusions: Focus group discussion exposed many differences in the perceptions of teachers and students to communication. Each group, however, felt that bridging the teacher-student communication barrier was crucial to improve the teaching-learning experience. Many constructive solutions were provided by both the groups which can help to improve the quality of teaching-learning experience resulting in better quality of education.
A focus group was held at the November 11, 1996 meeting of the Operating Rules Association of North American Railroads to discuss the general issue of compliance and operating rules. Twelve operating rules officers participated, representing Class I,...
Gardsten, Cecilia; Blomqvist, Kerstin; Rask, Mikael; Larsson, Åse; Lindberg, Agneta; Olsson, Gith
The aim of this study was to identify perceived challenges related to self-management among recently diagnosed adults and those with longer experience of type 2 diabetes as a foundation for the future development of a person-centred information and communication technology service. Learning self-management of type 2 diabetes includes mastering the skills required to complete complex emotional and physical tasks. A service developed with the participation of stakeholders may be an alternative way to meet rising needs for self-management. Qualitative descriptive design influenced by a participatory approach. Multistage focus group interviews among one group of recently diagnosed (≤3yrs, n=4) adults and one group with longer experience (≥5yrs, n=7) of type 2 diabetes. Challenges in self-management in everyday life with type 2 diabetes were identified: understanding; developing skills and abilities; and mobilizing personal strengths. Both groups described challenges in understanding the causes of fluctuating blood glucose and in, developing and mobilizing skills for choosing healthful food and eating regularly. The recently diagnosed group was more challenged by learning to accept the diagnosis and becoming motivated to change habits while the experienced group was mainly challenged by issues about complications and medications. Adults with diabetes have different needs for support during different phases of the disease. From a person-centred perspective, it would be desirable to meet individual needs for self-management on peoples' own terms through a technological service that could reach and connect to a large number of people. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Livingston, Martin S; Livingston, Louisa R
The concept of focus can provide a meaningful bridge between theory and practice. The authors' aim in this paper is to demonstrate that for theory to be clinically useful, it should provide a sense of focus and organization for clinical work. They illustrate how their particular use of a self-psychological/intersubjective model leads to an emphasis on what they refer to as "sustained empathic focus." The authors' choice of concepts leads them consistently to stress the patient's subjective experience and emerging vulnerability.
Barr, Giles; Baynham, Elwyn; Black, Edgar; Bradshaw, Tom; Cummings, Mary Anne; Green, Michael A.; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Lau, Wing; Zisman, Michael
A Neutrino Factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly the discovery of leptonic CP violation. it is also the first step toward a muon collider. To develop a stored-muon-beam facility to serve as a Neutrino Factory, it is necessary to ''cool'' a muon beam (decrease its phase-space volume). The short lifetime of the muon, 2.2 (micro)s at rest, eliminates all currently demonstrated cooling techniques and requires that a new, heretofore untried, technique--ionization cooling--be employed. Although ionization cooling of muons has never been demonstrated in practice, it has been shown by end-to-end simulation and design studies to be an important factor both for the performance and for the cost of a Neutrino Factory. This motivates an international program of R and D, including an experimental demonstration at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The aims of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment are: (1) to show that it is possible to design, engineer and build a section of cooling channel capable of giving the desired performance for a Neutrino Factory; and (2) to place it in a muon beam and measure its performance in various modes of operation and beam conditions, thereby investigating the limits and practicality of cooling. The MICE collaboration has designed an experiment in which a section of an ionization cooling channel is exposed to a muon beam. This cooling channel assembles liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing energy loss and high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to re-accelerate the particles, all tightly contained in a magnetic channel. It reduces the beam transverse emittance by > 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. The layout of the experiment is shown. They utilize one complete magnetic cell of the cooling channel, comprising three absorber-focus-coil (AFC) modules and two RF-coupling-coil (RFCC) modules. Spectrometers placed before and after the
Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Jones, Denise R.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Rogers, Laura J.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Johnson, Sally C.
operational constraints demonstrated, in cooperation with the Air Traffic Control System Command Center, while air traffic control should be responsible for the implementation of those constraints. The SMEs also indicated that digital data communications would be very beneficial for TBO operations and would result in less workload due to reduced communications, would eliminate issues due to language barriers and frequency problems, and would make receiving, loading, accepting, and executing clearances easier, less ambiguous, and more expeditious. This paper describes an Advanced 4DT operational concept, the TBO Prototype, the demonstration scenarios and methods used, and the feedback obtained from the pilot and controller SMEs in this focus group evaluation.
