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Sample records for include fixed effects

  1. Understanding Romanowsky staining. 2. The staining mechanism of suspension-fixed cells, including influences of specimen morphology on the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, R W; Curtis, D; Pindar, L

    1989-01-01

    Romanowsky staining of suspension-fixed lymphocytes and fibroblasts, deposited as monolayers on slides, involves an initial basic dyeing process followed by formation of a hydrophobic Azur B/Eosin Y complex at the more permeable and so faster staining cellular sites. This mechanism is shared with blood and marrow smears. However certain morphological features peculiar to suspension-fixed, cell culture-derived preparations also influence the staining pattern via rate control: namely the irregular and bulky profiles of fibroblasts, compared to the smoother and thinner lymphocytes; and the occasional superficial occlusion of cells by culture medium.

  2. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  3. Estimating the Impact of Time-Invariant Variables on FDI with Fixed Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Ronald B.; Ionascu, Delia Simona; Kristjánsdóttir, Helga

    This paper applies the panel fixed effects with vector decomposition estimator to three FDI datasets to estimate the impact of time-invariant variables on FDI while including fixed effects. We find that the omission of fixed effects significantly biases several of these variables, especially those...... proxying for trade costs and culture. After including fixed effects, we find that many time-invariant variables indicate the importance of vertical FDI. We also find that by eliminating these biases, the differences across datasets largely disappear. Thus, controversies in the literature that are driven...

  4. ECONOMIC UPDATE MECHANISM FIXED ASSETS. CRITERIA FOR ITS EFFECTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Заржевский, П.В.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the structure of the mechanism of renewal of fixed assets. The main structural elements: 1. The definition of the necessary requirements; 2. Formation of the order as part of the investment strategy; 3. Selection of sources of funding. The notion of an effective mechanism for renewal of fixed assets. Results and performance criteria described mechanism of renewal of fixed assets. The effect of accelerated depreciation on improving the efficiency of the mechanism of renew...

  5. Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta

    2012-03-01

    This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [A case of occlusal support reconstruction with modification of occlusal plane by fixed prosthetic restoration including dental implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Yoshihiro

    2006-04-01

    A 54-year-old female patient visited our dental office July 1997. The patient's chief complaint was difficulty of chewing due to loss of the right mandibular molars. She had a collapsed occlusal plane with loss extended over a long period of time. This case report describes restoration of the occlusal plane and occlusal supporting area by fixed prosthesis including implant-supported crowns. Anterior guidance and provisional restoration are useful for reconstruction of the occlusal plane. In a dental arch with implant-supported and tooth-supported crowns, periodical dental checkup and occlusal equilibration are very important due to the existence of biomechanically different factors. The patient was very satisfied with the fixed prosthesis including implant-supported crowns. It is thought that implant treatment improves the quality of life of free-end partially edentulous patients.

  7. Improved Inference of Heteroscedastic Fixed Effects Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Saeed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heteroscedasticity is a stern problem that distorts estimation and testing of panel data model (PDM. Arellano (1987 proposed the White (1980 estimator for PDM with heteroscedastic errors but it provides erroneous inference for the data sets including high leverage points. In this paper, our attempt is to improve heteroscedastic consistent covariance matrix estimator (HCCME for panel dataset with high leverage points. To draw robust inference for the PDM, our focus is to improve kernel bootstrap estimators, proposed by Racine and MacKinnon (2007. The Monte Carlo scheme is used for assertion of the results.

  8. Testing effective string models of black holes with fixed scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnitz, M.; Klebanov, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    We solve the problem of mixing between the fixed scalar and metric fluctuations. First, we derive the decoupled fixed scalar equation for the four-dimensional black hole with two different charges. We proceed to the five-dimensional black hole with different electric (one-brane) and magnetic (five-brane) charges, and derive two decoupled equations satisfied by appropriate mixtures of the original fixed scalar fields. The resulting greybody factors are proportional to those that follow from coupling to dimension (2,2) operators on the effective string. In general, however, the string action also contains couplings to chiral operators of dimension (1,3) and (3,1), which cause disagreements with the semiclassical absorption cross sections. Implications of this for the effective string models are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Comparing fixed effects and covariance structure estimators for panel data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Holm, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare the traditional econometric fixed effect estimator with the maximum likelihood estimator implied by covariance structure models for panel data. Their findings are that the maximum like lipoid estimator is remarkably robust to certain types of misspecifications...

  10. The Marriage Earnings Premium as a Distributed Fixed Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Wage equations using cross-sectional data typically find an earnings premium in excess of 10 percent for married men. One leading hypothesis for the premium is that marriage facilitates specialization that enables married men to become more productive than single men. Another is that the premium is attributable to an unobserved fixed effect,…

  11. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  12. Beyond the technological fix. [Detrimental and unforeseen side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1978-03-01

    Both technological and social fixes are likely to bring with them deterimental and unforeseen side effects. Although the perceived side effects of nuclear energy can undoubtedly be ameliorated by improved technology, a permanent institutional infrastructure will probably also be required. It is pointed out that confinement of nuclear energy to relatively few large sites rather than many small sites may be a first step toward creating this permanent institutional infrastructure.

  13. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Imaoka, Yuki; Sumi, Yuusuke; Uemae, Yoji; Yasuda-Kurihara, Hiroko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Tadao

    2018-01-01

    No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR) of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20) after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months) and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988-2002) and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999-2007). Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  14. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumito Kuranishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV. Patients and Methods. AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Results. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20 after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988–2002 and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999–2007. Conclusion. Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  15. Biases in multilevel analyses caused by cluster-specific fixed-effects imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Matthias; Drechsler, Jörg; Sakshaug, Joseph W

    2017-08-24

    When datasets are affected by nonresponse, imputation of the missing values is a viable solution. However, most imputation routines implemented in commonly used statistical software packages do not accommodate multilevel models that are popular in education research and other settings involving clustering of units. A common strategy to take the hierarchical structure of the data into account is to include cluster-specific fixed effects in the imputation model. Still, this ad hoc approach has never been compared analytically to the congenial multilevel imputation in a random slopes setting. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of the cluster-specific fixed-effects imputation model on multilevel inference. We show analytically that the cluster-specific fixed-effects imputation strategy will generally bias inferences obtained from random coefficient models. The bias of random-effects variances and global fixed-effects confidence intervals depends on the cluster size, the relation of within- and between-cluster variance, and the missing data mechanism. We illustrate the negative implications of cluster-specific fixed-effects imputation using simulation studies and an application based on data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) in Germany.

  16. Clinical Effectiveness of Using Aesthetic Fixed Prosthetic Appliances with Combined Occlusal Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Andrii Biben; Zinovii Ozhohan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the research was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of using aesthetic fixed prosthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface. Materials and methods. The study included 30 patients who were divided into 2 groups: Group I included 20 patients with combined occlusal surface of the crowns; Group II included 22 patients with ceramic occlusal surface of the crowns. The patients were observed 3, 6 and 12 months after prosthetic repair. Results. 6 months after prosthet...

  17. Spillover adherence effects of fixed-dose combination HIV therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauf TL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Teresa L Kauf1, Keith L Davis2, Stephanie R Earnshaw2, E Anne Davis31Department of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3Independent consultant, Pittsboro, NC, USAAbstract: The impact of fixed-dose combination (FDC products on adherence to other, non-fixed regimen components has not been examined. We compared adherence to a third antiretroviral (ART component among patients receiving a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone consisting of the FDC Epzicom®, GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC (abacavir sulfate 600 mg + lamivudine 300 mg; FDC group versus NRTI combinations taken as two separate pills (NRTI Combo group using data from a national sample of 30 health plans covering approximately 38 million lives from 1997 to 2005. Adherence was measured as the medication possession ratio (MPR. Multivariate logistic regression compared treatment groups based on the likelihood of achieving ≥95% adherence, with sensitivity analyses using alternative thresholds. MPR was assessed as a continuous variable using multivariate linear regression. Covariates included age, gender, insurance payer type, year of study drug initiation, presence of mental health and substance abuse disorders, and third agent class. The study sample consisted of 650 FDC and 1947 NRTI Combo patients. Unadjusted mean adherence to the third agent was higher in the FDC group than the NRTI Combo group (0.92 vs 0.85; P < 0.0001. In regression analyses, FDC patients were 48% and 39% more likely to achieve 95% and 90% third agent adherence, respectively (P ≤ 0.03. None of the other MPR specifications achieved comparable results. Among managed care patients, use of an FDC appears to substantially improve adherence to a third regimen component and thus the likelihood of achieving the accepted standard for adherence to HIV therapy of 95%.Keywords

  18. Differences in Tribological Behaviors upon Switching Fixed and Moving Materials of Tribo-pairs including Metal and Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Aijie; Tian, Pengyi; Wen, Shizhu; Guo, Fei; Hu, Yueqiang; Jia, Wenpeng; Dong, Conglin; Tian, Yu

    2017-10-12

    The coefficient of friction (COF) between two materials is usually believed to be an intrinsic property of the materials themselves. In this study, metals of stainless steel (304) and brass (H62), and polymers of polypropylene (PP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were tested on a standard ball-on-three-plates test machine. Significantly different tribological behaviors were observed when fixed and moving materials of tribo-pairs (metal/polymer) were switched. As an example, under the same applied load and rotating speed, the COF (0.49) between a rotating PP ball and three fixed H62 plates was approximately 2.3 times higher than that between switched materials of tribo-pairs. Meanwhile, the COF between H62 and PTFE was relatively stable. The unexpected tribological behaviors were ascribed to the thermal and mechanical properties of tribo-pairs. Theoretical analysis revealed that the differences in the maximum local temperature between switching the fixed and moving materials of tribo-pairs were consistent with the differences in the tested COF. This result indicated the precise prediction of the COF of two materials is complexcity, and that thermal and mechanical properties should be properly considered in designing tribo-pairs, because these properties may significantly affect tribological performance.

  19. Vibration of Piezoelectric Nanowires Including Surface Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, surface and piezoelectric effects on the vibration behavior of nanowires (NWs are investigated by using a Timoshenko beam model. The electric field equations and the governing equations of motion for the piezoelectric NWs are derived with the consideration of surface effects. By the exact solution of the governing equations, an expression for the natural frequencies of NWs with simply-supported boundary conditions is obtained. The effects of piezoelectricity and surface effects on the vibrational behavior of Timoshenko NWs are graphically illustrated. A comparison is also made between the predictions of Timoshenko beam model and those of its Euler-Bernoulli counterpart. Additionally, the present results are validated through comparison with the available data in the literature.

  20. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  1. SIDE EFFECTS OF TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT WITH FIXED-DOSE COMBINATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Q; Xi, X E; Wang, Y L; Han, W; Zhang, C X; Jiao, J H

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore the therapeutic effect and safety of Fixed-dose Combinations (FDCs) on tuberculosis. A computer search was carried out to review the literature related to clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trails (CCTs) on the curative effect and safety of treating pulmonary tuberculosis with FDCs. The results demonstrated that, in the 22 studies examined, comparison of sputum negative conservation rate of treating smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis with FDCs and single drug, the relative risk (RR) value and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.02 (1.01, 1.03) and 1.01 (1.00, 1.02), respectively, at the end of the 2nd month and 6th month (P0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in total occurrence of the rates of side effects pertaining to skin reaction, gastrointestinal tract side reaction, occurrence rate of liver and gall side reaction or occurrence rate of drug withdrawal because of side effects (P>0.05). After sensitivity analysis, it was found that occurrence rate of gastrointestinal tract side effects and occurrence rate of liver and gall side effects were unstable. All the findings suggest that the curative effect of treating tuberculosis with FDCs is better than that of a single drug. More reliable evidence is required since the safety evaluation results are not stable.

  2. Structural Optimization Including Centrifugal and Coriolis Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    the desired frequency changes with excellent accuracy. MSC/ NASTRAN finite element solution sequences were modified to incorporate rotary effects. DMAP ...properties can be altered by a nonlinear change factor. These manipulations may be done by selective use of the MATMOD DMAP module. In the MSC/ NASTRAN ...Examples were carried out using the general purpose software package MSC/ NASTRAN and ADS (Automated Design Synthesis). "I OTIC copy INSpE TE 6

  3. Accounting for Missing Correlation Coefficients in Fixed-Effects MASEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Suzanne; Cheung, Mike W-L

    2018-01-01

    Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) is increasingly applied to advance theories by synthesizing existing findings. MASEM essentially consists of two stages. In Stage 1, a pooled correlation matrix is estimated based on the reported correlation coefficients in the individual studies. In Stage 2, a structural model (such as a path model) is fitted to explain the pooled correlations. Frequently, the individual studies do not provide all the correlation coefficients between the research variables. In this study, we modify the currently optimal MASEM-method to deal with missing correlation coefficients, and compare its performance with existing methods. This study is the first to evaluate the performance of fixed-effects MASEM methods under different levels of missing correlation coefficients. We found that the often used univariate methods performed very poorly, while the multivariate methods performed well overall.

  4. Effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of carious lesions during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Contreras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty experienced by patients with fixed orthodontic appliances in maintaining adequate oral hygiene poses a risk for dental caries. The use of probiotics has been proposed as a means of prevention. The following systematic review aims to determine the effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of dental caries during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. This review was carried out according to the PRISMA guidelines. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed and Google Scholar Beta databases. The inclusion criteria included randomized controlled clinical trials involving the use of probiotics, caries and patients under fixed orthodontic treatment. The methodological quality of the articles was evaluated according to risk of bias. Of the five included studies, three reported significant differences compared to the control group. Of the others, one article reported significant decrease in the final count of microorganisms compared to the beginning of treatment. Only one study reported no differences of any kind. It was estimated that the eligible studies were of moderate methodological quality and had an unclear risk of bias, without affecting key domains for the research. It is concluded that the daily consumption of probiotics can be effective in the prevention of carious lesions in patients under fixed orthodontic treatment. However, this should be interpreted with caution and corroborated by clinical trials of better methodological quality.

  5. Use of Fixed Effects Models to Analyze Self-Controlled Case Series Data in Vaccine Safety Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Stanley; Zeng, Chan; Newcomer, Sophia; Nelson, Jennifer; Glanz, Jason

    2012-04-19

    Conditional Poisson models have been used to analyze vaccine safety data from self-controlled case series (SCCS) design. In this paper, we derived the likelihood function of fixed effects models in analyzing SCCS data and showed that the likelihoods from fixed effects models and conditional Poisson models were proportional. Thus, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of time-varying variables including vaccination effect from fixed effects model and conditional Poisson model were equal. We performed a simulation study to compare empirical type I errors, means and standard errors of vaccination effect coefficient, and empirical powers among conditional Poisson models, fixed effects models, and generalized estimating equations (GEE), which has been commonly used for analyzing longitudinal data. Simulation study showed that both fixed effect models and conditional Poisson models generated the same estimates and standard errors for time-varying variables while GEE approach produced different results for some data sets. We also analyzed SCCS data from a vaccine safety study examining the association between measles mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). In analyzing MMR-ITP data, likelihood-based statistical tests were employed to test the impact of time-invariant variable on vaccination effect. In addition a complex semi-parametric model was fitted by simply treating unique event days as indicator variables in the fixed effects model. We conclude that theoretically fixed effects models provide identical MLEs as conditional Poisson models. Because fixed effect models are likelihood based, they have potentials to address methodological issues in vaccine safety studies such as how to identify optimal risk window and how to analyze SCCS data with misclassification of adverse events.

  6. Growth and energy nexus in Europe revisited: Evidence from a fixed effects political economy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2013-01-01

    This is an empirical study on the causal relationship between economic growth and energy for 26 European countries in a multivariate panel framework over the period 1975–2009 using a two-way fixed effects model and including greenhouse gas emissions, capital, fossil energy consumption, Herfindahl index (political competition) and number of years the government chief executive stays in office (political stability) as independent variables in the model. Empirical results confirm bidirectional causality between growth and political stability, capital and political stability, capital and fossil energy consumption. Whether political stability favors the implementation of growth or leads to corruption demands further research. - Highlights: • Economic growth and energy for 26 European countries is examined. • Two-way fixed effects model with political economy variables is employed. • Bidirectional causality is observed between growth and political stability

  7. Nonequilibrium effects in fixed-bed interstitial fluid dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronberg, Alexandre E.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Continuum models for the role of the interstitial fluid with respect to mass and heat dispersion in a fixed bed are discussed. It is argued that the departures from local equilibrium and not the concentration and temperature gradients as such should be considered as the driving forces for mass and

  8. Analyses of fixed effects for genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test day records in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Anang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Season, rainfall, day of rain, temperature, humidity, year and farm are fixed effects, which have been reported to influence milk yield. Those factors are often linked together to contribute to the variation of milk production. This research is addressed to study the fixed effect factors, including lactation curve, which should be considered for genetic evaluation of milk yield based on test day records of dairy cattle. The data were taken from four different farms, which were PT. Taurus Dairy Farm, BPPT Cikole, Bandang Dairy Farm, and BBPTU Baturraden. In total of 16806 test day records were evaluated, consisting of 9,302 at first and 7,504 at second lactation, respectively. The results indicated that fixed effects were very specific and the influences had different patterns for each farm. Consequently, in a genetic evaluation, these factors such as lactation, temperature, year, day of rain, and humidity need to be evaluated first. Ali-Schaeffer curve represented the most appropriate curve to use in the genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Indonesia.

  9. Long-term clinical and bacterial effects of xylitol on patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mohamed I; Allarakia, Reem; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Nalliah, Romesh; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical and bacterial effects of using 6 g of xylitol per day for 3 months on patients with full fixed orthodontic appliances. The study was a pilot clinical trial that included 41 subjects who were undergoing orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A received xylitol chewing gum, group B received xylitol dissolvable chewable tablets, and Group C served as the control group and did not receive xylitol gums or tablets. Clinical examination and the collection of plaque and saliva samples were carried out at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. All three groups were given oral hygiene instruction and were put on a 6-month cleaning and topical fluoride schedule. Plaque scores and bacterial counts were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the different approaches at reducing the caries risk. Xylitol groups did not experience any more reduction in plaque score, plaque MS counts, or salivary MS counts than the control group nor did they have lower values at any of the time points. Chewing gum did not significantly increase the incidence of debonded brackets over the other groups. Xylitol does not have a clinical or bacterial benefit in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Oral hygiene instructions and 6-month topical fluoride application were effective at reducing plaque scores and bacterial counts in patients with full fixed appliances regardless of whether or not xylitol was used.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of non-current fixed assets on profitability and asset management efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lubyanaya, A. V.; Izmailov, A. M.; Nikulina, E. Y.; Shaposhnikov, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the problem, which stems from non-current fixed assets affecting profitability and asset management efficiency. Tangible assets, intangible assets and financial assets are all included in non-current fixed assets. The aim of the research is to identify the impact of estimates and valuation in accounting for non-current fixed assets through several objectives, for example, explanation of the impairment tests of tangible and intangible assets under ...

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Non-Current Fixed Assets on Profitability and Asset Management Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubyanaya, Alexandra V.; Izmailov, Airat M.; Nikulina, Ekaterina Y.; Shaposhnikov, Vladislav A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the problem, which stems from non-current fixed assets affecting profitability and asset management efficiency. Tangible assets, intangible assets and financial assets are all included in non-current fixed assets. The aim of the research is to identify the impact of estimates and valuation in…

  12. Future Costs, Fixed Healthcare Budgets, and the Decision Rules of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter; Meltzer, David; Brouwer, Werner

    2016-02-01

    Life-saving medical technologies result in additional demand for health care due to increased life expectancy. However, most economic evaluations do not include all medical costs that may result from this additional demand in health care and include only future costs of related illnesses. Although there has been much debate regarding the question to which extent future costs should be included from a societal perspective, the appropriate role of future medical costs in the widely adopted but more narrow healthcare perspective has been neglected. Using a theoretical model, we demonstrate that optimal decision rules for cost-effectiveness analyses assuming fixed healthcare budgets dictate that future costs of both related and unrelated medical care should be included. Practical relevance of including the costs of future unrelated medical care is illustrated using the example of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Our findings suggest that guidelines should prescribe inclusion of these costs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. THE EFFECT OF KAVINER ON THE FIXED DENTURES BONDING STRENGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Krunić

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A layer of agents used to protect polished teeth is applied to a stump prior to the final cementation of the fixed denture for the purpose of alleviating postoperative sensibility. The objective of this paper was to establish, under the in vitro conditions, whether application of one layer of the agent (Kaviner intended to isolate polished teeth decreases the fixed denture bonding strength. Used as a material were 40 intact human premolars extracted for orthodox reasons, polished by a high capacity machine using a cold water spray cooling. Experimental crowns were made by a standard method from NiCrMo alloy and cemented by zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements on the corresponding stumps (20 in each group. After seven days, the bond strength between the polished teeth and crowns was mechanically tested, first without and then after application of Kaviner. The results obtained have shown a decrease in the bonding strength with both cements used, higher decrease in the retention force being observed with the glass ionomer cement. However, the retention force values obtained after the application of Kaviner for both observed dental cements are still clinically acceptable.

  14. Displacement and Supplemental Effects of the Mobile Internet on Fixed Internet Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; Bouwman, H.; Gillebaard, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile devices facilitate the use of mobile services that are similar to services used via fixed Internet connections. The objective of this article is to assess displacement effects between fixed and mobile Internet services, and to research the role of technical capabilities of mobile handsets and

  15. Fixed-Time Schedule Effects in Combination with Response-Dependent Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, John C.; Bartels-Meints, Jamie A.; Sy, Jolene R.; Francisco, Monica T.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of fixed-interval (FI), fixed-time (FT), and conjoint (combined) FI FT reinforcement schedules on the responding of 3 adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Responding on vocational tasks decreased for 2 of 3 participants under FT alone relative to FI alone. Responding under FI FT resulted in response…

  16. The effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalya Al-Moghrabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In the view of the widespread acceptance of indefinite retention, it is important to determine the effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers on periodontal health, survival and failure rates of retainers, cost-effectiveness, and impact of orthodontic retainers on patient-reported outcomes. Methods A comprehensive literature search was undertaken based on a defined electronic and gray literature search strategy (PROSPERO: CRD42015029169. The following databases were searched (up to October 2015; MEDLINE via OVID, PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS, BBO, ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Research Register, and ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database. Randomized and non-randomized controlled clinical trials, prospective cohort studies, and case series (minimum sample size of 20 with minimum follow-up periods of 6 months reporting periodontal health, survival and failure rates of retainers, cost-effectiveness, and impact of orthodontic retainers on patient-reported outcomes were identified. The Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess the quality of included trials. Results Twenty-four studies were identified, 18 randomized controlled trials and 6 prospective cohort studies. Of these, only 16 were deemed to be of high quality. Meta-analysis was unfeasible due to considerable clinical heterogeneity and variations in outcome measures. The mean failure risk for mandibular stainless steel fixed retainers bonded from canine to canine was 0.29 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.26, 0.33 and for those bonded to canines only was 0.25 (95 % CI: 0.16, 0.33. A meta-regression suggested that failure of fixed stainless steel mandibular retainers was not directly related to the period elapsed since placement (P = 0.938. Conclusion Further well-designed prospective studies are needed to elucidate the benefits and potential harms associated with

  17. The effects of fixed-term contracts on workers in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Karime Abadía Alvarado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effects of fixed-term contracts on workers. Specifically, the paper analyzes their impact on wages and on satisfaction levels. Regulations governing fixed-term and indefinite contracts in Colombia and the main labor reforms related to these two types of contract are analyzed. Women, young and low-educated workers, who work in small firms, in the private sector and in construction or manufacturing are most likely to have fixed-term contracts. In terms of wages, we found a significant raw and adjusted wage gap against workers with fixed-term contracts. Finally, we found, as expected, evidence that fixed-term contracts reduce the level of worker satisfaction.

  18. [Indapamide SR/Amlodipine Fixed Dose Combination: Novel Approach to Effective Control of Systolic Arterial Pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachyeva, O N; Kotovskaya, Y V; Dudinskaya, E N

    2017-11-01

    Effective control of arterial pressure (AP) is achieved only in ⅓ of patients with arterial hypertension. It is especially difficult to achieve control of systolic (S) AP in elderly patients in whom SAP is the strongest prognostic factor of cardiovascular complications. Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics and calcium antagonists are effective for lowering of elevated SAP and pulse (P) AP including aortic PAP elevation of which is associated with high stiffness of arterial wall and is typical for elderly people. Combination of a thiazide diuretic and a calcium antagonist has been recommended by modern guidelines on arterial hypertension (AH) management but until recently it has not found wide application because of absence of a fixed preparation. Evidence base of indapamide-retard and amlodipine use in AH, their profiles of efficacy and safety are such that their combination can become an alternative variant for treatment of patients with AH. Appearance of a fixed indapamide-retard/amlodipine combination opens new perspectives of effective therapy of AH with high SAP and PAP in elderly and other patients with high stiffness of arterial wall.

  19. Intergenerational continuity in attitudes: A latent variable family fixed-effects approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Abraham, W Todd

    2017-12-01

    Attitudes are associated with behavior. Adolescents raised by parents who endorse particular attitudes are relatively more likely to endorse those same attitudes. The present study addresses conditions that would moderate intergenerational continuity in attitudes across 6 domains: authoritative parenting, conventional life goals, gender egalitarianism, deviancy, abortion, and sexual permissiveness. Hypothesized moderators included the attitudes of the other parent, and adolescent sex. Data come from a 2-generation study of a cohort of 451 adolescents (52% female), a close-aged sibling, and their parents. After employing a novel specification in which family fixed-effect models partitioned out variation at the between-family level, hypotheses were tested on the within-family variance. Unlike typical family fixed-effect models, this specification accounted for measurement error. Intergenerational continuity was not significant (deviancy), negative (sexual permissiveness), and conditional on the attitudes of the coparent (authoritative parenting, conventional life goals, and gender egalitarianism). Adolescent age, sex, and conscientiousness were accounted for in all analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of mandibular protraction appliance associated to fixed appliance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno D'Aurea Furquim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to conduct a cephalometric evaluation of the skeletal, dental and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment of adult patients presenting Class II malocclusion, performed with a Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed orthodontic appliance. METHODS: The sample consisted of teleradiographs obtained before and after treatment of 9 adult patients (initial mean age of 22.48 years with bilateral Class II, division 1, malocclusion. Paired t test (p < 0.05 was applied to compare initial and final values. RESULTS: t test revealed an increase in anteroinferior facial height and posterior facial height. The dental changes include: extrusion of upper incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion of lower incisors, mesialization and extrusion of mandibular molars. Regarding the soft tissue component, there was an increase in nasolabial angle in addition to upper lip retrusion. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of treating Class II malocclusion adult patients, by means of using Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed appliance were mostly observed in the mandibular arch, and consisted of buccal inclination, protrusion and intrusion of incisors, and mesialization and extrusion of the molars.

  1. Effect of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Karlsson, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodont....... Conclusion. Daily intake of fluoridated milk may aid remineralization of white spot lesions adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances.......Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodontic...... treatment with fixed appliances were enrolled and randomly allocated to a randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to drink one glass of milk (~ 200 ml) supplemented with fluoride (5 ppm) once daily and the subjects of the control group to drink the same...

  2. Erratum to: On the Unidentifiability of the Fixed-Effects 3PL Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Ernesto; González, Jorge; Tuerlinckx, Francis

    2015-12-01

    Condition 2 of Theorem 2 was incorrect in the published version. The correct condition 2 appears in this erratum. Theorem 2. Suppose that I ≥ 3 for the fixed-effects 3PL model. If ω1 = (α1, β1, c1) is fixed at(1, 0, 0), then1. The person parameters are identified by the observations.2. The item parameters (α2:J , β2:J , c2:J ) are not identified by the observations.

  3. Persistence Heterogeneity Testing in Panels with Interactive Fixed Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Velasco, Carlos

    for correction. We develop tests of homogeneity of dynamics, including the degree of integration, that have no trivial power under local departures from the null hypothesis of a non-negligible fraction of cross-section units. A simulation study shows that our estimates and test have good performance even...

  4. Fitness effects of fixed beneficial mutations in microbial populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozen, D.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Gerrish, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Beneficial mutations are intuitively relevant to understanding adaptation [1-3], yet not all beneficial mutations are of consequence to the long-term evolutionary outcome of adaptation. Many beneficial mutations - mostly those of small effect - are lost due either to (1) genetic drift [4, 5] or to

  5. Estimation of Fractionally Integrated Panels with Fixed Effects and Cross-Section Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider large N, T panel data models with fixed effects, common factors allowing cross-section dependence, and persistent data and shocks, which are assumed fractionally integrated. In a basic setup, the main interest is on the fractional parameter of the idiosyncratic component, which...... is estimated in first differences after factor removal by projection on the cross-section average. The pooled conditional-sum-of-squares estimate is root-NT consistent but the normal asymptotic distribution might not be centered, requiring the time series dimension to grow faster than the cross-section size...... for correction. Generalizing the basic setup to include covariates and heterogeneous parameters, we propose individual and common-correlation estimates for the slope parameters, while error memory parameters are estimated from regression residuals. The two parameter estimates are root-T consistent...

  6. Estimating the Effects of Parental Divorce and Death With Fixed Effects Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R; Anthony, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high school). In both data sets, divorce and death were associated with multiple negative outcomes among children. Although evidence for a causal effect of divorce on children was reasonably strong, effect sizes were small in magnitude. A second analysis revealed a substantial degree of variability in children's outcomes following parental divorce, with some children declining, others improving, and most not changing at all. The estimated effects of divorce appeared to be strongest among children with the highest propensity to experience parental divorce.

  7. Estimating the Effects of Parental Divorce and Death With Fixed Effects Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Anthony, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high school). In both data sets, divorce and death were associated with multiple negative outcomes among children. Although evidence for a causal effect of divorce on children was reasonably strong, effect sizes were small in magnitude. A second analysis revealed a substantial degree of variability in children’s outcomes following parental divorce, with some children declining, others improving, and most not changing at all. The estimated effects of divorce appeared to be strongest among children with the highest propensity to experience parental divorce. PMID:24659827

  8. Inferring fixed effects in a mixed linear model from an integrated likelihood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianola, Daniel; Sorensen, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A new method for likelihood-based inference of fixed effects in mixed linear models, with variance components treated as nuisance parameters, is presented. The method uses uniform-integration of the likelihood; the implementation employs the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for elimination...... of all nuisances, viewing random effects and variance components as missing data. In a simulation of a grazing trial, the procedure was compared with four widely used estimators of fixed effects in mixed models, and found to be competitive. An analysis of body weight in freshwater crayfish was conducted...

  9. Tobit, fixed effects, and cohort analyses of the relationship between severity and duration of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J P; Fries, J F

    1993-06-01

    Three methodological problems are commonly faced by researchers investigating relationships between severity and duration of illness among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (1) Linear regression techniques yield biased estimates when measures of severity are continuous but range between and include limiting values such as 0 and 3. (2) Data from the same patient over time are typically pooled together with data from different patients at the same time and over time. Models are then used that do not account for the statistical problems that can result from pooling. (3) Persons with varying years of duration of disease are typically combined and analyzed without any special attention to cohort effects. Changes in severity over time for cohorts of patients with fewer than 10 years of duration may be different from changes in severity of patients with more than 20 years of duration from the onset of the disease. In this study, severity is measured by the 0-3 disability scale in the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Duration is measured by self-report of the onset of symptoms by subjects. Popular techniques are borrowed from econometrics--Tobit, Fixed Effects, and dummy variables for Cohort Models--that were developed to address three analogous problems in economic data. The three economic techniques are applied separately and together using data collected by Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System (ARAMIS) on 330 RA patients in 1981 who were followed until 1989. Although the Tobit technique does not appear to be especially useful with these data, Fixed Effects and Cohort Models do appear to be useful.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Effect of material variation on the biomechanical behaviour of orthodontic fixed appliances: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Keilig, Ludger; Hasan, Istabrak; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Biomechanical analysis of orthodontic tooth movement is complex, as many different tissues and appliance components are involved. The aim of this finite element study was to assess the relative effect of material alteration of the various components of the orthodontic appliance on the biomechanical behaviour of tooth movement. A three-dimensional finite element solid model was constructed. The model consisted of a canine, a first, and a second premolar, including the surrounding tooth-supporting structures and fixed appliances. The materials of the orthodontic appliances were alternated between: (1) composite resin or resin-modified glass ionomer cement for the adhesive, (2) steel, titanium, ceramic, or plastic for the bracket, and (3) β-titanium or steel for the wire. After vertical activation of the first premolar by 0.5mm in occlusal direction, stress and strain calculations were performed at the periodontal ligament and the orthodontic appliance. The finite element analysis indicated that strains developed at the periodontal ligament were mainly influenced by the orthodontic wire (up to +63 per cent), followed by the bracket (up to +44 per cent) and the adhesive (up to +4 per cent). As far as developed stresses at the orthodontic appliance are concerned, wire material had the greatest influence (up to +155 per cent), followed by bracket material (up to +148 per cent) and adhesive material (up to +8 per cent). The results of this in silico study need to be validated by in vivo studies before they can be extrapolated to clinical practice. According to the results of this finite element study, all components of the orthodontic fixed appliance, including wire, bracket, and adhesive, seem to influence, to some extent, the biomechanics of tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  12. LTRACK: Beam-transport calculation including wakefield effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.; Cooper, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    LTRACK is a first-order beam-transport code that includes wakefield effects up to quadrupole modes. This paper will introduce the readers to this computer code by describing the history, the method of calculations, and a brief summary of the input/output information. Future plans for the code will also be described

  13. Isotopic effects in the neon fixed point: uncertainty of the calibration data correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steur, Peter P. M.; Pavese, Franco; Fellmuth, Bernd; Hermier, Yves; Hill, Kenneth D.; Seog Kim, Jin; Lipinski, Leszek; Nagao, Keisuke; Nakano, Tohru; Peruzzi, Andrea; Sparasci, Fernando; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, Anna; Tamura, Osamu; Tew, Weston L.; Valkiers, Staf; van Geel, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The neon triple point is one of the defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). Although recognizing that natural neon is a mixture of isotopes, the ITS-90 definition only states that the neon should be of ‘natural isotopic composition’, without any further requirements. A preliminary study in 2005 indicated that most of the observed variability in the realized neon triple point temperatures within a range of about 0.5 mK can be attributed to the variability in isotopic composition among different samples of ‘natural’ neon. Based on the results of an International Project (EUROMET Project No. 770), the Consultative Committee for Thermometry decided to improve the realization of the neon fixed point by assigning the ITS-90 temperature value 24.5561 K to neon with the isotopic composition recommended by IUPAC, accompanied by a quadratic equation to take the deviations from the reference composition into account. In this paper, the uncertainties of the equation are discussed and an uncertainty budget is presented. The resulting standard uncertainty due to the isotopic effect (k = 1) after correction of the calibration data is reduced to (4 to 40) μK when using neon of ‘natural’ isotopic composition or to 30 μK when using 20Ne. For comparison, an uncertainty component of 0.15 mK should be included in the uncertainty budget for the neon triple point if the isotopic composition is unknown, i.e. whenever the correction cannot be applied.

  14. Flexible and fixed partitions in freestalls--effects on lying behavior and cow preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, L E; Bøe, K E

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of stall partition design on total lying time, lying position, and stall cleanliness, and to evaluate the preferences of cows regarding stalls with traditional fixed stall dividers or flexible stall dividers. Using a crossover design, 16 nonlactating dairy cows were housed singly for 9 d in pens with 2 freestalls, 1 with fixed cantilever dividers and 1 with flexible dividers. The cows were first given access to one stall type, and then to the other type of stall, and finally to both in a preference test. Type of stall divider did not influence lying behavior (13.5h for fixed versus 14.0 h for flexible, ± 0.4h), lying positions, or stall cleanliness; however, the cows showed a preference for lying in the flexible stalls (65.2 for flexible vs. 34.8 for fixed ± 8.2%). This indicated that cows are able to distinguish between type of stall divider and that it is important to them; however, it is not clear if the reason for this is the shape or the properties of the dividers. We concluded that cattle chose a flexible stall divider over a fixed one, but the long-term consequences of this preference are not clear, because no obvious changes in stall usage were observed when cows were only given access to one type of divider. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., a symbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris that is very effective at fixing nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-11-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can establish symbiotic associations with several Rhizobium species; however, the effectiveness of most strains at fixing nitrogen under field conditions is very low. PRF 81(T) is a very effective strain, usually referred to as Rhizobium tropici and used successfully in thousands of doses of commercial inoculants for the common bean crop in Brazil; it has shown high rates of nitrogen fixation in all areas representative of the crop in the country. Here, we present results that indicate that PRF 81(T), although it belongs to the 'R. tropici group', which includes 10 Rhizobium species, R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum, R. multihospitium, R. miluonense, R. hainanense, R. calliandrae, R. mayense, R. jaguaris and R. rhizogenes, represents a novel species. Several morpho-physiological traits differentiated PRF 81(T) from related species. Differences were also confirmed in the analysis of rep-PCR (sharing less than 45 % similarity with the other species), MLSA with recA, atpD and rpoB genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. The novel species, for which we propose the name Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., is able to establish effective root nodule symbioses with Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, Crotalaria juncea and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The type strain is PRF 81(T) ( = CNPSo 122(T) = SEMIA 4080(T) = IPR-Pv81(T) = WDCM 440(T)).

  16. The Fixed-Effects Zero-Inflated Poisson Model with an Application to Health Care Utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majo, M.C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2011-01-01

    Response variables that are scored as counts and that present a large number of zeros often arise in quantitative health care analysis. We define a zero-in flated Poisson model with fixed-effects in both of its equations to identify respondent and health-related characteristics associated with

  17. Secondary School Extracurricular Involvement and Academic Achievement: A Fixed Effects Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Recent economic research has investigated the extent to which involvement in school-sponsored clubs and sports constitutes human capital investment. Through instrumental variables, the existing literature focuses on identifying long-term impacts in terms of educational attainment and wages. Instead, I use a fixed effects strategy to test whether…

  18. Robust estimation and moment selection in dynamic fixed-effects panel data models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cizek, Pavel; Aquaro, Michele

    Considering linear dynamic panel data models with fixed effects, existing outlier–robust estimators based on the median ratio of two consecutive pairs of first-differenced data are extended to higher-order differencing. The estimation procedure is thus based on many pairwise differences and their

  19. A Note on the Identifiability of Fixed-Effect 3PL Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao

    2016-12-01

    In this note, we prove that the 3 parameter logistic model with fixed-effect abilities is identified only up to a linear transformation of the ability scale under mild regularity conditions, contrary to the claims in Theorem 2 of San Martín et al. (Psychometrika, 80(2):450-467, 2015a).

  20. Iterative Usage of Fixed and Random Effect Models for Powerful and Efficient Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Huang, Meng; Fan, Bin; Buckler, Edward S.; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2016-01-01

    False positives in a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) can be effectively controlled by a fixed effect and random effect Mixed Linear Model (MLM) that incorporates population structure and kinship among individuals to adjust association tests on markers; however, the adjustment also compromises true positives. The modified MLM method, Multiple Loci Linear Mixed Model (MLMM), incorporates multiple markers simultaneously as covariates in a stepwise MLM to partially remove the confounding between testing markers and kinship. To completely eliminate the confounding, we divided MLMM into two parts: Fixed Effect Model (FEM) and a Random Effect Model (REM) and use them iteratively. FEM contains testing markers, one at a time, and multiple associated markers as covariates to control false positives. To avoid model over-fitting problem in FEM, the associated markers are estimated in REM by using them to define kinship. The P values of testing markers and the associated markers are unified at each iteration. We named the new method as Fixed and random model Circulating Probability Unification (FarmCPU). Both real and simulated data analyses demonstrated that FarmCPU improves statistical power compared to current methods. Additional benefits include an efficient computing time that is linear to both number of individuals and number of markers. Now, a dataset with half million individuals and half million markers can be analyzed within three days. PMID:26828793

  1. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  2. Estimating the influence of life satisfaction and positive affect on later income using sibling fixed effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Oswald, Andrew J

    2012-12-04

    The question of whether there is a connection between income and psychological well-being is a long-studied issue across the social, psychological, and behavioral sciences. Much research has found that richer people tend to be happier. However, relatively little attention has been paid to whether happier individuals perform better financially in the first place. This possibility of reverse causality is arguably understudied. Using data from a large US representative panel, we show that adolescents and young adults who report higher life satisfaction or positive affect grow up to earn significantly higher levels of income later in life. We focus on earnings approximately one decade after the person's well-being is measured; we exploit the availability of sibling clusters to introduce family fixed effects; we account for the human capacity to imagine later socioeconomic outcomes and to anticipate the resulting feelings in current well-being. The study's results are robust to the inclusion of controls such as education, intelligence quotient, physical health, height, self-esteem, and later happiness. We consider how psychological well-being may influence income. Sobel-Goodman mediation tests reveal direct and indirect effects that carry the influence from happiness to income. Significant mediating pathways include a higher probability of obtaining a college degree, getting hired and promoted, having higher degrees of optimism and extraversion, and less neuroticism.

  3. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izacard, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504) that stands for interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function). One of the main differences with the literature is our analytic representation of the distribution function in the velocity phase space with as few hidden variables as possible thanks to the use of non-orthogonal basis sets. These new non-Maxwellian fluid equations could initiate the next generation of fluid codes including kinetic effects and can be expanded to other scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, condensed matter or hydrodynamics. As a validation test, we perform a numerical simulation based on a minimal reduced INMDF fluid model. The result of this test is the discovery of the origin of particle and heat diffusion. The diffusion is due to the competition between a growing INMDF on short time scales due to spatial gradients and the thermalization on longer time scales. The results

  4. The Effects of Buildability Factors on Rebar Fixing Labour Productivity of Beamless Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M Jarkas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Buildability is an important factor affecting labour productivity. Nevertheless, a thorough search of the literature revealed a dearth of research into its effects on in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the activity levels. Since rebar fixing is an integral trade of this type of construction material, and beamless slabs are amongst the major encountered activities on construction sites, the objective of this research is to explore the buildability factors affecting its rebar fixing efficiency. To achieve this objective, a large volume of fixing productivity data was collected and analysed using the categorical interaction - regression method. As a result, the main and interaction effects of rebar diameter; reinforcement quantity; slab geometry; and reinforcement layer location are determined. The findings show a significant influence of these factors on the fixing operation, which can be used to provide designers and construction managers with feedback on how well the design of this activity considers the requirements of buildability, and the tangible consequences of designers‟ decisions on labour productivity

  5. The Effects of Buildability Factors on Rebar Fixing Labour Productivity of Beamless Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M Jarkas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  Buildability is an important factor affecting labour productivity. Nevertheless, a thorough search of the literature revealed a dearth of research into its effects on in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the activity levels. Since rebar fixing is an integral trade of this type of construction material, and beamless slabs are amongst the major encountered activities on construction sites, the objective of this research is to explore the buildability factors affecting its rebar fixing efficiency. To achieve this objective, a large volume of fixing productivity data was collected and analysed using the categorical interaction - regression method. As a result, the main and interaction effects of rebar diameter; reinforcement quantity; slab geometry; and reinforcement layer location are determined. The findings show a significant influence of these factors on the fixing operation, which can be used to provide designers and construction managers with feedback on how well the design of this activity considers the requirements of buildability, and the tangible consequences of designers‟ decisions on labour productivity

  6. The Effects of Buildability Factors on Rebar Fixing Labour Productivity of Beamless Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M Jarkas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available  Buildability is an important factor affecting labour productivity. Nevertheless, a thorough search of the literature revealed a dearth of research into its effects on in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the activity levels. Since rebar fixing is an integral trade of this type of construction material, and beamless slabs are amongst the major encountered activities on construction sites, the objective of this research is to explore the buildability factors affecting its rebar fixing efficiency. To achieve this objective, a large volume of fixing productivity data was collected and analysed using the categorical interaction - regression method. As a result, the main and interaction effects of rebar diameter; reinforcement quantity; slab geometry; and reinforcement layer location are determined. The findings show a significant influence of these factors on the fixing operation, which can be used to provide designers and construction managers with feedback on how well the design of this activity considers the requirements of buildability, and the tangible consequences of designers‟ decisions on labour productivity

  7. Effects of Error Messages on a Student's Ability to Understand and Fix Programming Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beejady Murthy Kadekar, Harsha Kadekar

    Assemblers and compilers provide feedback to a programmer in the form of error messages. These error messages become input to the debugging model of the programmer. For the programmer to fix an error, they should first locate the error in the program, understand what is causing that error, and finally resolve that error. Error messages play an important role in all three stages of fixing of errors. This thesis studies the effects of error messages in the context of teaching programming. Given an error message, this work investigates how it effects student's way of 1) understanding the error, and 2) fixing the error. As part of the study, three error message types were developed--Default, Link and Example, to better understand the effects of error messages. The Default type provides an assembler-centric single line error message, the Link type provides a program-centric detailed error description with a hyperlink for more information, and the Example type provides a program centric detailed error description with a relevant example. All these error message types were developed for assembly language programming. A think aloud programming exercise was conducted as part of the study to capture the student programmer's knowledge model. Different codes were developed to analyze the data collected as part of think aloud exercise. After transcribing, coding, and analyzing the data, it was found that the Link type of error message helped to fix the error in less time and with fewer steps. Among the three types, the Link type of error message also resulted in a significantly higher ratio of correct to incorrect steps taken by the programmer to fix the error.