Laursen, Jannie; Broholm, Malene; Rosenberg, Jacob
of this teamwork. Methods: The study was descriptive and exploratory and had a qualitative design with a phenomenological/hermeneutic orientation for the interviews. Focus group was the chosen methodology. The study comprised 19 health professionals in four focus groups. Results: Two themes emerged from...... makes it difficult for them to integrate relatives more and see them as participants in a natural teamwork for the benefit of the patient....
This report documents results from surveys which were conducted for qualitatively assessing the use of traveler information services in rural areas. The focus of the surveys was to identify those factors which influence travel planning and thus impro...
Full Text Available Sabine Ettinger,1 Michal Stanak,1 Piotr Szymański,2 Claudia Wild,1 Romana Tandara Haček,3 Darija Erčević,3 Renata Grenković,3 Mirjana Huić3 1Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Health Technology Assessment, Vienna, Austria; 2Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department for Development, Research and Health Technology Assessment, Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Health Care and Social Welfare, Zagreb, Croatia Aim: To summarize the evidence on clinical effectiveness and safety of wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD therapy for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest in patients at risk. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in databases including MEDLINE via OVID, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and CRD (DARE, NHS-EED, HTA. The evidence obtained was summarized according to GRADE methodology. A health technology assessment (HTA was conducted using the HTA Core Model® for rapid relative effectiveness assessment. Primary outcomes for the clinical effectiveness domain were all-cause and disease-specific mortality. Outcomes for the safety domain were adverse events (AEs and serious adverse events (SAEs. A focus group with cardiac disease patients was conducted to evaluate ethical, organizational, patient, social, and legal aspects of the WCD use. Results: No randomized- or non-randomized controlled trials were identified. Non-comparative studies (n=5 reported AEs including skin rash/itching (6%, false alarms (14%, and palpitations/light-headedness/fainting (9% and discontinuation due to comfort/lifestyle issues (16–22%, and SAEs including inappropriate shocks (0–2%, unsuccessful shocks (0–0.7%, and death (0–0.3%. The focus group results reported that experiencing a sense of security is crucial to patients and that the WCD is not considered an option for weeks or even months due to expected restrictions in living a “normal” life. Conclusion: The WCD appears to be relatively safe for short
Parker, Steve; Mayner, Lidia; Michael Gillham, David
Undergraduate nursing students are often confused by multiple understandings of critical thinking. In response to this situation, the Critiique for critical thinking (CCT) project was implemented to provide consistent structured guidance about critical thinking. This paper introduces Critiique software, describes initial validation of the content of this critical thinking tool and explores wider applications of the Critiique software. Critiique is flexible, authorable software that guides students step-by-step through critical appraisal of research papers. The spelling of Critiique was deliberate, so as to acquire a unique web domain name and associated logo. The CCT project involved implementation of a modified nominal focus group process with academic staff working together to establish common understandings of critical thinking. Previous work established a consensus about critical thinking in nursing and provided a starting point for the focus groups. The study was conducted at an Australian university campus with the focus group guided by open ended questions. Focus group data established categories of content that academic staff identified as important for teaching critical thinking. This emerging focus group data was then used to inform modification of Critiique software so that students had access to consistent and structured guidance in relation to critical thinking and critical appraisal. The project succeeded in using focus group data from academics to inform software development while at the same time retaining the benefits of broader philosophical dimensions of critical thinking.
Kadimpati, Sandeep; McCormick, Jennifer B; Chiu, Yichen; Parker, Ashley B; Iftikhar, Aliya Z; Flick, Randall P; Warner, David O
In the recent literature, there has been some evidence that exposure of children to anesthetic procedures during the first two years of life may impair cognitive function and learning in later life. We planned a clinical study to quantify this risk, a study involving testing 1,000 children for neurodevelopmental deficits. As a part of this planning, we conducted focus groups involving potential participants and their parents to elicit information regarding three issues: communications with the community and potential participants, recruitment and consent processes, and the return of neurodevelopmental testing results. Three focus groups were conducted with the parents of potential participants and one focus group was conducted with an 18-19 year old group; each group consisted of 6-10 participants. The moderated discussions had questions about recruitment, consenting issues, and expectations from the study about return of both overall trial findings and individual research test results. The focus group data gave us an insight on potential participants' views on recruitment, consenting, communications about the study, and expectations about return of both overall trial findings and individual research test results. The concerns expressed were largely addressable. In addition, the concern we had about some parents enrolling their children in the study solely for the sake of getting their child's cognitive function results was dispelled. We found that the individuals participating in our focus groups were generally enthusiastic about the large clinical study and could see the value in answering the study question. The data from the focus groups were used to inform changes to the recruitment and consent process. Focus group input was also instrumental in affirming the study design regarding return of results. Our experience suggests that the approach we used may serve as a model for other investigators to help inform the various elements of clinical study design, in
Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn
BACKGROUND: This article presents the results of a study on quality of pharmacy services and perceived risk of pharmaceuticals. The results presented here are part of a multi-study evaluation of major changes in drug distribution in Iceland. OBJECTIVES: This sub-study addressed the question: what...... is the lay user perspective on pharmaceuticals and pharmacy services, including their perception of risk? METHODS: To answer this question, seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in Iceland following new drug distribution legislation in 1996. RESULTS......: The lay perspective emphasizes a definite split between lay and expert views on the value and quality of pharmaceuticals, drug therapy and pharmacy services, as well as in their assessment of risk. Participants voiced spontaneous criticism of the roles of both physicians and pharmacists in drug therapy...
Wheatley, Catherine M; Davies, Emma L; Dawes, Helen
The health benefits of exercise in school are recognized, yet physical activity continues to decline during early adolescence despite numerous interventions. In this study, we investigated whether the prototype willingness model, an account of adolescent decision making that includes both reasoned behavioral choices and unplanned responses to social environments, might improve understanding of physical activity in school. We conducted focus groups with British pupils aged 12 to 13 years and used deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the model. Participants described reasoned decisions about physical activity outside school and unplanned choices to be inactive during break, in response to social contexts described as more "judgmental" than in primary school. Social contexts appeared characterized by anxiety about competence, negative peer evaluation, and inactive playground norms. The prototype willingness model might more fully explain physical activity in school than reasoned behavioral models alone, indicating potential for interventions targeting anxieties about playground social environments.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research shows that medical education is characterized by unequal conditions for women and men, but there is a lack of qualitative studies investigating the social processes that enable and maintain gender inequalities that include both male and female students. In this focus group study, we therefore explored male as well as female medical students’ experiences of the gender climate – i.e., how beliefs, values, and norms about gender were communicated – during clinical training and how the students dealt with these experiences. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 24 medical students (nine men at Umeå University, Sweden. The interviews were structured around personal experiences in clinical training where the participants perceived that gender had mattered. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The students described gender-stereotyped expectations, discriminatory treatment, compliments, comments, and demeaning jargon. Female students gave more personal and varied examples than the men. The students’ ways of handling their experiences were marked by efforts to fit in, for example, by adapting their appearance and partaking in the prevailing jargon. They felt dependent on supervisors and staff, and due to fear of repercussions they kept silent and avoided unpleasant situations and people rather than challenging humiliating jargon or supervisors who were behaving badly. Conclusions Everyday communication of gender beliefs combined with students’ adaptation to stereotyped expectations and discrimination came across as fundamental features through which unequal conditions for male and female students are reproduced and maintained in the clinic. Because they are in a dependent position, it is often difficult for students to challenge problematic gender attitudes. The main responsibility for improvements, therefore, lies with medical school leadership who need to provide students
Taveras Elsie M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers or easier (facilitators to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Results Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping
Selman, Lucy Ellen; Brighton, Lisa Jane; Sinclair, Shane; Karvinen, Ikali; Egan, Richard; Speck, Peter; Powell, Richard A; Deskur-Smielecka, Ewa; Glajchen, Myra; Adler, Shelly; Puchalski, Christina; Hunter, Joy; Gikaara, Nancy; Hope, Jonathon