  8. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  9. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  10. Does grandchild care influence grandparents' self-rated health? Evidence from a fixed effects approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Merih

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to identify, whether and how supplementary grandchild care is causally related to grandparents' self-rated health (SRH). Based on longitudinal data drawn from the German Aging Survey (DEAS; 2008-2014), I compare the results of pooled OLS, pooled OLS with lagged dependant variables (POLS-LD), random and fixed effects (RE, FE) panel regression. The results show that there is a positive but small association between supplementary grandchild care and SRH in POLS, POLS-LD, and RE models. However, the fixed effects model shows that the intrapersonal change in grandchild care does not cause a change in grandparents' SRH. The FE findings indicate that supplementary grandchild care in Germany does not have a causal impact on grandparents' SRH, suggesting that models with between-variation components overestimate the influence of grandchild care on grandparents' health because they do not control for unobserved (time-constant) heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consistency in Estimation and Model Selection of Dynamic Panel Data Models with Fixed Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjie Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between consistent parameter estimation and model selection for autoregressive panel data models with fixed effects. We find that the transformation of fixed effects proposed by Lancaster (2002 does not necessarily lead to consistent estimation of common parameters when some true exogenous regressors are excluded. We propose a data dependent way to specify the prior of the autoregressive coefficient and argue for comparing different model specifications before parameter estimation. Model selection properties of Bayes factors and Bayesian information criterion (BIC are investigated. When model uncertainty is substantial, we recommend the use of Bayesian Model Averaging to obtain point estimators with lower root mean squared errors (RMSE. We also study the implications of different levels of inclusion probabilities by simulations.

  12. Fixed and mobile-bearing total ankle prostheses: Effect on tibial bone strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Alexandre; Fernandes, Caroline Sieger; Guillemin, Maïka; Crevoisier, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Total ankle replacement is associated to a high revision rate. To improve implant survival, the potential advantage of prostheses with fixed bearing compared to mobile bearing is unclear. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that fixed and mobile bearing prostheses are associated with different biomechanical quantities typically associated to implant failure. With a validated finite element model, we compared three cases: a prosthesis with a fixed bearing, a prosthesis with a mobile bearing in a centered position, and a prosthesis with mobile bearing in an eccentric position. Both prostheses were obtained from the same manufacturer. They were tested on seven tibias with maximum axial compression force during walking. We tested the hypothesis that there was a difference of bone strain, bone-implant interfacial stress, and bone support between the three cases. We also evaluated, for the three cases, the correlations between bone support, bone strain and bone-implant interfacial stress. There were no statistically significant differences between the three cases. Overall, bone support was mainly trabecular, and less effective in the posterior side. Bone strain and bone-implant interfacial stress were strongly correlated to bone support. Even if slight differences are observed between fixed and mobile bearing, it is not enough to put forward the superiority of one of these implants regarding their reaction to axial compression. When associated to the published clinical results, our study provides no argument to warn surgeons against the use of two-components fixed bearing implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge on nitrogen removal in biological nutrient removal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Keith R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge (IFAS) was evaluated for its effect on nitrification and denitrification in a bench scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) process configured as a Virginia Initiative Project (VIP) process. The IFAS systems consisted of a sponge - like biomass support system (Captor) operated in the aerobic zone of two independent treatment trains, and a fibrous biomass support system (Ringlace) operated in the aerobic zone of one indep...

  14. Varying Coefficient Panel Data Model in the Presence of Endogenous Selectivity and Fixed Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Malikov, Emir; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Sun, Yiguo

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a flexible panel data sample selection model in which (i) the outcome equation is permitted to take a semiparametric, varying coefficient form to capture potential parameter heterogeneity in the relationship of interest, (ii) both the outcome and (parametric) selection equations contain unobserved fixed effects and (iii) selection is generalized to a polychotomous case. We propose a two-stage estimator. Given consistent parameter estimates from the selection equation obta...

  15. Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of interim fixed partial dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Gopichander, N.; Halini Kumarai, K.V.; Vasanthakumar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different reinforcements currently available for interim fixed partial denture (FPD) materials do not provide the ideal strength for long-term use. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to develop a more ideal provisional material for long-term use with better mechanical properties. This study evaluated the effectiveness of polyester fiber reinforcement on different interim FPD materials. Methods: Thirty resin-bonded FPDs were constructed from three provisional interim F...

  16. Oracle Efficient Variable Selection in Random and Fixed Effects Panel Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl

    This paper generalizes the results for the Bridge estimator of Huang et al. (2008) to linear random and fixed effects panel data models which are allowed to grow in both dimensions. In particular we show that the Bridge estimator is oracle efficient. It can correctly distinguish between relevant...... of Huang et al. (2008). Furthermore, the number of relevant variables is allowed to be larger than the sample size....

  17. The causal effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment: A mother fixed-effects study in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekwe, Tobenna D; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-09-11

    Because measles vaccination prevents acute measles disease and morbidities secondary to measles, such as undernutrition, blindness, and brain damage, the vaccination may also lead to higher educational attainment. However, there has been little evidence to support this hypothesis at the population level. In this study, we estimate the causal effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment among children born between 1995 and 2000 in South Africa. We use longitudinal data on measles vaccination status and school grade attainment among 4783 children. The data were collected by the Wellcome Trust Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS), which is one of Africa's largest health and demographic surveillance systems. ACDIS is located in a poor, predominantly rural, Zulu-speaking community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using mother fixed-effects regression, we compare the school grade attainment of siblings who are discordant in their measles vaccination status but share the same mother and household. This fixed-effects approach controls for confounding due to both observed and unobserved factors that do not vary between siblings, including sibling-invariant mother and household characteristics such as attitudes toward risk, conscientiousness, and aspirations for children. We further control for a range of potential confounders that vary between siblings, such as sex of the child, year of birth, mother's age at child's birth, and birth order. We find that measles vaccination on average increases school grade attainment by 0.188 grades (95% confidence interval, 0.0424-0.334; p=0.011). Measles vaccination increased educational attainment in this poor, largely rural community in South Africa. For every five to seven children vaccinated against measles, one additional school grade was gained. The presence of a measles vaccination effect in this community is plausible because (i) measles vaccination prevents measles complications including

  18. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  19. Effects of team-based learning on fixed prosthodontic education in a Japanese School of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hisahiro; Omoto, Katsuhiro; Okura, Kazuo; Tajima, Toyoko; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Hosoki, Maki; Koori, Motoharu; Shigemoto, Shuji; Ueda, Mayu; Nishigawa, Keisuke; Rodis, Omar Marianito Maningo; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of team-based learning (TBL) in prosthodontics education for fourth-year dental students at Tokushima University School of Dentistry and to compare this teaching method with traditional lecture-based delivery. Participants in the study were 36 students (22 males and 14 females) who attended the TBL-style fixed prosthodontics course. Ten 60-minute classes were held. The first three were traditional lecture-style classes and were followed by one class introducing the TBL style. The remaining six classes constituted the TBL-format fixed prosthodontics course. The effectiveness of TBL was evaluated through student questionnaires at the end of each class and the results of the term-end examination. The questionnaire revealed high student approval for TBL-style learning, and active group discussion among students during TBL was a key factor in these ratings. In the results of the term-end examination, there were significantly higher scores on the questions that covered TBL-taught material than those covering traditional lecture-taught topics. The results of this study suggest that TBL-style lecture was more effective than traditional-style lecture for teaching fixed prosthodontics and that TBL was a more efficient mode of delivering dental education than traditional lecture-based teaching.

  20. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. Methods The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Results Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Conclusions Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height. PMID:25162565

  1. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  2. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  3. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Van Dongen, M.J.; Hampton, A.S.; Komatsu, C.H.; Trowell, K.T.; Havas, K.C.; Davis, C.M.; DeSanto, C.L. [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Hays, K.; Wagner, M.J. [Chemistry Department, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20052 United States (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, T{sub max} and χ{sub max}, ordering temperatures T{sub c}, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that T{sub max} of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD{sub 2}O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser T{sub max} than do nH{sub 2}O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these. - Highlights: • The magnetism of Ni(II) chloride and bromide dihydrates and monohydrates is studied. • Effects of replacing H{sub 2}O by D{sub 2}O are examined for both hydration states and both halides. • Exchange interactions in bromides are weaker than in corresponding chlorides. • Exchange interactions are weaker in D{sub 2}O than in corresponding H{sub 2}O containing systems. • The unit cell of NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O.

  4. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  5. Effect of Perilla frutescens Fixed Oil on Experimental Esophagitis in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Arya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. A group of rats (n=6, treated with control vehicle (0.9% NaCl in double distilled water, 3 mL/kg, i.p. and Perilla frutescens fixed oil (100% (1, 2, and 3 mL/kg, i.p., or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, i.p., were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with fixed oil significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The oil also helped to restore the altered levels of oxidative stress parameters to normal. The present study also makes evident the in vitro antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of alpha linolenic acid (ALA (18 : 3, n−3 on isolated rat ileum preparation. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic, antisecretory (anticholinergic, and antioxidant activity of the oil was attributed for its efficacy in reflux esophagitis.

  6. Effects of fixed or self-titrated dosages of Sativex on cannabis withdrawal and cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jose M; Lagzdins, Dina; Rehm, Jürgen; Selby, Peter; Gamaleddin, Islam; Fischer, Benedikt; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    There is currently no pharmacological treatment approved for cannabis dependence. In this proof of concept study, we assessed the feasibility/effects of fixed and self-titrated dosages of Sativex (1:1, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD)) on craving and withdrawal from cannabis among nine community-recruited cannabis-dependent subjects. Participants underwent an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial (an ABACADAE design), with four smoke as usual conditions (SAU) (A) separated by four cannabis abstinence conditions (B-E), with administration of either self-titrated/fixed doses of placebo or Sativex (up to 108 mg THC/100 mg CBD). The order of medication administration during abstinence conditions was randomized and counterbalanced. Withdrawal symptoms and craving were assessed using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale (CWS), Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (MWC) and Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Medication use was assessed during the study by means of self-reports, vial weight control, toxicology and metabolite analysis. Cannabis use was assessed by means of self-reports. High fixed doses of Sativex were well tolerated and significantly reduced cannabis withdrawal during abstinence, but not craving, as compared to placebo. Self-titrated doses were lower and showed limited efficacy as compared to high fixed doses. Participants reported a significantly lower "high" following Sativex or placebo as compared to SAU conditions. Cannabis/medication use along the study, as per self-reports, suggests compliance with the study conditions. The results found in this proof of concept study warrant further systematic exploration of Sativex as a treatment option for cannabis withdrawal and dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hartung-Knapp method is not always conservative compared with fixed-effect meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiksten, Anna; Rücker, Gerta; Schwarzer, Guido

    2016-07-10

    A widely used method in classic random-effects meta-analysis is the DerSimonian-Laird method. An alternative meta-analytical approach is the Hartung-Knapp method. This article reports results of an empirical comparison and a simulation study of these two methods and presents corresponding analytical results. For the empirical evaluation, we took 157 meta-analyses with binary outcomes, analysed each one using both methods and performed a comparison of the results based on treatment estimates, standard errors and associated P-values. In several simulation scenarios, we systematically evaluated coverage probabilities and confidence interval lengths. Generally, results are more conservative with the Hartung-Knapp method, giving wider confidence intervals and larger P-values for the overall treatment effect. However, in some meta-analyses with very homogeneous individual treatment results, the Hartung-Knapp method yields narrower confidence intervals and smaller P-values than the classic random-effects method, which in this situation, actually reduces to a fixed-effect meta-analysis. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct a sensitivity analysis based on the fixed-effect model instead of solely relying on the result of the Hartung-Knapp random-effects meta-analysis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of Invisalign treatment effectiveness and efficiency compared with conventional fixed appliances using the Peer Assessment Rating index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiafeng; Tang, Jack Shengyu; Skulski, Brennan; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Deguchi, Toru

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to compare the treatment effectiveness and efficiency of the Invisalign system with conventional fixed appliances in treating orthodontic patients with mild to moderate malocclusion in a graduate orthodontic clinic. Using the peer assessment rating (PAR) index, we evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment records of 48 Invisalign patients and 48 fixed appliances patients. The 2 groups of patients were controlled for general characteristics and initial severity of malocclusion. We analyzed treatment outcome, duration, and improvement between the Invisalign and fixed appliances groups. The average pretreatment PAR scores (United Kingdom weighting) were 20.81 for Invisalign and 22.79 for fixed appliances (P = 1.0000). Posttreatment weighted PAR scores between Invisalign and fixed appliances were not statistically different (P = 0.7420). On average, the Invisalign patients finished 5.7 months faster than did those with fixed appliances (P = 0.0040). The weighted PAR score reduction with treatment was not statistically different between the Invisalign and fixed appliances groups (P = 0.4573). All patients in both groups had more than a 30% reduction in the PAR scores. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of achieving "great improvement" in the Invisalign group were 0.329 times the odds of achieving "great improvement" in the fixed appliances group after controlling for age (P = 0.0150). Our data showed that both Invisalign and fixed appliances were able to improve the malocclusion. Invisalign patients finished treatment faster than did those with fixed appliances. However, it appears that Invisalign may not be as effective as fixed appliances in achieving "great improvement" in a malocclusion. This study might help clinicians to determine appropriate patients for Invisalign treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment effects of various prescriptions and techniques for fixed orthodontic appliances : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousoulea, Sophia; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Eliades, Theodore

    2017-09-01

    Although several prescriptions and techniques exist for comprehensive fixed appliance treatment, their treatment effects have not yet been adequately assessed in an evidence-based manner. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the therapeutic and adverse effects of various prescriptions or techniques for orthodontic appliances from randomized clinical trials on human patients. Eight databases were searched up to July 2016 for randomized trials assessing any orthodontic prescriptions or techniques in human patients. After elimination of duplicate studies, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to the Cochrane guidelines, random effects meta-analyses with mean differences (MD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed. Compared to Roth preadjusted appliances, both Begg and modified Begg appliances were associated with statistically significantly worse occlusal outcome assessed with Peer Assessment Review (PAR) scores (1 trial, MD 3.1 points, 95% CI 1.9-4.3 points and 1 trial, MD 2.4 points, 95% CI 1.2-3.6 points, respectively) with low quality of evidence, due to bias and imprecision. Compared to a partially programmed fixed orthodontic appliance, a fully programmed appliance was associated with a statistically significant, but clinically irrelevant increase in treatment duration (1 trial, MD 2.4 months, 95% CI 0.6-4.2 months), supported by high quality of evidence. However, caution is needed in the interpretation of these results as only a limited number of small trials with methodological issues were available. Based on existing trials, there is limited evidence to support any robust clinical recommendation regarding the prescriptions or techniques for fixed orthodontic appliances. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42016042727). None.

  10. Amlodipine and valsartan as components of a rational and effective fixed-dose combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Waeber

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bernard Waeber1, Luis M Ruilope21Division of Clinical Pathophysiology, University Hospital, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Hypertension Unit, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Pharmacological treatment of hypertension is effective in preventing cardiovascular and renal complications. Calcium antagonists and blockers of the renin-angiotensin system are widely used today to initiate antihypertensive therapy but, when given as monotherapy, do not suffice in most patients to normalize blood pressure. Combining the two types of agents considerably increases the antihypertensive efficacy, but not at the expense of a deterioration of tolerability. This is exemplified by the experience accumulated with the recently developed fixed dose combination containing the AT1-receptor blocker valsartan (160 mg and the dihydropyridine amlodipine (5 or 10 mg. In a randomized trial, an 8-week treatment normalized blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg within 8 weeks in a large fraction of hypertensive patients (78.4% and 85.2% using the 5/160 [n = 371] and 10/160 mg [n = 377] dosage, respectively. Like all AT1-receptor blockers valsartan has a placebo-like tolerability. Valsartan prevents to a large extent the occurrence amlodipine-induced peripheral edema. Both amlodipine and valsartan have beneficial effects on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as protective effects on renal function. The co-administration of these two agents is therefore very attractive, as it enables a rapid and sustained blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. The availability of a fixed-dose combination based on amlodipine and valsartan is expected therefore to facilitate the management of hypertension, to improve long-term adherence with antihypertensive therapy and, ultimately, to have a positive impact on cardiovascular and renal outcomes.Keywords: antihypertensive therapy, fixed-dose combination, calcium antagonists

  11. NONPARAMETRIC FIXED EFFECT PANEL DATA MODELS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AIR POLLUTION AND INCOME FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Ece OMAY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, relationship between gross domestic product (GDP per capita and sulfur dioxide (SO2 and particulate matter (PM10 per capita is modeled for Turkey. Nonparametric fixed effect panel data analysis is used for the modeling. The panel data covers 12 territories, in first level of Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS, for period of 1990-2001. Modeling of the relationship between GDP and SO2 and PM10 for Turkey, the non-parametric models have given good results.

  12. APLIKASI REGRESI DATA PANEL DENGAN PENDEKATAN FIXED EFFECT MODEL (STUDI KASUS: PT PLN GIANYAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI PUTU ANIK MAS RATNASARI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panel data regression has three approaches. One of these approaches is Fixed Effect Model (FEM. FEM is common estimated using Least Square Dummy Variable. The use of dummy variable in FEM is based on assumption that slope coefficients are constant but intercept varies over individuals. One of application of FEM is to find out motivation of employees at PT PLN Gianyar for non-outsourcing and outsourcing employees based on existence, relatedness, and growth. This research yields the following two models: with 67% motivation non-outsourcing employees represented by existenceand73% motivation non-outsourcing employees represented by existence and growth.

  13. On the Unidentifiability of the Fixed-Effects 3PL Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Ernesto; González, Jorge; Tuerlinckx, Francis

    2015-06-01

    The paper offers a general review of the basic concepts of both statistical model and parameter identification, and revisits the conceptual relationships between parameter identification and both parameter interpretability and properties of parameter estimates. All these issues are then exemplified for the 1PL, 2PL, and 1PL-G fixed-effects models. For the 3PL model, however, we provide a theorem proving that the item parameters are not identified, do not have an empirical interpretation and that it is not possible to obtain consistent and unbiased estimates of them.

  14. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  15. Plasmon modes of metallic nanowires including quantum nonlocal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The properties of electrostatic surface and bulk plasmon modes of cylindrical metallic nanowires are investigated, using the quantum hydrodynamic theory of plasmon excitation which allows an analytical study of quantum tunneling effects through the Bohm potential term. New dispersion relations are obtained for each type of mode and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard hydrodynamic model are analyzed in detail. Numerical results show by considering the quantum effects, as the value of wave number increases, the surface modes are slightly red-shifted first and then blue-shifted while the bulk modes are blue-shifted.

  16. Transient motion of hypersonic vehicles including time history effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, W. H.; Van Roessel, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An analytic method is developed for calculating the transient pitching motion of a wedge in hypersonic flow, taking into account fully the interaction between its motion and the unsteady air flow passing it. The effects of past motion history on the present state of motion are shown to be caused by the wave reflection from the bow shock. In the Newtonian limit they are equivalent to that of an added moment of inertia. The time history effects generally tend to decrease the damping, rendering the oscillatory motion more persistent. Numerical examples are given.

  17. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  18. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating ratesto the ...

  19. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating rates ...

  20. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/025/05/0463-0473. Keywords. Aerodynamic heating; ballistic missile; gravity; flat-earth. Abstract. The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the ...

  1. Comparative Analysis Of Least Square Regression And Fixed Effect Panel Data Regression Using Road Traffic Accident In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Kupolusi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this research work attempt was made to critically analyze the effect of Federal Road Safety Corps FRSC to various categories of road traffic accident in Nigeria for a certain period of time over all the states of federation including Federal capital territory. This was done by using panel data regression model. The conventional OLS estimator applied to panel data has over time led to inconsistent estimate of the regression parameters due to lack of adequately handling individual specific effect of the parameters. A better and preferable estimation method was exploited in this analysis to obtain a more reliable result that can be used for prediction of likely future occurrence. Among all the estimation methods considered only the fixed effect panel data regression method with heteroscedasticity variance-covariance tools gives a consistent estimate of the regression parameters.

  2. A thermal lens model including the Soret effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Humberto; Sira, Eloy; Rahn, Kareem; Garcia-Sucre, Maximo

    2009-01-01

    In this letter we generalize the thermal lens model to account for the Soret effect in binary liquid mixtures. This formalism permits the precise determination of the Soret coefficient in a steady-state situation. The theory is experimentally verified using the measured values in the ethanol/water mixtures. The time evolution of the Soret signal has been used to derive mass-diffusion times from which mass-diffusion coefficients were calculated. (Author)

  3. Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldan, Peter Fisker

    and the computationally efficient implicit Floquet analysis in anisotropic conditions. The tool is validated against system identifications with the partial Floquet method on the nonlinear BHawC model of a 2.3 MW wind turbine. System identification results show that nonlinear effects on the 2.3 MW turbine in most cases....... These harmonics appear in calculated frequency responses of the turbine. Extreme wind shear changes the modal damping when the flow is separated due to an interaction between the periodic mode shape and the local aerodynamic damping influenced by a periodic variation in angle of attack....

  4. Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Souad, E-mail: souadhamada@yahoo.fr [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Louai, Fatima Zohra, E-mail: fz_louai@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Nait-Said, Nasreddine, E-mail: n_naitsaid@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Benabou, Abdelkader, E-mail: Abdelkader.Benabou@univ-lille1.fr [L2EP, Université de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2016-07-15

    An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.

  5. Analyzing the Sand-fixing Effect of Feldspathic Sandstone from the Texture Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, lu; Ban, Jichang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was aimed to study the sand fixing effect of feldspathic sandstone in Mu Us Sandy Land, to provide a scienticic basis for desertification control, soil and water conservation and development of farming there. Methods of mixing feldspathic sandstone and aeolian sandy soil according to 1: 0, 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 5, and 0: 1 mass ratioes, the graded composition and characteristics were studied with laser particle size analyzer. The result showed that these features of sand-based, loosely structured, easy to wind erosion of aeolian sandy soil were changed before feldspathic sandstone and aeolian sandy soil compounding. The sand to sandy loam to loam to silt loam. The small particle size distribution, good homogeneity and other features of aeolian sandy soil were improved to a certain degree, and the particle size distribution became broad before feldspathic sandstone and aeolian sandy soil compounding. The particle grading was continuous, and the grading characteristic was good when m(F): m(S) was 1: 5(Cu was 54.71 and Cc was 2.54) or when m(F): m(S) was 1: 2(Cu was 76.21, Cc was 1.12). The conclusion is that feldspathic sandstone has sand-fixing effect in texture characteristics, which heightens with feldspathic sandstone mass increasing, and when the mass ratio of feldspathic sandstone: aeolian sandy soil is 1: 2 or 1: 5 which compound better.

  6. Effectiveness of a fixed anterior bite plane in Class II deep-bite patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare Lorenzo; Persin, Leonid; Tugarin, Valery; Markova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment of patients with distoclusion combined with dental deep bite and linguo version of the front upper teeth is one of the most difficult forms of malocclusion to treat to a functional and morphological optimum. Our objective was to analyze the efficacy of a fixed anterior bite plane appliance to disclude the teeth and correct this type of malocclusion. At the Department of Orthodontics MSUMD (Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry), we proposed the use of a fixed anterior bite plane for the effective treatment of patients with distoclusion combined to a dental deep bite. This appliance was used in 35 patients aged 11 to 15 years (13.2 +/- 1.2) with distoclusion combined with deep bite in a therapeutical approach that also involved an osteopathic correction. The appliance permitted the correction of the distoclusion by discluding the posterior teeth, allowing eruption of the molars and premolars which improved the occlusal plane line (Curve of Spee) and changed the inclination of the upper incisors which liberated the mandible from its retruded position. We also noted an effect on the postural status of the patient.

  7. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization......This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness...

  8. Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.

  9. Potential energy surface for ? dissociation including spin-orbit effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Matthew R.; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; de Jong, Wibe A.; Granucci, Giovanni; Hase, William L.

    2012-10-01

    Previous experiments [J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 2833 (2012)] have studied the dissociation of 1,2-diiodoethane radical cation ( ? ) and found a one-dimensional distribution of translational energy, an odd finding considering most product relative translational energy distributions are two-dimensional. The goal of this study is to obtain an accurate understanding of the potential energy surface (PES) topology for the unimolecular decomposition reaction ? → C2H4I+ + I•. This is done through comparison of many single-reference electronic structure methods, coupled-cluster single-point (energy) calculations, and multi-reference energy calculations used to quantify spin-orbit (SO) coupling effects. We find that the structure of the ? reactant has a substantial effect on the role of the SO coupling on the reaction energy. Both the BHandH and MP2 theories with an ECP/6-31++G** basis set, and without SO coupling corrections, provide accurate models for the reaction energetics. MP2 theory gives an unsymmetric structure with different C-I bond lengths, resulting in a SO energy for ? similar to that for the product I-atom and a negligible SO correction to the reaction energy. In contrast, DFT gives a symmetric structure for ? , similar to that of the neutral C2H4I2 parent, resulting in a substantial SO correction and increasing the reaction energy by 6.0-6.5 kcalmol-1. Also, we find that, for this system, coupled-cluster single-point energy calculations are inaccurate, since a small change in geometry can lead to a large change in energy.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of Static and Dynamic Pull-In Instability of a Fixed-Fixed Micro Beam Considering Damping Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader Rezazadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the static and dynamic pull-in phenomenon of a fixed-fixed micro beam, considering the effects of residual stress, axial stress, damping coefficient, and Fringing field effects have statically and dynamically been analyzed. The nonlinear electromechanical coupled integro- differential equation governing the problem has been derived using variational principle and solved using a computer code based on Finite element method. The problem has been solved for various values of damping coefficients, residual and axial stresses, and various initial gaps between the micro beam and the substrate. The results showed that by increase in damping coefficient the dynamic pull-in voltage is also increased but this increase is continued up to a definite value of damping coefficient more than which, the dynamic pull-in voltage is constant and equal to the static one. The pull-in time is also determined for various damping coefficients and has been shown that with increasing the damping coefficient the pull-in time is increased.

  11. The effects of brief-stimulus presentations in fixed-ratio second-order schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Steven L.; Calisto, George

    1981-01-01

    Pigeons' responses were reinforced according to a three-component multiple schedule. In Component 1, key pecks produced food according to a fixed-ratio second-order schedule with fixed-ratio units. Here, a fixed number of fixed-ratio units produced food, and the brief stimulus terminating each unit also accompanied food. Responses in Component 2 produced food on an identical schedule except that the brief stimulus was not paired with food. Component 3 contained a simple fixed-ratio schedule w...

  12. Evaluation of fatigue data including reactor water environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Nickell, R.E.; Van Der Sluys, W.A.; Yukawa, S.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory data have been gathered in the past decade indicating a significant reduction in component fatigue life when reactor water environmental effects are experimentally simulated. However, these laboratory data have not been supported by nuclear power plant component operating experience. The laboratory data under simulated operating conditions are being used to support arguments for revising the design-basis fatigue curves in the ASME Code Section III, Division 1, for Class 1 components. A thorough review of available laboratory fatigue data and their applicability to actual component operating conditions was performed. The evaluation divided the assembly, review and assessment of existing laboratory fatigue data and its applicability to plant operating conditions into four principal tasks: (1) review of available laboratory data relative to thresholds for environmental parameters, such as temperature, reactor water oxidation potential, strain rate, strain amplitude, reactor water flow rate, and component metal sulfur content; (2) determination of the relevance of the laboratory data to actual plant operating conditions; (3) review of laboratory S-N data curve-fitting models; and (4) assessment of existing ASME Code Section III Class 1 margins This paper summarizes the results of the data review. In addition, recommendations are made for additional laboratory testing intended to improve the applicability of laboratory test results under simulated reactor water environmental conditions. (authors)

  13. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  14. Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisker Skjoldan, P.

    2011-03-15

    Several methods for aeroelastic modal analysis of a rotating wind turbine are developed and used to analyse the modal dynamics of two simplified models and a complex model in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. The Coleman transformation is used to enable extraction of the modal frequencies, damping, and periodic mode shapes of a rotating wind turbine by describing the rotor degrees of freedom in the inertial frame. This approach is valid only for an isotropic system. Anisotropic systems, e.g., with an unbalanced rotor or operating in wind shear, are treated with the general approaches of Floquet analysis or Hill's method which do not provide a unique reference frame for observing the modal frequency, to which any multiple of the rotor speed can be added. This indeterminacy is resolved by requiring that the periodic mode shape be as constant as possible in the inertial frame. The modal frequency is thus identified as the dominant frequency in the response of a pure excitation of the mode observed in the inertial frame. A modal analysis tool based directly on the complex aeroelastic wind turbine code BHawC is presented. It uses the Coleman approach in isotropic conditions and the computationally efficient implicit Floquet analysis in anisotropic conditions. The tool is validated against system identifications with the partial Floquet method on the nonlinear BHawC model of a 2.3 MW wind turbine. System identification results show that nonlinear effects on the 2.3 MW turbine in most cases are small, but indicate that the controller creates nonlinear damping. In isotropic conditions the periodic mode shape contains up to three harmonic components, but in anisotropic conditions it can contain an infinite number of harmonic components with frequencies that are multiples of the rotor speed. These harmonics appear in calculated frequency responses of the turbine. Extreme wind shear changes the modal damping when the flow is separated due to an interaction between

  15. Effect of bone on the pyrolysis product distribution and composition in a fixed bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, M.; Andresen, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Co-pyrolysis of Biomass including Pistachio shell (PS), Pine wood (PW) and Wheat Straw (WS) with Bone matter (BM) have been investigated to determine the effect of bone on the quality of bio-char and bio-oil produced. The aim of this study is to generate stable and nitrogen enriched bio-char that can act as fertilizer while at the same time optimizes the chemical stability of the char to act as a Carbon Capture and Storage system (CCS) and co-produce high quality oils for renewable energy generation. To achieve this, the present study has focused on the influence of bone matter addition from 0wt% to 25wt% to the biomasses in a fixed bed pyrolysis reactor at 3000C. The analysis of the char products shows that the addition of bone to the biomass increased their char yields up to 10wt% addition. Higher addition was found to reduce the overall char yield from the biomass. At 10wt% bone addition, the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen content, and the gross calorific value of the chars were increased by 7wt%, 29wt%, 163wt% and 19Mj/kg, for Wheat straw, 62wt%, 46wt%, 135wt%, 110Mj/kg for Pine wood and 7wt%, 76wt%, 42wt% and 33Mj/kg for Pistachio shells. The oxygen content of the Wheat straw, Pistachio shells and pine wood mixed with 10wt% BM decreased by 28wt%, 21wt%, and 93wt%, respectively. The bio-oil yield increased for the bone addition up to 5%wt% for all the samples, its energy value and concentration of its major chemical components was improved for fuel and pharmaceutical use. Port experiment has shown that plant grown on soil amended with the bio-char produced gave higher yield as compared to that from un-amended soil. Comparison between the three biomasses investigated showed similar pattern of change. Hence it can be concluded that at optimum addition of bone to the biomass, bio-chars and oil yield could be optimized for soil amendment, energy production, while retaining carbon for sequestration.

  16. Class II malocclusion treatment effects with Jones Jig and Distal Jet followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Lorena; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Patel, Mayara Paim; Reis, Rachelle Simões; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Aron

    2018-01-01

    To compare the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue changes in Class II malocclusion patients treated with Jones Jig and Distal Jet distalizers followed by fixed appliances. The experimental groups comprised 45 Class II malocclusion subjects divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with the Jones Jig, and group 2 consisted of 20 patients treated with the Distal Jet. Group 3 comprised 19 untreated Class II subjects. Cephalograms were analyzed before and after orthodontic treatment. For intergroup comparisons, one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests were performed. During treatment, the experimental groups exhibited significant increases in occlusal plane inclination and maxillary second molar mesial tipping. Additionally, the molar relationship improved and overjet decreased significantly in the experimental groups. The Jones Jig group showed greater mandibular incisor proclination and greater overbite reduction than the control group. No significant intergroup differences in nasolabial angle changes were found. Treatment protocols using the Jones Jig and Distal Jet followed by fixed appliances were effective in correcting Class II malocclusion by means of dentoalveolar changes without significant skeletal and soft tissue changes. The experimental groups showed occlusal plane clockwise rotation and greater mesial tipping of maxillary second molars when compared to the untreated group.

  17. Effect of Fluorometholone/Tetrahydrozoline Fixed Combination on Conjunctival Autograft Morphology after Primary Pterygium Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Bilge Ozgurhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effect of a fluorometholone/tetrahydrozoline fixed combination on conjunctival graft morphology after primary pterygium excision. Methods. The patients who underwent pterygium excision with conjunctival autograft transplantation were randomized into three groups based on postoperative medications as the fluorometholone/tetrahydrozoline group, fluorometholone group, and dexamethasone group. Conjunctival graft thickness was measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The conjunctival graft hyperemia was evaluated using a high definition external camera. Results. The mean graft thickness was significantly lower in the fluorometholone/tetrahydrozoline group compared with fluorometholone and dexamethasone groups at 2 weeks (P=0.002 and P=0.012, resp. and at 1 month after surgery (P=0.003 and P=0.013, resp.. The conjunctival hyperemia score was significantly lower in the fluorometholone/tetrahydrozoline group compared with fluorometholone and dexamethasone groups at 2 weeks (P=0.000 and P=0.000, resp. and at 1 month (P=0.039 and P=0.040, resp.. The graft thickness and conjunctival hyperemia score were similar among the groups at 1 week and 3 months (P>0.05. Conclusion. The findings of the present study revealed that treatment with the fluorometholone/tetrahydrozoline fixed combination may be helpful to decrease graft edema and to achieve better cosmetic appearance at 2 weeks and 1 month after pterygium excision.

  18. Effect of particle size and humidity on sugarcane bagasse combustion in a fixed bed furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir Sánchez Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The panela industry is one of the most important Agro Industries in Colombia, making it the largest per- capita consumer and the second largest producer worldwide. The fuel used in this process is traditionally the sugarcane bagasse (SB which is a byproduct of milling. However, due to the low efficiency of panela furnaces additional fuel is required such as wood, used rubber tires and coal. The fixed-bed furnaces inefficiency is mainly due to incomplete combustion of SB caused by the influence of process variables. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the influence of particle size (PS and moisture content (MC over the combustion stages of SB in fixed-bed furnaces. A three-level factorial design was proposed for PS and MC of SB where the temperature and gas concentration were considered as response variables to evaluate the furnace performance. The results obtained in this work show that if the MC increases then the SB yield in the combustion is decreased. On the other hand, the increasing PS can counteract the effect of the MC of SB.

  19. The complex effects of ocean acidification on the prominent N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haizheng; Shen, Rong; Zhang, Futing; Wen, Zuozhu; Chang, Siwei; Lin, Wenfang; Kranz, Sven A; Luo, Ya-Wei; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Morel, François M M; Shi, Dalin

    2017-05-05

    Acidification of seawater caused by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is anticipated to influence the growth of dinitrogen (N 2 )-fixing phytoplankton, which contribute a large fraction of primary production in the tropical and subtropical ocean. We found that growth and N 2 -fixation of the ubiquitous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium decreased under acidified conditions, notwithstanding a beneficial effect of high CO 2 Acidification resulted in low cytosolic pH and reduced N 2 -fixation rates despite elevated nitrogenase concentrations. Low cytosolic pH required increased proton pumping across the thylakoid membrane and elevated adenosine triphosphate production. These requirements were not satisfied under field or experimental iron-limiting conditions, which greatly amplified the negative effect of acidification. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Is young fatherhood causally related to midlife mortality? A sibling fixed-effect study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einiö, Elina; Nisén, Jessica; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that young fatherhood is associated with higher later-life mortality. It is unclear whether the association is credible, in the sense that mortality and young fatherhood appear to be associated because both are determined by family-related environmental, socioeconomic and genetic characteristics. We used a household-based 10% sample drawn from the 1950 Finnish census to estimate all-cause mortality of fathers born during 1940-1950. The fathers were followed from age 45 until death, or the end of age 54. We used a standard Cox model and a sibling fixed-effects Cox model to examine whether the effect of young fatherhood was independent of observed adulthood characteristics and unobserved early-life characteristics shared by brothers. Men who had their first child before the age of 22 or at ages 22-24 had higher mortality as compared with their brothers who had their first child at the median or mean age of 25-26. Men who had their first child later at ages 30-44 had lower mortality than their brothers who had a first child before the age of 25. The pattern of results from a standard model was similar to that obtained from a fixed-effects sibling model. The findings suggest a causal effect of young fatherhood on mortality and highlight the need to support young fathers in their family life to improve health behaviours and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Implant rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla including immediate fixed provisional restoration without the use of bone grafting: a review of 1-year outcome data from a long-term prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toljanic, Joseph A; Baer, Russell A; Ekstrand, Karl; Thor, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The literature suggests that predictable integration can be achieved when dental implant placement is combined with immediate fixed provisional restoration in a variety of clinical situations. Fewer data are available, however, regarding outcomes for immediate provisional restoration of implants in the edentulous maxilla. This report presents 1-year data acquired from a long-term prospective clinical trial designed to assess outcomes following the immediate provisional fixed restoration of implants in the atrophic edentulous maxilla without the use of bone augmentation. Fifty-one subjects diagnosed with an atrophic edentulous maxilla received a total of 306 implants (six implants per subject) followed by fixed provisional restoration within 24 hours of implant placement. No subjects underwent grafting to enhance bone volume in preparation for implant treatment. Data acquired included bone quantity and quality, implant dimensions, implant locations, and implant placement stability. Subjects returned for 1-year follow-up examinations to assess implant integration and restoration function. Periapical radiographs were obtained and compared to baseline images to assess marginal bone height maintenance. At the 3-month follow-up examination, 294 of 306 implants placed in 51 subjects were found to be integrated. This represents a cumulative implant survival rate of 96%. At the 1-year follow-up examination, mean marginal bone loss of 0.5 mm was noted, with no further loss of implants. These results support the contention that predictable long-term outcomes may be obtained for the atrophic edentulous maxilla when treated with an implant rehabilitation protocol that includes immediate fixed provisional restoration without the use of bone grafting. This strategy offers a promising treatment alternative for the patient with an atrophic edentulous maxilla.

  2. Effects of humic and fulvic acids on release of fixed potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Release of potassium fixed by expanding silicate clays is considered of practical importance in soil fertility. Humic and fulvic acids are expected to play a definite role in liberating this fixed K, because of their chelating power, but not much is known in this respect. This investigation was conducted to study release of fixed K by montmorillonite and illite, using humic and fulvic acids isolated from the surface horizon of a Cecil soil (Typic Hapludult, Red Yellow Podzolic soil) as extractants. (Auth.)

  3. Inertia Effects in the Flow of a Herschel-Bulkley ERF between Fixed Surfaces of Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Walicka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many electrorheological fluids (ERFs as fluids with microstructure demonstrate viscoplastic behaviours. Rheometric measurements indicate that some flows of these fluids may be modelled as the flows of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. In this paper, the flow of a Herschel-Bulkley ER fluid—with a fractional power-law exponent—in a narrow clearance between two fixed surfaces of revolution with common axis of symmetry is considered. The flow is externally pressurized, and it is considered with inertia effect. In order to solve this problem, the boundary layer equations are used. The influence of inertia forces on the pressure distribution is examined by using the method of averaged inertia terms of the momentum equation. Numerical examples of externally pressurized ERFs flows in the clearance between parallel disks and concentric spherical surfaces are presented.

  4. Effect of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia: MRS-ROZE (Multicenter Randomized Study of ROsuvastatin and eZEtimibe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Yoon, Young Won; Rha, Seung-Woon; Hong, Soon-Jun; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Kim, Weon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Rhee, Moo-Yong; Park, Tae-Ho; Hong, Taek-Jong; Park, Sungha; Ahn, Youngkeun; Lee, Namho; Jeon, Hui-Kyung; Jeon, Dong-Woon; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Moon, Keon-Woong; Chae, In-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to compare the effects of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin to rosuvastatin alone in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, including a subgroup analysis of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MetS). This multicenter eight-week randomized double-blind phase III study evaluated the safety and efficacy of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe 10 mg plus rosuvastatin, compared with rosuvastatin alone in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Four hundred and seven patients with primary hypercholesterolemia who required lipid-lowering treatment according to the ATP III guideline were randomized to one of the following six treatments for 8 weeks: fixed-dose combinations with ezetimibe 10 mg daily plus rosuvastatin (5, 10, or 20 mg daily) or rosuvastatin alone (5, 10, or 20 mg daily). Fixed-dose combination of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin significantly reduced LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels compared with rosuvastatin alone. Depending on the rosuvastatin dose, these fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin provided LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride reductions of 56%-63%, 37%-43%, and 19%-24%, respectively. Moreover, the effect of combination treatment on cholesterol levels was more pronounced in patients with DM or MetS than in non-DM or non-MetS patients, respectively, whereas the effect of rosuvastatin alone did not differ between DM vs non-DM or MetS vs non-MetS patients. Fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe and rosuvastatin provided significantly superior efficacy to rosuvastatin alone in lowering LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Moreover, the reduction rate was greater in patients with DM or MetS. © 2016 The Authors Cardiovascular Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effectiveness of speed enforcement through fixed speed cameras: a time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana M; Pérez, Katherine; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Tobías, Aurelio

    2010-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of speed cameras in reducing the numbers of crashes and people injured on the arterial roads of Barcelona, and to assess their long-term effectiveness on the beltway. Time series analyses were performed separately for the arterial roads and the beltway. The stretches of arterial roads encompassing 500 m before and after the location of a speed camera were considered the enforced stretches, the remaining stretches of arterial roads being considered the comparison group. The outcome measures were the numbers of crashes and of people injured. Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted, controlling for time trend, seasonality and implementation of other road safety measures. Both on the enforced and non-enforced arterial road stretches, the risks of crashes and people injured were similar in the two periods. On the beltway, reductions of 30% (95% CI 38% to 20%) and 26% (95% CI 36% to 14%) were observed, respectively. Speed cameras do not reduce the numbers of crashes or people injured on the arterial roads of Barcelona. However, they are effective in the short and in the long-term on the beltway. Speed enforcement through fixed speed cameras is thus effective in medium-high-speed roads, although effectiveness could not be generalised to roads with lower speed limits and traffic lights.

  6. Iterative usage of fixed and random effect models for powerful and efficient genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    False positives in a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) can be effectively controlled by a fixed effect and random effect Mixed Linear Model (MLM) that incorporates population structure and kinship among individuals to adjust association tests on markers; however, the adjustment also compromises t...

  7. Treatment and posttreatment effects of mandibular cervical headgear followed by fixed appliances in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Angel, David; Oberti, Giovanni; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-03-01

    In this cephalometric investigation, we compared the treatment and posttreatment effects on patients undergoing an initial phase of mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) therapy followed later by comprehensive edgewise therapy with untreated Class III controls. The treated sample consisted of 21 patients treated consecutively with MCH before the pubertal growth spurt (average age, 10 years 2 months at the beginning of treatment). At the final observation period (average age, 15 years 3 months), all patients were in decelerative growth phases as determined by the cervical vertebral maturation method. Active treatment and posttreatment effects were evaluated in the treated group with nonparametric statistical analysis for paired samples. The treated sample was compared with a nonparametric statistical test for independent samples with 20 untreated Class III subjects who were matched for malocclusion, sex, and stage of cervical vertebral maturation to the treatment group. MCH therapy followed by fixed appliances was shown to be an effective treatment for the correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion at postpubertal observation. The favorable skeletal effects consisted mainly of smaller increases in mandibular length and advancement with respect to the controls, with the final outcome of significant improvements in the sagittal skeletal (+4 mm for the Wits appraisal) and dental (+2.7 mm for overjet, -4.4 mm for molar relationship) parameters. This treatment protocol also induced significant downward rotation of the mandible (2.8 degrees ).

  8. Investigations on effects of the hole size to fix electrodes and interconnection lines in polydimethylsiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behkami, Saber; Frounchi, Javad; Ghaderi Pakdel, Firouz; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Translational research in bioelectronics medicine and neural implants often relies on established material assemblies made of silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane-PDMS) and precious metals. Longevity of the compound is of utmost importance for implantable devices in therapeutic and rehabilitation applications. Therefore, secure mechanical fixation can be used in addition to chemical bonding mechanisms to interlock PDMS substrate and insulation layers with metal sheets for interconnection lines and electrodes. One of the best ways to fix metal lines and electrodes in PDMS is to design holes in electrode rims to allow for direct interconnection between top to bottom layer silicone. Hence, the best layouts and sizes of holes (up to 6) which provide sufficient stability against lateral and vertical forces have been investigated with a variety of numbers of hole in line electrodes, which are simulated and fabricated with different layouts, sizes and materials. Best stability was obtained with radii of 100, 72 and 62 µm, respectively, and a single central hole in aluminum, platinum and MP35N foil line electrodes of 400  ×  500 µm2 size and of thickness 20 µm. The study showed that the best hole size which provides line electrode immobility (of thickness less than 30 µm) within a central hole is proportional to reverse value of Young’s Modulus of the material used. Thus, an array of line electrodes was designed and fabricated to study this effect. Experimental results were compared with simulation data. Subsequently, an approximation curve was generated as design rule to propose the best radius to fix line electrodes according to the material thickness between 10 and 200 µm using PDMS as substrate material.