Background: Spiritual distress is prevalent in advanced disease, but often neglected, resulting in unnecessary suffering. Evidence to inform spiritual care practices in palliative care is limited. Aim: To explore spiritual care needs, experiences, preferences and research priorities in an international sample of patients with life-limiting disease and family caregivers. Design: Focus group study. Setting/participants: Separate patient and caregiver focus groups were conducted at 11 sites in South Africa, Kenya, South Korea, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Finland and Poland. Discussions were transcribed, translated into English and analysed thematically. Results: A total of 74 patients participated: median age 62 years; 53 had cancer; 48 were women. In total, 71 caregivers participated: median age 61 years; 56 were women. Two-thirds of participants were Christian. Five themes are described: patients’ and caregivers’ spiritual concerns, understanding of spirituality and its role in illness, views and experiences of spiritual care, preferences regarding spiritual care, and research priorities. Participants reported wide-ranging spiritual concerns spanning existential, psychological, religious and social domains. Spirituality supported coping, but could also result in framing illness as punishment. Participants emphasised the need for staff competence in spiritual care. Spiritual care was reportedly lacking, primarily due to staff members’ de-prioritisation and lack of time. Patients’ research priorities included understanding the qualities of human connectedness and fostering these skills in staff. Caregivers’ priorities included staff training, assessment, studying impact, and caregiver’s spiritual care needs. Conclusion: To meet patient and caregiver preferences, healthcare providers should be able to address their spiritual concerns. Findings should inform patient- and caregiver-centred spiritual care provision, education and
Sonneville, Kendrin R; La Pelle, Nancy; Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Prosser, Lisa A
Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish) among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI >or= 85th percentile) children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV) watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers) or easier (facilitators) to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings) barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs) among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping behaviors and own eating behaviors. Parents identify
West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Westerholm, Robert; Lee, Adabel; Carbray, Julie; Heidenreich, Jodi; Pavuluri, Mani N.
Introduction: This study is a preliminary report of a group adaptation of child- and family-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CFF-CBT) for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Methods: CFF-CBT group treatment was provided to twenty six families who had children with a diagnosis of PBD ranging between six- and twelve-years-old. Results: Results indicated that CFF-CBT was feasible and acceptable to families. CFF-CBT resulted in significant improvement in manic, but not depressive, symptoms and in children’s psychosocial functioning post-treatment. In addition, although not statistically significant, parents reported an increased ability to cope with their child’s illness. Results of this study suggest that group psychosocial treatment provided alongside pharmacotherapy may help attain remission of symptoms, as well as increase overall psychosocial coping and well-being in both children and parents. Conclusion: Future work must include a more rigorous test of CFF-CBT in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:19718425
Khanthaphat, B.; Lakkala, H.; Luukkanen, J.
This publication presents and discusses the findings of 14 focus group discussions (FGD) conducted in different parts of Laos in early 2011 as a part of the project 'Interlinkages Between Energy and Livelihoods - Data, Training and Scenarios for Sustainable Energy Planning in Laos (INES)', which is a project funded by the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Nordic Development Fund in the framework of Energy and Environment Partnership (EEP) Mekong in South East Asia. The INES project was implemented by Finland Futures Research Centre (FFRC) in cooperation with the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Laos. The overall objective of the project is to improve the capacity of decision makers in Laos to promote sustainable long-term energy planning. In addition, the aim has been to provide qualitative and quantitative data on rural and urban resources and livelihood strategies and increase the knowledge of energy resources and use, and sustainable use of natural resources in Laos. In the quantitative survey 2100 households in Laos were interviewed. This e-publication summarizes the results of the qualitative data from the 14 FGDs and covers the following topics: household energy use and management, livelihoods and changes in livelihoods, environmental changes and food security as well as perspectives on economic development over the next 3-5 years. Throughout the report a comparison between Southern and Northern provinces has been made. Geographically speaking Northern and Southern Laos differ from each other in terms that Northern Laos is to a large extent mountainous and less densely populated with large areas covered by forest, in comparison to Southern Laos which is mainly low land, covered by agricultural land to a larger extent and has a denser population. Thus, the settings for livelihoods and living conditions differ between Northern and Southern Laos which is also reflected in the FGD results. Where applicable, also a comparison between on- grid and
Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M
, the results showed that the pharmacists have difficulties reconciling their technical paradigm with a legislative and professional will specifying customer and patient focus. This study describes the challenges of a new legislation with a market focus for community pharmacists whose education emphasized...... discussions with community pharmacists in the capital area Reykjavík and rural areas were employed to answer the research question: How has the pharmacists' societal role evolved after the legislation and what are the implications for pharmacy practice? The results showed firstly that the public image...
Kearney, Kerri S.; Damron, Rebecca; Sohoni, Sohum
This paper investigates group/team development in computer engineering courses at a University in the Central USA from the perspective of organization behavior theory, specifically Tuckman's model of the stages of group development. The investigation, conducted through linguistic analysis of student reflection essays, and through focus group…
Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam
Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…
Rubin, Allen; Washburn, Micki; Schieszler, Christine
Purpose: This article provides benchmark data on within-group effect sizes from published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) supporting the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for traumatized children. Methods: Within-group effect-size benchmarks for symptoms of trauma, anxiety, and depression were calculated via the…
Nilsson, J; Jervaeus, A; Lampic, C; Eriksson, L E; Widmark, C; Armuand, G M; Malmros, J; Marshall Heyman, M; Wettergren, L
What do adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer think about the risk of being infertile? The potential infertility, as well as the experience of having had cancer, affects well-being, intimate relationships and the desire to have children in the future. Many childhood cancer survivors want to have children and worry about possible infertility. For this qualitative study with a cross-sectional design, data were collected through 39 online focus group discussions during 2013. Cancer survivors previously treated for selected diagnoses were identified from The Swedish Childhood Cancer Register (16-24 years old at inclusion, ≥5 years after diagnosis) and approached regarding study participation. Online focus group discussions of mixed sex (n = 133) were performed on a chat platform in real time. Texts from the group discussions were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the main category Is it possible to have a baby? including five generic categories: Risk of infertility affects well-being, Dealing with possible infertility, Disclosure of possible infertility is a challenge, Issues related to heredity and Parenthood may be affected. The risk of infertility was described as having a negative impact on well-being and intimate relationships. Furthermore, the participants described hesitation about becoming a parent due to perceived or anticipated physical and psychological consequences of having had cancer. Given the sensitive topic of the study, the response rate (36%) is considered acceptable. The sample included participants who varied with regard to received fertility-related information, current fertility status and concerns related to the risk of being infertile. The results may be transferred to similar contexts with other groups of patients of childbearing age and a risk of impaired fertility due to disease. The findings imply that achieving parenthood, whether or not with biological children, is an area that
Salem, Jamie; Fehrmann, Paul
With the growing population of undergraduate students on our campus and an increased focus on their success, librarians at a large midwestern university were interested in the citation management styles of this university cohort. Our university library spends considerable resources each year to maintain and promote access to the robust…
Koster, E.S.; Philbert, D.; Dijk, L. van; Vries, T.W. de; Bouvy, M.L.
Background: In adolescents, non-adherence is a major problem and leads to uncontrolled disease. Objectives: To assess adolescents needs and preferences regarding counseling and support with focus on use of new media. Methods: Asthmatic adolescents needs and preferences were examined by means of
Tortorella, Guilherme Luz; Viana, Samanta; Fettermann, Diego
Purpose: This study aims to propose a complementary method to the A3 information collection, data analysis and capturing and sharing knowledge to facilitate problem solving in a general framework. The incorporation of this method minimizes the difficulties identified in the literature focused on continuous improvement of processes. The method…
Smit, Amelia K; Keogh, Louise A; Newson, Ainsley J; Hersch, Jolyn; Butow, Phyllis; Cust, Anne E
To explore the potential emotional and behavioural impact of providing information on personalised genomic risk to the public, using melanoma as an example, to aid research translation. We conducted four focus groups in which 34 participants were presented with a hypothetical scenario of an individual's lifetime genomic risk of melanoma (using the term 'genetic risk'). We asked about understanding of genetic risk, who would choose to receive this risk information, potential emotional and behavioural impacts, and other concerns or potential benefits. Data were analysed thematically. Participants thought this risk information could potentially motivate preventive behaviours such as sun protection and related it to screening for other diseases including breast cancer. Factors identified as influencing the decision to receive genetic risk information included education level, children, age and gender. Participants identified potential negative impacts on the recipient such as anxiety and worry, and proposed that this could be mitigated by providing additional explanatory and prevention information, and contact details of a health professional for further discussion. Participants' concerns included workplace and insurance discrimination. Participants recognised the potential for both positive and negative emotional and behavioural impacts related to receiving information on the personalised genomic risk of melanoma. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pateman, K; Cockburn, N; Campbell, J; Ford, P J
The symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) can affect oral care and access to dental services, but there is limited literature describing the oral health and perceived oral healthcare needs of people with MS. This study aimed to explore the oral health experiences, oral health behaviours and barriers to accessing dental care perceived by people living with MS in Australia. Six focus groups were held across two metropolitan areas (Brisbane, Queensland and Melbourne, Victoria) and one regional area (Toowoomba, Queensland). Focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis. Living with MS was a highly individual experience due to the range of symptoms that may be experienced. In addition to having different symptom experiences to others with MS, individual symptoms also differed on a daily basis as the disease relapsed and remitted. The physical expressions of MS directly and indirectly affected the oral health of participants. Additionally, oral health was affected by the side effects of medications and orofacial pain symptoms. Depending on the symptoms experienced by the individual, personal oral hygiene was affected and professional dental appointments were difficult. Participants also experienced structural barriers to accessing professional dental care including difficulty accessing transport to-and-from dental appointments, space limitations in the dental surgery and financial barriers to care. Dental care was perceived to be inflexible and was not tailored to individual experiences of MS, which contributed to perceptions of poor quality and appropriateness of care. It is important for dental professionals to offer tailored and individualized dental care when treating people with MS. Our findings suggest that there needs to be greater interprofessional communication and referral to manage atypical dental pain symptoms. Oral health education for people with MS should include altered strategies to performing daily oral hygiene, the management of xerostomia and
Flocke Susan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective clinician-patient communication about health behavior change is one of the most important and most overlooked strategies to promote health and prevent disease. Existing guidelines for specific health behavior counseling have been created and promulgated, but not successfully adopted in primary care practice. Building on work focused on creating effective clinician strategies for prompting health behavior change in the primary care setting, we developed an intervention intended to enhance clinician communication skills to create and act on teachable moments for smoking cessation. In this manuscript, we describe the development and implementation of the Teachable Moment Communication Process (TMCP intervention and the baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial designed to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods/Design This group randomized trial includes thirty-one community-based primary care clinicians practicing in Northeast Ohio and 840 of their adult patients. Clinicians were randomly assigned to receive either the Teachable Moments Communication Process (TMCP intervention for smoking cessation, or the delayed intervention. The TMCP intervention consisted of two, 3-hour educational training sessions including didactic presentation, skill demonstration through video examples, skills practices with standardized patients, and feedback from peers and the trainers. For each clinician enrolled, 12 patients were recruited for two time points. Pre- and post-intervention data from the clinicians, patients and audio-recorded clinician‒patient interactions were collected. At baseline, the two groups of clinicians and their patients were similar with regard to all demographic and practice characteristics examined. Both physician and patient recruitment goals were met, and retention was 96% and 94% respectively. Discussion Findings support the feasibility of training clinicians to use the Teachable Moments
de Jager, J; Wolters, H A; Pijnenborg, G H M
Research has shown that young adults with psychotic disorders frequently have problems relating to sexuality, intimacy and relationships. Such problems are often neglected in clinical practice. To perform a study that explores, on the basis of focus groups, how issues such as sexuality, intimacy and relationships can be addressed as part of the treatment of adolescents suffering from a psychotic disorder. We created eight focus groups consisting of clients attending the department of psychotic disorders and caregivers who worked there. The meetings of each focus group were fully transcribed and analysed by means of Nvivo. Clients indicated they wanted to address the topics of sexuality, intimacy and relationships in a group setting. They expressed the wish to have mixed gender groups and decided that in the group discussions the main focus should be on the exchange of personal experiences. In our view, it is desirable that psychiatry should pay more attention to the subject of sexuality. By giving adolescents suffering from psychotic disorders the opportunity to discuss their experiences, problems and feelings of insecurity in a group setting and in a low-threshold environment, psychiatrists can greatly improve the quality of care that they provide for their patients.