  9. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. A Fixed Flow is More Effective than Titrated Flow during Bubble Nasal CPAP for Respiratory Distress in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murki, Srinivas; Das, Ratan Kumar; Sharma, Deepak; Kumar, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effects of a pre-fixed flow of air-oxygen versus a flow titrated according to visible bubbling are not well understood. To compare the effects of a fixed flow (5 L/min) and titrated flow (flow just enough to ensure bubbling) at different set pressures on delivered intra-prong pressure, gas exchange and clinical parameters in preterm infants on bubble CPAP for respiratory distress. Preterm infants rate, set pressure, FiO2, SpO2, Silverman retraction score, respiratory rate, abdominal girth, and blood gases were recorded. The delivered intra-prong pressure was measured by an electronic manometer. 69 recordings were made in 54 infants. For each of the set CPAP pressures (4, 5, and 6 cm H2O), the mean delivered pressure with a fixed flow of 5 L/min was higher than that delivered by the titrated flow. During the fixed flow epoch, the delivered pressure was closer to and higher than the set pressure resulting in higher PaO2 and lower PaCO2 as compared to titrated flow epoch. In the titrated flow period, the delivered pressure was consistently lower than the set pressure. In preterm infants on bubble CPAP with set pressures of 4-6 cm H2O, a fixed flow of 5 L/min is more effective than a flow titrated to ensure adequate visible bubbling. It achieves higher delivered pressures, better oxygenation and ventilation.

  11. A cost-effectiveness analysis of fixed-combination therapies in patients with open-angle glaucoma: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommer, A.; Wickstrom, J.; Friis, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    /timolol. CONCLUSIONS: This cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% administered once daily was a cost-effective treatment option for patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. This study was limited by available clinical data: without a head-to-head trial...

  12. Effects of artificial sand fixing on community characteristics of a rare desert shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiliang; Tao, Ye; Qiu, Dong; Zhang, Daoyuan; Zhang, Yongkuan

    2013-10-01

    Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae) is a rare, native, clonal small shrub of the deserts of central Asia. Although human activities have greatly fragmented the distribution of E. songoricum, it occurs in areas where artificial sand fixing (AS) has been implemented. We sought to explore whether AS promotes survival and growth of E. songoricum. In the Gurbantunggut Desert of northwestern China in June 2010, we established 10 plots in an area where sand fixing occurred (5-10 years previously) and 11 plots on original sand substrate on which some plants had settled without fixing sand. Sand fixing changed soil properties and biological characteristics in sand-fixed plots. The soil surface where sand fixing occurred was covered by algal crusts and some lichen, but not bare sand (BS). Soil nutrients; water content of deep soil (30-150 cm); overall plant and herbaceous species richness, diversity, abundance, and cover; above- and belowground biomass; and cover, biomass, and height of E. songoricum in the sand-fixed plots were significantly greater than in plots of BS. However, distribution of E. songoricum individuals in the 2 types of plots did not differ. Our results indicate AS may enhance survival of E. songoricum and increase the overall diversity and stability of the desert plant community. We suggest AS as a way to protect this rare desert plant in situ. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. EFFECT OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA ON GRAIN YIELD AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOODED IRRIGATED RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAURI NELSON BEUTLER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Azospirillum brasilense , a nitrogen - fixing bacterium, on flooded irrigated rice yield. Evaluations were carried out in a shaded nursery, with seedlings grown on an Alfisol. Were performed two sets of experiments. In the first, were carried out four experiments using the flooded rice cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424; these trials were set up as completely randomized design in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha - 1 and four levels of liquid inoculant Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the manufacturer's recommendation without seed treatment. In second set, were performed two experiments using the cultivars Puitá Inta - CL and Br Irga 409, arranged in the same design, but using a 4x2 factorial. In this set, treatments were composed of four levels of Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense liquid inoculant (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the recommendation of 100 mL ha - 1 , using rice seeds with and without insecticide and fungicide treatment. Shoot dry matter, number of panicles, and rice grain yield per pot were the assessed variables. The results showed that rice seed inoculation with A. brasilense had no effects on rice grain yield of the cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424.

  14. It takes a village: Fixed-effects analysis of neighborhood collective efficacy and children's development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Ichikawa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggest that neighborhood social capital is associated with children's mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood collective efficacy and children's psychosocial development. Methods: We used data on children and their parents (n = 918 who were part of the Japanese study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (JSHINE from 2010 to 2013 (wave 1 and wave 2. Households were recruited from the Tokyo metropolitan area through clustered random sampling. Changes in children's psychosocial development (assessed using a child behavioral checklist between waves 1 and 2 were regressed on parents' perceptions of changes in neighborhood collective efficacy (social cohesion and informal social control. Results: Change in perception of neighborhood social cohesion was inversely associated with change in child total problems (β = −0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.37 to −0.001; effect size d = −0.03. Change in perceptions of neighborhood informal social control was inversely associated with change in children's externalizing problems (β = −0.16; 95% CI: −0.30 to −0.03; d = −0.02. Conclusions: The results of these fixed-effects models suggest that strengthening neighborhood collective efficacy is related to improvements in child psychosocial development.

  15. Fix 40!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ansambel Fix peab 13. detsembril Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis oma 40. sünnipäeva. Kontserdi erikülaline on ansambel Apelsin, kaastegevad Jassi Zahharov ja HaleBopp Singers. Õhtut juhib Tarmo Leinatamm

  16. Social participation and depression in old age: a fixed-effects analysis in 10 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croezen, Simone; Avendano, Mauricio; Burdorf, Alex; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-07-15

    We examined whether changes in different forms of social participation were associated with changes in depressive symptoms in older Europeans. We used lagged individual fixed-effects models based on data from 9,068 persons aged ≥50 years in wave 1 (2004/2005), wave 2 (2006/2007), and wave 4 (2010/2011) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). After we controlled for a wide set of confounders, increased participation in religious organizations predicted a decline in depressive symptoms (EURO-D Scale; possible range, 0-12) 4 years later (β = -0.190 units, 95% confidence interval: -0.365, -0.016), while participation in political/community organizations was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms (β = 0.222 units, 95% confidence interval: 0.018, 0.428). There were no significant differences between European regions in these associations. Our findings suggest that social participation is associated with depressive symptoms, but the direction and strength of the association depend on the type of social activity. Participation in religious organizations may offer mental health benefits beyond those offered by other forms of social participation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Racial Inequality in Education in Brazil: A Twins Fixed-Effects Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Letícia J; Dondero, Molly

    2016-08-01

    Racial disparities in education in Brazil (and elsewhere) are well documented. Because this research typically examines educational variation between individuals in different families, however, it cannot disentangle whether racial differences in education are due to racial discrimination or to structural differences in unobserved neighborhood and family characteristics. To address this common data limitation, we use an innovative within-family twin approach that takes advantage of the large sample of Brazilian adolescent twins classified as different races in the 1982 and 1987-2009 Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios. We first examine the contexts within which adolescent twins in the same family are labeled as different races to determine the characteristics of families crossing racial boundaries. Then, as a way to hold constant shared unobserved and observed neighborhood and family characteristics, we use twins fixed-effects models to assess whether racial disparities in education exist between twins and whether such disparities vary by gender. We find that even under this stringent test of racial inequality, the nonwhite educational disadvantage persists and is especially pronounced for nonwhite adolescent boys.

  18. Effect of veneering technique on the fracture resistance of zirconia fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaar, M S; Witkowski, S; Strub, J R; Att, W

    2013-01-01

    To compare the fracture resistance of zirconia 3-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) frameworks veneered with different veneering materials and techniques before and after artificial ageing. Forty-eight zirconia 3-unit FDPs, representing a missing first molar, were adhesively cemented on human teeth. The zirconia frameworks were randomly distributed according to the veneering materials and techniques into three groups, each containing 16 samples: group LV (layering technique/Vintage ZR), group LZ (layering technique/ZIROX) and group PP (CAD/CAM and press-over techniques/PressXZr). Half of each group was artificially aged through dynamic loading and thermocycling to simulate 5 years of clinical service. Afterwards, all specimens were tested for fracture resistance using compressive load. An analysis of variance (anova) was used to assess the effect of veneering ceramic and artificial ageing on fracture resistance (P veneered with the layering technique (P veneered with the CAD/CAM and press-over techniques. All tested systems have the potential to withstand occlusal forces applied in the posterior region. The combination of the CAD/CAM and press-over techniques for the veneering process improved the overall stability after artificial ageing, relative to the layering technique. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The effect of fixed ankle foot orthoses in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, P B; Farmer, S E; Stewart, C; Jones, P W; Forward, M

    2007-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of children with cerebral palsy who benefited from tuning of their fixed ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) to create a screening tool. A retrospective review was conducted using video records of 21 independently walking children with cerebral palsy who were referred to a Gait Laboratory for AFO tuning. All showed a ground reaction vector (GRV) in front of the knee (extending) when barefoot. The stance phase was digitised to obtain kinematic and kinetic parameters. Effectiveness of AFO tuning was judged by optimisation of the GRV at the knee and statistical and scatter plot analysis sought to discriminate between those who tuned and those who did not. Analysis showed clear distinction between the two groups based on knee kinematics. Those who tuned showed flexion of no more than 20 degrees in the first third of stance combined with movement towards extension in the second third of stance to a minimum of 10 degrees flexion or less. This study has created a screening tool to identify children likely to benefit from AFO tuning based on kinematic data and which could be used in the community.

  20. The effects of natural compounds-containing mouthrinses on patients with fixed orthodontic appliance treatment: clinical and microbiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wong, Ricky W K; Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath; Hagg, Urban; McGrath, Colman; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effects of two natural compounds-containing mouthrinses (NCCMs) (a fructus mume (FM) extract-containing mouthrinse and an essential oil (EO)-containing mouthrinse) on gingival health and microbial profiles in young orthodontic patients. This 6-month randomized, single-blinded, parallel-controlled clinical trial consists of 90 patients with fixed appliance treatment. The subjects were allocated to (1) negative control group: oral hygiene instruction (OHI) alone; (2) test group 1: OHI plus EO mouthrinse; and (3) test group 2: OHI plus FM mouthrinse. Clinical examinations included plaque index (PI), bleeding index (BI) and modified gingival index (MGI). Salivary microbial quantifications included total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, Streptococci and Lactobacilli counts. Clinical and microbiological examinations were conducted at baseline, 3rd and 6th months (T1, T2, and T3). BI was significantly reduced in both the FM mouthrinse and EO mouthrinse groups compared with the negative control group at T3 (P 0.05). Both NCCMs effectively reduced gingival bleeding without causing significant alterations of microbial profile in young orthodontic patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  1. Unemployment and psychosocial outcomes to age 30: A fixed-effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F; Horwood, L John

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between exposure to unemployment and psychosocial outcomes over the period from 16 to 30 years, using data from a well-studied birth cohort. Data were collected over the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch in 1977, who have been studied to age 30. Assessments of unemployment and psychosocial outcomes (mental health, substance abuse/dependence, criminal offending, adverse life events and life satisfaction) were obtained at ages 18, 21, 25 and 30. Prior to adjustment, an increasing duration of unemployment was associated with significant increases in the risk of all psychosocial outcomes. These associations were adjusted for confounding using conditional, fixed-effects regression techniques. The analyses showed significant (p unemployment and major depression (p = 0.05), alcohol abuse/dependence (p = 0.043), illicit substance abuse/dependence (p = 0.017), property/violent offending (p unemployment. The findings suggested that the association between unemployment and psychosocial outcomes was likely to involve a causal process in which unemployment led to increased risks of adverse psychosocial outcomes. Effect sizes were estimated using attributable risk; exposure to unemployment accounted for between 4.2 and 14.0% (median 10.8%) of the risk of experiencing the significant psychosocial outcomes. The findings of this study suggest that exposure to unemployment had small but pervasive effects on psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  2. Experimental Investigation on the Effects of the Fixed Boundaries in Channelized Dry Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, L.; Carleo, L.; Papa, M. N.; Villani, P.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of granular mixtures, involved in several geophysical phenomena like rock avalanches and debris flows, is far from being completely understood. Several features of their motion, such as non-local and boundary effects, still represent open problems. An extensive experimental study on free-surface channelized granular flows is here presented, where the effects of the fixed boundaries are systematically investigated. The entire experimental data set is obtained by using a homogenous acetal-polymeric granular material and three different basal surfaces, allowing different kinematic boundary conditions. Velocity profiles at both the sidewall and the free surface are obtained by using high-speed cameras and the open-source particle image velocimetry code, PIVlab. Significantly, different sidewall velocity profiles are observed by varying the basal roughness and the flow depth. Owing to sidewall friction and non-local effects, such profiles exhibit a clear rheological stratification for high enough flow depths and they can be well described by recurring to composite functions, variously formed of linear, Bagnold and exponential scalings. Moreover, it has been discovered that transitions from one velocity profile to another are also possible on the same basal surface by merely varying the flow depth. This shape transition is due partly to the sidewall resistances, the basal boundary condition and, in particular, the occurrence/inhibition of basal grain rolling. In most of the experiments, the normal-to-bed velocity profiles and the velocity measurements at the free surface strongly suggest the occurrence of a secondary circulating flow, made possible by a chiefly collisional regime beneath the free surface.

  3. Fixing the stimulus-as-fixed-effect fallacy in task fMRI [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Westfall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Most functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments record the brain’s responses to samples of stimulus materials (e.g., faces or words. Yet the statistical modeling approaches used in fMRI research universally fail to model stimulus variability in a manner that affords population generalization, meaning that researchers’ conclusions technically apply only to the precise stimuli used in each study, and cannot be generalized to new stimuli. A direct consequence of this stimulus-as-fixed-effect fallacy is that the majority of published fMRI studies have likely overstated the strength of the statistical evidence they report. Here we develop a Bayesian mixed model (the random stimulus model; RSM that addresses this problem, and apply it to a range of fMRI datasets. Results demonstrate considerable inflation (50-200% in most of the studied datasets of test statistics obtained from standard “summary statistics”-based approaches relative to the corresponding RSM models. We demonstrate how RSMs can be used to improve parameter estimates, properly control false positive rates, and test novel research hypotheses about stimulus-level variability in human brain responses.

  4. [Effects of intensive management on abundance and composition of soil N2-fixing bacteria in Phyllostachys heterocycla stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-hua; Chen, Jun-hui; Xu, Qiu-fang; Shen, Qiu-lan; Li, Yong-chun; Mao, Xin-wei; Cheng, Min

    2015-10-01

    Denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) were employed to determine the effects of intensive management on soil N2-fixing bacteria in a moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) plantation. Soil samples were collected from the moso bamboo stands receiving 0 (CK), 10, 15, 20, and 25 years of intensive management. It was found that intensive management caused a strong decrease in soil pH but a general increase in soil available nutrients. The structure of the N2-fixing bacterial communities in the soils having received 10 and 25 years of intensive management were quite similar to that from the CK; however, those from 15 and 20 years of intensification differed from the CK. With increasing time of intensive management, the abundance and diversity of the nifH gene at first decreased and then increased, with the minimum values being observed after 15 years of intensive management, indicating the eventual resiliency of N2-fixing bacteria to disturbance induced by intensive management. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil available potassium, available nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, and ammonium nitrogen were more closely related to the changes of N2-fixing bacterial community structure compared with the other soil indices measured. In conclusion, the soil N2-fixing bacterial community was negatively affected by intensive management in the short term, but could recover in the long term.

  5. Effects of rigid or adaptive confinement on colloidal self-assembly. Fixed vs. fluctuating number of confined particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pȩkalski, J.; Ciach, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Almarza, N. G. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-05-28

    The effects of confinement on colloidal self-assembly in the case of fixed number of confined particles are studied in the one dimensional lattice model solved exactly in the grand canonical ensemble (GCE) in Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 014903 (2015)]. The model considers a pair interaction defined by a short-range attraction plus a longer-range repulsion. We consider thermodynamic states corresponding to self-assembly into clusters. Both fixed and adaptive boundaries are studied. For fixed boundaries, there are particular states in which, for equal average densities, the number of clusters in the GCE is larger than in the canonical ensemble. The dependence of pressure on density has a different form when the system size changes with fixed number of particles and when the number of particles changes with fixed size of the system. In the former case, the pressure has a nonmonotonic dependence on the system size. The anomalous increase of pressure for expanding system is accompanied by formation of a larger number of smaller clusters. In the case of elastic confining surfaces, we observe a bistability, i.e., two significantly different system sizes occur with almost the same probability. The mechanism of the bistability in the closed system is different to that of the case of permeable walls, where the two equilibrium system sizes correspond to a different number of particles.

  6. Optical potentials derived from microscopic separable interactions including binding and recoil effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, E.R.; Walker, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    We first consider a projectile scattering from a nucleon bound in a fixed potential. A separable Galilean invariant projectile-nucleon interaction is adopted. Without using the fixed scatterer approximation or using closure on the intermediate target nucleon states we obtain various forms for the projectile-bound nucleon t matrix. Effects due to intermediate target excitation and nucleon recoil are discussed. By making the further approximations of closure and fixed scatterers we make connection with the work of previous authors. By generalizing to projectile interaction with several bound nucleons and examining the appropriate multiple scattering series we identify the optical potential for projectile elastic scattering from the many-body system. Different optical potentials are obtained for different projectile-bound nucleon t matrices, and we study the differences predicted by these dissimilar optical potentials for elastic scattering. In a model problem, we study pion-nucleus elastic scattering and compare the predictions obtained by adopting procedures used by (1) Landau, Phatak, and Tabakin and (2) Piepho-Walker to the predictions obtained in a less restrictive, but computationally difficult treatment

  7. Social capital, income inequality and the social gradient in self-rated health in Latin America: A fixed effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincens, Natalia; Emmelin, Maria; Stafström, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Latin America is the most unequal region in the world. The current sustainable development agenda increased attention to health inequity and its determinants in the region. Our aim is to investigate the social gradient in health in Latin America and assess the effects of social capital and income inequality on it. We used cross-sectional data from the World Values Survey and the World Bank. Our sample included 10,426 respondents in eight Latin American countries. Self-rated health was used as the outcome. Education level was the socioeconomic position indicator. We measured social capital by associational membership, civic participation, generalized trust, and neighborhood trust indicators at both individual and country levels. Income inequality was operationalized using the Gini index at country-level. We employed fixed effects logistic regressions and cross-level interactions to assess the impact of social capital and income inequality on the heath gradient, controlling for country heterogeneity. Education level was independently associated with self-rated health, representing a clear social gradient in health, favoring individuals in higher socioeconomic positions. Generalized and neighborhood trust at country-level moderated the effect on the association between socioeconomic position and health, yet favoring individuals in lower socioeconomic positions, especially in lower inequality countries, despite their lower individual social capital. Our findings suggest that collective rather than individual social capital can impact the social gradient in health in Latin America, explaining health inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Model Specifications for Estimating Labor Market Returns to Associate Degrees: How Robust Are Fixed Effects Estimates? A CAPSEE Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive; Bailey, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Recently, studies have adopted fixed effects modeling to identify the returns to college. This method has the advantage over ordinary least squares estimates in that unobservable, individual-level characteristics that may bias the estimated returns are differenced out. But the method requires extensive longitudinal data and involves complex…

  9. The effect of box preparation on the strength of glass fiber–reinforced composite inlay-retained fixed partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Breuklander, Marijn H.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2005-01-01

    Statement of problem. Nonstandardized box dimensions for inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (FPDs) may result in uneven distribution of the forces on the connector region of such restorations. Purpose. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of box dimensions on the

  10. The effect of box preparation on the strength of glass fiber-reinforced composite inlay-retained fixed partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Breuklander, MH; Vallittu, PK

    Statement of problem. Nonstandardized box dimensions for inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (FPDs) may result in uneven distribution of the forces on the connector region of such restorations. Purpose. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of box dimensions on the

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Gas-Phase Radial Dispersion in Fixed Beds with Wall Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony G. Dixon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective medium approach to radial fixed bed dispersion models, in which radial dispersion of mass is superimposed on axial plug flow, is based on a constant effective dispersion coefficient, DT. For packed beds of a small tube-to-particle diameter ratio (N, the experimentally-observed decrease in this parameter near the tube wall is accounted for by a lumped resistance located at the tube wall, the wall mass transfer coefficient km. This work presents validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations to obtain detailed radial velocity and concentration profiles for eight different computer-generated packed tubes of spheres in the range 5.04 ≤ N ≤ 9.3 and over a range of flow rates 87 ≤ Re ≤ 870 where Re is based on superficial velocity and the particle diameter dp. Initial runs with pure air gave axial velocity profiles vz(r averaged over the length of the packing. Then, simulations with the tube wall coated with methane yielded radial concentration profiles. A model with only DT could not describe the radial concentration profiles. The two-parameter model with DT and km agreed better with the bed-center concentration profiles, but not with the sharp decreases in concentration close to the tube wall. A three-parameter model based on classical two-layer mixing length theory, with a wall-function for the decrease in transverse radial convective transport in the near-wall region, showed greatly improved ability to reproduce the near-wall concentration profiles.

  12. Effect of manual tilt adjustments on incident irradiance on fixed and tracking solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubitz, William David

    2011-01-01

    Hourly typical meteorological year (TMY3) data was utilized with the Perez radiation model to simulate solar radiation on fixed, azimuth tracking and two axis tracking surfaces at 217 geographically diverse temperate latitude sites across the contiguous United States of America. The optimum tilt angle for maximizing annual irradiation on a fixed south-facing panel varied from being equal to the latitude at low-latitude, high clearness sites, to up to 14 o less than the latitude at a north-western coastal site with very low clearness index. Across the United States, the optimum tilt angle for an azimuth tracking panel was found to be on average 19 o closer to vertical than the optimum tilt angle for a fixed, south-facing panel at the same site. Azimuth tracking increased annual solar irradiation incident on a surface by an average of 29% relative to a fixed south-facing surface at optimum tilt angle. Two axis tracking resulted in an average irradiation increase of 34% relative to the fixed surface. Introduction of manual surface tilt changes during the year produced a greater impact for non-tracking surfaces than it did for azimuth tracking surfaces. Even monthly tilt changes only resulted in an average annual irradiation increase of 5% for fixed panels and 1% for azimuth tracked surfaces, relative to using a single optimized tilt angle in each case. In practice, the decision whether to manually tilt panels requires balancing the added cost in labor and the panel support versus the extra energy generation and the cost value of that energy. A spreadsheet file is available that gives individual results for each of the 217 simulated sites.

  13. Effect of water salinity on wheat inoculated with N fixing bacteria using 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sayed, M. A.; Soliman, S. M.; Galal, Y. G. M.; El-Hadidi, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse controlled conditions to investigate the effect of water salinity and bacterial inoculation on growth parameters and nutrient uptake by wheat ( Triticum aestivum, L. seda 6). Dry matter yield of shoots was gradually increased with increasing water salinity levels under dual inoculation (Rh + Az). This phenomenon was more pronounced with 6 ds m -1 rather than 3 ds m -1 water salinity level. This holds true with all inoculation treatments. Similar trend was noticed with root dry matter yield. N uptake by shoots was positively affected by water salinity levels under bacterial inoculation especially the dual treatments where N uptake tended to increase with increasing water salinity levels. N uptake by roots was severely affected by increasing water salinity levels as compared to fresh water treatment. N uptake by shoots was enhanced by inoculation under different water salinity levels as compared to the un inoculated treatment. Nitrogen uptake roots was dramatically affected by inoculation. It was only increased by inoculation when plants were irrigated with fresh water. Portions of Ndff were frequently affected by both water salinity levels and microbial inoculation. wheat plant as representative of cereal crops was more dependent on the portion of nitrogen up taken from fertilizer rather than those fixed from the air. Therefore, the plant-bacteria association was not efficient enough. Inoculated treatments compensated considerable amounts of its N demand from air beside those derived from fertilizer, therefore the remained N from fertilizer in soil was higher than those of un inoculated control which is more dependable on Ndff as well as Ndf s. 1 5N recovery by wheat plants was enhanced by bacterial inoculation as well as water salinity levels did. (Author)

  14. Effect of pontic height on the fracture strength of reinforced interim fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, P; Grube, L

    2006-12-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the fracture load of interim FPDs made with various materials and pontic heights. The hypothesis was that different materials and pontic heights result in different fracture resistance. Groups of interim FPDs were fabricated with prosthodontic resin materials on two abutments with two different pontic heights (4.3 and 5.8 mm) and a pontic width of 4 units (19 mm) (n = 3). The following materials were tested: (1) a thermoplastic polymer (Promysan Star), (2) Promysan Star with a veneering composite (Vita Zeta), (3) a non-impregnated polyethylene fiber reinforced resin (Ribbond) with a veneering composite (Sinfony), (4) an impregnated fiber reinforced composite system (Targis/Vectris), and (5) a conventional poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) (Biodent K+B, control group). After 5000 thermocycles, the FPDs were temporarily fixed with a provisional cement on the corresponding abutments and tested for fracture strength. One-way and two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni-Dunn's multiple comparison tests were performed for the statistical analysis (alpha = 0.05). The mean fracture strength ranged from 83.0 to 625.9 N for a pontic height of 4.3 mm and from 97.2 to 893.7 N for a pontic height of 5.8 mm. Vectris/Targis FPDs of both pontic heights exhibited significantly superior fracture resistance compared to the corresponding Promysan, Promysan/Vita Zeta, Ribbond/Sinfony and Biodent groups. Except Biodent FPDs, fracture resistance of FPDs with a pontic height of 4.3 mm showed no significant differences compared to a pontic height of 5.8 mm for each material. Material type of the FPDs has a significant influence on the fracture strength, whereas pontic height has no significant effect (except control group).

  15. The Great Recession and the Health of Young Children: A Fixed Effects Analysis in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Erica; Layte, Richard; McCrory, Cathal; Panico, Lidia; Avendano, Mauricio

    2018-01-12

    Economic recessions have been linked to adult health, but few studies have examined how recessions influence the health of young children. This study examines the impact of life transitions linked to the financial crisis in Ireland on the health of young children. Data came from the Growing Up in Ireland Infant Cohort Study (n = 11,134), which assessed children before (2008), during (2011), and after (2013) the recession and incorporated questions on the impacts of the financial crisis on families. Using fixed effects models to control for confounding, we found that a reduction in welfare benefits during the recession was associated with a significant increase in the risk of asthma (β = 0.0136, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.0062, 0.0328) and atopy (β = 0.0161, 95% CI: 0.0026, 0.0297). While parental job loss was not associated with child health, a reduction in working hours was associated with increased reports of fair or poor child health (β = 0.0235, 95% CI: 0.0041, 0.0429), as were difficulties affording basics (β = 0.0193, 95% CI: 0.0005, 0.0381). Results suggest that failing to protect vulnerable families and children during economic recessions may have long-lasting implications for child health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of interim fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichander, N; Halini Kumarai, K V; Vasanthakumar, M

    2015-10-01

    Different reinforcements currently available for interim fixed partial denture (FPD) materials do not provide the ideal strength for long-term use. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to develop a more ideal provisional material for long-term use with better mechanical properties. This study evaluated the effectiveness of polyester fiber reinforcement on different interim FPD materials. Thirty resin-bonded FPDs were constructed from three provisional interim FPD materials. Specimens were tested with a universal testing machine (UTM). The modulus of elasticity and flexural strength were recorded in MPa. The compressive strength and degree of deflection were calculated from the obtained values, and a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance. The polyester fiber reinforcement increased the mechanical properties. The modulus of elasticity for heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was 624 MPa, compared to 700.2 MPa for the reinforced heat-cured sample. The flexural strengths of the bis-acrylic and cold-polymerized reinforced samples increased significantly to 2807 MPa and 979.86 MPa, respectively, compared to the nonreinforced samples. The mean compressive strength of the reinforced cold-polymerized PMMA samples was 439.17 MPa; and for the reinforced heat-polymerized PMMA samples, it was 1117.41 MPa. The degree of deflection was significantly greater (P acrylic sample (5.03 MPa), compared with the nonreinforced bis-acrylic sample (2.95 MPa). Within the limitations of this study, polyester fiber reinforcements improved the mechanical properties of heat-polymerized PMMA, cold-polymerized PMMA, and bis-acrylic provisional FPD materials.

  17. Does job promotion affect men's and women's health differently? Dynamic panel models with fixed effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Peristera, Paraskevi; Westerlund, Hugo; Johansson, Gunn; Hanson, Linda L Magnusson

    2017-08-01

    Higher occupational status has consistently been shown to be associated with better health, but few studies have to date examined if an upward change in occupational status is associated with a positive change in health. Furthermore, very little is known about whether this association differs by sex. Data were derived from four waves (2008-14) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a follow-up study of a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population. The present study comprises 1410 men and 1926 women. A dynamic panel model with fixed effects was used to analyse the lagged association between job promotion on the one hand and self-rated health (SRH) and symptoms of depression on the other. This method allowed controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders and determining the direction of causality between the variables. Multigroup comparisons were performed to investigate differences between the sexes. The results showed that job promotion was associated with decreased subsequent SRH and increased symptoms of depression among both men and women. Women reported a larger relative worsening of self-rated health following a job promotion than men and men reported a larger relative worsening of depression symptoms. There was limited evidence that SRH and symptoms of depression were associated with subsequent job promotion. The present study indicates that a job promotion could lead to decreased SRH and increased symptoms of depression in a 2-4-year perspective. Associations appear to differ for women and men. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  18. Long-lasting complete response status of advanced stage IV gall bladder cancer and colon cancer after combined treatment including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ohno, Tadao

    2017-09-11

    The prognosis of advanced (stage IV) cancer of the digestive organs is very poor. We have previously reported a case of advanced breast cancer with bone metastasis that was successfully treated with combined treatments including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). Herein, we report the success of this approach in advanced stage IV (heavily metastasized) cases of gall bladder cancer and colon cancer. Case 1: A 61-year-old woman with stage IV gall bladder cancer (liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis) underwent surgery in May 2011, including partial resection of the liver. She was treated with AFTV as the first-line adjuvant therapy, followed by conventional chemotherapy. This patient is still alive without any recurrence, as confirmed with computed tomography, for more than 5 years. Case 2: A 64-year-old man with stage IV colon cancer (multiple para-aortic lymph node metastases and direct abdominal wall invasion) underwent non-curative surgery in May 2006. Following conventional chemotherapy, two courses of AFTV and radiation therapy were administered sequentially. This patient has had no recurrence for more than 5 years. We report the success of combination therapy including AFTV in cases of liver-metastasized gall bladder cancer and abdominal wall-metastasized colon cancer. Both patients experienced long-lasting, complete remission. Therefore, combination therapies including AFTV should be considered in patients with advanced cancer of the digestive organs.

  19. The long-term effectiveness of generic adult fixed-dose combination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Treatment with generic adult FDC for HIV-infected Ugandan children led to sustained clinical, immunologic and virologic response during 96 weeks of ART. Early initiation of ART is key to achieving virological success. Key words: Children, HIV, antiretroviral treatment, Sub-Saharan Africa, fixed dose ...

  20. Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Treatment on Salivary Flow, pH and Microbial Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Arab

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the changes in saliva properties and oral microbial flora in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.Materials and Methods: Two important saliva properties namely the salivary flow rate and pH as well as oral microbial flora were assessed in 30 orthodontic patients before starting fixed orthodontic treatment and after six, 12 and 18 weeks of treatment. Selective media, Sabouraud dextrose agar, Mitis salivarius agar and Rogosa agar were used for isolation of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using Friedman and Dunn’s tests. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: After six, 12 and 18 weeks of commencing fixed orthodontic treatment, the total colony counts of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus showed a significant increase. The saliva pH decreased during the orthodontic treatment (P< 0.05 while the salivary flow did not change significantly. Conclusions: Fixed orthodontic treatment causes major changes in the saliva properties. The changes in oral microflora and saliva properties show the importance of caries preventive measures during orthodontic treatment.

  1. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  2. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months : a controlled observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maret, Delphine; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Hamel, Olivier; Georgelin-Gurgel, Marie; Van Der Sluis, Lucas; Sixou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study.

  3. Tree effects on crop growth on a phosphorus-fixing Ferralsol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radersma, S.

    2002-01-01

    In agroforestry systems trees affect crops. This study aimed at understanding how trees grown in lines for pole production affect maize on an unfertilized, P-fixing Ferralsol, in the agricultural area of Western Kenya. I hypothesized that,

  4. Treatment effects of a fixed intermaxillary device to correct class II malocclusions in growing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Dean A; Shammaa, Imad; Martin, Chris; Razmus, Thomas; Gunel, Erdogan; Ngan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects of Forsus™ Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) in growing patients with Class II non-extraction malocclusions. A retrospective sample of 24 class II patients treated consecutively with the FRD followed by comprehensive orthodontic treatment was compared to a sample of untreated control subjects from the Bolton Brush Study who was matched in age, sex, and craniofacial morphology. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken before treatment (T1) and after removal of fixed appliances (T2). Growth changes were subtracted from the treatment changes to obtain the treatment effects of the appliance. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and a match paired t test. Significant differences were found between the treated and control groups for 12 of the 29 measured variables (Co-Gn minus Co-Apt, Wits, Is-OLp, Ii-OLp, overjet, Mi-OLp, molar relationship, overbite, Mic-ML, SNA, ANB, and Ii-ML). With 27.8 months of treatment, all patients were corrected to a class I dental arch relationship. Overjet and molar relationships were improved by an average of 4.7 and 3.1 mm, respectively. This was contributed by a 1.2 mm of restraint in forward maxillary growth, 0.7 mm of forward movement of the mandible, 1.5 mm of backward movement of the maxillary incisors, 1.3 mm forward movement of the mandibular incisors, 0.5 mm backward movement of the maxillary molars, and 1.3 mm of forward movement of the mandibular molars. The overbite was decreased by 2 mm with no significant change in the occlusal, palatal, or mandibular plane. Individual variations in response to the FRD treatment were large for most of the parameters tested. Significant differences in treatment changes between male and female subjects were found only in a few parameters measured. These results demonstrate that significant overjet and overbite corrections can be obtained with the Forsus FRD in conjunction with comprehensive orthodontic

  5. Globalisation and national trends in nutrition and health: A grouped fixed-effects approach to intercountry heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Lisa; Disdier, Anne-Célia; Etilé, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    Using a panel dataset of 70 countries spanning 42 years (1970-2011), we investigate the distinct effects of social globalisation and trade openness on national trends in markers of diet quality (supplies of animal proteins, free fats and sugar, average body mass index, and diabetes prevalence). Our key methodological contribution is the application of a grouped fixed-effects estimator, which extends linear fixed-effects models. The grouped fixed-effects estimator partitions our sample into distinct groups of countries in order to control for time-varying unobserved heterogeneity that follows a group-specific pattern. We find that increasing social globalisation has a significant impact on the supplies of animal protein and sugar available for human consumption, as well as on mean body mass index. Specific components of social globalisation such as information flows (via television and the Internet) drive these results. Trade openness has no effect on dietary outcomes or health. These findings suggest that the social and cultural aspects of globalisation should receive greater attention in research on the nutrition transition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of progestagen exposure duration on estrus synchronization and conception rates of crossbreed ewes undergoing fixed time artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschi, Wanessa; Lunardelli, Paula A.; Marinho, Luciana S.R.; Max, Marilu C.; Santos, Gustavo M.G.; Silva-Santos, Katia C.; Melo-Sterza, Fabiana A.; Baldassarre, Hernan; Rigo, Thales R.

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization of estrus and ovulation are of paramount importance in modern livestock improvement programs. These methods are critical for assisted reproduction technologies, including artificial insemination and embryo transfer, that can increase productivity. In the current study, subcutaneous implants containing norgestomet were placed for long (14 days), medium (9 days), and short (5 days) periods of time in 70 crossbred ewes undergoing fixed-time artificial insemination. The resulting effects on estrus synchronization and conception rates were subsequently evaluated. Among the synchronized ewes, 85.7% (60/70) underwent estrus over a period of 72 h after progestagen treatment ceased. The shortest mean interval between withdrawal of the device and onset of estrus (34.2 ± 8.9 h) was observed in the G14 days of P4 group (p < 0.05). The conception rate of the G14 days of P4 group was statistically higher than that of the other groups (83.3% vs. 60.9% vs. 47.8%; p < 0.05). In conclusion, 14 days of norgestomet treatment produced higher conception rates and a greater number of pregnancies at the beginning of the breeding season. PMID:24962414

  7. Clinical Effectiveness of Using Aesthetic Fixed Prosthetic Appliances with Combined Occlusal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Biben

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions. Aesthetic fixed prosthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface demonstrated high functional and aesthetic characteristics. The use of the USHPS system showed a decisive advantage of milled frameworks and combined occlusal surface over traditional cast ceramic frameworks.The combination of high mechanical, strength and tribological properties of zirconium dioxide and high biological as well as aesthetic properties of ceramic materials helped reveal high clinical characteristics of aesthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface.

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis of fixed-combination therapies in patients with open-angle glaucoma: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommer, A.; Wickstrom, J.; Friis, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and cost implications of the use of the intraocular pressure-lowering prostaglandin analogues bimatoprost, travoprost, and latanoprost as fixed-combination therapies with timolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. METHODS: A decision analytic cost-effective......OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and cost implications of the use of the intraocular pressure-lowering prostaglandin analogues bimatoprost, travoprost, and latanoprost as fixed-combination therapies with timolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. METHODS: A decision analytic cost......, time horizon, patient population and type of end point presented. The measure of effectiveness was the percentage reduction of the intraocular pressure level from baseline. The cost evaluated was the cost of medication and clinical visits to the ophthalmologist. All drug costs were market prices...

  9. Effect of veneering material on the deformation suffered by implant-supported fixed prosthesis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRANDO, Antônio Francisco; REZENDE, Carlos Eduardo Edwards; SOUSA, Edson Antônio Capello; RUBO, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Knowing how stresses are dissipated on the fixed implant-supported complex allows adequate treatment planning and better choice of the materials used for prosthesis fabrication. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the deformation suffered by cantilevered implant-supported fixed prostheses frameworks cast in silver-palladium alloy and coated with two occlusal veneering materials: acrylic resin or porcelain. Material and Methods Two strain gauges were bonded to the inferior surface of the silver-palladium framework and two other were bonded to the occlusal surface of the prosthesis framework covered with ceramic and acrylic resin on each of its two halves. The framework was fixed to a metallic master model and a 35.2 N compression force was applied to the cantilever at 10, 15 and 20 mm from the most distal implant. The measurements of deformation by compression and tension were obtained. The statistical 2-way ANOVA test was used for individual analysis of the experiment variables and the Tukey test was used for the interrelation between all the variables (material and distance of force application). Results The results showed that both variables had influence on the studied factors (deformation by compression and tension). Conclusion The ceramic coating provided greater rigidity to the assembly and therefore less distortion compared with the uncoated framework and with the resin-coated framework. The cantilever arm length also influenced the prosthesis rigidity, causing higher deformation the farther the load was applied from the last implant. PMID:25025562

  10. Effect of veneering material on the deformation suffered by implant-supported fixed prosthesis framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Francisco GRANDO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowing how stresses are dissipated on the fixed implant-supported complex allows adequate treatment planning and better choice of the materials used for prosthesis fabrication. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the deformation suffered by cantilevered implant-supported fixed prostheses frameworks cast in silver-palladium alloy and coated with two occlusal veneering materials: acrylic resin or porcelain. Material and Methods: Two strain gauges were bonded to the inferior surface of the silver-palladium framework and two other were bonded to the occlusal surface of the prosthesis framework covered with ceramic and acrylic resin on each of its two halves. The framework was fixed to a metallic master model and a 35.2 N compression force was applied to the cantilever at 10, 15 and 20 mm from the most distal implant. The measurements of deformation by compression and tension were obtained. The statistical 2-way ANOVA test was used for individual analysis of the experiment variables and the Tukey test was used for the interrelation between all the variables (material and distance of force application. Results: The results showed that both variables had influence on the studied factors (deformation by compression and tension. Conclusion: The ceramic coating provided greater rigidity to the assembly and therefore less distortion compared with the uncoated framework and with the resin-coated framework. The cantilever arm length also influenced the prosthesis rigidity, causing higher deformation the farther the load was applied from the last implant.

  11. Biomass pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: Effects of pyrolysis parameters on product yields and characterization of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Küçük, M. Maşuk

    2014-01-01

    Slow pyrolysis of eastern giant fennel (Ferula orientalis L.) stalks has been performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor with (ZnO, Al 2 O 3 ) and without catalyst at six different temperatures ranging from 350 °C to 600 °C with heating rates of 15, 30, 50 °C/min. The amounts of bio-char, bio-oil and gas produced, as well as the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by FT-IR and GC–MS. The effects of pyrolysis parameters such as temperature, catalyst and ratio of catalyst, particle size (D p ) and sweeping gas flow rate on product yields were investigated. According to results, temperature and catalyst seem to be the main factors effecting the conversion of F. orientalis L. into solid, liquid and gaseous products. The highest liquid yield (45.22%) including water was obtained with 15% zinc oxide catalyst at 500 °C temperature at a heating rate of 50 °C/min when 0.224 > D p > 0.150 mm particle size raw material and 100 cm 3 /min of sweeping gas flow rate were used. - Highlights: • Ferula orientalis L. stalks were converted to solid, liquid and gaseous products. • Effects of various parameters on product yields were investigated. • 500 °C of temperature, heating rate of 50 °C/min and zinc oxide provide the optimum conditions for bio-oil formation. • 81 different compounds were identified by GC–MS in the bio-oils obtained at 500 °C

  12. Clinical Study on the Effect of Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinse in Improving Oral Health in Orthodontic Patients with Fixed Appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Zabokova-Bilbilova, Efka; Stefanovska, Emilija; Kapusevska, Biljana; Muratovska, Ilijana; Kovacevska, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    During orthodontic treatment, there is increased risk of periodontal disease and caries. Treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances leads to the prolonged accumulation of dental plaque. Patients are at risk because they may develop gingival inflammation and enamel demineralisation during treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine rinsing solution on plaque and gingival bleeding and compare the efficiency in preventing demineralization in orthodontic pati...

  13. Clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1%–brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sourabh Sharma,1 Sameer Trikha,1 Shamira A Perera,1 Tin Aung1,2 1Glaucoma Department, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: The main first-line treatment strategy for glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP by topical ocular hypotensive medications, but many patients require multiple medications for adequate IOP control. Fixed-combination therapies provide several benefits, including simplified treatment regimens, theoretical improved treatment adherence, elimination of the potential for washout of the first drug by the second, and the reduction in ocular exposure to preservatives. β-Adrenoceptor antagonists (particularly 0.5% timolol are the most commonly used agents in combination with other classes of drugs as fixed-combination eyedrops, but they are contraindicated in many patients, owing to local allergy or systemic side effects. A fixed-combination preparation without a β-blocker is therefore warranted. This paper reviews the clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1% and brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination (BBFC for use in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. We searched PubMed and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry, and identified three randomized controlled trials comparing BBFC vs its constituents (brimonidine vs brinzolamide, and one comparing BBFC with unfixed brimonidine and brinzolamide. All of the studies demonstrated mean diurnal IOP to be statistically significantly lower in the BBFC group compared with constituent groups and noninferior to that with the concomitant group using two separate bottles. The safety profile of BBFC was consistent with that of its individual components, the most common ocular adverse events being ocular hyperemia, visual disturbances, and ocular allergic reactions. Common systemic adverse effects included altered taste

  14. Chemical composition and effect on intestinal Caco-2 cell viability and lipid profile of fixed oil from Cynomorium coccineum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Rescigno, Antonio; Piras, Alessandra; Atzeri, Angela; Scano, Paola; Porcedda, Silvia; Zucca, Paolo; Assunta Dessì, M

    2012-10-01

    Cynomorium coccineum L. is a non-photosynthetic plant, spread over Mediterranean countries, amply used in traditional medicine. We investigated the composition and effect on intestinal Caco-2 cell viability and lipid profile of fixed oil obtained from dried stems of the plant. Oil isolation has been performed by supercritical fractioned extraction with CO2. 13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to study the molecular composition of oil lipids; fatty acid composition was identified using GC and HPLC techniques. The fixed oil was composed mainly by triacylglycerols and derivates. The main fatty acids were 18:1 n-9 (38%), 18:2 n-6 (20%), 16:0 (15%), and 18:3 n-3 (10.8%). The oil showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of colon cancer undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, cell viability, lipid composition, and lipid peroxidation were measured in intestinal epithelial cells (differentiated Caco-2 cells) after 24 h incubation with fixed oil. The oil did not show a toxic effect on colon epithelial cell viability but induced a significant change in fatty acid composition, with a significant accumulation of the essential fatty acids 18:3 n-3 and 18:2 n-6. The results showed remarkable biological activity of Maltese mushroom oil, and qualify it as a potential resource for food/pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fixed Drug Eruption to Supplement Containing Ginkgo Biloba and Vinpocetine: A Case Report and Review of Related Cutaneous Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Fixed drug eruption is a cutaneous reaction to a systemic agent that typically presents as an annular or oval erythematous patch or blister and subsequently resolves with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation at the site. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and vinpocetine are nutritional supplements used to enhance memory in patients with dementia and age-related memory impairment conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. PURPOSE: To describe a fixed drug eruption in a man who repeatedly developed pruritus and macular erythema on his distal penile shaft after ingesting a natural product containing Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine. METHODS: The medical literature was retrospectively reviewed using PubMed, searching specifically for the terms cutaneous/skin adverse/side effects, fixed drug eruption, Ginkgo biloba, and vinpocetine. Patient reports and previous reviews of the subject were critically assessed, and the salient features of cutaneous adverse effects in patients receiving either Ginkgo biloba or vinpocetine are presented. RESULTS: Cutaneous adverse effects from Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine are infrequent. Ginkgo biloba fruit can result in contact dermatitis (following topical exposure) and mucosal symptoms of the mouth and anus (following oral exposure); in addition, an erythematous maculopapular generalized eruption or possibly Steven-Johnson syndrome can occur after oral ingestion of the Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. Facial erythema has been associated with vinpocetine ingestion. Pruritus and an annular erythema localized to the distal penile shaft developed after initial and repeat ingestion of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine product. CONCLUSION: Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine should be added to the agents that can potentially cause a fixed drug eruption.