Wang, Miao; Bünger, Cody Eric; Li, Haisheng
and accuracy rate of the 2 scoring systems were compared in each cancer group. RESULTS: Both the T12 and T15 scoring systems showed statistically significant predictive value when the 448 patients were analyzed in total (T12, P rate was significantly higher in T15 (P...... predictive value in patients with spinal metastases. T15 has a statistically higher accuracy rate than T12. Among the various cancer groups, the 2 scoring systems are especially reliable in prostate and breast metastases groups. T15 is recommended as superior to T12 because of its higher accuracy rate.......STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 448 patients with spinal metastases from a variety of cancer groups. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific predictive value of the Tokuhashi scoring system (T12) and its revised version (T15) in spinal metastases of various primary tumors...
Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M
discussions with community pharmacists in the capital area Reykjavík and rural areas were employed to answer the research question: How has the pharmacists' societal role evolved after the legislation and what are the implications for pharmacy practice? The results showed firstly that the public image...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly......, the results showed that the pharmacists have difficulties reconciling their technical paradigm with a legislative and professional will specifying customer and patient focus. This study describes the challenges of a new legislation with a market focus for community pharmacists whose education emphasized...
Full Text Available Melioidosis, an often fatal infectious disease in Northeast Thailand, is caused by skin inoculation, inhalation or ingestion of the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The major underlying risk factor for melioidosis is diabetes mellitus. Recommendations for melioidosis prevention include using protective gear such as rubber boots and gloves when in direct contact with soil and environmental water, and consuming bottled or boiled water. Only a small proportion of people follow such recommendations.Nine focus group discussions were conducted to evaluate barriers to adopting recommended preventive behaviours. A total of 76 diabetic patients from northeast Thailand participated in focus group sessions. Barriers to adopting the recommended preventive behaviours and future intervention strategies were identified using two frameworks: the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel.Barriers were identified in the following five domains: (i knowledge, (ii beliefs about consequences, (iii intention and goals, (iv environmental context and resources, and (v social influence. Of 76 participants, 72 (95% had never heard of melioidosis. Most participants saw no harm in not adopting recommended preventive behaviours, and perceived rubber boots and gloves to be hot and uncomfortable while working in muddy rice fields. Participants reported that they normally followed the behaviour of friends, family and their community, the majority of whom did not wear boots while working in rice fields and did not boil water before drinking. Eight intervention functions were identified as relevant for the intervention: (i education, (ii persuasion, (iii incentivisation, (iv coercion, (v modeling, (vi environmental restructuring, (vii training, and (viii enablement. Participants noted that input from role models in the form of physicians, diabetic clinics, friends and families, and from the government via mass media would be required for them
Bhawra, Jasmin; Cooke, Martin J; Hanning, Rhona; Wilk, Piotr; Gonneville, Shelley L H
Aboriginal children in Canada are at a higher risk for overweight and obesity than other Canadian children. In Northern and remote areas, this has been linked to a lack of affordable nutritious food. However, the majority of Aboriginal children live in urban areas where food choices are more plentiful. This study aimed to explore the experiences of food insecurity among Métis and First Nations parents living in urban areas, including the predictors and perceived connections between food insecurity and obesity among Aboriginal children. Factors influencing children's diets, families' experiences with food insecurity, and coping strategies were explored using focus group discussions with 32 parents and caregivers of Métis and off-reserve First Nations children from Midland-Penetanguishene and London, Ontario. Four focus groups were conducted and transcribed verbatim between July 2011 and March 2013. A thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo software, and second coders ensured reliability of the results. Caregivers identified low income as an underlying cause of food insecurity within their communities and as contributing to poor nutrition among their children. Families reported a reliance on energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, as these tended to be more affordable and lasted longer than more nutritious, fresh food options. A lack of transportation also compromised families' ability to purchase healthful food. Aboriginal caregivers also mentioned a lack of access to traditional foods. Coping strategies such as food banks and community programming were not always seen as effective. In fact, some were reported as potentially exacerbating the problem of overweight and obesity among First Nations and Métis children. Food insecurity manifested itself in different ways, and coping strategies were often insufficient for addressing the lack of fruit and vegetable consumption in Aboriginal children's diets. Results suggest that obesity prevention strategies should take a
Lonardo, A.; Bellentani, S.; Argo, C.K.; Ballestri, S.; Byrne, Christopher D.; Caldwell, S.H.; Cortez-Pinto, H.; Grieco, A.; Machado, M.V.; Miele, L.; Targher, G.
An improved understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease epidemiology would lead to identification of individuals at high risk of developing chronic liver disease and extra-hepatic complications, thus contributing to more effective case finding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among selected groups.We aimed to illustrate the epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-risk groups, which were identified based on existing literature. To this end, PubMed was searched to r...