  16. PTAC: a computer program for pressure-transient analysis, including the effects of cavitation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kot, C A; Youngdahl, C K

    1978-09-01

    PTAC was developed to predict pressure transients in nuclear-power-plant piping systems in which the possibility of cavitation must be considered. The program performs linear or nonlinear fluid-hammer calculations, using a fixed-grid method-of-characteristics solution procedure. In addition to pipe friction and elasticity, the program can treat a variety of flow components, pipe junctions, and boundary conditions, including arbitrary pressure sources and a sodium/water reaction. Essential features of transient cavitation are modeled by a modified column-separation technique. Comparisons of calculated results with available experimental data, for a simple piping arrangement, show good agreement and provide validation of the computational cavitation model. Calculations for a variety of piping networks, containing either liquid sodium or water, demonstrate the versatility of PTAC and clearly show that neglecting cavitation leads to erroneous predictions of pressure-time histories.

  17. Wind-Tunnel Evaluation of the Effect of Blade Nonstructural Mass Distribution on Helicopter Fixed-System Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, Jr, William T.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Mirick, Paul H.; Wilkie, W K.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides data obtained during a wind-tunnel test conducted to investigate parametrically the effect of blade nonstructural mass on helicopter fixed-system vibratory loads. The data were obtained with aeroelastically scaled model rotor blades that allowed for the addition of concentrated nonstructural masses at multiple locations along the blade radius. Testing was conducted for advance ratios ranging from 0.10 to 0.35 for 10 blade-mass configurations. Three thrust levels were obtained at representative full-scale shaft angles for each blade-mass configuration. This report provides the fixed-system forces and moments measured during testing. The comprehensive database obtained is well-suited for use in correlation and development of advanced rotorcraft analyses.

  18. Study on carbon-fixing,oxygen-releasing,temperature-reducing and humidity-increasing effects of evergreen plants in south highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Minmin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system,was used to test the diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of evergreen plants in Southern Highway,and to calculate their ability of absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen and to calculate the transpiring water volume and absorbing heat quantity of plants.Results showed that Euonymus fortunei Hand-Mazz,Hedera helix.Aucuba eriobotryaefolia had better carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing effects,while Photinia serrulata,Trachycarpus fortunei,Radix Ophiopogonis had worse carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing effects.Radix Ophiopogonis,Photinia glabra,Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz had higher cooling and humidification ability,while Photinia serrulata,Trachycarpus fortunei did not act as well as them.Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz and Hedera helix had higher leaf chlorophyll in per unit mass,values are 12.91、10.34、9.93 mg·g-1.Radix Ophiopogonis、Cinnamomum camphora(Linn. Presl and Trachycarpus fortunei had lower leaf chlorophyll in per unit mass,value is 3.55、2.67、2.06 mg·g-1.Releasing oxygen,fixing carbon,net assimilation and chlorophyll content has good correlation(P<0.05.

  19. A study to evaluate the effect of oral stereognosis in acceptance of fixed prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal K Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the oral stereognostic ability and satisfaction for fixed prosthesis in human being. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 40 subjects, the purpose being to investigate the relation of oral perception to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Two types of cast metal crowns-one had morphology closely resembling original tooth and other one confirmed to ideal contours were constructed on endodontically treated posterior tooth. One cast metal crown was randomly selected from two cast metal crown and fitted on prepared tooth. Oral stereognostic score of subject was determined by correct response to questionnaire based on the recognition ability of subjects. Patient satisfaction level was checked by psychometric parameter Likert scale. Same procedure was repeated with other type of cast metal crown. Results: Data obtained were compared by paired and unpaired two sample t-test. Oral stereognostic score and satisfaction score were found to be higher for cast metal crown with morphology resembling to original tooth due to recognition and discriminatory ability of subjects and recall-memory. Oral stereognostic level was found to be higher in younger than older subjects. The level of satisfaction was found to be higher in older subjects than younger subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that acceptance of fixed prosthesis is not only based on dentist′s routine procedure of treatment and patient′s judgment about oral health, function, and esthetics, but also depends upon patient′s oral perception and discriminatory skill for external morphology of fixed prosthesis.

  20. Combined air and oxygen entrainment. Effect on the percentage output of fixed performance masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyew, M A; Holland, A J; Metcalf, I R

    1990-09-01

    Secondary oxygen was added to air entrained by the primary jet of a fixed performance mask. Twenty such masks, in each of six groups rated at 24%, 28%, 31%, 35%, 40% and 50%, gave higher O2 percentages equivalent to those calculated from an equation that related the O2 concentration to the secondary flow. Actual values of both were closely correlated, with regression slopes and intercepts similar to those derived from this equation. This technique is simple and predictable in altering the composition of an air-oxygen mixture delivered to the patient.

  1. High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise Reduction and Installation Effects Including Shielding Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Czech, Michael J.; Doty, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects of a separate flow jet nozzle with a Hybrid Wing Body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. Prior understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness was extended to a bypass ratio ten application as a function of nozzle configuration, chevron type, axial spacing, and installation effects from additional airframe components. Chevron types included fan chevrons that are uniform circumferentially around the fan nozzle and T-fan type chevrons that are asymmetrical circumferentially. In isolated testing without a pylon, uniform chevrons compared to T-fan chevrons showed slightly more low frequency reduction offset by more high frequency increase. Phased array localization shows that at this bypass ratio chevrons still move peak jet noise source locations upstream but not to nearly the extent, as a function of frequency, as for lower bypass ratio jets. For baseline nozzles without chevrons, the basic pylon effect has been greatly reduced compared to that seen for lower bypass ratio jets. Compared to Tfan chevrons without a pylon, the combination with a standard pylon results in more high frequency noise increase and an overall higher noise level. Shielded by an airframe surface 2.17 fan diameters from nozzle to airframe trailing edge, the T-fan chevron nozzle can produce reductions in jet noise of as much as 8 dB at high frequencies and upstream angles. Noise reduction from shielding decreases with decreasing frequency and with increasing angle from the jet inlet. Beyond an angle of 130 degrees there is almost no noise reduction from shielding. Increasing chevron immersion more than what is already an aggressive design is not advantageous for noise reduction. The addition of airframe control surfaces, including vertical stabilizers and elevon deflection, showed only a small overall impact. Based on the test results, the best

  2. Towards the characterization of short-term memory of zebrafish: effect of fixed versus random reward location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Talpos, Andrea; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-02

    The zebrafish has been proposed as an efficient tool for the analysis of behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of learning and memory. However, compared to traditional laboratory rodents, it is a relatively newcomer. In fact, only limited information on its mnemonic and cognitive abilities has been obtained, and only a small number of learning and memory paradigms have been available for its testing. Previously, we have shown that zebrafish are capable of learning the systematic alternating sequence of reward location in a shuttle box task in which we evaluated behavioral responses manually. Here, we employ a computerized, automated version of this task. We study whether zebrafish can remember the prior location of a reward (the sight of conspecifics) when the location is fixed (constant), or when the sequence of the location of presentation randomly changes between the left and the right side of the experimental tank. We also analyze performance features including the swim speed of experimental fish as well as the temporal changes of the position of fish when the reward (stimulus) is not presented. Our results show that under both the fixed and randomly changing reward location conditions zebrafish exhibit a significant preference for the prior location of reward, albeit the preference is stronger under the fixed location condition. We conclude that adult zebrafish have short-term associative memory that can be induced and quantified in an automated manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of primary air preheating and moisturesugarcane bagasse during fixed bed combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir Sánchez Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Furnaces used to making jaggery have energ y losses due to incomplete combustion of sugarcane bagasse and sensible heat in the flue gases. During jaggery production process, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel, with mass fractions of humidity between 30% and 50%, which affect the combustion efficiency of a biomass in a fixed bed. Because the air preheating decreases the drying time, its implementation in many biomass combustion systems increases process efficiency. Therefore, in this investigation we studied the influence of the moisture content and the preheating of the primary air on the combustion of bagasse in a fixed bed furnace, by analyzing the profiles of temperature and concentration of the combustion gas. Results showed that increasing in bagasse moisture reduces the rate of combustion and conversion of carbon to CO2, diminishing the yield of process. When theprimary air is preheated to a temperature of 120 ºC, the combustion rate increased, however, only meant an increase in combustion efficiency to a mass fraction of 30% humidity.

  4. Combining fixed effects and instrumental variable approaches for estimating the effect of psychosocial job quality on mental health: evidence from 13 waves of a nationally representative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Kavanagh, Anne; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Pega, Frank; Petrie, Dennis

    2017-06-23

    Previous studies suggest that poor psychosocial job quality is a risk factor for mental health problems, but they use conventional regression analytic methods that cannot rule out reverse causation, unmeasured time-invariant confounding and reporting bias. This study combines two quasi-experimental approaches to improve causal inference by better accounting for these biases: (i) linear fixed effects regression analysis and (ii) linear instrumental variable analysis. We extract 13 annual waves of national cohort data including 13 260 working-age (18-64 years) employees. The exposure variable is self-reported level of psychosocial job quality. The instruments used are two common workplace entitlements. The outcome variable is the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). We adjust for measured time-varying confounders. In the fixed effects regression analysis adjusted for time-varying confounders, a 1-point increase in psychosocial job quality is associated with a 1.28-point improvement in mental health on the MHI-5 scale (95% CI: 1.17, 1.40; P variable analysis, a 1-point increase psychosocial job quality is related to 1.62-point improvement on the MHI-5 scale (95% CI: -0.24, 3.48; P = 0.088). Our quasi-experimental results provide evidence to confirm job stressors as risk factors for mental ill health using methods that improve causal inference. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Transient Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Reactor with a Fixed Bed of Catalyst Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Derevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on analysis of small temperature disturbances in the Fischer-Tropsch reactor with a fixed bed of catalyst particles various scenarios of thermal instability were investigated. There are two possible scenarios of thermal instability of the reactor. First, thermal explosion may occur due to growth of temperature disturbances inside a catalytic granule. Second scenario connected with loss of thermal stability as a result of an initial increase in temperature in the reactor volume. The boundaries of thermal stability of the reactor were estimated by solving the eigenvalue problems for spherical catalyst particles and cylindrical reactor. Processes of diffusional resistance inside the catalytic granule and heat transfer from wall of the reactor tube are taken into account. Estimation of thermal stability area is compared with the results of numerical simulation of behavior of temperature and concentration of synthesis gas.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of endodontic molar retreatment compared with fixed partial dentures and single-tooth implant alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sahng G; Solomon, Charles

    2011-03-01

    One of the most challenging situations in dentistry is a failed root canal treatment case. Should a failed root canal-treated tooth be retreated nonsurgically or surgically, or should the tooth be extracted and replaced with an implant-supported restoration or fixed partial denture? These four treatment alternatives were compared from the perspective of cost-effectiveness on the basis of the current best available evidence. The costs of the four major treatment modalities were calculated using the national fee averages from the 2009 American Dental Association survey of dental fees. The outcome data of all treatment modalities were retrieved from meta-analyses after electronic and manual searches were undertaken in the database from MEDLINE, Cochrane, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus up to April 2010. The treatment strategy model was built and run with TreeAge decision analysis software (TreeAge Software, Inc, Williamstown, MA). Endodontic microsurgery was the most cost-effective approach followed by nonsurgical retreatment and crown, then extraction and fixed partial denture, and finally extraction and single implant-supported restoration. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed that endodontic microsurgery was the most cost-effective among all the treatment modalities for a failed endodontically treated first molar. A single implant-supported restoration, despite its high survival rate, was shown to be the least cost-effective treatment option based on current fees. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of incorporation, orientation and silane treatment of glass fibers on the fracture resistance of interim fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, Gupta; Reddy, Y G

    2011-03-01

    Fracture of interim fixed partial dentures (FPD) is of important concern to the dental surgeon, especially with long-span fixed partial dentures or areas of heavy occlusal stress. Polymers used in interim FPDs, reinforced with glass fibers have shown to have a positive effect on the fracture resistance of interim FPDs. Since little research has been done on the influence of silane treated glass fibers on the fracture resistance of interim FPDs, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of silane treatment of glass fibers on the fracture resistance of interim FPDs and its correlation with the position of fiber reinforcement and length of the span of the interim FPD. Interim FPDs were fabricated from an autopolymerizing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin. Seven FPDs were made in each group. The FPDs in the control group were unreinforced, and in the other groups the FPDs were reinforced either with non silane treated glass fiber or with silane treated glass fiber. The fibers were placed in two different locations in the FPDs. Three length of span of FPDs were tested. The load was applied to the FPD by a steel ball placed in the center of the pontic space. One Way Anova, Two Way Anova, Studentized range test (Scheffe's). Results showed that the load required for fracturing the unreinforced FPDs varied from 272 to 998 N. Mean fracture load of reinforced FPDs varied from 536 to 1642 N. One-way analysis of variance showed that the position of fibers and the silane treatment fibers significantly affected the fracture load. The results of this study suggested that the silane treatment of glass fibers had a marked improvement in the fracture resistance of FPDs as compared to untreated glass fibers. Selective placement of the glass fibers at the undersurface of the pontic and the occlusal surface of the interim fixed partial denture showed more increase in the fracture resistance as compared to the randomly distributed glass fibers. The glass fiber reinforcement is

  8. NLO QCD+EW predictions for HV and HV +jet production including parton-shower effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, F.; Lindert, J. M.; Oleari, C.; Pozzorini, S.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first NLO QCD+EW predictions for Higgs boson production in association with a ℓν ℓ or ℓ + ℓ - pair plus zero or one jets at the LHC. Fixed-order NLO QCD+EW calculations are combined with a QCD+QED parton shower using the recently developed resonance-aware method in the POWHEG framework. Moreover, applying the improved MiNLO technique to Hℓν ℓ +jet and Hℓ + ℓ - +jet production at NLO QCD+EW, we obtain predictions that are NLO accurate for observables with both zero or one resolved jet. This approach permits also to capture higher-order effects associated with the interplay of EW corrections and QCD radiation. The behavior of EW corrections is studied for various kinematic distributions, relevant for experimental analyses of Higgsstrahlung processes at the 13 TeV LHC. Exact NLO EW corrections are complemented with approximate analytic formulae that account for the leading and next-to-leading Sudakov logarithms in the high-energy regime. In the tails of transverse-momentum distributions, relevant for analyses in the boosted Higgs regime, the Sudakov approximation works well, and NLO EW effects can largely exceed the ten percent level. Our predictions are based on the POWHEG BOX RES+OpenLoops framework in combination with the Pythia 8.1 parton shower.

  9. The macroeconomic effects of oil shocks under fixed and flexible exchange rates - a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore further, from a primarily theoretical perspective, the macroeconomic implications arising for an oil-producing economy operating with either a fixed or flexible exchange rate system - to explore, in particular, which of these two extreme systems best offers insulatory properties, in the sense of reducing the volatility of adjustment of key macroeconomic variables arising primarily from oil-related shocks. The issue is explored by analyzing a theoretical framework, which emphasizes the long-run nature of the adjustment process. Such an emphasis is particularly pertinent in models which assume that economic agents possess rational expectations, where long-run equilibrium will have a major bearing upon the short-run adjustment process itself. However, due to the complexity of the model developed here, it is not possible to derive analytical unambiguous results, hence emphasis is placed upon deriving results through numerical simulation. The results derived enable an identification to be made of the importance, for policy purposes, of implementing an appropriate exchange rate system for oil producing and exporting economics with the characteristics emphasised in this paper. (3 figures). (Author)

  10. ORGANOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF THE FIXED COMBINATION OF ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITOR LISINOPRIL AND DIURETIC HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Ryabikhin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the antihypertensive and metabolic effects of combined therapy (carvedilol reception and «School of the hypertensive patient» with these of the carvedilol monotherapy in young patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degrees with overweight and obesity.Material and methods. 63 out-patients with HT of 1-2 degrees (aged 18-27 y.o. with overweight and obesity were included in the open parallel randomized clinical preventive trail. Patients wеre randomized into 2 groups. All hypertensive patients received the carvedilol (Vedicardol, Sintez, Russia 25 mg daily. Carvedilol dose was enlarged twice in case of insufficient antihypertensive effect. Patients of the main group (n=32 also passed through the special educational program «School for hypertensive patients». Changes in blood pressure (BP level, body mass index, biochemical markers and risk factors were evaluated initially and in 24 weeks of therapy.Results. Patients of the main group had more significant risk factor manifestations decrease than in group of comparison. More significant body mass index decrease was also observed in the main group in comparison with group of comparison: from 32,5±0,4 to 26,4±0,7 kg/m2 (p<0,01 and from 31,8±0,8 to 28,9±1,18 kg/m2 (p<0,05, respectively. In patients of the main group systolic and diastolic BP decreased by 20,1% and 25,6%, respectively, wile in patients of the group of comparison – by 18,9% and 26%, respectively.Conclusion. It is reasonable to combine carvedilol therapy with special training in the young hypertensive patients with overweight and obesity.

  11. ORGANOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF THE FIXED COMBINATION OF ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITOR LISINOPRIL AND DIURETIC HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Ryabikhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the antihypertensive and metabolic effects of combined therapy (carvedilol reception and «School of the hypertensive patient» with these of the carvedilol monotherapy in young patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degrees with overweight and obesity.Material and methods. 63 out-patients with HT of 1-2 degrees (aged 18-27 y.o. with overweight and obesity were included in the open parallel randomized clinical preventive trail. Patients wеre randomized into 2 groups. All hypertensive patients received the carvedilol (Vedicardol, Sintez, Russia 25 mg daily. Carvedilol dose was enlarged twice in case of insufficient antihypertensive effect. Patients of the main group (n=32 also passed through the special educational program «School for hypertensive patients». Changes in blood pressure (BP level, body mass index, biochemical markers and risk factors were evaluated initially and in 24 weeks of therapy.Results. Patients of the main group had more significant risk factor manifestations decrease than in group of comparison. More significant body mass index decrease was also observed in the main group in comparison with group of comparison: from 32,5±0,4 to 26,4±0,7 kg/m2 (p<0,01 and from 31,8±0,8 to 28,9±1,18 kg/m2 (p<0,05, respectively. In patients of the main group systolic and diastolic BP decreased by 20,1% and 25,6%, respectively, wile in patients of the group of comparison – by 18,9% and 26%, respectively.Conclusion. It is reasonable to combine carvedilol therapy with special training in the young hypertensive patients with overweight and obesity.

  12. Does disability status modify the association between psychosocial job quality and mental health? A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A; Krnjacki, L; Butterworth, P; Kavanagh, A; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-11-01

    People with disabilities have difficulties in obtaining work. However, evidence suggests that those with disabilities derive substantial mental health benefits from employment. This paper assesses how the relationship between work and mental health is influenced by psychosocial job quality for people working with a disability. The study design was a longitudinal cohort with 13 annual waves of data collection, yielding a sample of 122,883 observations from 21,848 people. Fixed-effects within-person regression was used to control for time invariant confounding. The Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure was used as the primary outcome measure. The main exposure was a six-category measure of psychosocial job quality and employment status (including 'not in the labour force' [NILF] and unemployment). Disability status ('no waves of disability reported' and 'all contributed waves with reported disability') was assessed as an effect modifier. We also conducted a secondary analysis on respondents contributing both disability and non-disability waves. For those with no disability, the greatest difference in mental health (compared to optimal employment) occurs when people have the poorest quality jobs (-2.12, 95% CI -2.48, -1.75, p unemployment (-0.39 and -0.66 respectively). For those with consistent disability, the difference in mental health when employed in an optimal job was similar between the poorest quality jobs (-2.25, 95% CI -3.84, -0.65, p = 0.006), NILF (-2.84, 95% CI -4.49, -1.20, p = 0.001) or unemployment (-2.56, 95% CI -4.32, -0.80, p = 0.004). These results were confirmed by the secondary analysis. Efforts to improve psychosocial job quality may have significant mental health benefits for people with disabilities. This will contribute to the economic viability of disability employment insurance schemes in Australia and other high-income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The importance of community education for individual mortality: a fixed-effects analysis of longitudinal multilevel data on 1.7 million Norwegian women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravdal, Oystein

    2010-12-01

    Earlier investigations have shown mortality effects of community socio-economic resources. However, the sex differences have not been clear, and the estimates may well have been biased because of inadequate control for community factors affecting both the socio-economic resources and mortality. The objective of this study was to see whether any effects appeared when time-invariant community characteristics were controlled by including community dummies (fixed effects) and whether there were any differences between women and men. Discrete-time hazard models for all-cause mortality were estimated for 1981-2002 for all Norwegians aged 60-89, using register data. There were 730 000 deaths among 1.7 million people observed during 19 million person-years. Average education was measured for 433 municipalities for each of the 22 years. According to the simplest models, a high average education in the municipality is associated with increased mortality. Control for population size (time-averaged) reversed the effects. Inclusion of municipality dummies instead of population size, to control also for additional unobserved time-invariant municipality characteristics, gave very different results: the effects were even stronger for men, while those for women were no longer significant. The results were quite robust to alternative specifications, including the use of a lagged average-education variable. The study supports the idea that community socio-economic resources may affect mortality and suggests that sex differentials may deserve more attention. It also illustrates the importance of controlling for time-invariant community factors. Unless these can be easily measured, in future investigations one may consider establishing longitudinal data and using a fixed-effects approach such as that used here.

  14. Efficacy of a numerical value of a fixed-effect estimator in stochastic frontier analysis as an indicator of hospital production structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The casemix-based payment system has been adopted in many countries, although it often needs complementary adjustment taking account of each hospital’s unique production structure such as teaching and research duties, and non-profit motives. It has been challenging to numerically evaluate the impact of such structural heterogeneity on production, separately of production inefficiency. The current study adopted stochastic frontier analysis and proposed a method to assess unique components of hospital production structures using a fixed-effect variable. Methods There were two stages of analyses in this study. In the first stage, we estimated the efficiency score from the hospital production function using a true fixed-effect model (TFEM in stochastic frontier analysis. The use of a TFEM allowed us to differentiate the unobserved heterogeneity of individual hospitals as hospital-specific fixed effects. In the second stage, we regressed the obtained fixed-effect variable for structural components of hospitals to test whether the variable was explicitly related to the characteristics and local disadvantages of the hospitals. Results In the first analysis, the estimated efficiency score was approximately 0.6. The mean value of the fixed-effect estimator was 0.784, the standard deviation was 0.137, the range was between 0.437 and 1.212. The second-stage regression confirmed that the value of the fixed effect was significantly correlated with advanced technology and local conditions of the sample hospitals. Conclusion The obtained fixed-effect estimator may reflect hospitals’ unique structures of production, considering production inefficiency. The values of fixed-effect estimators can be used as evaluation tools to improve fairness in the reimbursement system for various functions of hospitals based on casemix classification.

  15. 76 FR 23812 - Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...] Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects on Broadband...: Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload... Docket 10-92 (Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or...

  16. Working with a fixed operating room team on consecutive similar cases and the effect on case duration and turnover time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Pieter S; Vrijland, Wietske W; de Quelerij, Marcel; de Vries, Guus; Heij, Christiaan

    2010-12-01

    If variation in procedure times could be controlled or better predicted, the cost of surgeries could be reduced through improved scheduling of surgical resources. This study on the impact of similar consecutive cases on the turnover, surgical, and procedure times tests the perception that repeating the same manual tasks reduces the duration of these tasks. We hypothesize that when a fixed team works on similar consecutive cases the result will be shorter turnover and procedure duration as well as less variation as compared with the situation without a fixed team. Case-control study. St Franciscus Hospital, a large general teaching hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Two procedures, inguinal hernia repair and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were selected and divided across a control group and a study group. Patients were randomly assigned to the study or control group. Preparation time, surgical time, procedure time, and turnover time. For inguinal hernia repair, we found a significantly lower preparation time and 10 minutes less procedure time in the study group, as compared with the control group. Variation in the study group was lower, as compared with the control group. For laparoscopic cholecystectomy, preparation time was significantly lower in the study group, as compared with the control group. For both procedures, there was a significant decrease in turnover time. Scheduling similar consecutive cases and performing with a fixed team results in lower turnover times and preparation times. The procedure time of the inguinal hernia repair decreased significantly and has practical scheduling implications. For more complex surgery, like laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is no effect on procedure time.

  17. Assessment of the effect of ozonated water irrigation on gingival inflammation in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Jose

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A split-mouth longitudinal study was designed here to evaluate the effect of ozonated water delivered subgingivally through a jet device (Kent Ozone dental TY 820 jet in controlling gingival inflammation of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment following thorough oral prophylaxis were recalled after 2 weeks, and baseline gingival inflammation was estimated. This study was conducted as split-mouth technique with the upper left quadrant (Control side was irrigated by jetting saline into sulcus by air–water syringe with gauge 22 needle tip and upper right quadrant (Test side irrigated with ozonated water by a jet device using similar delivery tip. The patients were recalled at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th month and the irrigations as well as gingival inflammation estimation were repeated. A biochemical assessment of gingival inflammation (estimation of aspartate aminotransferase [AST] in gingival crevicular fluid [GCF] and clinical assessment (gingival index scoring was done at each visit. Results: At the test side, the AST level in the GCF was found to be maintained almost the same value as baseline till the end of 4th month, indicating not much of change in inflammatory status. Statistically significant difference in GCF-AST and gingival index score between test and control sites were found at the end of 3rd and 4th month with a significance of P < 0.05. Conclusion: The patient undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment showed a consistent improvement in gingival inflammation on frequent irrigation with ozone jet irrigation as compared with saline irrigation delivered with same jetting force.

  18. Two general fixed point principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao C. Dhage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a couple of general fixed point principles using the constructive approach and derive some interesting well-known fixed point theorems in a metric space and a partially ordered metric space as corollaries. Our general fixed point principles include more than 100 fixed point theorems in different metric spaces as special cases.

  19. Retirement and mental health: dose social participation mitigate the association? A fixed-effects longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Koichiro; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-05-30

    Empirical evidence investigating heterogeneous impact of retirement on mental health depending on social backgrounds is lacking, especially among older adults. We examined the impact of changes in working status on changes in mental health using Japanese community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years participating in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study between 2010 and 2013 (N = 62,438). Between-waves changes in working status ("Kept working", "Retired", "Started work", or "Continuously retired") were used to predict changes in depressive symptoms measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale. First-difference regression models were stratified by gender, controlling for changes in time-varying confounding actors including equivalised household income, marital status, instrumental activities of daily living, incidence of serious illnesses and family caregiving. We then examined the interactions between changes in working status and occupational class, changes in marital status, and post-retirement social participation. Participants who transitioned to retirement reported significantly increased depressive symptoms (β = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.21-0.45 for men, and β = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13-0.45 for women) compared to those who kept working. Men who were continuously retired reported increased depressive symptoms (β = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.05-0.20), whereas males who started work reported decreased depressive symptoms (β = -0.20, 95% CI: -0.38--0.02). Men from lower occupational class (compared to men from higher class) reported more increase in depressive symptoms when continuously retired (β = -0.16, 95% CI: -0.25--0.08). Those reporting recreational social participation after retirement appeared to be less influenced by transition to retirement. Retirement may increase depressive symptoms among Japanese older adults, particularly men from lower occupational class backgrounds. Encouraging recreational social participation may mitigate the adverse effects of

  20. The relationship between utilitarian walking, utilitarian cycling, and body mass index in a population based cohort study of adults: comparing random intercepts and fixed effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Pabayo, Roman

    2014-12-01

    To examine associations between utilitarian walking, utilitarian cycling, leisure time physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Participants from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) of Statistics Canada were interviewed by telephone every two years from 1994 to 2010. Analysis includes data from 6894 living participants aged 18-64years. Fixed effects and random intercepts models examined the association between BMI, utilitarian walking, and utilitarian cycling, controlling for behavioral and sociodemographic factors. The final adjusted fixed effects models showed no significant relationship between utilitarian walking and BMI. In the unbalanced sample utilitarian cycling for 1 to 5h per week (b=-0.15, 95% CI: -0.28 to -0.02), and more than 5h per week (b=-0.22, 95% CI: -0.44 to 0.00) was significantly associated with BMI over time. In the fully balanced sample utilitarian cycling for 1 to 5h per week (b=-0.12, 95% CI: -0.27 to 0.03), more than 5h per week (b=-0.16, 95% CI: -0.45 to 0.13) was not significantly associated with BMI over time. The results suggest that utilitarian walking is not related to BMI. The relationship between utilitarian cycling and BMI is less clear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Anandan, P.; Malathi, N.; Mohankumar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resi...

  2. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  3. Improvement of prediction ability for genomic selection of dairy cattle by including dominance effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    Full Text Available Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both

  4. Effect of shoot removal on remobilization of carbon and nitrogen during regrowth of nitrogen-fixing alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Erice, Gorka; Aldasoro, Joseba; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; Nogués, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of carbon and nitrogen reserves to regrowth following shoot removal has been studied in the past. However, important gaps remain in understanding the effect of shoot cutting on nodule performance and its relevance during regrowth. In this study, isotopic labelling was conducted at root and canopy levels with both (15) N2 and (13) C-depleted CO2 on exclusively nitrogen-fixing alfalfa plants. As expected, our results indicate that the roots were the main sink organs before shoots were removed. Seven days after regrowth the carbon and nitrogen stored in the roots was invested in shoot biomass formation and partitioned to the nodules. The large depletion in nodule carbohydrate availability suggests that root-derived carbon compounds were delivered towards nodules in order to sustain respiratory activity. In addition to the limited carbohydrate availability, the upregulation of nodule peroxidases showed that oxidative stress was also involved during poor nodule performance. Fourteen days after cutting, and as a consequence of the stimulated photosynthetic and N2 -fixing machinery, availability of Cnew and Nnew strongly diminished in the plants due to their replacement by C and N assimilated during the post-labelling period. In summary, our study indicated that during the first week of regrowth, root-derived C and N remobilization did not overcome C- and N-limitation in nodules and leaves. However, 14 days after cutting, leaf and nodule performance were re-established. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Do Generous Unemployment Benefit Programs Reduce Suicide Rates? A State Fixed-Effect Analysis Covering 1968–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20–64 years) population (β = −0.57, 95% confidence interval: −0.86, −0.27; P unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. PMID:24939978

  6. Do generous unemployment benefit programs reduce suicide rates? A state fixed-effect analysis covering 1968-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20-64 years) population (β = -0.57, 95% confidence interval: -0.86, -0.27; P unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Retirement and mental health: does social participation mitigate the association? A fixed-effects longitudinal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Shiba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical evidence investigating heterogeneous impact of retirement on mental health depending on social backgrounds is lacking, especially among older adults. Methods We examined the impact of changes in working status on changes in mental health using Japanese community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years participating in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study between 2010 and 2013 (N = 62,438. Between-waves changes in working status (“Kept working”, “Retired”, “Started work”, or “Continuously retired” were used to predict changes in depressive symptoms measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale. First-difference regression models were stratified by gender, controlling for changes in time-varying confounding actors including equivalised household income, marital status, instrumental activities of daily living, incidence of serious illnesses and family caregiving. We then examined the interactions between changes in working status and occupational class, changes in marital status, and post-retirement social participation. Results Participants who transitioned to retirement reported significantly increased depressive symptoms (β = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.21–0.45 for men, and β = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13–0.45 for women compared to those who kept working. Men who were continuously retired reported increased depressive symptoms (β = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.05–0.20, whereas males who started work reported decreased depressive symptoms (β = −0.20, 95% CI: -0.38–-0.02. Men from lower occupational class (compared to men from higher class reported more increase in depressive symptoms when continuously retired (β = −0.16, 95% CI: -0.25–-0.08. Those reporting recreational social participation after retirement appeared to be less influenced by transition to retirement. Conclusions Retirement may increase depressive symptoms among Japanese older adults, particularly men from lower occupational class backgrounds

  8. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality.

  9. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Creemers

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of the school and on the type of problems/difficulties the school is facing. Reference is made to the methods used to test this assumption of the dynamic model by measuring school effectiveness in mathematics, Greek language, and religious education over two consecutive school years. The main findings are as follows. School factors were found to have situational effects. Specifically, the development of a school policy for teaching and the school evaluation of policy for teaching were found to have stronger effects in schools where the quality of teaching at classroom level was low. Moreover, time stability in the effectiveness status of schools was identified and thereby changes in the functioning of schools were found not to have a significant impact on changes in the effectiveness status of schools. Implications of the findings for the development of the dynamic model and suggestions for further research are presented.

  10. Navy Shipbuilding: Need to Document Rationale for the Use of Fixed-Price Incentive Contracts and Study Effectiveness of Added Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    contract . A cost-plus-award- fee contract provides for a fee consisting of a base amount (which may be zero ) fixed at inception of the contract , and...17 class and LCS contracts , cost growth also has occurred. While specific reasons for cost growth varied, unanticipated labor hour increases were a...NAVY SHIPBUILDING Need to Document Rationale for the Use of Fixed-Price Incentive Contracts and Study Effectiveness of Added

  11. The Effect Of Customer Demand And Supplier Performance In Competitive Strategy And Business Performance Case Of Fixed Broadband In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina D. Pasaribu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Broadband telecommunication is significantly important to support and improve countrys competitiveness level. However Indonesia performance especially in Fixed Broadband is poor as the penetration rate is very low and far behind from other ASEAN countries. The industry is served by multi operators with one dominant operator. This dominant operator will be studied representing the industry in this study. A qualitative study Pasaribu et al. 2015 related to this paper has found that poor fulfillment of Customer Demand and poor Supplier Performance are two dominant external factors that cause the low performance. A model is proposed to frame the work it consists of four variables Customer Demand Supplier Performance Competitive Strategy and Business Performance. This study aims is use that Pasaribu et al. model directly to business units level to identify and analyze the relationships within the model and significance level of each relationship accordingly. By understanding the priority levels the improvement program could be more effectively planned and implemented. This study is expected to contribute on Fixed Broadband research wich is still very rare especially in Indonesia The research methodology is quantitative methods using survey technique. The respondents are management and customers of the dominant operator business units. Clustering by province regions gave 32 samples from the population of 58 business units. Partial Least Square modelling was used to analise the datas. The main result of this study is that the most significant relationship in the model is Supplier Performance to Competitive Strategy. Furthermore from indicators of Supplier Performance it was found that Quality Relationship has a very high effect among other indicators. By prioritizing these significant constructs it could be expected the related improvement program could be more effective.

  12. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  13. The effect of a fixed non-mineral oil on the antibacterial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lactamase. This finding is presented as a preliminary report on the potentiality of employing an oil medium to effect a "cure" of antibiotic resistance in staphylococci besides the use of acridine dyes, ethidium bromide, ultraviolet radiation and other ...

  14. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anandan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed.

  15. Educational expansion and inequalities in mortality—A fixed-effects analysis using longitudinal data from 18 European populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Olle; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Kalediene, Ramune; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; de Gelder, Rianne; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution. Materials and methods Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively. Results The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal. Conclusion We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion. PMID:28832601

  16. Educational expansion and inequalities in mortality-A fixed-effects analysis using longitudinal data from 18 European populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Östergren

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution.Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively.The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal.We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion.

  17. Educational expansion and inequalities in mortality-A fixed-effects analysis using longitudinal data from 18 European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Kalediene, Ramune; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; de Gelder, Rianne; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution. Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively. The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal. We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion.

  18. The Importance of Worker, Firm and Match Fixed Effects in the Formation of Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    provides wage information on the whole working population for a 24-year period. We find that the major part of wage dispersion in the Danish labor market can be explained by differences in worker characteristics. However, the relative contribution of the three components varies across subgroups of workers....... The match effect contributes a non-neglible part to the overall wage dispersion and, fur- thermore, corrects the estimated returns to experience. An analysis of inter-industry wage differentials shows that firm characteristics are more important at the industry level than at the worker level. Like- wise, we...

  19. Effect of Screw Access Channel Filling Method and Cement Type on Retention of Implant-Supported Fixed Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Mahabadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is limited data on the factors affecting the retention of cemented fixed prostheses to implant abutment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of screw access channel filling method and cement type on retention of implant-supported fixed restorations.  Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 implant analogs were mounted in autopolymerizing acrylic resin blocks, and two-piece titanium abutments were placed in each implant analog. Twenty abutment samples were completely filled with silicone, and 20 other samples were filled partially. In each of the study groups, Temp Bond® eugenol-containing temporary cement was used for 10 samples, while in another 10 samples non-eugenol temporary cements were utilized. Prior to the retention test, samples were placed in the rmocycling machine with 1000 cycles for 24 h. Each sample was stretched using a Universal Pull-out Test Machine with a force of 5000 N. The required load for removing the crown was recorded. The data was analyzed USING two-way ANOVA and least square difference (α=0.05. Results: Among the four groups, the highest retention rate was observed in the group of partial screw access channel filling with eugenol cement. Also, the rate of retention in the group of complete screw access channel filling with non-eugenol cement was significantly lower than in any other group. A significant difference was observed between all the groups except for the groups of complete screw access channel filling with eugenol cement and partial screw access channel filling with non-eugenol cement (P=0.27. Conclusion: The mean rate of retention in partial access cavity filling group was greater than that of the complete access cavity filling group; moreover, this rate was higher in the eugenol cement group than the non-eugenol cement group.

  20. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  1. Second-order schedules of token reinforcement with pigeons: effects of fixed- and variable-ratio exchange schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T A; Hackenberg, T D; Vaidya, M

    2001-09-01

    Pigeons' key pecks produced food under second-order schedules of token reinforcement, with light-emitting diodes serving as token reinforcers. In Experiment 1, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and were exchanged for food according to either fixed-ratio or variable-ratio exchange schedules, with schedule type varied across conditions. In Experiment 2, schedule type was varied within sessions using a multiple schedule. In one component, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a variable-ratio schedule. In the other component, tokens were earned according to a variable-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a fixed-ratio schedule. In both experiments, the number of responses per exchange was varied parametrically across conditions, ranging from 50 to 400 responses. Response rates decreased systematically with increases in the fixed-ratio exchange schedules, but were much less affected by changes in the variable-ratio exchange schedules. Response rates were consistently higher under variable-ratio exchange schedules than tinder comparable fixed-ratio exchange schedules, especially at higher exchange ratios. These response-rate differences were due both to greater pre-ratio pausing and to lower local rates tinder the fixed-ratio exchange schedules. Local response rates increased with proximity to food under the higher fixed-ratio exchange schedules, indicative of discriminative control by the tokens.

  2. Approach to include load sequence effects in the design of an offshore wind turbine substructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragt, R.C.; Allaix, D.L.; Maljaars, J.; Tuitman, J.T.; Salman, Y.; Otheguy, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the main design drivers for offshore wind substructures. Using Fracture Mechanics methods, load sequence effects such as crack growth retardation due to large load peaks can be included in the fatigue damage estimation. Due to the sequence dependency, a method is required that

  3. Bending of I-beam with the transvers shear effect included – FEM calculated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Lewiński, Jerzy [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Applied Mechanics ul. Jana Pawła II No. 24, 60-138 Poznań POLAND (Poland)

    2016-06-08

    The paper is devoted to three-point bending of an I-beam with include of transvers shear effect. Numerical calculations were conducted independently with the use of the SolidWorks system and the multi-purpose software package ANSYS The results of FEM study conducted with the use of two systems were compared and presented in tables and figures.

  4. Spectral interferometry including the effect of transparent thin films to measure distances and displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubina, P.

    2004-01-01

    A spectral-domain interferometric technique is applied for measuring mirror distances and displacements in a dispersive Michelson interferometer when the effect of transparent thin films coated onto the interferometer beam splitter and compensator is known. We employ a low-resolution spectrometer in two experiments with different amounts of dispersion in a Michelson interferometer that includes fused-silica optical sample. Knowing the thickness of the optical sample and the nonlinear phase function of the thin films, the positions of the interferometer mirror are determined precisely by a least-squares fitting of the theoretical spectral interferograms to the recorded ones. We compare the results of the processing that include and do not include the effect of transparent thin films (Author)

  5. Effect of including liquid vinasse in the diet of rabbits on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of liquid vinasse (LV in the diet for growing rabbits on performance, carcass yield and intestinal morphometry were assessed. Eighty New Zealand white rabbits were used in a randomized block design with five treatments (LV inclusion at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg diet and four replications. There was no effect of the treatment on final weight, daily weight gain, mortality rate and carcass yield characteristics. The daily intakes of feed, dry matter, crude protein and energy and feed conversion decreased linearly with increase in LV in the diet. Including LV affected the duodenum crypt depth and the ilium villus perimeter and height linearly and affected the duodenum villus perimeter, height and the absorption surfaces and ilium crypt depth and absorption surface quadratically. There was no effect of including LV on jejunum morphometry. Vinasse can be used to feed growing rabbits at up to 87.8 g per kilogram of diet.

  6. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Katy A.; Nellen, Jeannine F.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.

    2014-01-01

    Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03–1.71)). Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00–2.13)). We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only. PMID:25276422

  7. National Radiological Fixed Lab Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Radiological Fixed Laboratory Data Asset includes data produced in support of various clients such as other EPA offices, EPA Regional programs, DOE,...

  8. Mechanics of damping for fiber composite laminates including hygro-thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated mechanics theory was developed for the modeling of composite damping from the micromechanics to the laminate level. Simplified, design oriented equations based on hysteretic damping are presented for on-axis plies, off-axis plies, and laminates including the effect of temperature, moisture, and interply hysteretic damping. The temperature rise within vibrating composite laminates resulting from strain energy dissipation is also modeled, and their coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical response is predicted. The method correlates well with reported damping measurements. Application examples illustrate the effect of various ply, laminate, and hygro-thermal parameters on the overall damping performance of composite laminates.

  9. Effects of integrated fixed film activated sludge media on activated sludge settling in biological nutrient removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Su; Gellner, James W; Boltz, Joshua P; Freudenberg, Robert G; Gunsch, Claudia K; Schuler, Andrew J

    2010-03-01

    Integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) is an increasingly popular modification of conventional activated sludge, consisting of the addition of solid media to bioreactors to create hybrid attached/suspended growth systems. While the benefits of this technology for improvement of nitrification and other functions are well-demonstrated, little is known about its effects on biomass settleability. These effects were evaluated in parallel, independent wastewater treatment trains, with and without IFAS media, both at the pilot (at two solids residence times) and full scales. While all samples demonstrated good settleability, the Control (non-IFAS) systems consistently demonstrated small but significant (pbiomass densities were identified as likely contributing factors, with Control suspended phase density>IFAS suspended phase density>IFAS attached phase (biofilm) density. Polyphosphate content (as non-soluble phosphorus) was well-correlated with density. This suggested that the attached phases had relatively low densities because of their lack of anaerobic/aerobic cycling and consequent low content of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms, and that differences in enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance between the IFAS and non-IFAS systems were likely related to the observed differences in density and settleability for the suspended phases. Decreases in solids retention times from 8 to 4 days resulted in improved settleability and increased density in all suspended phases, which was related to increased phosphorus content in the biomass, while no significant changes in density and phosphorus content were observed in attached phases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of comprehensive fixed appliance treatment used with the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device in Class II patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Alvetro, Lisa; Giuntini, Veronica; Masucci, Caterina; Defraia, Efisio; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-07-01

    To assess the dental, skeletal, and soft tissue effects of comprehensive fixed appliance treatment combined with the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD) in Class II patients. Thirty-two Class II patients (mean age 12.7 ± 1.2 years) were treated consecutively with the FRD protocol and compared with a matched sample of 27 untreated Class II subjects (mean age 12.8 ± 1.3 years). Lateral cephalograms were taken before therapy and at the completion of comprehensive therapy. The mean duration of comprehensive treatment was 2.4 ± 0.4 years. Statistical comparisons were carried out with the Student's t-test (P < .05). The success rate was 87.5%. The FRD group showed a significant restraint in the sagittal skeletal position of the maxilla (also at the soft tissue level), a significant increase in mandibular length, and a significant improvement in maxillo-mandibular sagittal skeletal relationships. The treated group exhibited a significant reduction in overjet and a significant increase in molar relationship. The lower incisors were significantly proclined and intruded, while the lower first molars moved significantly in a mesial and vertical direction. The FRD protocol is effective in correcting Class II malocclusion with a combination of skeletal (mainly maxillary) and dentoalveolar (mainly mandibular) modifications.

  11. Effect of fixed aqueous layer thickness of polymeric stabilizers on zeta potential and stability of aripiprazole nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Aly A; Li, Xiaoling; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed; Elassasy, Abdelhalim; Jasti, Bhaskara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the thickness of adsorbed polymer layer (also known as Fixed Aqueous Layer Thickness, FALT) of polymeric stabilizers on zeta potential and stability of nanoparticles in a suspension. Aripiprazole, a poorly water soluble drug was used as a model drug to evaluate rationale for increased FALT and to understand the effect of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of polymeric stabilizers on FALT of aripiprazole nanosuspensions. The nanosuspensions were prepared by media milling and Pluronic F68, Pluronic F127, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were used as polymeric stabilizers. The particle size (immediately after preparation and after 1 week of storage at 25°C) and zeta potential of aripiprazole nanosuspensions were determined. For Pluronics, FALT was determined theoretically whereas for HPMC and HPC it was calculated as Debye Huckel parameter from the zeta potential dependence on the ionic strength. An increase in FALT resulted in reduced zeta potential. With an increase in FALT of polymers used, the stability of nanosuspensions showed improvement. Furthermore, a linear correlation was shown to exist between the FALT and length of hydrophilic chains in Pluronics.

  12. Relationship of sea level muon charge ratio to primary composition including nuclear target effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goned, A.; Shalaby, M.; Salem, A. M.; Roushdy, M.

    1985-01-01

    The discrepancy between the muon charge ratio observed at low energies and that calculated using pp data is removed by including nuclear target effects. Calculations at high energies show that the primary iron spectrum is expected to change slope from 2 to 2.2 to 2.4 to 2.5 for energies approx. 4 x 10 to the 3 GeV/nucleon if scaling features continue to the highest energies.

  13. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Nan-Soo

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training participants undertook an exercise program for 20 minutes, three times weekly, for 6 weeks. After each session, diaphragm thickness was measured using ultrasonography. The diaphragm asymmetry ratio and diaphragm thickening ratio were standardized using a formula. [Results] After intervention, the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly differed among the three groups, and the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly increased in the control group. A significant increase was identified in the diaphragm thickening ratio within the progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training groups. [Conclusion] Progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training decreased the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients; this effect, in turn, increased the diaphragm thickening ratio in stroke patients. The two interventions examined here should be selectively applied to individuals in the clinical field.

  14. Transient Response Dynamic Module Modifications to Include Static and Kinetic Friction Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misel, J. E.; Nenno, S. B.; Takahashi, D.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology that supports forced transient response dynamic solutions when both static and kinetic friction effects are included in a structural system model is described. Modifications that support this type of nonlinear transient response solution are summarized for the transient response dynamics (TRD) NASTRAN module. An overview of specific modifications for the NASTRAN processing subroutines, INITL, TRD1C, and TRD1D, are described with further details regarding inspection of nonlinear input definitions to define the type of nonlinear solution required, along with additional initialization requirements and specific calculation subroutines to successfully solve the transient response problem. The extension of the basic NASTRAN nonlinear methodology is presented through several stages of development to the point where constraint equations and residual flexibility effects are introduced into the finite difference Newmark-Beta recurrsion formulas. Particular emphasis is placed on cost effective solutions for large finite element models such as the Space Shuttle with friction degrees of freedom between the orbiter and payloads mounted in the cargo bay. An alteration to the dynamic finite difference equations of motion is discussed, which allows one to include friction effects at reasonable cost for large structural systems such as the Space Shuttle. Data are presented to indicate the possible impact of transient friction loads to the payload designer for the Space Shuttle. Transient response solution data are also included, which compare solutions without friction forces and those with friction forces for payloads mounted in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. These data indicate that payload components can be sensitive to friction induced loads.

  15. A new wall function boundary condition including heat release effect for supersonic combustion flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen-Xun; Jiang, Chong-Wen; Lee, Chun-Hian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new wall function including heat release effect is theoretically derived. • The new wall function is a unified form holding for flows with/without combustion. • The new wall function shows good results for a supersonic combustion case. - Abstract: A new wall function boundary condition considering combustion heat release effect (denoted as CWFBC) is proposed, for efficient predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in supersonic combustion flows. Based on a standard flow model including boundary-layer combustion, the Shvab–Zeldovich coupling parameters are introduced to derive a new velocity law-of-the-wall including the influence of combustion. For the temperature law-of-the-wall, it is proposed to use the enthalpy–velocity relation, instead of the Crocco–Busemann equation, to eliminate explicit influence of chemical reactions. The obtained velocity and temperature law-of-the-walls constitute the CWFBC, which is a unified form simultaneously holding for single-species, multi-species mixing and multi-species reactive flows. The subsequent numerical simulations using this CWFBC on an experimental case indicate that the CWFBC could accurately reflect the influences on the skin friction and heat transfer by the chemical reactions and heat release, and show large improvements compared to previous WFBC. Moreover, the CWFBC can give accurate skin friction and heat flux for a coarse mesh with y + up to 200 for the experimental case, except for slightly larger discrepancy of the wall heat flux around ignition position.

  16. Effectiveness of a motionless ultrasonic toothbrush in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruttichart, Thayika; Chantarawaratit, Pintu-On; Leevailoj, Chalermpol; Thanyasrisung, Panida; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Matangkasombut, Oranart

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a motionless ultrasonic toothbrush to a manual toothbrush in reducing dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and mutans streptococci in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Twenty-five orthodontic patients were recruited to this crossover study. The patients were randomized into two groups starting with manual or motionless ultrasonic toothbrushes for 30 days. After a 30-day washout period, the patients switched to the other toothbrush type for 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices were evaluated by two calibrated-blinded examiners before and after each 30-day period of brushing. Salivary samples were also collected for quantification of mutans streptococci. On the bracket side, the motionless ultrasonic toothbrush showed a significantly higher mean plaque index bracket score after 30-day usage than baseline (P = .049), while the manual toothbrush group showed no difference between the before and after brushing periods (P = .10). The changes in plaque index bracket score were significantly more favorable in the manual toothbrush group than in the ultrasonic toothbrush group (P = .04). In contrast, no difference was observed on the nonbracket side. There was no significant difference in the changes of gingival index or the numbers of mutans streptococci between the two groups. Manual toothbrushing performed better than brushing with the motionless ultrasonic toothbrush in plaque removal on the bracket side in orthodontic patients. However, no difference was observed in terms of gingival status and the numbers of mutans streptococci.

  17. The Mental Health Benefits of Acquiring a Home in Older Age: A Fixed-Effects Analysis of Older US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Emilie; Dowd, Jennifer B; Avendano, Mauricio

    2018-03-01

    Homeownership is consistently associated with better mental health, but whether becoming a homeowner in later in life has positive psychological benefits has not, to our knowledge, been examined. We assessed whether acquiring a home after age 50 years was associated with depression in a representative sample of older US adults. We used individual fixed-effects models based on data from 20,524 respondents aged ≥50 years from the Health and Retirement Study, who were interviewed biennially during 1993-2010. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Controlling for confounders, becoming a homeowner in later life predicted a decline in depressive symptoms in the same year (β = -0.0768, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.152, -0.007). The association remained significant after 2 years (β = -0.0556, 95% CI: -0.134, -0.001) but weakened afterward. Buying a home for reasons associated with positive characteristics of the new house or neighborhood drove this association (β = -0.426, 95% CI: -0.786, -0.066), while acquiring a home for reasons associated with characteristics of the previous home or neighborhood, the desire to be closer to relatives, downsizing, or upsizing did not predict mental health improvements. Findings suggest that there are small but significant benefits for mental health associated with acquiring a home in older age.

  18. On the effect of cross sectional shape on incipient motion and deposition of sediments in fixed bed channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Mir-Jafar-Sadegh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The condition of incipient motion and deposition are of the essential issues for the study of sediment transport. This phenomenon is of great importance to hydraulic engineers for designing sewers, drainage, as well as other rigid boundary channels. This is a study carried out with the objectives of describing the effect of cross-sectional shape on incipient motion and deposition of particles in rigid boundary channels. In this research work, the experimental data given by Loveless (1992 and Mohammadi (2005 are used. On the basis of the critical velocity approach, a new incipient motion equation for a V-shaped bottom channel and incipient deposition of sediment particles equations for rigid boundary channels having circular, rectangular, and U-shaped cross sections are obtained. New equations were compared to the other incipient motion equations. The result shows that the cross-sectional shape is an important factor for defining the minimum velocity for no-deposit particles. This study also distinguishes incipient motion of particles from incipient deposition for particles. The results may be useful for designing fixed bed channels with a limited deposition condition.

  19. The effect of using mobile applications for improving oral hygiene in patients with orthodontic fixed appliances: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Omar H; Zahid, Mohammed N; Almanea, Read S; Althaqeb, Husam K; Alharbi, Turki H; Ajwa, Nancy M

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of using mobile applications active reminders to improve oral hygiene in comparison to verbal oral hygiene instructions. Two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial. orthodontic clinics at two branches of a university hospitals of the college of dentistry of Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Forty-four 12-year-old and older subjects. Subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were randomly assigned to one of two groups using simple randomisation. Group I: subjects received a mobile application that sends active reminders of oral hygiene three times a day (n = 22). Group II: subjects received verbal oral hygiene instructions verbally during their routine orthodontic visits (n = 22). Two primary outcomes were assessed using plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) for Ramfjord teeth to evaluate the level of oral hygiene at baseline and after 4 weeks. Mean differences for PI and GI for group I were reduced from T1 to T2 (P  0.05, P > 0.05). Both PI and GI significantly reduced for group I compared to group II between T1 and T2 (P oral hygiene instructions on mobile application compared to verbal oral hygiene instructions. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov with number: NCT03109769.

  20. Effect of fixed space maintainers and removable appliances on oral microflora in children: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Ritesh; Tripathi, Abhay M; Jaiswal, Jagdish Narain; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Palit, Madhuchanda; Khanduja, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Oral habits and caries if left untreated may result in crowding and arch length discrepancy in developing dentition. Therefore, appliances are used to maintain the arch length and for proper relationship between dental arches. However, its insertion may cause an increase in bacterial concentration. This study aimed to evaluate the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp., and Candida albicans in saliva during the first 6 months of orthodontic therapy. Twenty children in the age group of 6-15 years were selected with regard to indication of orthodontic treatment, and subsequently grouped as patients to be treated with fixed space maintainers or removable appliances. Unstimulated saliva was collected in a sterile container at baseline and at 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month recalls for every selected child. Samples collected were processed for bacterial culture in different culture media at different time intervals. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 15.0 statistical software was carried for bacterial counts. Chi-square test and t-test were performed to know the effects of each variable and to reveal the statistical significance. Bacterial counts of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp., and Candida albicans were found to be statistically significant (P 0≤ 0.001), (P < 0.05), and (P < 0.001), respectively in both the groups at all intervals. At different time intervals, the total numbers of bacterial count of Streptococcus mutans were comparatively higher, followed by Lactobacillus sp. and Candida albicans.

  1. CFD simulations and reduced order modeling of a refrigerator compartment including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ozgur; Oskay, Ruknettin; Paksoy, Akin; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Free convection in a refrigerator is simulated including radiation effects. ► Heat rates are affected drastically when radiation effects are considered. ► 95% of the flow energy can be represented by using one spatial POD mode. - Abstract: Considering the engineering problem of natural convection in domestic refrigerator applications, this study aims to simulate the fluid flow and temperature distribution in a single commercial refrigerator compartment by using the experimentally determined temperature values as the specified constant wall temperature boundary conditions. The free convection in refrigerator applications is evaluated as a three-dimensional (3D), turbulent, transient and coupled non-linear flow problem. Radiation heat transfer mode is also included in the analysis. According to the results, taking radiation effects into consideration does not change the temperature distribution inside the refrigerator significantly; however the heat rates are affected drastically. The flow inside the compartment is further analyzed with a reduced order modeling method called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the energy contents of several spatial and temporal modes that exist in the flow are examined. The results show that approximately 95% of all the flow energy can be represented by only using one spatial mode

  2. Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

  3. The effect of fixed charge density and cartilage swelling on mechanics of knee joint cartilage during simulated gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Lasse P; Tanska, Petri; Zbýň, Štefan; van Donkelaar, Corrinus C; Trattnig, Siegfried; Nieminen, Miika T; Korhonen, Rami K

    2017-08-16

    The effect of swelling of articular cartilage, caused by the fixed charge density (FCD) of proteoglycans, has not been demonstrated on knee joint mechanics during simulated walking before. In this study, the influence of the depth-wise variation of FCD was investigated on the internal collagen fibril strains and the mechanical response of the knee joint cartilage during gait using finite element (FE) analysis. The FCD distribution of tibial cartilage was implemented from sodium ( 23 Na) MRI into a 3-D FE-model of the knee joint ("Healthy model"). For comparison, models with decreased FCD values were created according to the decrease in FCD associated with the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) ("Early OA" and "Advanced OA" models). In addition, a model without FCD was created ("No FCD" model). The effect of FCD was studied with five different collagen fibril network moduli of cartilage. Using the reference fibril network moduli, the decrease in FCD from "Healthy model" to "Early OA" and "Advanced OA" models resulted in increased axial strains (by +2 and +6%) and decreased fibril strains (by -3 and -13%) throughout the stance, respectively, calculated as mean values through cartilage depth in the tibiofemoral contact regions. Correspondingly, compared to the "Healthy model", the removal of the FCD altogether in "NoFCD model" resulted in increased mean axial strains by +16% and decreased mean fibril strains by -24%. This effect was amplified as the fibril network moduli were decreased by 80% from the reference. Then mean axial strains increased by +6, +19 and +49% and mean fibril strains decreased by -9, -20 and -32%, respectively. Our results suggest that the FCD in articular cartilage has influence on cartilage responses in the knee during walking. Furthermore, the FCD is suggested to have larger impact on cartilage function as the collagen network degenerates e.g. in OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term remineralizing effect of MI Paste Plus on regression of early caries after orthodontic fixed appliance treatment: a 12-month follow-up randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, Moniek W; Ten Cate, Jacob M; Buijs, Mark J; van der Veen, Monique H

    2017-11-17

    Casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-fluoride-phosphate (CPP-ACFP) can remineralize subsurface lesions. It is the active ingredient of MI-Paste-Plus® (MPP). The long-term remineralization efficacy is unknown. To evaluate the long-term effect of MPP versus a placebo paste on remineralization of enamel after fixed orthodontic treatment over a 12-month period. This trial was designed as a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled RCT. Patients with subsurface lesions scheduled for removal of the appliance were included. They applied either MPP or control paste once a day at bedtime for 12 months, complementary to normal oral hygiene. Changes in enamel lesions (primary outcome) were fluorescence loss and lesion area determined by quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Secondary outcomes were Microbial composition, by conventional plating, and acidogenicity of plaque, by capillary ion analysis (CIA), and lesion changes scored visually on clinical photographs. Participants [age = 15.5 years (SD = 1.6)] were randomly assigned to either the MPP or the control group, as determined by a computer-randomization scheme, created and locked before the start of the study. Participants received neutral-coloured concealed toothpaste tubes marked A or B. The patients and the observers were blinded with respect to the content of tube A or B. A total of 51 patients were analysed; MPP (n = 25) versus control group (n = 26); data loss (n = 14). There was no significant difference between the groups over time for all the used outcome measures. There was a significant improvement in enamel lesions (fluorescence loss) over time in both groups (P orthodontic fixed appliance treatment did not improve these lesions during the 1 year following debonding. This trial is registered at the medical ethical committee of the VU Medical Centre in Amsterdam (NL.199226.029.07). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society

  5. Non-kinematic Flux-transport Dynamos Including the Effects of Diffusivity Quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, Chiaki; Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    Turbulent magnetic diffusivity is quenched when strong magnetic fields suppress turbulent motion in a phenomenon known as diffusivity quenching. Diffusivity quenching can provide a mechanism for amplifying magnetic field and influencing global velocity fields through Lorentz force feedback. To investigate this effect, we conducted mean field flux-transport dynamo simulations that included the effects of diffusivity quenching in a non-kinematic regime. We found that toroidal magnetic field strength is amplified by up to approximately 1.5 times in the convection zone as a result of diffusivity quenching. This amplification is much weaker than that in kinematic cases as a result of Lorentz force feedback on the system’s differential rotation. While amplified toroidal fields lead to the suppression of equatorward meridional flow locally near the base of the convection zone, large-scale equatorward transport of magnetic flux via meridional flow, which is the essential process of the flux-transport dynamo, is sustainable in our calculations.

  6. Effect on lamb meat quality of including thyme (Thymus zygis ssp. gracilis) leaves in ewes' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema; Díaz, Pedro; Bañón, Sancho; Garrido, María Dolores

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of including thyme leaves (TL) in the diet of pregnant sheep on the sensorial characteristics, bacterial spoilage and oxidative stability of lamb meat stored in modified atmosphere (70% O(2):30% CO(2)). For this, thirty-six sheep were randomly assigned to three groups: control (basal diet), T(1) (3.7% thyme leaves), T(2) (7.5% thyme leaves). Meat spoilage (TV, PSY, MY, ENT, and LA), TBARS, CIELAB coordinates, metmyoglobin and the sensory characteristics of fresh lamb meat were analyzed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. The presence of antioxidant compounds in the diet containing TL delayed (Pmeat. In general, this effect was more pronounced at the higher level of TL (7.5%). High Pearson's correlation coefficients were found between the sensory attributes, CIELAB coordinates and TBARS. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Mercado-Samur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.

  8. Effect on Intraocular Pressure of Switching from Latanoprost and Travoprost Monotherapy to Timolol Fixed Combinations in Patients with Normal-Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Igarashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG. Methods. 27 NTG patients (54 eyes were compared IOP, superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK scores, and conjunctival injection scores in eyes treated with prostaglandin (PG or PG analog/beta-blocker (PG/b fixed-combination 6 months after the change in therapy. Results. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 17.4±1.59 mmHg in eyes receiving PG therapy only and 17.4±1.69 mmHg in eyes switched to PG/b. Switching to fixed combination therapy from PG monotherapy, the mean IOP was 13.1±1.79 mmHg (P<0.001  (-24.71% reduction from baseline at 6 months. The mean conjunctival injection score was 0.69 for eyes on PG monotherapy and 0.56 for eyes on fixed combination therapy (P=0.028. The mean SPK scores were 0.46 and 0.53. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.463. Conclusions. Switching from PG monotherapy to PG/b fixed combination therapy for NTG resulted in a greater intraocular pressure reduction than PG alone without increasing the number of instillations.

  9. Effect on intraocular pressure of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in patients with normal-tension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Ryoko; Togano, Tetsuya; Sakaue, Yuta; Yoshino, Takaiko; Ueda, Jun; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods. 27 NTG patients (54 eyes) were compared IOP, superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) scores, and conjunctival injection scores in eyes treated with prostaglandin (PG) or PG analog/beta-blocker (PG/b) fixed-combination 6 months after the change in therapy. Results. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 17.4 ± 1.59 mmHg in eyes receiving PG therapy only and 17.4 ± 1.69 mmHg in eyes switched to PG/b. Switching to fixed combination therapy from PG monotherapy, the mean IOP was 13.1 ± 1.79 mmHg (P < 0.001)  (-24.71% reduction from baseline) at 6 months. The mean conjunctival injection score was 0.69 for eyes on PG monotherapy and 0.56 for eyes on fixed combination therapy (P = 0.028). The mean SPK scores were 0.46 and 0.53. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.463). Conclusions. Switching from PG monotherapy to PG/b fixed combination therapy for NTG resulted in a greater intraocular pressure reduction than PG alone without increasing the number of instillations.

  10. Effects of Low Light on Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Rice Including Grain Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the basic characteristics of rice development. However, continuously cloudy weather or rainfall, especially during the grain-filling stage, induces a significant loss in yield and results in poor grain quality. Stress caused by low light often creates severe meteorological disasters in some rice-growing regions worldwide. This review was based on our previous research and related research regarding the effects of low light on rice growth, yield and quality as well as the formation of grain, and mainly reviewed the physiological metabolism of rice plants, including characteristics of photosynthesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes in rice leaves and key enzymes involved in starch synthesis in grains, as well as the translocations of carbohydrate and nitrogen. These characteristics include various grain yield and rice quality components (milling and appearance as well as cooking, eating and nutritional qualities under different rates of shading imposed at the vegetative or reproductive stages of rice plants. Furthermore, we discussed why grain yield and quality are reduced under the low light environment. Next, we summarized the need for future research that emphasizes methods can effectively improve rice grain yield and quality under low light stress. These research findings can provide a beneficial reference for rice cultivation management and breeding program in low light environments.

  11. Path-integral isomorphic Hamiltonian for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xuecheng; Shushkov, Philip; Miller, Thomas F.

    2018-03-01

    We describe a path-integral approach for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic chemical dynamics simulations. For a general physical system with multiple electronic energy levels, a corresponding isomorphic Hamiltonian is introduced such that Boltzmann sampling of the isomorphic Hamiltonian with classical nuclear degrees of freedom yields the exact quantum Boltzmann distribution for the original physical system. In the limit of a single electronic energy level, the isomorphic Hamiltonian reduces to the familiar cases of either ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) or centroid molecular dynamics Hamiltonians, depending on the implementation. An advantage of the isomorphic Hamiltonian is that it can easily be combined with existing mixed quantum-classical dynamics methods, such as surface hopping or Ehrenfest dynamics, to enable the simulation of electronically non-adiabatic processes with nuclear quantum effects. We present numerical applications of the isomorphic Hamiltonian to model two- and three-level systems, with encouraging results that include improvement upon a previously reported combination of RPMD with surface hopping in the deep-tunneling regime.

  12. Three-Dimensional Orbits of Earth Satellites, Including Effects of Earth Oblateness and Atmospheric Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jack N.; Goodwin, Frederick K.; Mersman, William A.

    1958-01-01

    The principal purpose of the present paper is to present sets of equations which may be used for calculating complete trajectories of earth satellites from outer space to the ground under the influence of air drag and gravity, including oblateness effects, and to apply these to several examples of entry trajectories starting from a circular orbit. Equations of motion, based on an "instantaneous ellipse" technique, with polar angle as independent variable, were found suitable for automatic computation of orbits in which the trajectory consists of a number of revolutions. This method is suitable as long as the trajectory does not become nearly vertical. In the terminal phase of the trajectories, which are nearly vertical, equations of motion in spherical polar coordinates with time as the independent variable were found to be more suitable. In the first illustrative example the effects of the oblateness component of the earth's gravitational field and of atmospheric rotation were studied for equatorial orbits. The satellites were launched into circular orbits at a height of 120 miles, an altitude sufficiently high that a number of revolutions could be studied. The importance of the oblateness component of the earth's gravitational field is shown by the fact that a satellite launched at circular orbital speed, neglecting oblateness, has a perigee some 67,000 feet lower when oblateness forces are included in the equations of motion than when they are not included. Also, the loss in altitude per revolution is double that of a satellite following an orbit not subject to oblateness. The effect of atmospheric rotation on the loss of altitude per revolution was small. As might be surmised, the regression of the line of nodes as predicted by celestial mechanics is unchanged when drag is included. It is clear that the inclination of the orbital plane to the equator will be relatively unaffected by drag for no atmospheric rotation since the drag lies in the orbital plane in

  13. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian dynamics of charged particles including the effects of radiation damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua; Davidson, Ronald; Fisch, Nathaniel; Chung, Moses

    2015-11-01

    The effects of radiation damping (radiation reaction) on accelerating charged particles in modern high-intensity accelerators and high-intensity laser beams have becoming increasingly important. Especially for electron accelerators and storage rings, radiation damping is an effective mechanism and technique to achieve high beam luminosity. We develop Hamiltonian and Lagrangian descriptions of the classical dynamics of a charged particle including the effects of radiation damping in the general electromagnetic focusing channels encountered in accelerators. The direct connection between the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories and the more fundamental QED description of the synchrotron radiation process is also addressed. In addition to their theoretical importance, the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories of the radiation damping also enable us to numerically integrate the dynamics using advanced structure-preserving geometric algorithms. These theoretical developments can also be applied to runaway electrons and positrons generated during the disruption or startup of tokamak discharges. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-09CH11466).

  14. Numerical analysis of trajectories and aberrations of a Wien filter including the effect of fringing fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Makoto; Tsuno, Katsushige

    1990-12-01

    Trajectory equations of a stigmatic Wien filter including the effects of unmatched fringing fields are formulated, and an optimum shape with minimum geometrical aberrations is described. A low-aberration Wien filter is realized under the following conditions: (1) electric and magnetic fields satisfy the orthogonal relation even in the off-axial region, and (2) gap lengths between electrodes and magnetic poles are the same for achieving the balancing condition of electric and magnetic forces in fringing regions. The former condition can be realized by both fields with finite but the same hexapole components; this fact enables us to design a filter with simplified geometry that fulfills the latter condition simultaneously. It is shown that a large deflection of trajectories and resultant aberrations appear if the gap lengths are set to be different.

  15. Triple Active Antiretroviral Regimen Including Enfuvirtide Via the Biojector is Effective and Safe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For full HIV virological suppression, three fully active antiretroviral agents are required. New drug classes should be included to ensure that agents are fully active. The addition of enfuvirtide and efavirenz to the present patient’s new antiretroviral regimen ensured that two fully active agents were in use in the setting of a moderate degree of nucleoside resistance and a high level of protease resistance, and where non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were still fully active. Both viral load and CD4 count responded favourably to this regimen. The patient received support from physicians and clinic staff in the introduction and use of enfuvirtide. To reduce injection site reactions, a needle-free injection system (Biojector proved effective.

  16. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.

  17. Modeling of cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including the fringing field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Baishya, Srimanta

    2013-01-01

    A physically based analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage including the fringing gate capacitances in cylindrical surround gate (CSG) MOSFETs has been developed. Based on this a subthreshold drain current model has also been derived. This model first computes the charge induced in the drain/source region due to the fringing capacitances and considers an effective charge distribution in the cylindrically extended source/drain region for the development of a simple and compact model. The fringing gate capacitances taken into account are outer fringe capacitance, inner fringe capacitance, overlap capacitance, and sidewall capacitance. The model has been verified with the data extracted from 3D TCAD simulations of CSG MOSFETs and was found to be working satisfactorily. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Asticio [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile); Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 4016, Concepción (Chile); Mar Sánchez-López, María del [Instituto de Bioingeniería, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche (Spain); García-Martínez, Pascuala [Departament d' Òptica, Universitat de València, 45100 Burjassot (Spain); Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Óptica y Tecnología Electrónica, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  19. Thermal histories of chondrules in solar nebula shocks, including the effect of molecular line cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melissa A.

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized, silicate (mostly ferromagnesian) igneous spheres found within chondritic meteorites. They are some of the oldest materials in our Solar System, having formed within a few million years of its birth. Chondrules were melted at high temperature (over 1800 K), while they were free-floating objects in the early solar nebula. Their petrology and chemistry constrain their formation, especially their thermal histories. Chondrules provide some of the most powerful constraints on conditions in the solar nebula. Models in which chondrule precursors melted by passage through solar nebula shocks are very promising, and meet most constraints on chondrule formation in broad brush. However, these models have been lacking in some of the relevant physics. Previous shock models have used incorrect approximations to the input radiation boundary condition, and the opacity of solids has been treated simply. Most important, a proper treatment of cooling due to molecular line emission has not been included. In this thesis, the shock model is significantly improved in order to determine if it remains consistent with observational constraints. The appropriate boundary condition for the input radiation and the proper method for calculation of the opacity of solids are determined, and a complete treatment of molecular line cooling due to water is included. Previous estimates of the effect of line cooling predicted chondrule cooling rates in excess of 10,000 K per hour. However, once molecular line cooling due to water was incorporated into the full shock model, it was found that line cooling has a minimal effect on the thermal histories of gas and chondrules. This behavior is attributed mostly to the thermal buffering of the gas due to hydrogen dissociation and recombination, which tends to keep the gas temperature at approximately 2000 K until the column densities of water become optically thick to line emission. Chondrule cooling rates in the range of 10

  20. Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects Originating NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green s function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) to describe the mean flow. The vector Green s function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. An adjoint vector Green s function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green s function based on a locally parallel mean flow at different streamwise locations. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green s function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with a previous formulation by the authors. A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully-expanded jet Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise experimental facilities. In addition, two models for the so-called fine-scale mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include propagation effects.

  1. Double-gate junctionless transistor model including short-channel effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, B C; Pavanello, M A; Ávila-Herrera, F; Cerdeira, A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a physically based model for double-gate junctionless transistors (JLTs), continuous in all operation regimes. To describe short-channel transistors, short-channel effects (SCEs), such as increase of the channel potential due to drain bias, carrier velocity saturation and mobility degradation due to vertical and longitudinal electric fields, are included in a previous model developed for long-channel double-gate JLTs. To validate the model, an analysis is made by using three-dimensional numerical simulations performed in a Sentaurus Device Simulator from Synopsys. Different doping concentrations, channel widths and channel lengths are considered in this work. Besides that, the series resistance influence is numerically included and validated for a wide range of source and drain extensions. In order to check if the SCEs are appropriately described, besides drain current, transconductance and output conductance characteristics, the following parameters are analyzed to demonstrate the good agreement between model and simulation and the SCEs occurrence in this technology: threshold voltage (V TH ), subthreshold slope (S) and drain induced barrier lowering. (paper)

  2. Stress analysis of fuel claddings with axial fins including creep effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1977-01-01

    For LMFBR fuel claddings with axial fins the stress and strain fields are calculated which may be caused by internal pressure, differential thermal expansion and irradiation induced differential swelling. To provide an appropriate description of the cladding material it is assumed that the total strain is the sum of a linear elastic and a creep term, where the latter one includes the thermal as well as the irradiation induced creep. First the linear elastic problem is treated by a semi-analytical method leading to a bipotential equation for Airys' stress function. Solving this equation analytically means that the field equations valid within the cladding are satisfied exactly. By applying a combined point matching- least square-method the boundary conditions could be satisfied approximately such that in most cases the remaining error is within the uncertainty range of the loading conditions. Then the nonlinear problem which includes creep is approximated by a sequence of linear elastic solutions with time as parameter. The accumulated creep strain is treated here as an imposed strain field. To study the influence of different effects such as fin shape, temperature region, irradiation induced creep and swelling or internal pressure, a total of eleven cases with various parameter variations are investigated. The results are presented graphically in the following forms: stress and strain distributions over the cladding cross section for end of life conditions and boundary stresses and strains versus time. (Auth.)

  3. Effectiveness of Fixed Dose Radioactive Iodine (RAI for the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism: Experience of a Teaching Hospital in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karounwi Omotayo Ogunjobi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using radioactive iodine (RAI as the first line therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism and as the treatment of choice for relapsed Graves’ disease is increasing in recent times. However, there has been little consensus on the most appropriate dose to use. So this study is to determine the response of hyperthyroidism to fixed doses of 370 MBq and 555 MBq RAI therapies and determine the incidence of hypothyroidism at 6 months post therapy. Methods: Hyperthyroid patients’ case records treated with radioiodine was retrospectively reviewed to determine the response rate of hyperthyroidism to the two fixed dose regimens. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 15.0 and the level of statistical significance was taken as p<0.05. Forty subjects, 6 males (15% and 34 females (85% received RAI therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism, mean age was 49.4 years (range, 25-75years. The thyroid function status at 6 months post therapy was available for all subjects. 24 patients (60% received 370 MBq while 16 patients (40% received 555 MBq. Results: The response for fixed doses of 370 MBq and 555 MBq were similar (100%. Also, the incidence of hypothyroidism in these subjects which was 66.6% with fixed dose of 370 MBq and 62.5% with fixed dose of 555 MBq within 6 months post RAI therapy were similar. Conclusion: SRAI is highly effective for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, with a cure rate of 100%. However, it has proved impossible to determine a fixed dose regimen for individual patients accurately to guarantee an euthyroid state. This is because hypothyroidism is a natural predictable sequel of RAI therapy.

  4. Thymoquinone causes multiple effects, including cell death, on dividing plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Sameh E; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Azeiz, Ahmed Z Abdel; Mohammed, Rasha A; Hassan, Sabah M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Atef, Ahmed; Kamal, Khalid B H; Rabah, Samar; Sabir, Jamal S M; Abuzinadah, Osama A; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Martin, Gregory B; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a major constituent of Nigella sativa oil with reported anti-oxidative activity and anti-inflammatory activity in animal cells. It also inhibits proliferation and induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in human skin cancer cells. The present study sought to detect the influence of TQ on dividing cells of three plant systems and on expression of Bcl2-associated athanogene-like (BAG-like) genes that might be involved during the process of cell death. BAG genes are known for the regulation of diverse physiological processes in animals, including apoptosis, tumorigenesis, stress responses, and cell division. Synthetic TQ at 0.1mg/mL greatly reduced wheat seed germination rate, whereas 0.2mg/mL completely inhibited germination. An Evans blue assay revealed moderate cell death in the meristematic zone of Glycine max roots after 1h of TQ treatment (0.2mg/mL), with severe cell death occurring in this zone after 2h of treatment. Light microscopy of TQ-treated (0.2mg/mL) onion hairy root tips for 1h revealed anti-mitotic activity and also cell death-associated changes, including nuclear membrane disruption and nuclear fragmentation. Transmission electron microscopy of TQ-treated cells (0.2mg/mL) for 1h revealed shrinkage of the plasma membrane, leakage of cell lysate, degradation of cell walls, enlargement of vacuoles and condensation of nuclei. Expression of one BAG-like gene, previously associated with cell death, was induced 20 min after TQ treatment in Glycine max root tip cells. Thus, TQ has multiple effects, including cell death, on dividing plant cells and plants may serve as a useful system to further investigate the mechanisms underlying the response of eukaryotic cells to TQ. © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Effect of free and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterial co-inoculation on seed and seedling of soybean seeds produced under deficit water condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of free and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria on seed and seedling produced seeds under deficit irrigation was conducted in laboratory and field experiments in 2006. In laboratory of karaj’s Seed and Plant Research and Certificate Institute an experiment was conducted based on factorial in form of completely randomized design with four replications and in field’s of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch were split factorial in form of randomized completely block design with three replications. Treatments included water stress [Irrigation after 50 (Normal irrigation, 100 (Middle stress, 150 (Severe stress mm evaporation from pan class A], Cultivar [Manokin & Williams and SRF×T3 Line] and inoculation [Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium japonicum co-inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum, No seed inoculation]. Results showed that drought stress decreased the uniformity and germination speed and seedling emergence. Bacteria increased leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, leaf area and seedling vigor index but had no effect on emergence. In irrigation levels inoculated treatments had higher seedling length, leaf, stem, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor. Severs stress seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum had higher root dry weight than control. Therefore in seeds which were produced under deficit irrigation conditions, bacteria increased seedlings vigor.

  6. Piping failure analysis for the Korean nuclear piping including the effect of in-service inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.(KAERI), Daejeon (Korea); Choi, Y.H. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety(KINS), Daejeon (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to perform piping failure analysis for the failed safety class piping in Korean nuclear power plants(NPPs) and evaluate the effect of an in-service inspection(ISI) on the piping failure probability. For data collection, a database for piping failure events was constructed with 135 data fields including population data, event data, and service history data. A total of 6 kinds of events with 25 failure cases up to June 30, 2003 were identified from Korean NPPs. The failed systems were main feedwater system, CVCS, primary sampling system, essential service water system, and CANDU purification system. Piping failure analyses such as evaluation of the impact on nuclear safety and piping integrity and the root cause analysis were performed and the piping failure frequencies for the failed piping were calculated by using population data. The result showed that although the integrity was not maintained in the failed piping, the safety of the plants was maintained for all the events. And the root causes of the events were analyzed as FAC, vibration, thermal fatigue, corrosion, and/or an improper weld joint. The piping failure frequencies ranged from 6.08E-5/Cr-Yr to 1.15E-3/Cr-Yr for the events. According to the ASME Code sec. XI requirements, the small bore piping less than the nominal diameter of 4 inch is exempt from ISI. There, however, were many piping failures reported in the small bore piping. The effect of ISI considering the pipe size on the piping failure probability was investigated by using the Win-PRAISE program based on probabilistic fracture mechanics. The results showed that there is no significant difference between the small and large bore piping from the viewpoint of the ISI effect on the piping failure probability. It means that ISI for a small bore piping is recommended as well as the large bore piping. (orig.)

  7. A new model for including the effect of fly ash on biochemical methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, Pablo; Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2017-10-01

    The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation. Three models for accumulated methane volume (the modified Gompertz equation, the logistic function, and the transfer function) were evaluated. The results showed that methane production increased in the presence of FA when the sewage sludge was not pre-treated, while with pretreated sludge there is inhibition of methane production at FA concentrations higher than 50mg/L. In the calibration of the proposed function, it fits well with the experimental data under all the conditions, including the inhibition and stimulating zones, with the values of the parameters of the methane production models falling in the range of those reported in the literature. For validation experiments, the model succeeded in representing the behavior of new experiments in both the stimulating and inhibiting zones, with NRMSE and R 2 ranging from 0.3577 to 0.03714 and 0.2209 to 0.9911, respectively. Thus, the proposed model is robust and valid for the studied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness and tolerability of fixed-dose combination enalapril plus nitrendipine in hypertensive patients: results of the 3-month observational, post-marketing, multicentre, prospective CENIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Alejandro de la; Roca-Cusachs, Alejandro; Redón, Josep; Marín, Rafael; Luque, Manuel; Figuera, Mariano de la; Garcia-Garcia, Margarida; Falkon, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    Monotherapy with any class of antihypertensive drug effectively controls blood pressure (BP) in only about 50% of patients. Consequently, the majority of patients with hypertension require combined therapy with two or more medications. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness (systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] control) and tolerability of the fixed-dose combination enalapril/nitrendipine 10 mg/20 mg administered as a single daily dose in hypertensive patients. This was a post-authorization, multicentre, prospective, observational study conducted in primary care with a 3-month follow-up. Patients throughout Spain with uncontrolled hypertension (> or =140/90 mmHg for patients without diabetes mellitus, or > or =130/85 mmHg for patients with diabetes) on monotherapy or with any combination other than enalapril + nitrendipine, or who were unable to tolerate their previous antihypertensive therapy, were recruited. Change from previous to study treatment was according to usual clinical practice. BP was measured once after 5 minutes of rest in the sitting position. Therapeutic response was defined as follows: 'controlled' meant controlled BP ( or =20 mmHg and in DBP of > or =10 mmHg. The main laboratory test parameters were documented at baseline and after 3 months. Patients aged >65 years, with diabetes, with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH; SBP > or =140 mmHg for patients without diabetes, SBP > or =130 mmHg for patients with diabetes) and who were obese (body mass index [BMI] > or =30 kg/m2) were analysed separately. Of 6537 patients included, 5010 and 6354 patients were assessed in effectiveness and tolerability analyses, respectively. In the tolerability analysis population, there were 3023 men (47.6%) and 3321 women (52.4%). The mean (+/- SD) age of the tolerability analysis group was 62.8 (+/- 10.7) years. A total of 71.1% of the patients presented at least one clinical cardiovascular risk factor other than hypertension, with the most frequent being

  9. Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bons, Jeffrey [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The Department of Energy has goals to move land based gas turbine systems to alternate fuels including coal derived synthetic gas and hydrogen. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the US and in the world and it is economically advantageous to develop power systems which can use coal. Integrated gasification combined cycles are (IGCC) expected to allow the clean use of coal derived fuels while improving the ability to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. These cycles will need to maintain or increase turbine entry temperatures to develop competitive efficiencies. The use of coal derived syngas introduces a range of potential contaminants into the hot section of the gas turbine including sulfur, iron, calcium, and various alkali metals. Depending on the effectiveness of the gas clean up processes, there exists significant likelihood that the remaining materials will become molten in the combustion process and potentially deposit on downstream turbine surfaces. Past evidence suggests that deposition will be a strong function of increasing temperature. Currently, even with the best gas cleanup processes a small level of particulate matter in the syngas is expected. Consequently, particulate deposition is expected to be an important consideration in the design of turbine components. The leading edge region of first stage vanes most often have higher deposition rates than other areas due to strong fluid acceleration and streamline curvature in the vicinity of the surface. This region remains one of the most difficult areas in a turbine nozzle to cool due to high inlet temperatures and only a small pressure ratio for cooling. The leading edge of a vane often has relatively high heat transfer coefficients and is often cooled using showerhead film cooling arrays. The throat of the first stage nozzle is another area where deposition potentially has a strongly adverse effect on turbine performance as this region meters the turbine inlet flow. Based on roughness

  10. Effects of the pendulum appliance, cervical headgear, and 2 premolar extractions followed by fixed appliances in patients with Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; McNamara, James A

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, we compared the cephalometric effects, the dental-arch changes, and the efficiency of Class II treatment with the pendulum appliance, cervical headgear, or extraction of 2 maxillary premolars, all associated with fixed appliance therapy. The sample of 82 patients with Class II malocclusion was divided into 3 groups: group 1 patients (n = 22; treatment time, 3.8 years) were treated with the pendulum appliance and fixed orthodontic appliances. Group 2 patients (n = 30; treatment time, 3.2 years) were treated with cervical headgear followed by fixed appliances; group 3 patients (n = 30; treatment time, 2.1 years) were treated with 2 maxillary premolar extractions and fixed appliances. The average starting ages of the groups ranged from 13.2 to 13.8 years. Data were obtained from serial cephalometric measurements and dental casts. The dental casts were analyzed with the treatment priority index. The treatment efficiency index was also used. The 3 treatment protocols produced similar cephalometric effects, especially skeletally. Comparisons among the 2 distalizing appliances (pendulum and cervical headgear) and extraction of 2 maxillary premolars for Class II treatment showed changes primarily in the maxillary dentoalveolar component and dental relationships. The facial profile was similar after treatment, except for slightly more retrusion of the upper lip in the extraction patients. The treatment priority index demonstrated that occlusal outcomes also were similar among the groups. The treatment efficiency index had higher values for the extraction group. The effects of treatment with the pendulum appliance or cervical headgear and extraction of 2 maxillary premolars associated with fixed appliances were similar from both occlusal and cephalometric standpoints. Class II treatment with extraction of maxillary teeth was more efficient because of the shorter treatment time. Differences in maxillary incisor retraction should be noted, but

  11. The Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock- associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) as the mean flow. The vector Green's function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. An adjoint vector Green's function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green's function based on a locally parallel mean flow at streamwise locations of the SRANS solution. However, the developed acoustic analogy could easily be based on any adjoint vector Green's function solver, such as one that makes no assumptions about the mean flow. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green's function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with the formulation of Morris and Miller (AIAAJ 2010). A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully expanded Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise labs. In addition, two models for the so-called 'fine-scale' mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include the propagation effects, especially in the upstream direction of the jet.

  12. In vitro effectiveness of Castellani solution including various ingredients against different microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran Çopur

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the external auditory canal is a moisturearea, it facilitates the growth of bacteria and fungi. Infectionsand inflammation due to Staphylococcus aureus,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus spp. and Candidaalbicans can develop in this area. Classical Castellanisolution including boric acid, fenol, fucsin, resorcinol, acetone,and alcohol is used for external ear tract infectionsdue to fungi and bacteria, and also for the superficial dermatophytoses,and eczematous dermatitis of the externalear tract infections.The purpose of this study is to investigate of the in vitroeffectiveness of classical Castellani solution and its differentformulations with different dilutions against the standardyeast and bacteria strains.Methods: C. albicans ATCC 10231, C. krusei ATCC6258, C. dubliniensis CD 36, C. guilliermondii ATCC6260, C. parapsilosis ATCC22019, E. coli ATCC 25922,P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, MRSA ATCC 43300, Staphylococcusaureus ATCC 25923, and S. epidermidis ATCC12228 strains were included in the study. Broth microdilutionmethod was used for each microorganism and Castellaniformulation. The tests are repeated at least twice.Results: The inhibitory concentration of classical Castellanisolution against bacteria and fungi is 1/64-1/256,1/32-1/64 for fuchsin free solution, 1/32-1/128 for boricacid-free solution and, 1/64-1/128 for resorcinol-free solution.Conclusions: As a conclusion we think that the classicalCastellani solution and its different formulations at variousdilutions may be effective antimicrobial agents for differentpatient populations. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3:302-305Key words: Castellani solution, antimicrobial activity, in vitro

  13. The effect of box preparation on the strength of glass fiber-reinforced composite inlay-retained fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Breuklander, Marijn H; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2005-04-01

    Nonstandardized box dimensions for inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (FPDs) may result in uneven distribution of the forces on the connector region of such restorations. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of box dimensions on the initial and final failure strength of inlay-retained fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) FPDs. Twenty-one inlay-retained FPDs were prepared using FRC (everStick) frameworks with unidirectional fiber reinforcement between mandibular first premolars and first molars. Boxes were prepared using conventional inlay burs (Cerinlay), and small and large ultrasonic tips (SONICSYS approx). Box dimensions were measured after preparation with a digital micrometer. All restorations were subjected to thermal cycling (6000 cycles, 5 degrees C-55 degrees C). Fracture testing was performed in a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Acoustic emission signals were monitored during loading of the specimens. Initial and final fracture strength values (2-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc tests, alpha =.05) and failure types (Fisher exact test) were statistically compared for each group. Significant differences (P =.0146 and P =.0086) were observed between the groups in the dimensions of the boxes prepared using conventional burs buccolingually (2.8-3.0 mm in molars, 3.1-4.3 mm in premolars) and the small size (2.5-2.9, 2.9-3.8 mm) or large size (2.6-3.8, 3.2-4.9 mm) ultrasonic tips for the premolars and the molars, respectively. No significant differences were found at the initial and final failures between the conventionally prepared group (842 +/- 267 N, 1161 +/- 428 N) and those prepared with either small (1088 +/- 381 N, 1320 +/- 380 N) or large ultrasonic tips (1070 +/- 280 N, 1557 +/- 321 N), respectively. The failure analysis demonstrated no significant difference in failure types but predominant delamination of the veneering resin (85%) in all experimental groups. According to acoustic emission tests, a higher energy level was

  14. Refrigerant Performance Evaluation Including Effects of Transport Properties and Optimized Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignoli, Riccardo; Brown, J Steven; Skye, H; Domanski, Piotr A

    2017-08-01

    Preliminary refrigerant screenings typically rely on using cycle simulation models involving thermodynamic properties alone. This approach has two shortcomings. First, it neglects transport properties, whose influence on system performance is particularly strong through their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Second, the refrigerant temperatures in the evaporator and condenser are specified as input, while real-life equipment operates at imposed heat sink and heat source temperatures; the temperatures in the evaporator and condensers are established based on overall heat transfer resistances of these heat exchangers and the balance of the system. The paper discusses a simulation methodology and model that addresses the above shortcomings. This model simulates the thermodynamic cycle operating at specified heat sink and heat source temperature profiles, and includes the ability to account for the effects of thermophysical properties and refrigerant mass flux on refrigerant heat transfer and pressure drop in the air-to-refrigerant evaporator and condenser. Additionally, the model can optimize the refrigerant mass flux in the heat exchangers to maximize the Coefficient of Performance. The new model is validated with experimental data and its predictions are contrasted to those of a model based on thermodynamic properties alone.

  15. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the ΛCDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex s 2 ) and that of δ de /δ m with the variation of c-circumflex s 2 .

  16. Quantum three-body reaction dynamics including the geometric phase effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate quantum mechanical reactive scattering calculations within the framework of symmetrized hyperspherical coordinate techniques are presented for several processes involving collisions of an electron with a hydrogen atom and an atom with a diatomic molecule in three-dimensional space, and the collinear collision of an atom with a diatomic molecule. In addition to the interest of the processes themselves, the results are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results in such a way as to provide tests of the general usefulness of the methods used. The general theory for the calculation of accurate differential cross sections in the reactive collision of an atom with a diatomic molecule including the geometric phase effect in three-dimensional space is described. This methodology has permitted, for the first time, the calculation of integral and differential cross sections over a significantly larger range of collision energies (up to 2.6 eV total energy) than previously possible for the system H + H 2 . The authors present numerical solutions of the quantum mechanical streamlines of probability current density for collinear atom-diatom reactions. It is used to study the barrier height dependence of dynamics on the Cl + HCl reaction

  17. Representation-free description of light-pulse atom interferometry including non-inertial effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.kleinert@uni-ulm.de [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Kajari, Endre; Roura, Albert [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Texas A& M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

    2015-12-30

    Light-pulse atom interferometers rely on the wave nature of matter and its manipulation with coherent laser pulses. They are used for precise gravimetry and inertial sensing as well as for accurate measurements of fundamental constants. Reaching higher precision requires longer interferometer times which are naturally encountered in microgravity environments such as drop-tower facilities, sounding rockets and dedicated satellite missions aiming at fundamental quantum physics in space. In all those cases, it is necessary to consider arbitrary trajectories and varying orientations of the interferometer set-up in non-inertial frames of reference. Here we provide a versatile representation-free description of atom interferometry entirely based on operator algebra to address this general situation. We show how to analytically determine the phase shift as well as the visibility of interferometers with an arbitrary number of pulses including the effects of local gravitational accelerations, gravity gradients, the rotation of the lasers and non-inertial frames of reference. Our method conveniently unifies previous results and facilitates the investigation of novel interferometer geometries.

  18. Effect of food on the oral bioavailability of amlodipine/valsartan and amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide fixed dose combination tablets in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Gangadhar; Jiang, Xuemin; Reynolds, Christine; Serra, Denise; Zhang, Yiming; Ligueros-Saylan, Monica; Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Winter, Serge; Jarugula, Venkateswar

    2014-11-01

    A double fixed dose combination of amlodipine/valsartan and triple fixed dose combination of amlodipine/valsartan/HCTZ tablets have been developed to treat patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension. Here, we present the effect of food on the oral bioavailability of these two fixed dose combination tablets from two separate clinical studies in healthy subjects. Single oral doses of amlodipine/valsartan (10/160 mg) and amlodipine/valsartan/HCTZ (10/320/25 mg were administered under fasted or fed conditions. Blood samples were collected in both studies to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of amlodipine, valsartan, and/or HCTZ using non-compartmental analysis. Following amlodipine/valsartan administration, the geometric mean ratios (GMRs, 90% CI) of AUC0-∞ and Cmax were 1.09 (1.05-1.13) and 1.03 (0.97-1.09) for amlodipine, and 0.94 (0.81-1.10) and 0.86 (0.73-1.02) for valsartan, respectively. Following amlodipine/valsartan/HCTZ administration, the GMRs (90%CI) of AUC0-∞ and Cmax were 1.09 (1.04-1.15) and 1.11 (1.05-1.08) for amlodipine, 1.14 (0.99-1.31) and 1.12 (0.98-1.29) for valsartan, and 1.09 (1.02-1.16) and 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for HCTZ, respectively. Considering the sample size and pharmacokinetic variability associated with analytes, these study results indicate that food effect is minimal or none when fixed dose combination tablets are administered with food. In conclusion, both fixed dose combination tablets can be administered without regards to meals. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Appropriate assessment of neighborhood effects on individual health: integrating random and fixed effects in multilevel logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus; Merlo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    The logistic regression model is frequently used in epidemiologic studies, yielding odds ratio or relative risk interpretations. Inspired by the theory of linear normal models, the logistic regression model has been extended to allow for correlated responses by introducing random effects. However......, the model does not inherit the interpretational features of the normal model. In this paper, the authors argue that the existing measures are unsatisfactory (and some of them are even improper) when quantifying results from multilevel logistic regression analyses. The authors suggest a measure...... regression. For this purpose, the authors propose an odds ratio measure, the interval odds ratio, that takes these difficulties into account. The authors demonstrate the two measures by investigating heterogeneity between neighborhoods and effects of neighborhood-level covariates in two examples...

  20. The effect of hospital mergers on long-term sickness absence among hospital employees: a fixed effects multivariate regression analysis using panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjekshus, Lars Erik; Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Dahl, Espen; Lorentzen, Thomas

    2014-02-03

    Hospitals are merging to become more cost-effective. Mergers are often complex and difficult processes with variable outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of mergers on long-term sickness absence among hospital employees. Long-term sickness absence was analyzed among hospital employees (N = 107 209) in 57 hospitals involved in 23 mergers in Norway between 2000 and 2009. Variation in long-term sickness absence was explained through a fixed effects multivariate regression analysis using panel data with years-since-merger as the independent variable. We found a significant but modest effect of mergers on long-term sickness absence in the year of the merger, and in years 2, 3 and 4; analyzed by gender there was a significant effect for women, also for these years, but only in year 4 for men. However, men are less represented among the hospital workforce; this could explain the lack of significance. Mergers has a significant effect on employee health that should be taken into consideration when deciding to merge hospitals. This study illustrates the importance of analyzing the effects of mergers over several years and the need for more detailed analyses of merger processes and of the changes that may occur as a result of such mergers.

  1. Age and gender differences in the influence of social support on mental health: a longitudinal fixed-effects analysis using 13 annual waves of the HILDA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A; Krnjacki, L; LaMontagne, A D

    2016-11-01

    Perceived social support is associated with better mental health. There has been limited attention to how these relationships are modified by age and gender. We assessed this topic using 13 years of cohort data. Prospective cohort study. The outcome was the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5), a reliable and valid screening instrument for mood disorders. The main exposure was a social support scale composed of 10 items. We used longitudinal fixed-effects regression modelling to investigate within-person changes in mental health. Analytic models controlled for within-person sources of bias. We controlled for time-related factors by including them into regression modelling. The provision of higher levels of social support was associated with greater improvements in mental health for people aged under 30 years than for older age groups. The mental health of females appeared to benefit slightly more from higher levels of social support than males. Improvements in the MHI-5 were on a scale that could be considered clinically significant. The benefits of social support for young people may be connected to age-related transitions in self-identity and peer friendship networks. Results for females may reflect their tendency to place greater emphasis on social networks than males. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative effect of fixed dose combination of Amlodipine + Bisoprolol versus Amlodipine and Bisoprolol alone on blood pressure in stage-2 essential hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirure PA,Tadvi NA, Bajait CS, Baig MS, Gade PR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Employment of low dose combinations of two antihypertensives, with different mode of action has gained acceptance worldwide for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. However, most studies in hypertensive disease have focused on monotherapy. The combination therapy in the treatment of hypertension is largely extrapolated from these monotherapy studies. Objectives: To study and compare the effect of amlodipine, bisoprolol and fixed dose combination of amlodipine + bisoprolol on blood pressure in stage-2 essential hypertensive patients. Methods: The present study was carried out in Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Department of Medicine at Government Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad. Results and Conclusion : Amlodipine + bisoprolol in fixed dose combination have showed significant blood pressure control in patients of stage-2 essential hypertension and the antihypertensive effect was greater than individual monotherapy study groups.

  3. Rinsing effect of 60% bay leaf (Syzygium polyanthum wight aqueous decoction in inhibiting the accumulation of dental plaque during fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Avriliyanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic appliance patients have a high risk to increasing plaque accumulation in tooth surface due to the presence of fixed appliance components. Using mouthwash with antibacterial agent from herbal material can control dental plaque accumulation. Bay leaf (BL contains active compounds such as essential oil, tannin and flavonoid that have been known as an antibacterial agent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rinsing with 60% of BL aqueous decoction to the accumulation of dental plaque in fixed orthodontic appliance patients. Method: This research was an experimental clinical research with pretest and post-test control group design conducted on 20 subjects with age ranged between 18-25 years old. All subjects were undergoing the last stage (finishing of fixed active orthodontic treatment. The subjects were instructed to rinse with 60% of BL aqueous decoction and 0.2% chlorhexidine as a control. Wash out period that needed between rinsing with 60% of BL aqueous decoction and rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine was 7 days. Each mouthwash used routinely for 7 days with same duration and intensity. Plaque scoring was measured before and after each treatment using Orthodontic Plaque Index (OPI. Result: One-way Anova test showed that there was a significant difference in the plaque index before and after treatment between the group of rinsing with 60% of BL aqueous decoction and group of rinsing with chlorhexidine (p<0.05. Conclusion: Rinsing with 60% BL aqueous decoction can decrease the accumulation of dental plaque in fixed orthodontic appliance patients.

  4. The total assessment profile, volume 2. [including societal impact, cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include discussions of interest formulas, factors in regionalization, parametric modeling of discounted benefit-sacrifice streams, engineering economic calculations, and product innovation. For Volume 1, see .

  5. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  6. Fixed term employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, B.W.; Schonberner, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of brief notes were included with this presentation which highlighted certain aspects of contract management. Several petroleum companies have realized the benefits of taking advantage of contract personnel to control fixed G and A, manage the impacts on their organization, contain costs, to manage termination costs, and to fill gaps in lean personnel rosters. An independent contractor was described as being someone who is self employed, often with a variety of work experiences. The tax benefits and flexibility of contractor personnel were also described. Some liability aspects of hiring an independent contractor were also reviewed. The courts have developed the following 4 tests to help determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor: (1) the control test, (2) the business integration test, (3) specific result test, and (4) the economic reality test

  7. Correlation or causation? Income inequality and infant mortality in fixed effects models in the period 1960-2008 in 34 OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio

    2012-08-01

    Income inequality is strongly associated with infant mortality across countries, but whether this association is causal has not been established. In their commentary in this issue of Social Science & Medicine, Regidor et al. (2012) argue that this association has disappeared in recent years, and question the premise of a causal link. This paper empirically tests the impact of income inequality on infant mortality in a fixed effects model that exploits the evolution of income inequality over a 38-year period, controlling for all time-invariant differences across countries. Data came from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database, containing yearly estimates for the period 1960-2008 in 34 countries member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), linked to infant mortality data from the OECD Health database. Infant mortality was modelled as a function of income inequality in a country and year fixed effects model, incorporating controls for changing economic and labour conditions. In a model without country fixed effects, a one-point increase in the Gini coefficient was associated with a 7% increase in the infant mortality rate (Rate ratio[RR] = 1.07, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.04, 1.09). Controlling for differences across countries in a country fixed effects model, however, income inequality was no longer associated with infant mortality (RR = 1.00, 0.98, 1.01). Similar results were obtained when using lagged values of income inequality for up to 15 years, and in models that controlled for changing labour and economic conditions. Findings suggest that in the short-run, changes in income inequality are not associated with changes in infant mortality. A possible interpretation of the discrepancy between cross-country correlations and fixed effects models is that social policies that reduce infant mortality cluster in countries with low income inequality, but their effects do not operate via income. Findings highlight the

  8. Including load sequence effects in the fatigue damage estimation of an offshore wind turbine substructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragt, R.C.; Maljaars, J.; Tuitman, J.T.; Salman, Y.; Otheguy, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Retardation is a load sequence effect, which causes a reduced fatigue crack growth rate after an overload is encountered. Retardation can be cancelled when the overload is followed by an underload. The net effect is beneficial to the fatigue lifetime of Offshore Wind Turbines (OWTs). To be able to

  9. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented

  10. Transient performances analysis of wind turbine system with induction generator including flux saturation and skin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Zhao, B.; Han, L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze correctly the effect of different models for induction generators on the transient performances of large wind power generation, Wind turbine driven squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) models taking into account both main and leakage flux saturation and skin effect were...

  11. Beam dynamics in high intensity cyclotrons including neighboring bunch effects: Model, implementation, and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Yang (杨建俊

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Space-charge effects, being one of the most significant collective effects, play an important role in high intensity cyclotrons. However, for cyclotrons with small turn separation, other existing effects are of equal importance. Interactions of radially neighboring bunches are also present, but their combined effects have not yet been investigated in any great detail. In this paper, a new particle in the cell-based self-consistent numerical simulation model is presented for the first time. The model covers neighboring bunch effects and is implemented in the three-dimensional object-oriented parallel code OPAL-cycl, a flavor of the OPAL framework. We discuss this model together with its implementation and validation. Simulation results are presented from the PSI 590 MeV ring cyclotron in the context of the ongoing high intensity upgrade program, which aims to provide a beam power of 1.8 MW (CW at the target destination.

  12. NEPA, a new fixed combination of netupitant and palonosetron, is a cost-effective intervention for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Cawston

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NEPA, an oral fixed combination netupitant (NETU, 300 mg and palonosetron (PA, 0.5 mg compared with aprepitant and palonosetron (APPA or palonosetron (PA alone, to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV in patients undergoing treatment with highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC in the UK. Scope: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were undertaken to compare NEPA with currently recommended anti-emetics. Relative effectiveness was estimated over the acute (day 1 and overall treatment (days 1–5 phases, taking complete response (CR, no emesis and no rescue medication and complete protection (CP, CR and no more than mild nausea [VAS scale <25 mm] as primary efficacy outcomes. A three-health-state Markov cohort model, including CP, CR and incomplete response (no CR for HEC and MEC, was constructed. A five-day time horizon and UK NHS perspective were adopted. Transition probabilities were obtained by combining the response rates of CR and CP from NEPA trials and odds ratios from the meta-analysis. Utilities of 0.90, 0.70 and 0.24 were defined for CP, CR and incomplete response, respectively. Costs included medications and management of CINV-related events and were obtained from the British National Formulary and NHS Reference Costs. The expected budgetary impact of NEPA was also evaluated. Findings: In HEC patients, the NEPA strategy was more effective than APPA (quality-adjusted life days [QALDs] of 4.263 versus 4.053; incremental emesis-free and CINV-free days of +0.354 and +0.237, respectively and was less costly (£80 versus £124, resulting in NEPA being the dominant strategy. In MEC patients, NEPA was cost effective, cumulating in an estimated 0.182 extra QALDs at an incremental cost of £6.65 compared with PA. Conclusion: Despite study limitations (study setting, time horizon, utility measure, the results suggest NEPA is cost

  13. NEPA, a new fixed combination of netupitant and palonosetron, is a cost-effective intervention for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawston, Helene; Bourhis, Francois; Eriksson, Jennifer; Ruffo, Pierfrancesco; D'Agostino, Paolo; Turini, Marco; Schwartzberg, Lee; McGuire, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NEPA, an oral fixed combination netupitant (NETU, 300 mg) and palonosetron (PA, 0.5 mg) compared with aprepitant and palonosetron (APPA) or palonosetron (PA) alone, to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients undergoing treatment with highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC) in the UK. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were undertaken to compare NEPA with currently recommended anti-emetics. Relative effectiveness was estimated over the acute (day 1) and overall treatment (days 1-5) phases, taking complete response (CR, no emesis and no rescue medication) and complete protection (CP, CR and no more than mild nausea [VAS scale <25 mm]) as primary efficacy outcomes. A three-health-state Markov cohort model, including CP, CR and incomplete response (no CR) for HEC and MEC, was constructed. A five-day time horizon and UK NHS perspective were adopted. Transition probabilities were obtained by combining the response rates of CR and CP from NEPA trials and odds ratios from the meta-analysis. Utilities of 0.90, 0.70 and 0.24 were defined for CP, CR and incomplete response, respectively. Costs included medications and management of CINV-related events and were obtained from the British National Formulary and NHS Reference Costs. The expected budgetary impact of NEPA was also evaluated. In HEC patients, the NEPA strategy was more effective than APPA (quality-adjusted life days [QALDs] of 4.263 versus 4.053; incremental emesis-free and CINV-free days of +0.354 and +0.237, respectively) and was less costly (£80 versus £124), resulting in NEPA being the dominant strategy. In MEC patients, NEPA was cost effective, cumulating in an estimated 0.182 extra QALDs at an incremental cost of £6.65 compared with PA. Despite study limitations (study setting, time horizon, utility measure), the results suggest NEPA is cost effective for preventing CINV associated with HEC

  14. Long-term effect of latanoprost/timolol fixed combination in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a prospective, observational, noninterventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenn, Oliver; Heckmann, Barbara; Guzy, Claudia; Miller, Paul J

    2010-09-08

    Prospective, observational studies that enroll large numbers of patients with few exclusion criteria may better reflect actual ongoing clinical experience than randomized clinical trials. Our purpose was to obtain efficacy and safety information from a cohort of subjects exposed to latanoprost/timolol fixed combination (FC) for ≥18 months using a prospective, observational design. In all, 577 office-based ophthalmologists in Germany switched 2339 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension to latanoprost/timolol FC for medical reasons. Follow-up visits were scheduled for every 6 months over 24 months; physicians followed usual care routines. Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field status, optic nerve head findings, and adverse events were recorded. Efficacy parameters were evaluated for the per protocol (PP) population; the safety population included subjects receiving ≥1 drop of FC. Physicians rated efficacy, tolerability, and subject compliance at month 24. Of the 2339 subjects switched to latanoprost/timolol FC (safety population), the primary reasons for switching were inadequate IOP reduction (78.2%) and desire to simplify treatment with once-daily dosing (29.4%; multiple reasons possible). In all, 1317 (56.3%) subjects completed the study, and 1028 (44.0%) were included in the PP population. Most discontinuations were due to loss to follow-up. Change in mean IOP from baseline to month 6 was -4.0 ± 4.31 mmHg, a reduction that was maintained throughout (P iris color was reported by most subjects (83.1%) at month 24. Over 24 months, latanoprost/timolol FC effectively lowers IOP levels and is well tolerated in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who change from their previous ocular hypotensive therapy for medical reasons. Investigator assessments found optic disc parameters and visual field to be stable throughout 24 months of follow-up.

  15. A simple and cost-effective method of DNA extraction from small formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue for molecular oncologic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Anthony N; Stence, Aaron A; Pruessner, Jonathan A; Bossler, Aaron D; Ma, Deqin

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a critical step in molecular oncologic testing. As molecular oncology testing becomes more important for prognostic and therapeutic decision making and tissue specimens become smaller due to earlier detection of suspicious lesions and the use of fine needle aspiration methods for tissue collection, it becomes more challenging for the typical molecular pathology laboratory to obtain reliable test results. We developed a DNA extraction method to obtain sufficient quantity and high quality genomic DNA from limited FFPE tissue for molecular oncology testing using a combination of H&E stained slides, a matrix capture method and the Qiagen DNA column. THREE DNA EXTRACTION METHODS WERE COMPARED: our standard procedure of manually scraping tissue from unstained slides followed by DNA extraction using the QIAamp FFPE column (Qiagen, Valencia, CA), a glue capture method (Pinpoint Solution, Zymo Research Corp, Inc) on H&E stained slides followed by DNA extraction using either the QIAamp column or the column included with the Pinpoint kit (Zymo Research). The DNA extraction protocol was optimized. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired two-sample student's t-test. The combination of the matrix capture method with the QIAamp column gave an equivalent amount of DNA as our standard extraction method using the unstained slides and a 4.6-fold higher DNA yield than using the Zymo column included in the Pinpoint Slide Solution kit. Several molecular tests were performed and DNA purified using the new method gave the same results as for the previous methods. Using H&E stained slides allows visual confirmation of tumor cells during microdissection. The Pinpoint solution made removal of specific tissue from the slides easier and reduced the risk of contamination and tissue loss. This DNA extraction method is simple, cost-effective, and blends with our current workflow requiring no additional equipment.

  16. Effect of the quartic gradient terms on the critical exponents of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in O(N) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péli, Zoltán; Nagy, Sándor; Sailer, Kornel

    2018-02-01

    The effect of the O(partial4) terms of the gradient expansion on the anomalous dimension η and the correlation length's critical exponent ν of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point has been determined for the Euclidean 3-dimensional O( N) models with N≥ 2 . Wetterich's effective average action renormalization group method is used with field-independent derivative couplings and Litim's optimized regulator. It is shown that the critical theory is well approximated by the effective average action preserving O( N) symmetry with an accuracy of O(η).

  17. Microwave effective surface impedance of structures including a high-Tc superconducting film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartemann, P.

    1992-01-01

    The microwave effective surface impedances of different stacks made of high-temperature superconducting films, dielectric materials and bulk normal metals were computed. The calculations were based on the two-fluid model of superconductors and the conventional transmission line theory. These effective impedances are compared to the calculated intrinsic surface impedances of the stacked superconducting films. The considered superconducting material has been the oxide YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 epitaxially grown on crystalline substrates (MgO, LaAlO 3 , SrTiO 3 ), the film thickness ranging from a few nm to 1μm. Discrepancies between the effective surface resistances or reactances and the corresponding intrinsic values were determined at 10 GHz for non resonant or resonant structures. At resonance the surface resistance discrepancy exhibits a sharp peak which reaches 10 4 or more in relative value according to the geometry and the used materials. Obviously the effective surface reactance shows also huge variations about the resonance and may be negative. Moreover geometries allowing to obtain an effective resistance smaller than the film intrinsic value have been found. The effects of the resonance phenomenon on the electromagnetic wave reflectivity and reflection phase shift are investigated. Therefore the reported theoretical results demonstrate that the effective surface impedance of YBCO films with a thickness smaller than 500 nm can be very different from the intrinsic film impedance according to the structures. (Author). 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of TEG-TEC Device Including Influence of Thomson Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanli; Chen, Lingen; Meng, Fankai; Sun, Fengrui

    2018-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of a thermoelectric cooler driven by thermoelectric generator (TEG-TEC) device is established considering Thomson effect. The performance is analyzed and optimized using numerical calculation based on non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory. The influence characteristics of Thomson effect on the optimal performance and variable selection are investigated by comparing the condition with and without Thomson effect. The results show that Thomson effect degrades the performance of TEG-TEC device, it decreases the cooling capacity by 27 %, decreases the coefficient of performance (COP) by 19 %, decreases the maximum cooling temperature difference by 11 % when the ratio of thermoelectric elements number is 0.6, the cold junction temperature of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is 285 K and the hot junction temperature of thermoelectric generator (TEG) is 450 K. Thomson effect degrades the optimal performance of TEG-TEC device, it decreases the maximum cooling capacity by 28 % and decreases the maximum COP by 28 % under the same junction temperatures. Thomson effect narrows the optimal variable range and optimal working range. In the design of the devices, limited-number thermoelectric elements should be more allocated appropriately to TEG when consider Thomson effect. The results may provide some guidelines for the design of TEG-TEC devices.

  19. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel: Tests of the social causation, health selection and the indirect selection hypothesis using dynamic fixed effects panel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-02-01

    Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel regression models following the method suggested by Anderson and Hsiao. We propose using this method to estimate the associations over time since it allows one to control for all unobserved time-invariant factors and hence lower the chances of biased estimates due to unobserved heterogeneity. The results showed no proof of the social causation hypothesis over a one to five year period and limited support for the health selection hypothesis was seen only for men in relation to HH income. These findings were robust in multiple sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the indirect selection hypothesis may be the most important in explaining social inequality in health in adulthood, indicating that the well-known cross-sectional correlations between health and SEP in adulthood seem not to be driven by a causal relationship, but instead by dynamics and influences in place before the respondents turn 30 years old that affect both their health and SEP onwards. The conclusion is limited in that we do not consider the effect of specific diseases and causal relationships in adulthood may be

  20. Effect of masticatory load on crack deflection/penetration investigated with en-face optical coherence tomography in ceramic fixed partial dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Marsavina, Liviu; Negru, Radu; Hluscu, Mihai; Caplescu, Cristiana; Bradu, Adrian; Hughes, Michael; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2009-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) allows a better characterization of dental prostheses. The detection of substance defects within the ceramic layers for metal-ceramic prostheses was demonstrated. The detected defects have a large volume and therefore there is a high likelihood for fracture lines to be generated in the proximal areas of the ceramic fixed partial dentures. If the detection of such defects is feasible before inserting the prosthesis into the oral cavity, then timely corrective measures are possible in order to avoid the fracture of the ceramic component later on. After noninvasive localization of cracks in ceramic fixed partial dentures, the effect of the biaxial loading on crack deflection/penetration at the ceramic interface was investigated. A biaxial loaded geometry was numerically investigated using Finite Element Analysis in order to determine the energy release rate. The obtained results could be used in conjunction with criteria at interface for estimating the path of the crack after the interface was reached.

  1. Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60 % similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4 % sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50 % DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) ( = CNPSo 120(T) = LMG 27577(T) = IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain. © 2014 IUMS.

  2. The effects of implicit gender role theories on gender system justification: Fixed beliefs strengthen masculinity to preserve the status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Laura J; Howland, Laura; Russell, Alexandra G; Jackman, Lauren M

    2017-01-01

    Four studies (n = 1199) tested support for the idea that implicit theories about the fixedness versus malleability of gender roles (entity vs. incremental theories) predict differences in the degree of gender system justification, that is, support for the status quo in relations between women and men in society. Relative to an incremental theory, the holding of an entity theory correlated with more system-justifying attitudes and self-perceptions (Study 1) for men and women alike. We also found that strength of identification with one's gender in-group was a stronger predictor of system justification for men than it was for women, suggesting men's defense of the status quo may be motivated by their membership in a high status group in the social hierarchy. In 3 experiments, we then tested whether exposure to a fixed gender role theory would lead men to identify more with masculine characteristics and their male gender group, thus increasing their defense of the gender system as fair and just. We did not expect a fixed gender role theory to trigger these identity-motivated responses in women. Overall, we found that, by increasing the degree of psychological investment in their masculine identity, adopting a fixed gender role theory increased men's rationalization of the gender status quo compared with when gender roles were perceived to be changeable. This suggests that, when men are motivated to align with their masculine identity, they are more likely to endorse the persistence of gender inequality as a way of affirming their status as "real men." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Motion as perturbation. II. Development of the method for dosimetric analysis of motion effects with fixed-gantry IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Opp, Daniel; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.feygelman@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In this work, the feasibility of implementing a motion-perturbation approach to accurately estimate volumetric dose in the presence of organ motion—previously demonstrated for VMAT-–is studied for static gantry IMRT. The method's accuracy is improved for the voxels that have very low planned dose but acquire appreciable dose due to motion. The study describes the modified algorithm and its experimental validation and provides an example of a clinical application. Methods: A contoured region-of-interest is propagated according to the predefined motion kernel throughout time-resolved 4D phantom dose grids. This timed series of 3D dose grids is produced by the measurement-guided dose reconstruction algorithm, based on an irradiation of a staticARCCHECK (AC) helical dosimeter array (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL). Each moving voxel collects dose over the dynamic simulation. The difference in dose-to-moving voxel vs dose-to-static voxel in-phantom forms the basis of a motion perturbation correction that is applied to the corresponding voxel in the patient dataset. A new method to synchronize the accelerator and dosimeter clocks, applicable to fixed-gantry IMRT, was developed. Refinements to the algorithm account for the excursion of low dose voxels into high dose regions, causing appreciable dose increase due to motion (LDVE correction). For experimental validation, four plans using TG-119 structure sets and objectives were produced using segmented IMRT direct machine parameters optimization in Pinnacle treatment planning system (v. 9.6, Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI). All beams were delivered with the gantry angle of 0°. Each beam was delivered three times: (1) to the static AC centered on the room lasers; (2) to a static phantom containing a MAPCHECK2 (MC2) planar diode array dosimeter (Sun Nuclear); and (3) to the moving MC2 phantom. The motion trajectory was an ellipse in the IEC XY plane, with 3 and 1.5 cm axes. The period

  4. Changes and variations in online and offline communication patterns : Including peer effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, Eveline; Noseleit, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The impact of online communication on offline communication has received considerable research attention. Yet predominantly single level studies yield conflicting research findings and lack theoretical foundation. This study deviates from previous studies by developing a peer effect model rooted in

  5. The Bauschinger Effect in Autofrettaged Tubes- A Comparison of Models Including the ASME Code

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... For many years workers have acknowledged the probable influence of the Bauschinger effect which serves to reduce the yield strength in compression as a result of prior tensile plastic overload...

  6. Deliverable 4.2: Methodology for including specific biological effects and pathogen aspects into LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    .e. endocrine disruptors) and the possibilities and relevance of including impact categories on land use and site-specific assessments have been addressed. Further, the special problems on how to deal with land fill and how to do normalization and weighting of impact potentials are also dealt with. The problem...

  7. Sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium of binary mixtures of charged colloids including volume effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Lyklema, J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium of binary mixtures of charged colloids in the presence of small ions and for non-dilute conditions, by extending the work of Biben and Hansen (1994 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 A345). For a monocomponent system, they included a Carnahan-Starling

  8. Effect of Mobile Phone Usage on Nickel Ions Release and pH of Saliva in Patients Undergoing Fixed Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjannawar, Lalita Girish; Girme, Tejashree Suresh; Agrawal, Jiwanasha Manish; Agrawal, Manish Suresh; Fulari, Sangamesh Gurunath; Shetti, Shraddha Subhash; Kagi, Vishwal Ajith

    2017-09-01

    Hand held mobile phones are presently the most popular means of communication worldwide and have transformed our lives in many aspects. The widespread use of such devices have resulted in growing concerns regarding harmful effects of radiations emitted by them. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of mobile phone usage on nickel ion release as well as pH of saliva in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. To assess the level of nickel ions in saliva and pH of saliva in mobile phone users undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. A total of 42 healthy patients with fixed orthodontic appliance in mouth for a duration of six to nine months were selected for the study. They were divided into experimental group (n=21) consisting of mobile phone users and control group (n=21) of non mobile phone users. Saliva samples were collected from both the groups and nickel ion levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The pH values were also assessed for both groups using pH meter. Unpaired t-test was used for the data analysis. Statistical analysis revealed that though the pH levels were reduced and the nickel ion levels were higher in the experimental group compared to the control group, the results were non significant. Mobile phone usage may affect the pH of saliva and result in increased release of nickel ions in saliva of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances in the oral cavity.

  9. Distribution of variable vs fixed costs of hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R R; Frutos, P W; Ciavarella, G G; Gussow, L M; Mensah, E K; Kampe, L M; Straus, H E; Joseph, G; Rydman, R J

    1999-02-17

    Most strategies proposed to control the rising cost of health care are aimed at reducing medical resource consumption rates. These approaches may be limited in effectiveness because of the relatively low variable cost of medical care. Variable costs (for medication and supplies) are saved if a facility does not provide a service while fixed costs (for salaried labor, buildings, and equipment) are not saved over the short term when a health care facility reduces service. To determine the relative variable and fixed costs of inpatient and outpatient care for a large urban public teaching hospital. Cost analysis. A large urban public teaching hospital. All expenditures for the institution during 1993 and for each service were categorized as either variable or fixed. Fixed costs included capital expenditures, employee salaries and benefits, building maintenance, and utilities. Variable costs included health care worker supplies, patient care supplies, diagnostic and therapeutic supplies, and medications. In 1993, the hospital had nearly 114000 emergency department visits, 40000 hospital admissions, 240000 inpatient days, and more than 500000 outpatient clinic visits. The total budget for 1993 was $429.2 million, of which $360.3 million (84%) was fixed and $68.8 million (16%) was variable. Overall, 31.5% of total costs were for support expenses such as utilities, employee benefits, and housekeeping salaries, and 52.4% included direct costs of salary for service center personnel who provide services to individual patients. The majority of cost in providing hospital service is related to buildings, equipment, salaried labor, and overhead, which are fixed over the short term. The high fixed costs emphasize the importance of adjusting fixed costs to patient consumption to maintain efficiency.

  10. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of plant-wide WWTP control strategies including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.S.; Rodríguez Roda, I.

    2009-01-01

    Model No. 2 (BSM2). In a second series of simulations the parameters of the secondary settler model in the BSM2 are automatically changed on the basis of an on-line calculated risk of filamentous bulking, in order to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria in the plant. The results...... concentration in both return and waste flow, less biomass in the bioreactors and a reduction of the TSS removal efficiency. The control alternatives using a TSS controller substantially increase the food to microorganisms (F/M) ratio in the bioreactor, thereby reducing both risk and effects of bulking sludge...

  12. Quantum Effect in a Diode Included Nonlinear Inductance-Capacitance Mesoscopic Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhanyuan; Zhang Xiaohong; Ma Jinying

    2009-01-01

    The mesoscopic nonlinear inductance-capacitance circuit is a typical anharmonic oscillator, due to diodes included in the circuit. In this paper, using the advanced quantum theory of mesoscopic circuits, which based on the fundamental fact that the electric charge takes discrete value, the diode included mesoscopic circuit is firstly studied. Schroedinger equation of the system is a four-order difference equation in p-circumflex representation. Using the extended perturbative method, the detail energy spectrum and wave functions are obtained and verified, as an application of the results, the current quantum fluctuation in the ground state is calculated. Diode is a basis component in a circuit, its quantization would popularize the quantum theory of mesoscopic circuits. The methods to solve the high order difference equation are helpful to the application of mesoscopic quantum theory.

  13. Quantified, Interactive Simulation of AMCW ToF Camera Including Multipath Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulczak, David; Lambers, Martin; Kolb, Andreas

    2017-12-22

    In the last decade, Time-of-Flight (ToF) range cameras have gained increasing popularity in robotics, automotive industry, and home entertainment. Despite technological developments, ToF cameras still suffer from error sources such as multipath interference or motion artifacts. Thus, simulation of ToF cameras, including these artifacts, is important to improve camera and algorithm development. This paper presents a physically-based, interactive simulation technique for amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) ToF cameras, which, among other error sources, includes single bounce indirect multipath interference based on an enhanced image-space approach. The simulation accounts for physical units down to the charge level accumulated in sensor pixels. Furthermore, we present the first quantified comparison for ToF camera simulators. We present bidirectional reference distribution function (BRDF) measurements for selected, purchasable materials in the near-infrared (NIR) range, craft real and synthetic scenes out of these materials and quantitatively compare the range sensor data.

  14. Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)

  15. Effect of hydraulic retention time on hydrodynamic behavior of anaerobic-aerobic fixed bed reactor treating cattle slaughterhouse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristina de Freitas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the hydrodynamic behavior in reactors provides characteristics of the flow regime and its anomalies that can reduce biological processes efficiency due to the decrease of the useful volume and the hydraulic retention time required for the performance of microbial activity. In this study, the hydrodynamic behavior of an anaerobic-aerobic fixed bed reactor, operated with HRT (hydraulic retention time of 24, 18 and 12 hours, was evaluated in the treatment of raw cattle slaughterhouse wastewater. Polyurethane foam and expanded clay were used as support media for biomass immobilization. Experimental data of pulse type stimulus-response assays were performed with eosin Y and bromophenol blue, and adjusted to the single-parameter theoretical models of dispersion and N-continuous stirred tank reactors in series (N-CSTR. N-CSTR model presented the best adjustment for the HRT and tracers evaluated. RDT (residence time distribution curves obtained with N-CSTR model in the assays with bromophenol blue resulted in better adjustment compared to the eosin Y. The predominant flow regime in AAFBR (anaerobic aerobic fixed bed reactor is the N-CSTR in series, as well as the existence of preferential paths and hydraulic short-circuiting.

  16. Evaluation of effects of laser irradiation therapy (λ=830 nm) on oral ulceration induced by fixed orthodontic appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Maria Teresa Jabur

    2001-01-01

    Twenty patients presenting fixed orthodontic appliance - induced oral ulceration were randomly chosen for this study. These patients were then divided into two groups. In Group ,1 the ulceration was submitted to low intensity infrared laser (λ=830 nm), at 30 mW fluency per point 1,3 J/cm 2 at an exposure time ranging from 3s to 33s, depending on ulceration size. Ulceration was irradiated on the first day, the process being repeated 24 and then 48 hours later. Evaluations were made seven days after the first irradiation. Group 2 comprised of patients who were exposed to conventional treatment where wax was used to cover the afflicted area. These patients also took triancinolona. Evaluation was made on the same day. In both groups the cause of irritation was eliminated whenever was possible. Clinical results pointed out that the healing process was slightly faster in cases of LILT treated oral ulceration. The latter also presented significant decrease in symptoms of pain. Comparative statistical evaluation results between both groups has shown that in the case of Group 1 patients (those submitted to low-intensity infrared laser beam): 1) Healing process was faster with reduction of sore areas; 2) immediate relief of pain following first irradiation, as stated by patients. Taking into consideration the vast amount of patients who are bearers of fixed orthodontic appliances and whose most usual and frequent complaint is pain and irritation, the use of LILT is highly recommended due to its simplicity and efficacy. (author)

  17. Effect of Air Staging Ratios on the Burning Rate and Emissions in an Underfeed Fixed-Bed Biomass Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Regueiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work studies a small-scale biomass combustor (5–12 kW with an underfed fixed bed using low air staging ratios (15%–30%. This document focuses on the influence of the operative parameters on the combustion process, so gaseous emissions and the distribution and concentration of particulate matter have also been recorded. The facility shows good stability and test repeatability. For the studied airflow ranges, the results show that increasing the total airflow rate does not increase the overall air excess ratio because the burning rate is proportionally enhanced (with some slight differences that depend on the air staging ratio. Consequently, the heterogeneous reactions at the bed remain in the so-called oxygen-limited region, and thus the entire bed operates under sub-stoichiometric conditions with regards of the char content of the biomass. In addition, tests using only primary air (no staging may increase the fuel consumption, but in a highly incomplete way, approaching a gasification regime. Some measured burning rates are almost 40% higher than previous results obtained in batch combustors due to the fixed position of the ignition front. The recorded concentration of particulate matter varies between 15 and 75 mg/Nm3, with a main characteristic diameter between 50 and 100 nm.

  18. Effect of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils on antioxidant status, hepatic enzymes, and immunity in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigella sativa fixed (NSFO) and essential (NSEO) oils have been used to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications. Present study was undertaken to explore and validate these folkloric uses. Methods Sprague dawley rats having streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus were used to assess the role of NSFO and NSEO in the management of diabetes complications. Parameters investigated were antioxidant potential, oxidative stress, and the immunity by in vivo experiments. Results The results indicated that STZ decreased the glutathione contents (25.72%), while NSFO and NSEO increased the trait significantly (P < 0.05). Experimental diets increased the tocopherol contents (P < 0.01) and enhanced the expression of hepatic enzymes (P < 0.01). Correlation matrix further indicated that antioxidant potential is positively associated (P < 0.05) responsible for the modulation of hepatic enzymes and the decrease of the nitric oxide production thus controlling the diabetes complications. Conclusions Overall, results of present study supported the traditional use of N. sativa and its derived products as a treatment for hyperglycemia and allied abnormalities. Moreover, N. sativa fixed and essential oils significantly ameliorate free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications. PMID:24939518

  19. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  20. An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.

  1. Electron density in reasonably real metallic surfaces, including interchange and correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, L.A.; Martinez, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of a new method, the electron density in a jellium surface is calculated taking in account interchange and correlation effects; reproducing, in this way, the Lang and Kohn results. The new method is self-consistent but not iterative and hence is possible extend it to the solution of the same problem in more reasonably real metallic surfaces. (L.C.) [pt

  2. The cost-effectiveness of gestational diabetes screening including prevention of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marseille, Elliot; Lohse, Nicolai; Jiwani, Aliya

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with elevated risks of perinatal complications and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and screening and intervention can reduce these risks. We quantified the cost, health impact and cost-effectiveness of GDM screening and intervention in India and Israel,...

  3. Proceedings of the second US-USSR symposium: air pollution effects on vegetation including forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald D. Noble; Juri L Martin; Keith F., eds. Jensen; Keith F. Jensen

    1989-01-01

    To commemorate the 10th year of cooperation between the US-USSR in the field of environmental protection, a symposium was organized, the major objectives of which were to acquaint US-USSR scientists with project accomplishments; to promote understanding of the nature of environmental problems that relate to air pollution effect on vegetation on a more global scale; to...

  4. Electromagnetic field nonuniformities in large area, high-frequency capacitive plasma reactors, including electrode asymmetry effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansonnens, L; Howling, A A; Hollenstein, Ch

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave propagation effects can give rise to important limitations for processing uniformity in large area, radio-frequency (rf) capacitive plasma reactors. The electromagnetic wavefield solution is derived for a capacitive, high-frequency, cylindrical reactor with symmetric or asymmetric electrode areas containing a uniform plasma slab. It is shown that only two distinct electromagnetic modes are necessary and sufficient to determine the electromagnetic fields everywhere within the reactor except close to the sidewalls. The first mode gives rise to the interelectrode rf voltage standing wave effect associated with high frequencies in large area reactors, and the second mode gives rise to the telegraph effect associated with asymmetric electrode areas, which necessitates the redistribution of rf current along the plasma to maintain rf current continuity. This work gives a unified treatment of both effects which have previously been studied separately, experimentally and theoretically, in the literature. The equivalent circuit of each mode is also derived from its respective dispersion relation. Examples of this electromagnetic wavefield solution show that both modes can cause nonuniformity of the plasma rf potential, depending on the reactor geometry, excitation frequency and plasma permittivity and sheath width, which has consequences for large-area plasma processing

  5. Psychophysiological effects of an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge including participants with spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of body weight on fixed dose of diclofenac for the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leerhøy, Bonna; Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Novovic, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of patient body weight on the clinical effect of 100 mg diclofenac administered as a single dose for the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients subjected...... to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) from 2009 to 2014 were evaluated for inclusion. In total, 772 patients were included of whom 378 (49%) received diclofenac prophylaxis. RESULTS: In the diclofenac prophylaxis group, body weight was higher in patients with PEP (mean ± SD: 82 ± 18 kg) than...... of 100 mg diclofenac for the prophylaxis of PEP. CONCLUSIONS: High patient body weight was associated with a reduced effect of 100 mg diclofenac for prophylaxis of PEP....

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a fixed-dose combination of indacaterol and glycopyrronium as maintenance treatment for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Cheng Chan,1,* Elise Chia-Hui Tan,2 Ming-Chin Yang3,* 1Section of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Institute of Health Policy and Management, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the long-acting beta-2 agonist (LABA/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA dual bronchodilator indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY as a maintenance treatment for COPD patients from the perspective of health care payer in Taiwan. Patients and methods: We adopted a patient-level simulation model, which included a cohort of COPD patients aged ≥40 years. The intervention used in the study was the treatment using IND/GLY, and comparators were tiotropium or salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC. Data related to the efficacy of drugs, incidence of exacerbation, and utility were obtained from clinical studies. Direct costs were estimated from claims data based on the severity of COPD. The cycle length was 6 months (to match forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] data, and the time horizons included 1, 3, 5, 10 years, and lifetime. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model results. Costs were expressed in US dollars with a discount rate of 3.0%. Results: Compared to tiotropium and SFC, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained of patients treated with IND/GLY were US$5,987 and US$14,990, respectively. One-way sensitivity analysis revealed that the improvement in FEV1 provided by IND/GLY, the distribution of patients with regard to the severity of COPD, and acute exacerbation rate ratio were the key

  8. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Martin L

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system and have near universal roles in release of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Soviet and Western literature shows that much of the impact of non-thermal microwave exposures in experimental animals occurs in the brain and peripheral nervous system, such that nervous system histology and function show diverse and substantial changes. These may be generated through roles of VGCC activation, producing excessive neurotransmitter/neuroendocrine release as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress and other responses. Excessive VGCC activity has been shown from genetic polymorphism studies to have roles in producing neuropsychiatric changes in humans. Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose-response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression

  9. Comprehensive capacitance-voltage analysis including quantum effects for high-k interfaces on germanium and other alternative channel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sarkar R. M.

    High mobility alternative channel materials to silicon are critical to the continued scaling of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices. However, before they can be incorporated into advanced devices, some major issues need to be solved. The high mobility materials suffer from lower allowable thermal budgets compared to Si (before desorption and defect formation becomes an issue) and the absence of a good quality native oxide has further increased the interest in the use of high-k dielectrics. However, the high interface state density and high electric fields at these semiconductor/high-k interfaces can significantly impact the capacitance-voltage (C-V) profile, and current C-V modeling software cannot account for these effects. This in turn affects the parameters extracted from the C-V data of the high mobility semiconductor/high-k interface, which are crucial to fully understand the interface properties and expedite process development. To address this issue, we developed a model which takes into account quantum corrections which can be applied to a number of these alternative channel materials including SixGe1-x, Ge, InGaAs, and GaAs. The C-V simulation using this QM correction model is orders of magnitude faster compared to a full band Schrodinger-Poisson solver. The simulated C-V is directly benchmarked to a self consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solution for each bulk semiconductor material, and from the benchmarking process the QM correction parameters are extracted. The full program, C-V Alternative Channel Extraction (CV ACE), incorporates a quantum mechanical correction model, along with the interface state density model, and can extract device parameters such as equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), doping density and flat band voltage (Vfb) as well as the interface state density profile using multiple measurements performed at different frequencies and temperatures, simultaneously. The program was used to analyze experimentally measured C-V profiles and the

  10. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan

    2013-05-03

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Electron Beam Adjustment in PLATO RTS 2 Including the Effect of Air Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, M C; Trindade, A; Rodrigues, P; Peralta, L

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Beam characterization for electron dose calculations in PLATO RTS 2 treatment planning system requires the tuning of two adjustment parameters: sqx (the initial angular spread) and FMCS (a "fudge" multiple Coulomb scattering parameter). This work provides a set of suggestions to optimise electron dose calculations with PLATO, taking into account the effect of air gaps between the electron applicator and the patient skin. Material and Methods: Two adjustment criteria have been followed: one which uses just one input data set corresponding to the standard (null) air gap and another one that takes into account the whole range of clinically used distances between the electron applicator and the patient surface. The adjusted values of sqx were compared with experimental data and GEANT3 Monte Carlo code results. A systematic study has been carried out of the effect of both adjustment parameters on electron dose calculations in water. Comparisons of dose distributions and point dose values ha...

  12. Dynamic behavior of a rotating delaminated composite beam including rotary inertia and shear deformation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan-Ali Jafari-Talookolaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A finite element (FE model is developed to study the free vibration of a rotating laminated composite beam with a single delamination. The rotary inertia and shear deformation effects, as well as the bending–extension, bending–twist and extension–twist coupling terms are taken into account in the FE model. Comparison between the numerical results of the present model and the results published in the literature verifies the validity of the present model. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as delamination size and location, fiber orientation, hub radius, material anisotropy and rotating speed, on the vibration of the beam are studied in detail. These results provide useful information in the study of the free vibration of rotating delaminated composite beams.

  13. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Polyethylene Molecular Crystals from First-Principles Including Nuclear Quantum Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulumba, Nina; Hellman, Olle; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-11-03

    Molecular crystals such as polyethylene are of intense interest as flexible thermal conductors, yet their intrinsic upper limits of thermal conductivity remain unknown. Here, we report a study of the vibrational properties and lattice thermal conductivity of a polyethylene molecular crystal using an ab initio approach that rigorously incorporates nuclear quantum motion and finite temperature effects. We obtain a thermal conductivity along the chain direction of around 160  W m^{-1} K^{-1} at room temperature, providing a firm upper bound for the thermal conductivity of this molecular crystal. Furthermore, we show that the inclusion of quantum nuclear effects significantly impacts the thermal conductivity by altering the phase space for three-phonon scattering. Our computational approach paves the way for ab initio studies and computational material discovery of molecular solids free of any adjustable parameters.

  14. Including children with autism in general education classrooms. A review of effective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrower, J K; Dunlap, G

    2001-10-01

    Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs.

  15. Renovation and Strengthening of Wooden Beams With CFRP Bands Including the Rheological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kula Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a work analysis of wooden beams reinforced with glued composite bands from the top and resin inclusions, taking into account the rheology of materials. The paper presents numerical model of the multimaterial beam work including rheological phenomena described by linear equations of viscoelasticity. For the construction of this model one used MES SIMULIA ABAQUS environment in which were prepared its own procedures containing rheological models. The calculation results were compared with the literature data. One has done an analysis of the advisability of the use of CFRP reinforcements bands in terms of rheological phenomena.

  16. Brain function and glucocorticoids in obesity and type 2 diabetes including effects of lifestyle interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Stomby, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and associated metabolic dysregulation are linked to impaired cognitive function and alterations in brain structure, which increases the risk of age-related dementia. Increased glucocorticoid (GC) exposure may be a potential mediator of these negative effects on the brain. Methods and results In paper 1, we tested the relationship between cortisol levels, brain morphology and cognitive function in 200 women and men. Salivary cortisol levels were negatively related to cortic...

  17. pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heat transfer behavior including thermal wake effects in forced air cooling of arrays of rectangular blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, S.; Faghri, M.; Lessmann, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study thermal wake effects in arrays of rectangular blocks encountered in electronic equipment. Data were obtained for a series of channel heights and flow velocities. The temperature rise due to wake effects behind a single heated module was found to be fairly independent of the channel height and the position of the heated block, for a given approach velocity. The adiabatic temperature rise data for a module due to a heated element immediately upstream of it for different inter-module spacings were found to correlate well in terms of a new parameter called the surface packing density. This paper reports that it was reported by the authors in an earlier paper that both the adiabatic heat transfer coefficient nd pressure-drop data for regular in-line arrays correlated well in terms of a composite geometric parameter called the column packing density. These experiments have been extended to a higher Reynolds number. Empirical correlations are presented here for friction factor and Nusselt number in terms of the volume packing density, and for the thermal wake effects in terms of the surface packing density. Data from literature for arrays with widely different geometric parameters are shown to agree with these correlations

  19. Quantified, Interactive Simulation of AMCW ToF Camera Including Multipath Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bulczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, Time-of-Flight (ToF range cameras have gained increasing popularity in robotics, automotive industry, and home entertainment. Despite technological developments, ToF cameras still suffer from error sources such as multipath interference or motion artifacts. Thus, simulation of ToF cameras, including these artifacts, is important to improve camera and algorithm development. This paper presents a physically-based, interactive simulation technique for amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW ToF cameras, which, among other error sources, includes single bounce indirect multipath interference based on an enhanced image-space approach. The simulation accounts for physical units down to the charge level accumulated in sensor pixels. Furthermore, we present the first quantified comparison for ToF camera simulators. We present bidirectional reference distribution function (BRDF measurements for selected, purchasable materials in the near-infrared (NIR range, craft real and synthetic scenes out of these materials and quantitatively compare the range sensor data.

  20. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: Sunsr@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: temoil@aucegypt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  1. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M.; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW

  2. Effect of Clark's twin-block appliance (CTB and non-extraction fixed mechano-therapy on the pharyngeal dimensions of growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Narrow airway dimensions due to mandibular deficiency can predispose an individual to severe respiratory distress. Hence, treatment with mandibular advancement devices at an early age might help improving the pharyngeal passage and reduce the risk of respiratory difficulties. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the mean changes in the pharyngeal dimensions of children with mandibular deficiency treated with Clark's twin-block appliance (CTB followed by fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods: Orthodontic records of 42 children with mandibular deficiency were selected. Records comprised three lateral cephalograms taken at the start of CTB treatment, after CTB removal and at the end of fixed appliance treatment, and were compared with 32 controls from the Bolton-Brush study. Friedman test was used to compare pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment pharyngeal dimensions. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the airway between pre-treatment and post follow-up controls. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to compare the mean changes in pharyngeal dimensions between treatment group and controls from T2 to T0. Post-hoc Dunnet T3 test was used for multiple comparisons of treatment outcomes after CTB and fixed appliances, taking a p-value of ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Superior pharyngeal space (p < 0.001 and upper airway thickness (p = 0.035 were significantly increased after CTB, and the change in superior pharyngeal space remained stable after fixed mechano-therapy. Conclusion: CTB can have a positive effect in improving pharyngeal space and the resultant increase in airway remains stable on an average of two and a half years.

  3. Anti-diabetic effects including diabetic nephropathy of anti-osteoporotic trace minerals on diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehira, Fusako; Ishimine, Nau; Miyagi, Ikuko; Eguchi, Yukinori; Shimada, Katsumasa; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Oshiro, Yoshihide

    2011-04-01

    In our previous study to evaluate the effects of soluble silicon (Si) on bone metabolism, Si and coral sand (CS) as a natural Si-containing material suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which regulates both glucose and bone metabolism and increases adipogenesis at the expense of osteogenesis, leading to bone loss. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects of bone-seeking elements, Si and stable strontium (Sr), and CS as a natural material containing these elements using obese diabetic KKAy mice. Weanling male mice were fed diets containing 1% Ca supplemented with CaCO(3) as the control and CS, and diets supplemented with 50 ppm Si or 750 ppm Sr to control diet for 56 d. The mRNA expressions related to energy expenditure in the pancreas and kidney were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of feeding, plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased significantly in three test groups, while pancreatic PPARγ and adiponectin mRNA expression levels increased significantly toward the normal level, improving the glucose sensitivity of β-cells and inducing a significant decrease in insulin expression. The renal PPARγ, PPARα, and adiponectin expression levels, histologic indices of diabetic glomerulopathy, and plasma indices of renal function were also improved significantly in the test groups. Taken together, anti-osteoporotic trace minerals, Si and Sr, and CS containing them showed novel anti-diabetic effects of lowering blood glucose level, improving the tolerance to insulin, leptin, and adiponectin, and reducing the risk of glomerulopathy through modulation of related gene expression in the pancreas and kidney. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enduring effects of severe developmental adversity, including nutritional deprivation, on cortisol metabolism in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Andrew, Ruth; Schmeidler, James; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2009-06-01

    In animal models, early life exposure to major environmental challenges such as malnutrition and stress results in persisting cardiometabolic, neuroendocrine and affective effects. While such effects have been associated with pathogenesis, the widespread occurrence of 'developmental programming' suggests it has adaptive function. Glucocorticoids may mediate 'programming' and their metabolism is known to be affected by early life events in rodents. To examine these relationships in humans, cortisol metabolism and cardiometabolic disease manifestations were examined in Holocaust survivors in relation to age at exposure and affective dysfunction, notably lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-one Holocaust survivors and 22 controls without Axis I disorder collected 24-h urine samples and were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and cardiometabolic diagnoses. Corticosteroids and their metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS); cortisol was also measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Holocaust survivors showed reduced cortisol by RIA, and decreased levels of 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF) and total glucocorticoid production by GC-MS. The latter was associated with lower cortisol metabolism by 5alpha-reductase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type-2. The greatest decrements were associated with earliest age of Holocaust exposure and less severe PTSD symptomatology. Cardiometabolic manifestations were associated with decreased 11beta-HSD-2 activity. In controls, 5alpha-reductase was positively associated with trauma-related symptoms (i.e., to traumatic exposures unrelated to the Holocaust). Extreme malnutrition and related stress during development is associated with long-lived alterations in specific pathways of glucocorticoid metabolism. These effects may be adaptive and link with lower risks of cardiometabolic and stress-related disorders in later life.

  5. Multiple Crack Growth Prediction in AA2024-T3 Friction Stir Welded Joints, Including Manufacturing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Citarella, Roberto; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of attention is currently paid by several industries toward the friction stir welding process to realize lightweight structures. Within this aim, the realistic prediction of fatigue behavior of welded assemblies is a key factor. In this work an integrated finite element method - dual...... boundary element method (FEM-DBEM) procedure, coupling the welding process simulation to the subsequent crack growth assessment, is proposed and applied to simulate multiple crack propagation, with allowance for manufacturing effects. The friction stir butt welding process of the precipitation hardened AA...

  6. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garberoglio, Giovanni, E-mail: garberoglio@fbk.eu [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science (LISC), FBK-CMM and University of Trento, via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Jankowski, Piotr [Department of Quantum Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, PL-87-100 Toruń (Poland); Szalewicz, Krzysztof [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Harvey, Allan H. [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3337 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and deuterium (D{sub 2}) in the temperature range 15–2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H{sub 2} between 100 and 200 K.

  7. Specialists meeting on properties of primary circuit structural materials including environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Properties of Primary Circuit Structural Materials of LMFBRs covered the following topics: overview of materials program in different countries; mechanical properties of materials in air; fracture mechanics studies - component related activities; impact of environmental influences on mechanical properties; relationship of material properties and design methods. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on structural materials behaviour in primary circuit of fast breeder reactors. Special emphasis was placed on environmental effects such as influence of sodium and irradiation on mechanical properties of reactor materials

  8. North American Natural Gas Supply Forecast: The Hubbert Method Including the Effects of Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Douglas B.; Kolodziej, Marek

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the U.S. and southern Canadian natural gas supply market is considered. An important model for oil and natural gas supply is the Hubbert curve. Not all regions of the world are producing oil or natural gas following a Hubbert curve, even when price and market conditions are accounted for. One reason is that institutions are affecting supply. We investigate the possible effects of oil and gas market institutions in North America on natural gas supply. A multi-cycle Hubbert cur...

  9. Effect of including decay chains on predictions of equilibrium-type terrestrial food chain models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Equilibrium-type food chain models are commonly used for assessing the radiological impact to man from environmental releases of radionuclides. Usually these do not take into account build-up of radioactive decay products during environmental transport. This may be a potential source of underprediction. For estimating consequences of this simplification, the equations of an internationally recognised terrestrial food chain model have been extended to include decay chains of variable length. Example calculations show that for releases from light water reactors as expected both during routine operation and in the case of severe accidents, the build-up of decay products during environmental transport is generally of minor importance. However, a considerable number of radionuclides of potential radiological significance have been identified which show marked contributions of decay products to calculated contamination of human food and resulting radiation dose rates. (author)

  10. Mobile versus fixed site lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C; Burgess, N A; Feneley, R C; Matthews, P N

    1991-09-01

    The efficacy of a mobile Dornier HM4 lithotriptor, was compared with that of a fixed site Siemens Lithostar. A total of 115 calculi in 98 patients were treated, 55 on the mobile Dornier and 60 on the Lithostar. The groups were similar except for stone size, the mean of the Lithostar group being 11 mm compared with 7.7 mm in the Dornier group. Fragmentation rates were not significantly different, 88% and 75% on the mobile and fixed site machines, respectively and, at 3 months follow-up 66% and 46% were stone free or with fragments of less than 2 mm. There were no serious complications, and the incidence of mild complications was similar in the two groups. We conclude that the mobile Dornier HM4 is an effective lithotriptor and can offer several advantages over fixed site machines.

  11. Treatment effects in the prostate including those associated with traditional and emerging therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew J; Ryan, Paul; Van derKwast, Theodorus

    2011-07-01

    Classic treatment options for prostate cancer consist of radical prostatectomy, antiandrogen (or hormonal) therapy, and radiation therapy. Hormonal and radiation therapy, in particular, have well known, often profound effects on the histologic appearance of benign prostate tissue and prostatic carcinoma. The tissue changes induced by these treatments have been comprehensively described in several sources. Novel therapies ranging from focal ablative treatments to highly targeted molecular therapies are beginning to emerge and pathologists will play a central role in documenting the effects of these treatments on normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is therefore important that pathologists have access to basic treatment information and a solid working knowledge of the morphologic changes induced by these therapies. This will ensure accurate interpretation and reporting of posttreatment prostate specimens. This review is based on a presentation given by Dr A. Evans at the International Society of Urological Pathology Companion Society Meeting (Hot Topics in Urological Pathology) at The United States Canadian Academy of Pathology Meeting in Washington DC on March 20, 2010. This review will cover the histopathologic features seen in benign prostate tissue and prostatic carcinoma seen following: hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, ablative therapies such as vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy, interstitial laser thermotherapy, and high-intensity focussed ultrasound. An emphasis is placed on these specific modalities as they are currently in use as primary, salvage, or investigational therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  12. Two phase formation of massive elliptical galaxies: study through cross-correlation including spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Area of study is the formation mechanism of the present-day population of elliptical galaxies, in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of the nearby massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation function (CCF), using the spatial parameters right ascension (RA) and declination (DEC), and the intrinsic parameters mass (M_{*}) and size. According to the astrophysical terminology, here these variables, namely mass, size, RA and DEC are termed as parameters, whereas the unknown constants involved in the kernel function are called hyperparameters. Throughout this paper, the parameter size is used to represent the effective radius (Re). Following Huang et al. (2013a), each nearby ETG is divided into three parts on the basis of its Re value. We study the CCF between each of these three components of nearby massive ETGs and the ETGs in the high redshift range, 0.5work (De et al. 2014) suggesting other possibilities for the formation of the outermost part. A probable cause of this improvement is the inclusion of the spatial effects in addition to the other parameters in the study.

  13. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  14. Comprehensive study in the inhibitory effect of berberine on gene transcription, including TATA box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yugang; Kheir, Michael M; Chai, Yushuang; Hu, Jun; Xing, Dongming; Lei, Fan; Du, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an established natural DNA intercalator with numerous pharmacological functions. However, currently there are neither detailed reports concerning the distribution of this alkaloid in living cells nor reports concerning the relationship between BBR's association with DNA and the function of DNA. Here we report that the distribution of BBR within the nucleus can be observed 30 minutes after drug administration, and that the content of berberine in the nucleus peaks at around 4 µmol, which is twelve hours after drug administration. The spatial conformation of DNA and chromatin was altered immediately after their association with BBR. Moreover, this association can effectively suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems and cell-free systems. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated further that BBR can inhibit the association between the TATA binding protein (TBP) and the TATA box in the promoter, and this finding was also attained in living cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Based on results from this study, we hypothesize that berberine can suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems, especially suppressing the association between TBP and the TATA box by binding with DNA and, thus, inhibiting TATA box-dependent gene expression in a non-specific way. This novel study has significantly expanded the sphere of knowledge concerning berberine's pharmacological effects, beginning at its paramount initial interaction with the TATA box.

  15. Fuel rod fixing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    This is a reusable system for fixing a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support. An interlock cap is fixed to the fuel rod and an interlock strip is fixed to the support. The interlock cap has two opposed fingers, which are shaped so that a base is formed with a body part. The interlock strip has an extension, which is shaped so that this is rigidly fixed to the body part of the base. The fingers of the interlock cap are elastic in bending. To fix it, the interlock cap is pushed longitudinally on to the interlock strip, which causes the extension to bend the fingers open in order to engage with the body part of the base. To remove it, the procedure is reversed. (orig.) [de

  16. Effect of treatment with fixed and removable dental prostheses. An oral health-related quality of life study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    and mastication. Additionally, the purpose of the study was to identify aspects of impairment and improvement that the treatments caused. Fixed dental prostheses treatment was performed in 200 patients and RDP treatment in 107 patients. Gender, age, region of replacement, and number of teeth present and replaced...... were obtained. The participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49) before and after treatment. A control group with no need for dental treatment also completed the OHIP-49. All participants had a significant improvement in OHRQoL. The improvement was higher for the RDP group than...... the FDP group. Removable dental prostheses that replaced only masticatory teeth did not improve the OHRQoL significantly. The improvement in OHRQoL for both the FDP and RDP groups was not at the level of the control group. Higher age was associated with lower improvement in OHRQoL. Higher age, being...

  17. The effect of different fiber concentrations on the surface roughness of provisional crown and fixed partial denture resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Kılıc, Kerem; Uzun, Gulay; Ozturk, Ahmet; Kesim, Bulent

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate surface roughness in provisional crown acrylics, after polishing, reinforced with different concentrations of glass fibers. A total of 48 disk-shaped specimens were prepared using autopolymerizing acrylic resin. These specimens were divided into four groups according to the level of glass fiber added: Group A (no fiber), Group B (0.5%), Group C (1%) and Group D (2%). After polishing the specimens, an average surface roughness (Ra) value was calculated using a profilometer from four randomly selected points on the surface. A significant difference was determined among the surface roughness values of provisional crown resins to which different concentrations of fiber had been added (Pprovisional crown and fixed partial denture resin with glass fibers increases surface roughness.

  18. A comprehensive approach to the design of ethanol supply chains including carbon trading effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Sara; Shah, Nilay; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2012-03-01

    The optimal design of biofuels production systems is a key component in the analysis of the environmental and economic performance of new sustainable transport systems. In this paper a general mixed integer linear programming modelling framework is developed to assess the design and planning of a multi-period and multi-echelon bioethanol upstream supply chain under market uncertainty. The optimisation design process of biofuels production systems aims at selecting the best biomass and technologies options among several alternatives according to economic and environmental (global warming potential) performance. A key feature in the proposed approach is the acknowledgement of an economic value to the overall GHG emissions, which is implemented through an emissions allowances trading scheme. The future Italian biomass-based ethanol production is adopted as a case study. Results show the effectiveness of the model as a decision making-tool to steer long-term decisions and investments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple Crack Growth Prediction in AA2024-T3 Friction Stir Welded Joints, Including Manufacturing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Citarella, Roberto; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    2016-01-01

    boundary element method (FEM-DBEM) procedure, coupling the welding process simulation to the subsequent crack growth assessment, is proposed and applied to simulate multiple crack propagation, with allowance for manufacturing effects. The friction stir butt welding process of the precipitation hardened AA......2024-T3 alloy was simulated using a thermo-mechanical FEM model to predict the process induced residual stress field and material softening. The computed stress field was transferred to a DBEM environment and superimposed to the stress field produced by a remote fatigue traction load applied...... on a notched specimen. The whole procedure was finally tested comparing simulation outcomes with experimental data. The good agreement obtained highlights the predictive capability of the method. The influence of the residual stress distribution on crack growth and the mutual interaction between propagating...

  20. Specificity of psychomotor reactions in the conditions of support deprivation including effects of countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichiporuk, Igor; Ivanov, Oleg

    Activity of the cosmonaut demands high level of psychomotor reactions (PMR) which can vary during space flight under the influences of psychophysiological state’s variability and unusual inhabitancy that causes the necessity of PMR estimation’s inclusion into quality monitoring of capacity for work (CW). A main objective of research was a study of features of visual-motor reactions (VMR) and elements of CW of the person within simulation of microgravity effects via 7-day dry immersion (DI) in healthy male-volunteers 20-35 years old. The experimental data were received which testified to peculiarities of VMR and recognition of simple figures of main colors of a visible spectrum (red, green, blue, the RGB-standard) in the conditions of the DI characterized by support deprivation and decreased proprioceptive afferentation - in a control series and in a series with use of mioelectrostimulation as a countermeasure.

  1. Effects of distance from center of a weld to fixed end on residual stress and stress intensity factor of a piping weld. Evaluation of SCC growth under residual stress field. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Numata, Masanori; Saito, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    The fixed conditions of butt welds between straight pipe and valve or pump in the actual piping system are different from those of straight pipes. However, the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor for evaluation of structural integrity of cracked piping was not clear. In this study, the finite element analyses were conducted by considering the differences in the distance from the center of weld to the fixed end L to clarify the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor. For the 600 A piping, the axial residual stress distribution was not affected by the distance L. Furthermore, the stress intensity factor of circumferential crack under the residual stress field with fixed condition could be estimated by using the existing simplified solution for piping. (author)

  2. Bifurcation of space-charge wave in a plasma waveguide including the wake potential effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588, South Korea and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The wake potential effects on the propagation of the space-charge dust ion-acoustic wave are investigated in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma with the ion flow. The results show that the wake potential would generate the double frequency modes in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma. It is found that the upper mode of the wave frequency with the root of higher-order is smaller than that with the root of lower-order in intermediate wave number domains. However, the lower mode of the scaled wave frequency with the root of higher-order is found to be greater than that with the root of lower-order. It is found that the influence in the order of the root of the Bessel function on the wave frequency of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave in a cylindrically confined dusty plasma decreases with an increase in the propagation wave number. It is also found that the double frequency modes increase with increasing Mach number due to the ion flow in a cylindrical dusty plasma. In addition, it is found that the upper mode of the group velocity decreases with an increase in the scaled radius of the plasma cylinder. However, it is shown that the lower mode of the scaled group velocity of the space-charge dust ion acoustic wave increases with an increase in the radius of the plasma cylinder. The variation of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave due to the wake potential and geometric effects is also discussed.

  3. Estimating eligibility for lung cancer screening in an Australian cohort, including the effect of spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, David; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, Michael; James, Alan; Knuiman, Matthew W; McWilliams, Annette; Mulrennan, Siobhain; Musk, Arthur W Bill; Brims, Fraser Jh

    2016-06-20

    To estimate the proportion of ever-smokers who are eligible for lung cancer screening in an Australian cohort, and to evaluate the effect of spirometry in defining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when assessing screening eligibility. Cross-sectional study of 3586 individuals aged 50-68 years who live in the Busselton Shire of Western Australia. Proportion of ever-smokers eligible for lung cancer screening based on United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria, and PLCOm2012 lung cancer risk > 1.5%. The effect of using self-reported COPD, symptoms consistent with COPD, or spirometry to define COPD for screening eligibility according to the PLCOm2012 criteria. Of ever-smokers aged 55-68 years, 254 (20.1%) would be eligible for screening according to USPSTF criteria; fewer would be eligible according to PLCOm2012 criteria (225, 17.9%; P = 0.004). This is equivalent to 8.9-10.0% of the total population aged 55-68 years, which suggests about 450 000 individuals in Australia may be eligible for lung cancer screening. The proportions of eligible participants were not significantly different whether spirometry results or symptoms consistent with COPD were used to determine PLCOm2012 risk. The proportion of ever-smokers in this population who were eligible for lung cancer screening was 17.9-20.1%. Using symptoms to define COPD is an appropriate surrogate measure for spirometry when determining the presence of COPD in this population. There are significant challenges for policy makers on how to identify and recruit these eligible individuals from the wider population.

  4. Isogeometric analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams including the nonlinear effects of large deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Farhad; Hashemian, Ali; Moetakef-Imani, Behnam; Hadidimoud, Saied

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the isogeometric analysis (IGA) of free-form planar curved beams is formulated based on the nonlinear Timoshenko beam theory to investigate the large deformation of beams with variable curvature. Based on the isoparametric concept, the shape functions of the field variables (displacement and rotation) in a finite element analysis are considered to be the same as the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) basis functions defining the geometry. The validity of the presented formulation is tested in five case studies covering a wide range of engineering curved structures including from straight and constant curvature to variable curvature beams. The nonlinear deformation results obtained by the presented method are compared to well-established benchmark examples and also compared to the results of linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. As the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of Timoshenko beams is the main topic of this article, the results strongly show the applicability of the IGA method to the large deformation analysis of free-form curved beams. Finally, it is interesting to notice that, until very recently, the large deformations analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams has not been considered in IGA by researchers.

  5. Turbulent inflow and wake of a marine hydrokinetic turbine, including effects of wave motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Toby; Rowell, Matthew; Decew, Judson; Baldwin, Ken; Swift, Rob; Wosnik, Martin

    2012-11-01

    A research program to investigate the spatio-temporal structure of turbulent flows relevant to marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy conversion, including turbulent inflow and turbine wakes, has been initiated at UNH. A scale model MHK turbine was deployed from a floating platform at two open water tidal energy test sites, one sheltered (Great Bay Estuary, NH) and one exposed (Muskeget Channel, MA). The inflow upstream of the turbine under test was characterized using an acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), which vary considerably in temporal and spatial resolution as well as practical applicability in this environment. The turbine was operated at previously determined peak efficiency for a given tidal current. The wake of the turbine was measured with a second, traversing ADV during ramp-up and at peak tidal current velocities, at two to six shroud diameters downstream. An inertial motion unit installed near the turbine hub is used to correct for platform motion. A platform-mounted wave-staff and an independently taut-moored pressure sensor were used to measure wave climate. Together, these data are used to validate theoretical and tank model results for utilizing surface-based platforms for MHK turbine deployments.

  6. Effects of Adiponectin Including Reduction of Androstenedione Secretion and Ovarian Oxidative Stress Parameters In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V Comim

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is the most abundantly produced human adipokine with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and insulin-sensitizing properties. Evidence from in vitro studies has indicated that adiponectin has a potential role in reproduction because it reduces the production of androstenedione in bovine theca cells in vitro. However, this effect on androgen production has not yet been observed in vivo. The current study evaluated the effect of adiponectin on androstenedione secretion and oxidative stress parameters in a rodent model. Seven-week-old female Balb/c mice (n = 33, previously treated with equine gonadotropin chorionic, were assigned to one of four different treatments: Group 1, control (phosphate-buffered saline; Group 2, adiponectin 0.1 μg/mL; Group 3, adiponectin 1.0 μg/mL; Group 4, adiponectin 5.0 μg/mL. After 24 h, all animals were euthanized and androstenedione levels were measured in the serum while oxidative stress markers were quantified in whole ovary tissue. Female mice treated with adiponectin exhibited a significant reduction (about 60% in serum androstenedione levels in comparison to controls. Androstenedione levels decreased from 0.78 ± 0.4 ng/mL (mean ± SD in controls to 0.28 ± 0.06 ng/mL after adiponectin (5 μg/mL treatment (P = 0.01. This change in androgen secretion after 24 hours of treatment was associated with a significant reduction in the expression of CYP11A1 and STAR (but not CYP17A1. In addition, ovarian AOPP product levels, a direct product of protein oxidation, decreased significantly in adiponectin-treated mice (5 μg/mL; AOPP (mean ± SD decreased to 4.3 ± 2.1 μmol/L in comparison with that of the controls (11.5 ± 1.7 μmol/L; P = 0.0003. Our results demonstrated for the first time that acute treatment with adiponectin reduced the levels of a direct oxidative stress marker in the ovary as well as decreased androstenedione serum levels in vivo after 24 h.

  7. Optimization of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesters including non-linear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R; McWilliam, S; Popov, A A

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a versatile non-linear model for predicting piezoelectric energy harvester performance. The presented model includes (i) material non-linearity, for both substrate and piezoelectric layers, and (ii) geometric non-linearity incorporated by assuming inextensibility and accurately representing beam curvature. The addition of a sub-model, which utilizes the transfer matrix method to predict eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors for segmented beams, allows for accurate optimization of piezoelectric layer coverage. A validation of the overall theoretical model is performed through experimental testing on both uniform and non-uniform samples manufactured in-house. For the harvester composition used in this work, the magnitude of material non-linearity exhibited by the piezoelectric layer is 35 times greater than that of the substrate layer. It is also observed that material non-linearity, responsible for reductions in resonant frequency with increases in base acceleration, is dominant over geometric non-linearity for standard piezoelectric harvesting devices. Finally, over the tested range, energy loss due to damping is found to increase in a quasi-linear fashion with base acceleration. During an optimization study on piezoelectric layer coverage, results from the developed model were compared with those from a linear model. Unbiased comparisons between harvesters were realized by using devices with identical natural frequencies—created by adjusting the device substrate thickness. Results from three studies, each with a different assumption on mechanical damping variations, are presented. Findings showed that, depending on damping variation, a non-linear model is essential for such optimization studies with each model predicting vastly differing optimum configurations. (paper)

  8. Effects of embedment including slip and separation on seismic SSI response of a nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Navjeev; Paul, D.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Both the slip and separation of reactor base reduce with increase in embedment. ► The slip and separation become insignificant beyond 1/4 and 1/2 embedment respectively. ► The stresses in reactor reduce significantly upto 1/4 embedment. ► The stress reduction with embedment is more pronounced in case of tensile stresses. ► The modeling of interface is important beyond 1/8 embedment as stresses are underestimated otherwise. - Abstract: The seismic response of nuclear reactor containment building considering the effects of embedment, slip and separation at soil–structure interface requires modeling of the soil, structure and interface altogether. Slip and separation at the interface causes stress redistribution in the soil and the structure around the interface. The embedment changes the dynamic characteristics of the soil–structure system. Consideration of these aspects allows capturing the realistic response of the structure, which has been a research gap and presented here individually as well as taken together. Finite element analysis has been carried out in time domain to attempt the highly nonlinear problem. The study draws important conclusions useful for design of nuclear reactor containment building.

  9. Theory of energy harvesting from heartbeat including the effects of pleural cavity and respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangyang; Lu, Bingwei; Lü, Chaofeng; Feng, Xue

    2017-11-01

    Self-powered implantable devices with flexible energy harvesters are of significant interest due to their potential to solve the problem of limited battery life and surgical replacement. The flexible electronic devices made of piezoelectric materials have been employed to harvest energy from the motion of biological organs. Experimental measurements show that the output voltage of the device mounted on porcine left ventricle in chest closed environment decreases significantly compared to the case of chest open. A restricted-space deformation model is proposed to predict the impeding effect of pleural cavity, surrounding tissues, as well as respiration on the efficiency of energy harvesting from heartbeat using flexible piezoelectric devices. The analytical solution is verified by comparing theoretical predictions to experimental measurements. A simple scaling law is established to analyse the intrinsic correlations between the normalized output power and the combined system parameters, i.e. the normalized permitted space and normalized electrical load. The results may provide guidelines for optimization of in vivo energy harvesting from heartbeat or the motions of other biological organs using flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters.

  10. North american natural gas supply forecast: the Hubbert method including the effects of institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Kolodziej, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the U.S. and southern Canadian natural gas supply market is considered. An important model for oil and natural gas supply is the Hubbert curve. Not all regions of the world are producing oil or natural gas following a Hubbert curve, even when price and market conditions are accounted for. One reason is that institutions are affecting supply. We investigate the possible effects of oil and gas market institutions in North America on natural gas supply. A multi-cycle Hubbert curve with inflection points similar to the Soviet Union's oil production multi-cycle Hubbert curve is used to determine North American natural gas discovery rates and to analyze how market specific institutions caused the inflection points. In addition, we analyze the latest shale natural gas projections critically. While currently, unconventional resources of natural gas suggest that North American natural gas production will increase without bound, the model here suggests a peak in North American natural gas supplies could happen in 2013. (author)

  11. Modelling the Colour of Strawberry Spread During Storage, Including Effects of Technical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadivec Mirta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The colour of freshly processed strawberry spread changes relatively rapidly from a bright red to a dull red, which then makes its appearance generally less acceptable for consumers. The colours of strawberry spreads following several processing conditions were measured under different storage conditions. Additional sugar and colorant had only slight effects on the colour decay, while exclusion of oxygen and daylight did not affect this process. The only condition that clearly maintained the freshly processed appearance was storage at 4°C. Hexagonal bottles were filled with the strawberry spreads and their colour was repeatedly measured at the six sides of the bottles, using a Minolta chroma meter. Data were analysed using non-linear indexed regression analysis based on a logistic function for the three colour aspect of a*, b* and L*. This technology allowed the determination of the variation in these data in terms of improved reliability (R2adj, >90%. It also allowed better interpretation of the processes involved. All variations in the data could be attributed to technical variation.

  12. North American Natural Gas Supply Forecast: The Hubbert Method Including the Effects of Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kolodziej

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the U.S. and southern Canadian natural gas supply market is considered. An important model for oil and natural gas supply is the Hubbert curve. Not all regions of the world are producing oil or natural gas following a Hubbert curve, even when price and market conditions are accounted for. One reason is that institutions are affecting supply. We investigate the possible effects of oil and gas market institutions in North America on natural gas supply. A multi-cycle Hubbert curve with inflection points similar to the Soviet Union’s oil production multi-cycle Hubbert curve is used to determine North American natural gas discovery rates and to analyze how market specific institutions caused the inflection points. In addition, we analyze the latest shale natural gas projections critically. While currently, unconventional resources of natural gas suggest that North American natural gas production will increase without bound, the model here suggests a peak in North American natural gas supplies could happen in 2013.

  13. Interpretation of vector magnetograph data including magneto-optic effects. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, E.A.; Hagyard, J.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the presence of Faraday rotation in measurements of orientation of a sunspot's transvese magnetic field is investigated. Using observations obtained with the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) vector magnetograph, the derived vector magnetic field of a simple, symmetric sunspot is used to calculate the degree of Faraday rotation in the azimuth of the transverse field as a function of wavelength from analytical expressions for the Stokes parameters. These results are then compared with the observed rotation of the field's azimuth which is derived from observations at different wavelengths within the Fe sub(I) 5250 A spectral line. From these comparisons, we find: the observed rotation of the azimuth is simulated to a reasonable degree by the theoretical formulations if the line-formation parameter eta 0 is varied over the sunspot; these variations in eta 0 are substantiated by the line-intensity data; for the MSFC system, Faraday rotation can be neglected for field strengths less than 1800 G and field inclinations greater than 45 0 ; to minimize the effects of Faraday rotation in sunspot umbrae, MSFC magnetograph measurements must be made in the far wings of the Zeeman-sensitive spectral line. (orig.)

  14. Probabilistic and deterministic soil structure interaction analysis including ground motion incoherency effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkhoraibi, T., E-mail: telkhora@bechtel.com; Hashemi, A.; Ostadan, F.

    2014-04-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a major step for seismic design of massive and stiff structures typical of the nuclear facilities and civil infrastructures such as tunnels, underground stations, dams and lock head structures. Currently most SSI analyses are performed deterministically, incorporating limited range of variation in soil and structural properties and without consideration of the ground motion incoherency effects. This often leads to overestimation of the seismic response particularly the In-Structure-Response Spectra (ISRS) with significant impositions of design and equipment qualification costs, especially in the case of high-frequency sensitive equipment at stiff soil or rock sites. The reluctance to incorporate a more comprehensive probabilistic approach is mainly due to the fact that the computational cost of performing probabilistic SSI analysis even without incoherency function considerations has been prohibitive. As such, bounding deterministic approaches have been preferred by the industry and accepted by the regulatory agencies. However, given the recently available and growing computing capabilities, the need for a probabilistic-based approach to the SSI analysis is becoming clear with the advances in performance-based engineering and the utilization of fragility analysis in the decision making process whether by the owners or the regulatory agencies. This paper demonstrates the use of both probabilistic and deterministic SSI analysis techniques to identify important engineering demand parameters in the structure. A typical nuclear industry structure is used as an example for this study. The system is analyzed for two different site conditions: rock and deep soil. Both deterministic and probabilistic SSI analysis approaches are performed, using the program SASSI, with and without ground motion incoherency considerations. In both approaches, the analysis begins at the hard rock level using the low frequency and high frequency hard rock

  15. Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.

  16. Effects of vitamins, including vitamin A, on HIV/AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2007-01-01

    increase lymphoid cell differentiation, which leads to an increase in CCR5 receptors. These receptors are essential for attachment of HIV to the lymphocytes and therefore, an increase in their number is likely to increase HIV replication. Vitamin A supplementation in HIV-infected children, on the other hand, has been associated with protective effects against mortality and morbidity, similar to that seen in HIV-negative children. The risk for lower respiratory tract infection and severe watery diarrhea has been shown to be lower in HIV-infected children supplemented with vitamin A. All-cause mortality and AIDS-related deaths have also been found to be lower in vitamin A-supplemented HIV-infected children. The benefits of multivitamin supplementation, particularly vitamins B, C, and E, have been more consistent across studies. Multivitamin supplementation in HIV-infected pregnant mothers has been shown to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as fetal loss and low birth weight. It also has been shown to decrease rates of MTCT among women who have poor nutritional or immunologic status. Further, multivitamin supplementation reduces the rate of HIV disease progression among patients in early stage of disease, thus delaying the need for ART by prolonging the pre-ART stage. In brief, there is no evidence to recommend vitamin A supplementation of HIV-infected pregnant women; however, periodic vitamin A supplementation of HIV-infected infants and children is beneficial in reducing all-cause mortality and morbidity and is recommended. Similarly, multivitamin supplementation of people infected with HIV, particularly pregnant women, is strongly suggested.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Cross-Flow Axis Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new test bed for Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy at the University of New Hampshire (UNH-CORE) was used to evaluate the performance of different cross-flow axis hydrokinetic turbines, and investigate the effects of waves and turbulence on these devices. The test bed was designed and built to operate in the UNH tow and wave tank, which has a cross section of 3.67m (width) x 2.44m (depth). In the present configuration, tow speeds of up to 3 m/s can be achieved for smaller turbine models, and up to 1.5 m/s for large turbine models with low gear ratio. It features a flap style wave maker at one end that is capable of producing waves with 1-5 s periods up to 0.4 m wave height. Turbine thrust (drag) and mechanical power output (torque, angular velocity) were measured at tow speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s for two cross-flow axis MHK turbines: a Gorlov Helical Turbine (GHT) and a Lucid spherical turbine (LST). Both were provided by Lucid Energy Technologies, LLP, and have frontal areas of 1.3 (GHT) and 1.0 (LST) square meters, respectively. GHT performance was also measured in progressive waves of various periods, grid turbulence, and in the wake of a cylinder, installed upstream at various cross-stream locations. Overall, the GHT performs with higher power and thrust (drag) coefficients than the LST. A 2nd law efficiency, or kinetic exergy efficiency, was defined to calculate what fraction of the kinetic energy removed from the flow is converted to usable shaft work by each turbine. The exergy efficiency varies with tip speed ratio but approaches 90% for the optimum operating conditions for each turbine. The fraction of kinetic energy removed from the fluid that is not converted to shaft work is redistributed into turbulent kinetic energy in the wake. Quantifying the kinetic energy flowing out of the turbine is important for modeling of environmental transport processes and for predicting performance when turbines are used in arrays

  18. Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar-Salazar, Corelly; Méndez, Rafael Díaz; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hirsch, Ann M; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina

    2013-12-01

    During a survey of Burkholderia species with potential use in agrobiotechnology, a group of 12 strains was isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato plants growing in Mexico (Nepantla, Mexico State). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are related to Burkholderia kururiensis and Burkholderia mimosarum (97.4 and 97.1 %, respectively). However, they induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is TNe-841(T) (= LMG 26416(T) = CIP 110324(T)).

  19. Effect of gynecological screening on rates of conception and gestation total of Nellore cows submitted to three protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Fernandes Grillo; Ana Luisa Lima Guimarães; Jaqueline Rocha Soares; Marco Roberto Bourg de Mello; Luciano da Silva Alonso; Marcelo Abidú Figueiredo; Helcimar Barbosa Palhano

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Grillo G.F., Guimarães A.L.L., Soares J.R., Mello M.R.B., Alonso L.S., Abidú-Figueiredo M. & Palhano H.B. [Effect of gynecological screening on rates of conception and gestation total of Nellore cows submitted to three protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI).] Efeito da triagem ginecológica sobre as taxas de concepção e gestação total de vacas Nelore submetidas a três protocolos de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF). Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária...

  20. Removal of mercury in fixed-bed continuous upflow reactors by mercury-resistant bacteria and effect of sodium chloride on their performance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Leonhauser, J.; Vardanyan, L

    : De J, Leonha¨user J, Vardanyan L. Removal of mercury in fixed-bed continuous upflow reactors by mercury-resistant bacteria and effect of sodium chloride on their performance, QScience Connect 2014:17 http://dx.doi.org/10.5339/connect.2014.17 http... for medium; 2, channel for wastewater inflow; 3, channel for wastewater outflow; 4, medium; 5, pump for medium; 6, pump for wastewater; 7, bubble trap. Page 4 of 9 De, Leonha¨user, Vardanyan. QScience Connect 2014:17 supplemented with 4 g/l glucose) were...

  1. Fixed-J moments: exact calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemin, C.

    1980-01-01

    We show that the two first fixed J moments of the Hamiltonian operator can be easily calculated over the whole fixed particle number shell model space as well as over configurations. The method may be extended to higher moments of H and to include the isotopic spin T

  2. Gaining Insight into an Organization's Fixed Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Elisabet

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to school district implementation of June 2001 Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) Statement 34 designed to change how schools report fixed assets. Includes planning for GASB implementation, conducting fixed-asset inventories, and making time for GASB reporting. (PKP)

  3. Effects of fixed appliances in correcting Angle Class II on the depth of the posterior airway space: FMA vs. Herbst appliance--a retrospective cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero; Czapka, Kathrin; Ludwig, Björn; Glasl, Bettina; Gross, Ulrich; Lisson, Jörg

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study based on the metric evaluation of lateral cephalograms was to investigate the extent to which treatment with two different fixed appliances for the correction of Angle Class II influenced the morphology of the extrathoracic airway space (the posterior airway space, PAS). A total of 43 patients with Angle Class II malocclusion were classified into two groups according to the appliance used for treatment: the functional mandibular advancer (FMA; n = 18) or the Herbst appliance (n = 25). Lateral cephalograms were taken of each patient at the start of functional jaw orthopedic treatment (time point T1) and at its completion (time point T2). Specific distances and angles were measured and analyzed in a cephalometric analysis. We observed major differences among the 43 patients in the depth of the posterior airway space during treatment with fixed appliances for Angle Class II correction. Regression analysis revealed that changes in sagittal and vertical positions had different effects on the depth of specific PAS sections: increases in anterior facial height are associated proportionately with increases in PAS width, particularly in the upper region. On the other hand, increases in posterior facial height and in the mandible's forward displacement correlated inversely to the decreases in depth, particularly in the central and lower PAS regions. The two treatment appliances (FMA, Herbst appliance) had the same effects on extrathoracic airway depth. Analyses of lateral cephalograms indicate that Angle Class II treatment with fixed appliances does not prevent sleep apnea in patients at risk. Nevertheless, this study does not permit absolutely reliable conclusions about the dimensions of the pharyngeal airway space. As the lateral cephalogram provides good images of structures in the midsagittal plane but is incapable of imaging the transverse dimension, there is an automatic lack of information concerning the precise

  4. The effect of Jatropha torrified biomass and coal preparation on steam co-gasification in a fixed bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloqaili, Mashal Mohammed

    Coal fired power stations produce vast amounts of harmful products that may affect our health and environment. Co-gasification of coal and biomass could be a solution to this issue as an emerging technology. Biomass may reduce emissions significantly and it may contribute to reducing capital operational cost while providing high gas yields. This research tests the co-gasification of coal and biomass blended chars. Coal and biomass were both prepared. Coal Illinois No #6 was prepared as coal semi-char and coal-char while Jatropha biomass was torrefied at six different temperatures ranging from [200-300] ºC. The co-gasification experiments was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. A gasification temperature was 900 ºC and a constant flow rate of 100 mL/min. Carbon conversion, maximum char reactivity, products yield and amount of hydrogen produced were evaluated and studied based on data obtained from the G.C. Additionally, weight of bed material and ash leftover weight from gasification process were significantly contributed in calculating the carbon conversion percentages.

  5. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  6. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  7. Dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Daniel; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-07-01

    Dapsone is a sulfone drug used to treat infectious conditions and also numerous dermatologic diseases. Fixed drug eruption is a distinctive adverse cutaneous reaction associated with the initial administration and subsequent delivery of a specific agent. Areas covered: The authors preformed a literature search using the following keywords: dapsone, fixed drug eruption, and adverse cutaneous drug reaction. Bibliographies were also reviewed for pertinent articles. The results were combed for relevant papers and reviewed. Articles pertaining to dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption were included. Expert commentary: The majority of cases of dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption in the literature come from Africa or India where there is a high prevalence of patients treated for leprosy. Characteristics of these cases are similar to fixed drug eruption described in the western literature, with differences in frequency of multiple versus solitary lesions. Dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption should be considered when reviewing the drug history of a patient with fixed drug eruption. In the case of darker pigmented individuals, multiple fixed drug eruption lesions may be more common. Multiple lesions may mimic Kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients. Dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple hyperpigmented lesions.

  8. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs? 23.15 Section 23.15 Wildlife and Fisheries..., including tourist souvenirs? (a) Purpose. Article VII(3) of the Treaty recognizes a limited exemption for... if one of the following applies: (1) The Management Authority of the importing, exporting, or re...

  9. Creation of Pd/Al2O3 Catalyst by a Spray Process for Fixed Bed Reactors and Its Effective Removal of Aqueous Bromate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Sun, Wuzhu; Yang, Weiyi; Li, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Palladium nanoparticles were grown on sub-millimeter activated Al2O3 particle support by spraying H2PdCl4 solution evenly onto the support, followed with a thermal reduction under H2 atmosphere. Compared with its counterpart created by the conventional impregnation method, the Pd/Al2O3 catalyst created by the spray process could enrich the existence of active Pd nanoparticles on the surface of the catalyst support and increase their degree of dispersion, resulting in a much higher activity in the catalytic reduction of bromate in water. The effect of Al2O3 support particle size on the bromate removal rate was also investigated, which demonstrated that smaller support particle size could have higher activity in the catalytic reduction of bromate in water because of its larger exposed surface. This Pd/Al2O3 catalyst could be easily used in the fixed bed reactor due to its large support size and demonstrated excellent stability in the catalytic reduction of bromate in mineral water. This Pd/Al2O3 catalyst also exhibited a good catalytic reduction performance on azo dyes as demonstrated by its effective catalytic hydrogenation of methyl orange. Thus, catalysts prepared by the spray method developed in this work could have the potential to be used in fixed bed reactors for various water treatment practices.

  10. Rating of Included Trials on the Efficacy–Effectiveness Spectrum : development of a new tool for systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieland, L. Susan; Berman, Brian M.; Altman, Douglas G.; Barth, Jürgen; Bouter, Lex M.; D'Adamo, Christopher R.; Linde, Klaus; Moher, David; Mullins, C. Daniel; Treweek, Shaun; Tunis, Sean; van der Windt, Danielle A.; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Witt, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective Randomized trials may be designed to provide evidence more strongly related to efficacy or effectiveness of an intervention. When systematic reviews are used to inform clinical or policy decisions, it is important to know the efficacy–effectiveness nature of the included

  11. Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing symbiont isolated from effective nodules of Vigna and Arachis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Hurek, Thomas; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region of Namibia, were previously characterized as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic position, the strains were further analysed using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences were most similar to Bradyrhizobium manausense BR 3351T, with Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense RITF806T being the most closely related type strain in the phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names; they were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium subterraneum 58 2-1T. The status of the species was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains of species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Novel strain 7-2T induced effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and on Lablab purpureus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7-2T was 65.4 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 7-2T [LMG 28791T, DSMZ 100297T, NTCCM0018T (Windhoek)] as the type strain.

  12. On the structural characterization of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices: The effect of interfaces for fixed layer thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikan, Bulent, E-mail: bulentarikanx@gmail.com [Anadolu University, Physics Department, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey); Korkmaz, Guven [Anadolu University, Physics Department, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey); Suyolcu, Yusuf Eren [Anadolu University, Graduate School of Sciences, Advanced Technologies Research Unit: Nanotechnology, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey); Aslan, Bulent; Serincan, Ugur [Anadolu University, Physics Department, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2013-12-02

    We report on the detailed epitaxial growth conditions for type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) structures designed for mid-wave infrared detection. The mismatch between the GaSb buffer and the SL is precisely controlled by engineering the InSb-like interfaces for fixed InAs and GaSb layer thicknesses in the SL. High resolution X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed to determine the mismatch and the thicknesses. It was shown that the in-plane lattice mismatch to the GaSb buffer is inversely proportional to the interface thickness for the samples presented here. The effect of the interfaces on the structure was also confirmed by room temperature transmission measurements: features were red-shifted as the interface thickness is increased. - Highlights: • Growth conditions are discussed in detail for type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices. • Interface thicknesses are systematically changed for fixed InAs and GaSb layers. • Shown that in-plane mismatch is inversely proportional to the interface thickness • The mismatch is precisely controlled by engineering the InSb-like interfaces.

  13. On the structural characterization of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices: The effect of interfaces for fixed layer thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikan, Bulent; Korkmaz, Guven; Suyolcu, Yusuf Eren; Aslan, Bulent; Serincan, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    We report on the detailed epitaxial growth conditions for type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) structures designed for mid-wave infrared detection. The mismatch between the GaSb buffer and the SL is precisely controlled by engineering the InSb-like interfaces for fixed InAs and GaSb layer thicknesses in the SL. High resolution X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed to determine the mismatch and the thicknesses. It was shown that the in-plane lattice mismatch to the GaSb buffer is inversely proportional to the interface thickness for the samples presented here. The effect of the interfaces on the structure was also confirmed by room temperature transmission measurements: features were red-shifted as the interface thickness is increased. - Highlights: • Growth conditions are discussed in detail for type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices. • Interface thicknesses are systematically changed for fixed InAs and GaSb layers. • Shown that in-plane mismatch is inversely proportional to the interface thickness • The mismatch is precisely controlled by engineering the InSb-like interfaces

  14. Mapping an on-chip terahertz antenna by a scanning near-field probe and a fixed field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü Li; Sun Jian-Dong; Wu Dong-Min; Cai Yong; Qin Hua; Lewis, Roger A.; Sun Yun-Fei

    2015-01-01

    In the terahertz (THz) regime, the active region for a solid-state detector usually needs to be implemented accurately in the near-field region of an on-chip antenna. Mapping of the near-field strength could allow for rapid verification and optimization of new antenna/detector designs. Here, we report a proof-of-concept experiment in which the field mapping is realized by a scanning metallic probe and a fixed AlGaN/GaN field-effect transistor. Experiment results agree well with the electromagnetic-wave simulations. The results also suggest a field-effect THz detector combined with a probe tip could serve as a high sensitivity THz near-field sensor. (paper)

  15. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  16. Effect of vicriviroc with or without ritonavir on oral contraceptive pharmacokinetics: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, fixed-sequence crossover trial in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasserra, Claudia; Li, Jing; March, Barrie; O'Mara, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Because women of childbearing potential represent 20% to 25% of the HIV population, it is important to determine any potential drug interactions between vicriviroc, an antiretroviral agent, and an oral contraceptive (OC) to provide guidance on any potential dose adjustments. The primary study objective was to determine the effect of vicriviroc, a C-C chemokine receptor type 5 inhibitor, alone or in the presence of ritonavir, on the pharmacokinetics (AUC and C(max)) of the study OC (ethinyl estradiol [EE] 0.035 mg + norethindrone [NET] 1 mg). A secondary objective was to monitor the safety and tolerability of vicriviroc plus an OC with and without ritonavir. This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, single-center study with a fixed-sequence crossover design. Female subjects were randomized into 2 groups and treated for 2 menstrual cycles. In cycle 1, all received the OC alone, per standard 28-day pack instructions. On the first 10 days of cycle 2, group 1 received OC + vicriviroc and group 2 received OC + ritonavir; on the following 11 days, both groups received OC + vicriviroc + ritonavir. Blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing on prespecified days. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including AUC(0-24), C(max), and C(min), were calculated using noncompartmental methods, and drug interactions were evaluated using an ANOVA model by treatment group. Adverse events were collected using physical examination, vital sign measurements, clinical laboratory analysis, electrocardiography, and questioning at predefined time points throughout the study to assess the safety profile. Twenty-seven subjects were enrolled (26 white, 1 black). The median age and body mass index were 21 years (range, 18-36 years) and 24.5 kg/m(2) (range, 19.1-31.3 kg/m(2)), respectively. Twenty-one subjects completed the study and were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis; 4 discontinued for reasons unrelated to study drug and 2 discontinued because of adverse events

  17. Fixed prosthetic treatment in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajevska Jagoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prosthetic treatment of patients with cleft palate includes various treatment options such as fixed partial dentures, removable partial prosthesis, etc. The type of prosthetic appliance is determined by the oral health of each individual and the circumstances. We presented three adult patients with the cleft lip and palate subjected to prosthetic treatment. Case report. From the possible prosthetic solutions according to the conditions in the oral cavity and the circumstances, fixed partial dentures veneered with composite or ceramic were chosen. A proper relationship between the teeth was reached with the fixed partial dentures, and function established, the phonetics improved and satisfying aesthetics effect accomplished improving the profile appearance of the patient’s face. Plastic surgery of the nose was performed after that. Conclusion. Multidisclipinary treatment is necessary for favourable long-term outcome in cleft lip and palate patients.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF FIXED-TERM EMPLOYMENT SPELLS ON THE INTEGRATION OF SCHOOL-LEAVERS ON THE LABOUR MARKET: EVIDENCE FROM FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Calavrezo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of fixed term employment spells (fixed-term contracts and temporary work on the integration on the labour market (translated by the transition to a permanent contract for French school-leavers. We study, at the same time, the impact of three categories of determinants on the schoolleavers' integration on the labour market: individual's features, a first fixed-term employment spell and a later fixed-term employment episode. More precisely, by taking into account the fixed-term employment spell duration, we identify four possible trajectories and we examine if fixed term employment is a "stepping-stone" to permanent employment. In order to control for possible endogeneity biases, trivariate probit models are implemented on a sample of 11 303 individuals obtained from the French "Generation 98" survey.

  19. Nodulin gene expression and ENOD2 localization in effective, nitrogen fixing and ineffective, bacteria-free nodules of alfalfa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Nurris, J.H.; Bocheneck, B.; Dickstein, R.; Bisseling, T.; Hirsch, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Alfalfa plants form bacteria-free nodules in response to a number of agents, including Rhizobium meliloti exo mutants, Agrobacterium tumefaciens transconjugants carrying cloned R. meliloti nodulation genes, and compounds that function as auxin transport inhibitors, N-( 1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid or

  20. Regulatory requirements for marketing fixed dose combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B G Jayasheel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio is safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect. Such combinations of drugs are particularly useful in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, there can be real clinical benefits in the form of increased efficacy and/or a reduced incidence of adverse effects. Additional advantages of FDCs are potentially lower costs of manufacturing compared to the costs of producing separate products administered concurrently, simpler logistics of distribution and reduced development of resistance in the case of antimicrobials. Above all, FDC therapy reduces pill burden and improves medication compliance. Although, FDCs seem to be ideal under certain pre-defined circumstances, if a dosing adjustment is warranted, there may not be an FDC available in the most appropriate strength for the patient and if an adverse drug reaction occurs from using an FDC, it may be difficult to identify the active ingredient responsible for causing the reaction. Appendix VI of Schedule Y (Drugs & Cosmetics Rules 1945, India states the requirements for marketing approval of various types of FDCs. The same is further elaborated in this article to provide a detailed guidance including the clinical trial requirements. However, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic field makes it difficult to develop a standard guidance document.

  1. Identification of Fixed and Interface Trap Charges in Hot-Carrier Stressed Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET's) through Ultraviolet Light Anneal and Gate Capacitance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, C.

    1995-01-01

    Fixed and interface trap charges in hot-carrier degraded metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET's) can be distinguished by ultraviolet light (λ=253.7 nm) annealing, and observing the resultant changes in the gate-to-drain capacitance. Trapped electrons anneal readily, resulting in large changes in the gate capacitance and the threshold voltage. This suggests a trap level below the conduction band edge of SiO2 that is smaller than the photon energy (4.9 eV). In contrast, trapped holes and interface traps do not anneal, or anneal insignificantly even after prolonged irradiation. This is consistent with a much deeper hole trap level in SiO2, generally reported.

  2. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  3. Fixing Health Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The underlying proposition behind this achievement — that health could be significantly improved by adopting a minimum package of health interventions to ..... Essentially, the project's goals have been to help local authorities fix the gross technical and allocative inefficiencies that characterized health care delivery in two ...

  4. Cocaine and food as reinforcers: effects of reinforcer magnitude and response requirement under second-order fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules.

    OpenAIRE

    Spear, D J; Katz, J L

    1991-01-01

    Reinforcer magnitude and fixed-ratio requirement were varied under two second-order schedules. Under one, the first sequence of a fixed number of responses completed after the lapse of a 10-min fixed interval produced reinforcement. Under the second, a second-order progressive-ratio schedule, the fixed number of responses increased after each reinforcement. Either cocaine (0 to 300 micrograms/kg/inj) or food (0 to 5,700 mg/delivery) reinforcers were delivered. Under some conditions, a 2-s ill...

  5. Effects of ovarian structures identified at Ovsynch™ enrolment, disease history and lactation variables on odds of pregnancy to a fixed-time artificial insemination after Ovsynch™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenhoff, L; Hall, E; Ranjbar Ni, S; House, J K

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effects of ovarian structures present at Ovsynch™ enrolment, disease history, lactation variables and times bred on pregnancy per fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) following fixed-time insemination after Ovsynch and to determine the relationship between the size of ovarian follicular structures and concurrent presence of a corpus luteum (CL). The study was conducted in a 3000-cow Holstein dairy herd. Over a 6-month period, 886 non-pregnant cows were examined by transrectal ultrasound and enrolled into 1132 Ovsynch events. Enrolled cows were synchronised using an Ovsynch-56 protocol. At enrolment, both ovaries were scanned by transrectal ultrasound to identify and record the presence and size of ovarian structures. Cows that did not return to oestrus were pregnancy tested 32-38 days post-insemination. Univariable and multivariable generalised linear mixed models (GLMMs) were used to determine the effect of each variable on pregnancy per FTAI. A univariable GLMM was also used to analyse the relationship between size of the dominant follicular structure and concurrent presence of a CL. CL size (P = 0.039) and presence of a luteal cyst (P = 0.002) at Ovsynch enrolment significantly increased the odds of pregnancy. Occurrence of lameness (P = 0.035) or mastitis (P = 0.008) between calving and enrolment significantly decreased the odds of pregnancy. Neither the presence nor size of a follicular structure significantly affected the odds of pregnancy, although cows with larger follicular structures were less likely to have a concurrent CL (P inseminated after Ovsynch. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (β=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (β=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time.

  7. Fixing the Mirrors: A Feasibility Study of the Effects of Dance Movement Therapy on Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sabine C.; Mehl, Laura; Sobanski, Esther; Sieber, Maik; Fuchs, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    From the 1970s on, case studies reported the effectiveness of therapeutic mirroring in movement with children with autism spectrum disorder. In this feasibility study, we tested a dance movement therapy intervention based on mirroring in movement in a population of 31 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (mainly high-functioning and…

  8. Self-paced versus fixed speed walking and the effect of virtual reality in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, L.H.; Harlaar, J.; van der Krogt, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    While feedback-controlled treadmills with a virtual reality could potentially offer advantages for clinical gait analysis and training, the effect of self-paced walking and the virtual environment on the gait pattern of children and different patient groups remains unknown. This study examined the

  9. Effects of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986 on Army Fixed Installation Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    cavities. However, some children exposed to levels of fluoride greater than about 2.0 mg/l may develop dental fluorosis . Dental fluorosis is a brown...taste and odor problems, and, in the case of the SMCL for fluoride, prevention of dental fluorosis . Table 4 lists the current SMCLs. Standardized...and the SMCL is 2.0 mg/l to protect against dental fluorosis . The USEPA has decided that dental fluorosis is not a serious health effect and has

  10. Effects of the surface concentration of fixed charges in C18-bonded stationary phases on the adsorption process and on the preparative chromatography of small ionizable compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-11-06

    The effects of the surface concentration of positive charges attached to the surface of research BEH-C 18 hybrid particles on the overloaded band profiles and the adsorption isotherms of a neutral (caffeine) and a positively charged (nortryptilinium hydrochloride) compounds were measured and investigated. The inverse method (IM) of chromatography was used to determine the isotherm parameters. Three columns were packed with endcapped BEH-C 18 particles doped with three different charge densities on their surfaces (LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH). Two other columns packed with unbonded, non-endcapped, and endcapped BEH-C 18 particles served as standard reference materials. Minor disturbance method (MDM) experiments were conducted with acetonitrile/water mixtures in order to assess qualitatively the surface densities of the fixed positive charges. A more quantitative approach based on the solution of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the decrease of the experimental Henry constant was also applied. The results show that the surface concentrations of the fixed charges in the LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH columns were 0.029, 0.050, and 0.064μmol/m 2 , e.g., close to two orders of magnitude smaller than the surface density of bonded C 18 chains (2.1μmol/m 2 ). The adsorption isotherm of the ionizable compound nortryptilinium onto the BEH-C 18 columns is consistent with a two-sites adsorption model. The density of the high energy sites correlates directly to the total amount of the fixed charges and isolated silanols amidst the C 18 -bonded chains. The amount of low energy sites reflects the specific surface area of the adsorbent. The binding constants on the high- and low-energy adsorption sites are respectively ten and two times lower on the HIGH column than on the reference endcapped column. The active sites are closer to the adsorbent surface than the weak adsorption sites. Finally, a higher production rate of ionizable compounds can be achieved in preparative

  11. Complience and Effectiveness of Single Tuberculosis Drugs and Fixed Dose Combination (FDC on Pediatric Patients in a Hospital in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga P. Kautsar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of TB in children is a concern because of the difficulty of determining the diagnosis and healing as well as with ineffective consumption and non-adherence result in drug-resistant TB. The FDC and single TB drugs are the option that can be administered in pediatric patients where FDC is claimed to have advantages over single, nevertheless a few publication on the effectiveness of the use of two drugs. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship FDC and single TB drugs on compliance and effectiveness of treatment TB pulmonary in children in a hospital in Bandung period January 2010 until December 2013. The method used by the cross-sectional retrospective collection of secondary data conducted in 213 patients with descriptive analysis and Chi-Square. The results showed that no difference between the types of TB drugs for compliance and effectiveness of treatment. It can be concluded that health care providers can provide FDC or single although FDC well-known have more advantages over single.

  12. Effect of systemic herbicides on N2-fixing and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in paddy soils of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amal Chandra; Debnath, Anjan

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment has been conducted with four systemic herbicides viz., butachlor [N-(butoxymethyl)-2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-acetanilide], fluchloralin [N-(2-chloroethyl)-(2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-4-trifluoromethyl) aniline], oxadiazon [5-terbutyl-3-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopro poxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene] at their recommended field rates (2.0, 1.5, 0.4 and 0.12kga.i.ha(-1), respectively) to investigate their effects on growth and activities of aerobic non-symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the rhizosphere soils as well as yield of the rice crop (Oryza sativa L cv. IR-36). Application of herbicides, in general, highly stimulated the population and activities of the target microorganisms, which resulted in a greater amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization in the rhizosphere soils of the test crop. The greater microbial activities subsequently augmented the mineralization and availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil solution, which in turn increased the yield of the crop. Among the herbicides, oxyfluorfen was most stimulative followed by fluchloralin and oxadiazon in augmenting the microbial activities in soil. Butachlor also accentuated the mineralization and availability of nitrogen due to higher incitement of non-symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria in paddy soil. The grain and straw yields of the crop were also significantly increased due to the application of oxyfluorfen (20.2% and 21%) followed by fluchloralin (13.1% and 15.4%) and butachlor (9.1% and 10.2%), respectively.

  13. Effect of 5% benzocaine gel on relieving pain caused by fixed orthodontic appliance activation. A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, L; Gholami, H; Mortazavi, S A R; Soheilifar, S

    2016-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of 5% benzocaine gel and placebo gel on reducing pain caused by fixed orthodontic appliance activation. Thirty subjects (15-25 years) undergoing fixed orthodontics. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and cross-over clinical trial study was conducted. Subjects were asked to apply a placebo gel and 5% benzocaine gel, exchangeable in two consecutive appointments, twice a day for 3 days and mark their level of pain on a VAS scale. The pain severity was evaluated by means of Mann-Whitney U-test for comparing two gel groups, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test for overall differences and post hoc test of Dunnett for paired multiple comparisons. p-value was assigned <0.05. The overall mean value of pain intensity for benzocaine and placebo gels was 0.89 and 1.15, respectively. The Mann-Whitney U-test indicated that there was no significant difference between overall pain in both groups (mean difference = 0.258 p ˂ 0.21). For both groups, pain intensity was significantly lower at 2, 6 and 24 h compared with pain experienced at days 2, 3 and 7. Benzocaine gel caused a decrease in pain perception at 2 h compared with placebo gel. Peak pain intensity was at 2 h for placebo gel and at 6 h for benzocaine gel, followed by a decline in pain perception from that point to day 7 for both gels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of cantilever length and alloy framework on the stress distribution in peri-implant area of cantilevered implant-supported fixed partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdey SUEDAM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because many mechanical variables are present in the oral cavity, the proper load transfer between the prosthesis and the bone is important for treatment planning and for the longevity of the implant-supported fixed partial denture. Objectives To verify the stress generated on the peri-implant area of cantilevered implant-supported fixed partial dentures and the potential effects of such variable. Material and Methods A U-shaped polyurethane model simulating the mandibular bone containing two implants (Ø 3.75 mm was used. Six groups were formed according to the alloy’s framework (CoCr or PdAg and the point of load application (5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm of cantilever arm. A 300 N load was applied in pre-determined reference points. The tension generated on the mesial, lingual, distal and buccal sides of the peri-implant regions was assessed using strain gauges. Results Two-way ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests were applied showing significant differences (p<0.05 between the groups. Pearson correlation test (p<0.05 was applied showing positive correlations between the increase of the cantilever arm and the deformation of the peri-implant area. Conclusions This report demonstrated the CoCr alloy shows larger compression values compared to the PdAg alloy for the same distances of cantilever. The point of load application influences the deformation on the peri-implant area, increasing in accordance with the increase of the lever arm.

  15. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  16. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin-Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  17. Effects of Nitrogen Fixing Pre-Crops and Fertilizers on Physical and Chemical Properties Down the Soil Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, E.; Honermeier, B.; Don, A.; Gocke, M. I.; Amelung, W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effects of pre-crops with and without biological nitrogen fixation capacity (fava beans, clover mulch, fodder maize) and fertilization (no fertilizer, NPK fertilizer, PK fertilizer) on soil physico-chemical properties (bulk density, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and stocks, N concentration and stocks) and their depth distribution (down to 1 m) at a long-term field experiment set up in 1982 in Gießen, Germany. Fertilization had significant but small impacts on the soil chemical environment, most particularly the salt content of the soil, with PK fertilization increasing electrical conductivity throughout the soil profile. Similarly, fertilization resulted in a small reduction of soil pH throughout the entire soil profile. The soil was physically and chemically affected by the type of pre-crop. Plots with fava beans and maize had lower bulk densities in the subsoil than those with clover. Pre-crop type also significantly affected the depth distribution of both N and SOC. Specifically, clover pre-cropping led to an enrichment of N at the surface compared with fava beans and maize. SOC enrichment at the surface was also observed under clover, with the effect most pronounced under PK fertilization. Combined with the bulk density effects, this shift in N distribution resulted in significantly higher N stocks under clover than under fava beans. However, the total stocks of SOC were not affected by pre-crop or fertilizer regime. Our results indicate that humans influence C and N cycling and distribution in soils through the selection of pre-crops and that the influence of crop type is greater than that of fertilization regimes. Pre-cropping with clover, which is used as a mulch, leads to N enrichment in the topsoil, reducing the need for N fertilizer for the subsequent cereal crop. In contrast, the use of fava beans as a pre-crop does not lead to N enrichment. We believe this is due to the greater rooting depth of

  18. Clinical Effectiveness of 6.5-mm-Long Implants to Support Two-Implant Fixed Prostheses in Premolar-Molar Region: The Influence of Immediate Loading and the Length of Splinting Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Javier; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan

    2018-01-28

    The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to assess the influence of immediate loading and lengths of splinted implants on the clinical effectiveness of 6.5-mm-long implants supporting two-implant fixed prostheses in the premolar-molar regions. A clinical database was reviewed in a private dental center to select those patients who had 6.5-mm-long implants placed to support two-implant fixed partial prostheses in the premolar-molar regions of the maxilla and the mandible. All implants were immediately loaded. The study groups were defined according to the lengths of the implants. Two groups were identified: the short-short splinted group, when both implants had 6.5 mm lengths, and the short-long splinted group, when one implant was longer than 6.5 mm. A total of 48 dental implants were placed in 16 patients to support 24 two-implant fixed prostheses. The mean follow-up time was 14 ± 5 months. The short-short splinted group included 8 patients with 16 implants; the short-long splinted group included 16 patients with 32 implants. The main variable was implant survival, and secondary outcomes were marginal bone stability and prosthesis survival. The statistical analyses indicated an absence of significant differences between the two groups in terms of implant and prosthesis survival (100% for both groups and both variables); however, distal bone loss around the splinted implants was significantly higher in the short-long splinted group. Bone loss was 0.37 ± 0.55 mm in the short-short splinted group and 0.94 ± 0.66 mm in the short-long splinted group. Immediate loading of short (6.5-mm-long) implants in the premolar-molar regions did not jeopardize their survival. Two-implant supported prostheses had the same clinical effectiveness, whether extra-short implants were splinted to another extra-short implant or to a longer one. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Social evaluation influence on cardiovascular response to a fixed behavioral challenge: effects across a range of difficulty levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R A; Dill, J C; Geen, R G; Anderson, C A

    1998-01-01

    Participants performed five memory tasks--ranging in difficulty from very low to very high--under public or private conditions. The publicity and difficulty variables interacted to determine systolic pressure and heart rate responses during performance. Where performance was public, responsiveness on the parameters increased with difficulty to a point and then dropped; where performance was private, responsiveness was relatively low at all difficulty levels. Diastolic pressure responses were configured similarly, although in that case the interaction was not reliable. Findings corroborate and extend results from a previous study, argue against some explanations of those results, and strengthen the case for a recent active coping analysis of cardiovascular audience effects. Findings also strengthen the case for a broader model of effort and cardiovascular response, which has potential for advancing our understanding of a range of phenomena and processes related to behavior and health.

  20. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in ...

  1. The effect on climate change impacts for building products when including the timing of greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap infrared radiation emitting from the Earth’s surface to generate the “greenhouse effect” thus keeping the planet warm. Many natural activities including rotting vegetation emit GHGs such as carbon dioxide to produce this natural affect. However, in the last 200 years or so, human activity has increased the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs...

  2. Fixed point theorems for generalized weakly contractive mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramendra Krishna Bose

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper several fixed point theorems for generalized weakly contractive mappings in a metric space setting are proved. The set of generalized weakly contractive mappings considered in this paper contains the family of weakly contractive mappings as a proper subset. Fixed point theorems for single and multi-valued mappings, approximating scheme for common fixed point for some mappings, and fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings are presented. It extends the work of several authors including Bose and Roychowdhury.

  3. Detection of simulated microcalcifications in fixed mammary tissue: An ROC study of the effect of local versus global histogram equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, T; Olsen, J B

    2006-09-01

    To investigate whether sliding window adaptive histogram equalization (SWAHE) of digital mammograms improves the detection of simulated calcifications, as compared to images normalized by global histogram equalization (GHE). Direct digital mammograms were obtained from mammary tissue phantoms superimposed with different frames. Each frame was divided into forty squares by a wire mesh, and contained granular calcifications randomly positioned in about 50% of the squares. Three radiologists read the mammograms on a display monitor. They classified their confidence in the presence of microcalcifications in each square on a scale of 1 to 5. Images processed with GHE were first read and used as a reference. In a later session, the same images processed with SWAHE were read. The results were compared using ROC methodology. When the total areas AZ were compared, the results were completely equivocal. When comparing the high-specificity partial ROC area AZ,0.2 below false-positive fraction (FPF) 0.20, two of the three observers performed best with the images processed with SWAHE. The difference was not statistically significant. When the reader's confidence threshold in malignancy is set at a high level, increasing the contrast of mammograms with SWAHE may enhance the visibility of microcalcifications without adversely affecting the false-positive rate. When the reader's confidence threshold is set at a low level, the effect of SWAHE is an increase of false positives. Further investigation is needed to confirm the validity of the conclusions.

  4. Effect of nitrogen on cellular production and release of the neurotoxin anatoxin-a in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eGagnon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatoxin-a (ANTX is a neurotoxin produced by several freshwater cyanobacteria and implicated in lethal poisonings of domesticated animals and wildlife. The factors leading to its production in nature and in culture are not well understood. Resource availability may influence its cellular production as suggested by the carbon-nutrient hypothesis, which links the amount of secondary metabolites produced by plants or microbes to the relative abundance of nutrients. We tested the effects of nitrogen supply on ANTX production and release in a toxic strain of the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (Nostocales. We hypothesized that nitrogen deficiency might constrain the production of ANTX. However, the total concentration and more significantly the cellular content of anatoxin-a peaked (max. 146 µg/L and 1683 µg•g-1 dry weight at intermediate levels of nitrogen supply when N-deficiency was evident based on phycocyanin to chlorophyll a and carbon to nitrogen ratios. The results suggest that the cellular production of anatoxin-a may be stimulated by moderate nutrient stress as described recently for another cyanotoxin (microcystin.

  5. Analysis of the effect of the Electron-Beam welding sequence for a fixed manufacturing route using finite element simulations applied to ITER vacuum vessel manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Menéndez, Cristina, E-mail: cristina@natec-ingenieros.com [Numerical Analysis Technologies, S.L. Marqués de San Esteban No. 52, 33206 Gijón (Spain); Rodríguez, Eduardo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oviedo, Campus de Gijón, 33203 Gijón (Spain); Ottolini, Marco [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, 16152 Genova (Italy); Caixas, Joan [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Guirao, Julio [Numerical Analysis Technologies, S.L. Marqués de San Esteban No. 52, 33206 Gijón (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The simulation methodology employed in this paper is able to adapt inside a complex manufacturing route. • The effect of the sequence is lower in a highly constrained assembly than in a lowly constrained one. • The most relevant influence on the distortions is the jigs design, instead of the welding sequence. • The welding distortion analysis should be used as a guidance to design and improve the manufacturing strategy. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel Sectors have very tight tolerances and high density of welding. Therefore, prediction and reduction of welding distortion are critical to allow the final assembly with the other Vacuum Vessel Sectors without the production of a full scale prototype. In this paper, the effect of the welding sequence in the distortions inside a fixed manufacturing route and in a highly constrained assembly is studied in the poloidal segment named inboard (PS1). This is one of the four poloidal segments (PS) assembled for the sector. Moreover, some restrictions and limitations in the welding sequence related to the manufacturing process are explained. The results obtained show that the effect of the sequence is lower in a highly constrained assembly than in a low constrained one. A prototype manufactured by AMW consortium (PS1 mock-up) is used in order to validate the finite element method welding simulation employed. The obtained results confirmed that for Electron-Beam welds, both the welding simulation and the mock-up show a low value of distortions.

  6. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhy Rabindra N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp.

  7. Effect of fixed and self-suggested rest intervals between sets of resistance exercise on post-exercise cardiovascular behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fabiana Goessler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n4p467 This study aimed to compare differences in the number of repetitions after exercises with different rest intervals and to analyze cardiovascular parameters after resistance training. The sample comprised 10 physically activemen (23±2 years. The one-repetition maximum (1RM test was performed in the following order: bench press, guided squat bar, biceps curl and leg curl. After the 1RM test, the individual held three sessions of resistance training, on different days, with rest intervals of 1 minute, 2 minutes, and self-suggested intervals, randomized for each day. We calculated 75% of the load of the 1RM test, with three series of maximum repetitions performed to exhaustion. Cardiovascular variables were measured at rest and during 30 minutes after exercise. In the self-suggested interval, which showed an average time of rest(157±37 seconds similar to the 2-minute interval, more repetitions were performed compared to the 1-minute interval session, with no difference in relation to the 2 minute-interval session. No difference was found in systolic blood pressure and in the high frequency (HF component between the intervals, but post-exercise hypotension was observed in diastolic blood pressure after 10 minutes’ recovery in all intervals, with a longer duration in the 2-minute interval session. After 30 minutes’ recovery, an increase in the low frequency (LF component was registered for the 2-minute interval session, and anincrease in LF/HF was found at 10, 20 and 30 minutes of recovery after sessions with 1- and 2-minute intervals, demonstrating a possible predominance of sympathetic action. The self-suggested interval did not show changes in the components of heart rate variability. These findings suggest that intervals of at least 2 minutes between sets may be interesting to provide more repetitions and reduce the post-exercise sympathetic effect.

  8. Effect of fixed and self-suggested rest intervals between sets of resistance exercise on post-exercise cardiovascular behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fabiana Goessler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare differences in the number of repetitions after exercises with different rest intervals and to analyze cardiovascular parameters after resistance training. The sample comprised 10 physically activemen (23±2 years. The one-repetition maximum (1RM test was performed in the following order: bench press, guided squat bar, biceps curl and leg curl. After the 1RM test, the individual held three sessions of resistance training, on different days, with rest intervals of 1 minute, 2 minutes, and self-suggested intervals, randomized for each day. We calculated 75% of the load of the 1RM test, with three series of maximum repetitions performed to exhaustion. Cardiovascular variables were measured at rest and during 30 minutes after exercise. In the self-suggested interval, which showed an average time of rest(157±37 seconds similar to the 2-minute interval, more repetitions were performed compared to the 1-minute interval session, with no difference in relation to the 2 minute-interval session. No difference was found in systolic blood pressure and in the high frequency (HF component between the intervals, but post-exercise hypotension was observed in diastolic blood pressure after 10 minutes’ recovery in all intervals, with a longer duration in the 2-minute interval session. After 30 minutes’ recovery, an increase in the low frequency (LF component was registered for the 2-minute interval session, and anincrease in LF/HF was found at 10, 20 and 30 minutes of recovery after sessions with 1- and 2-minute intervals, demonstrating a possible predominance of sympathetic action. The self-suggested interval did not show changes in the components of heart rate variability. These findings suggest that intervals of at least 2 minutes between sets may be interesting to provide more repetitions and reduce the post-exercise sympathetic effect.

  9. Effect of Taper on Stress Distribution of All Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures: a 3D-FEA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami-Panah

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Mechanical failure of ceramic materials is controlled by brittle fracture, mostly occurred in tension. In 3-unit all-ceramic FPDs the connector area is considered to be at fracture risk because of tensile stress concentrations.Purpose: The aim of this FE analysis was to evaluate the effect of taper on stress distribution in all-ceramic FPDs.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study two 3-D finite element models of thee-unit IPS-Empress 2 FPDs replacing mandible second premolar were created by means of finite element software. The digital images were obtained from CT scan of human skull. Abutment was reduced with 12 and 22 degrees of taper. The cement layer,PDL, cancellous bone and cortical bone were also modeled. Frameworks of core material were fabricated. A static load of 100 N was applied at mid pontic area.Resolved stresses were calculated according to the Von Mises criterion and principal stresses.Results: In both models stresses were concentrated at the connectors. The maximum stresses were lower in the model with larger taper. The maximum Von Mises stress was recorded at the connector region of the premolar and the pontic. In model with larger taper the patterns of stresses were also more distributed and less concentrated.Conclusion: The highest Von Mises and principal stress were recorded at the connectors. Tensile stresses developed at the gingival connector of premolar and pontic was higher than molar. The stress level in model with 22-degree taper was lower compare to 12-degree and the stress pattern was more distributed, lowered the risk ofconcentrations.

  10. Synergetic effect of sewage sludge and biomass co-pyrolysis: A combined study in thermogravimetric analyzer and a fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuebin; Deng, Shuanghui; Tan, Houzhang; Adeosun, Adewale; Vujanović, Milan; Yang, Fuxin; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The synergetic effect of sewage sludge and wheat straw co-pyrolysis was studied. • The mass balance measurement of gas, tar, and char was performed. • The synergetic effect shows strongest under a certain biomass addition ratio around 60%. • The required heat of co-pyrolysis is significantly reduced. - Abstract: Much attention has been given to the valuable products from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge. In this study, the pyrolysis of sewage sludge, biomass (wheat straw) and their mixtures in different proportions were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and percentage of wheat straw in wheat straw–sewage sludge mixtures on product distributions in terms of gas, liquid and char and the gas composition were investigated. Results indicate that there is a significantly synergetic effect during the co-pyrolysis processes of sewage sludge and wheat straw, accelerating the pyrolysis reactions. The synergetic effect resulted in an increase in gas and liquid yields but a decrease in char yield. The gas composition and the synergetic effect degree are strongly affected by the wheat straw proportions, and the strongest synergetic effect of sewage sludge and wheat straw co-pyrolysis appears at the biomass proportion of 60 wt.%. With an increase of temperature, the gas yield from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge increased but the liquid and char yields decreased. Moreover, the required heat of co-pyrolysis is significantly reduced compared with the pyrolysis of sewage sludge and wheat straw pyrolysis alone, because of the exothermic reactions between the ash components in two fuel samples.

  11. Pattern dynamics and filamentation of femtosecond terawatt laser pulses in air including the higher-order Kerr effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T W; Zhou, C T; He, X T

    2013-05-01

    Plasma defocusing and higher-order Kerr effects on multiple filamentation and pattern formation of ultrashort laser pulse propagation in air are investigated. Linear analyses and numerical results show that these two saturable nonlinear effects can destroy the coherent evolution of the laser field, and small-scale spatial turbulent structures rapidly appear. For the two-dimensional case, numerical simulations show that blow-up-like solutions, spatial chaos, and pseudorecurrence can appear at higher laser intensities if only plasma defocusing is included. These complex patterns result from the stochastic evolution of the higher- or shorter-wavelength modes of the laser light spectrum. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, filamentation can be attributed to the modulational instability of these spatial incoherent localized structures. Furthermore, filament patterns associated with multiphoton ionization of the air molecules with and without higher-order Kerr effects are compared.

  12. PTA-1 computer program for treating pressure transients in hydraulic networks including the effect of pipe plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Pressure pulses in the intermediate sodium system of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, such as may originate from a sodium/water reaction in a steam generator, are propagated through the complex sodium piping network to system components such as the pump and intermediate heat exchanger. To assess the effects of such pulses on continued reliable operation of these components and to contribute to system designs which result in the mitigation of these effects, Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) computer codes are being developed for accurately computing the transmission of pressure pulses through a complicated fluid transport system, consisting of piping, fittings and junctions, and components. PTA-1 provides an extension of the well-accepted and verified fluid hammer formulation for computing hydraulic transients in elastic or rigid piping systems to include plastic deformation effects. The accuracy of the modeling of pipe plasticity effects on transient propagation has been validated using results from two sets of Stanford Research Institute experiments. Validation of PTA-1 using the latter set of experiments is described briefly. The comparisons of PTA-1 computations with experiments show that (1) elastic-plastic deformation of LMFBR-type piping can have a significant qualitative and quantitative effect on pressure pulse propagation, even in simple systems; (2) classical fluid-hammer theory gives erroneous results when applied to situations where piping deforms plastically; and (3) the computational model incorporated in PTA-1 for predicting plastic deformation and its effect on transient propagation is accurate

  13. Thermal Distribution in Axial-Flow Fixed Bed with Flowing Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Lei; Hongfang Ma; Haitao Zhang; Weiyong Ying; Dingye Fang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reported an experimental research of steady-state heat transfer behaviour of a gas flowing through a fixed bed under the different operating conditions. Studies had been carried out in a fixed-bed packed methanol synthesis catalyst percolated by air at appropriate flow rate. Both radial and axial direction temperature distribution had been investigated under the different operating conditions. The effects of operating conditions including the reactor inlet air ...

  14. Effect of untreated zirconium oxide nanofiller on the flexural strength and surface hardness of autopolymerized interim fixed restoration resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhavaz, Abdolhamid; Rezaei Dastjerdi, Maryam; Ghasemi, Arman; Ghasemi, Azade; Alizadeh Sahraei, Abolfazl

    2017-07-08

    Autopolymerized poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin is commonly used for the construction of interim restorations; however, it has less than optimal mechanical properties. In this article, we evaluated the reinforcing effect of adding untreated zirconia nanoparticles on the flexural strength and surface hardness of this resin. A total of 80 specimens were fabricated. Forty each were used for the flexural strength test and for the surface hardness test. The specimens were categorized into four groups of 10 specimens each as follows: pure PMMA, PMMA with 1%, PMMA with 2.5%, and PMMA with 5% weight of untreated zirconia nanofillers. The flexural strength of the specimens was evaluated by the three-point bending test, and the surface hardness was assessed by micro Vickers hardness test. The data obtained from these tests were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. In addition, the fracture surface characteristics were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. Flexural strength testing showed a significant increase in the group with 2.5% zirconia nanofillers, but not in the groups with 1% and 5% nanofillers. Surface hardness was also significantly increased in the groups with 2.5% and 5% nanofillers, but not in the 1% group. The SEM images showed a highly brittle fracture in the pure PMMA group and noticeably less brittle fracture in the group with PMMA with 2.5% weight of zirconia nanofillers. Several cracks and void were also observed in the group with 5% weight of nanofillers. Reinforcement of the autopolymerized acrylic resin with 2.5% weight of untreated zirconia nanofillers significantly increased its flexural strength and surface hardness. The interim restorations play an important role in protection of hard and soft oral tissue and providing the critical function and esthetics before the final restoration replacing. Temporary restorations must have sufficient flexural strength to resist deformation during mastication force. Moreover

  15. Processes in healthcare teams that include nurse practitioners: what do patients and families perceive to be effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Jabbour, Mira; Fortin, Chantal

    2016-03-01

    To explore patient and family perceptions of team effectiveness of teams those include nurse practitioners in acute and primary care. Nurse practitioners provide safe and effective care. Patients are satisfied with the care provided by nurse practitioners. Research examining patient and family perceptions of team effectiveness following the implementation of nurse practitioners in teams is lacking. A descriptive qualitative design was used. We used purposeful sampling to identify participants in four clinical specialties. We collected data from March 2014-January 2015 using semi-structured interviews and demographic questionnaires. Content analysis was used. Descriptive statistics were generated. Participants (n = 49) believed that the teams were more effective after the implementation of a nurse practitioner and this was important to them. They described processes that teams with nurse practitioners used to effectively provide care. These processes included improved communication, involvement in decision-making, cohesion, care coordination, problem-solving, and a focus on the needs of patients and families. Participants highlighted the importance of interpersonal team dynamics. A human approach, trust, being open to discussion, listening to patient and family concerns and respect were particularly valued by participants. Different processes emerged as priorities when data were examined by speciality. However, communication, trust and taking the time to provide care were the most important processes. The study provides new insights into the views of patients and families and micro-level processes in teams with nurse practitioners. The relative importance of each process varied according to the patient's health condition. Patients and providers identified similar team processes. Future research is needed to identify how team processes influence care outcomes. The findings can support patients, clinicians and decision-makers to determine the processes to focus on to

  16. Effect of social media in improving knowledge among patients having fixed appliance orthodontic treatment: A single-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Silwadi, Fadi M; Gill, Daljit S; Petrie, Aviva; Cunningham, Susan J

    2015-08-01

    Research has shown that orthodontic patients are more likely to retain information presented in an audiovisual format. However, there has been little research on the effectiveness of audiovisual information provided through different routes such as the Internet. This parallel-group randomized controlled trial assessed whether provision of audiovisual information on the YouTube (Google, San Bruno, Calif) Web site to orthodontic patients undergoing fixed appliance treatment results in improved patient knowledge when compared with conventional methods of information provision. The effects of sex and ethnicity were also investigated. Participants were recruited from the Department of Orthodontics of the Eastman Dental Hospital, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom. The patients were 13 years of age and over, with no history of orthodontic treatment, and patient and parental (where appropriate) consent were obtained. The participants were randomized into control (n = 34) and intervention (n = 33) groups using a random number table; there was stratification based on age group, with permuted blocks of 10 patients. Both groups were given routine verbal and written patient information related to fixed appliances, and the participants in the intervention group were sent 3 e-mails over 6 weeks requesting that they view a 6-minute YouTube video containing similar information but in audiovisual format. Patient knowledge was measured using identical questionnaires answered on the day of recruitment (baseline) and again 6 to 8 weeks later. The researchers were unaware of group allocations when enrolling patients and scoring questionnaires. Sixty participants (89.55%) completed the study. Those who completed the trial in the intervention group (n = 30) demonstrated significantly greater improvements in knowledge than did those in the control group (n = 30), scoring, on average, almost 1 point more (95% CI for the difference, 0.305-1.602; P = 0

  17. The Effect of 4 Weeks Fixed and Mixed Intermittent Hypoxic Training (IHT) on Respiratory Metabolic and Acid-base Response of Capillary Blood During Submaximal Bicycle Exercise in Male Elite Taekwondo Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Sunoo, Sub; Nam, Sang-Seok

    2016-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of 4 weeks fixed and mixed intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) and its difference from exercise training at sea-level on exercise load, respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of capillary blood during 80% maximal heart rate (HRmax) bicycle exercise in male elite Taekwondo players. Male elite Taekwondo players (n = 25 out of 33) were randomly assigned to training at sea-level (n = 8, control group), training at 16.5%O 2 (2000 m) simulated hypoxic