... of Nokia Group; Including On-Site Leased Workers From ATC Logistics and Electronics and Adecco Fort... workers from ATC Logistics and Electronics, Fort Worth, Texas. The workers supplied planning and materials... ATC Logistics and Electronics, and Adecco, Fort Worth, Texas, who became totally or partially...
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Chrysler Group LLC, Formerly Known as Chrysler LLC, Conner Avenue Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, CDI, Syncreon and Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC; Detriot, MI; Amended...
Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Bonnett, Brenda N
To compare veterinarians' and pet owners' perceptions of client expectations with respect to veterinarian-client communication and to identify related barriers and challenges to communication. Qualitative study based on focus group interviews. 6 pet owner focus groups (32 owners) and 4 veterinarian focus groups (24 companion animal veterinarians). Independent focus group sessions were conducted with standardized open-ended questions and follow-up probes. Content analysis was performed on transcripts of the focus group discussions. Five themes related to veterinarian-client communication were identified: educating clients (ie, explaining important information, providing information up front, and providing information in various forms), providing choices (ie, providing pet owners with a range of options, being respectful of owners' decisions, and working in partnership with owners), using 2-way communication (ie, using language clients understand, listening to what clients have to say, and asking the right questions), breakdowns in communication that affected the client's experience (ie, owners feeling misinformed, that they had not been given all options, and that their concerns had not been heard), and challenges veterinarians encountered when communicating with clients (ie, monetary concerns, client misinformation, involvement of > 1 client, and time limitations). Results suggested that several factors are involved in providing effective veterinarian-client communication and that breakdowns in communication can have an adverse effect on the veterinarian-client relationship.
Michael, Natasha; O'Callaghan, Clare; Sayers, Emma
Community-dwelling consumers of healthcare are increasing, many aging with life-limiting conditions and deteriorating cognition. However, few have had advance care planning discussions or completed documentation to ensure future care preferences are acted upon. This study examines the awareness, attitudes, and experiences of advance care planning amongst older people and unrelated offspring/caregivers of older people residing in the community. Qualitative descriptive research, which included focus groups with older people (55+ years) and older people's offspring/caregivers living in an Australian city and surrounding rural region. Data was analysed using an inductive and comparative approach. Sampling was both convenience and purposive. Participants responded to web-based, newsletter or email invitations from an agency, which aims to support healthcare consumers, a dementia support group, or community health centres in areas with high proportions of culturally and linguistically diverse community-dwellers. Eight focus groups were attended by a homogenous sample of 15 older people and 27 offspring/caregivers, with 43% born overseas. The overarching theme, 'shades of grey': struggles in transition, reflects challenges faced by older people and their offspring/caregivers as older people often erratically transition from independence and capacity to dependence and/or incapacity. Offspring/caregivers regularly struggled with older people's fluctuating autonomy and dependency as older people endeavoured to remain at home, and with conceptualising "best times" to actualise advance care planning with substitute decision maker involvement. Advance care planning was supported and welcomed, x advance care planning literacy was evident. Difficulties planning for hypothetical health events and socio-cultural attitudes thwarting death-related discussions were emphasised. Occasional offspring/caregivers with previous substitute decision maker experience reported distress related
Full Text Available Abstract Background Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Methods Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Results Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD; the impact of management; and career progression. ‘Pull factors’ favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. ‘Push factors’ discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel; limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by
Full Text Available Background: The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents’ and young adults’ motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. Methods: In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. Results: We identified four major themes: 1 motivation, 2 body experience and self-image, 3 relationships and sense of belonging, and 4 the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Conclusion: Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.
Full Text Available People with severe mental illnesses die early from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is lacking regarding effective primary care based interventions to tackle this problem.To identify current procedures for, barriers to, and facilitators of the delivery of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses.75 GPs, practice nurses, service users, community mental health staff and carers in UK GP practice or community mental health settings were interviewed in 14 focus groups which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework Analysis.Five barriers to delivering primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses were identified by the groups: negative perceptions of people with severe mental illnesses amongst some health professionals, difficulties accessing GP and community-based services, difficulties in managing a healthy lifestyle, not attending appointments, and a lack of awareness of increased cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental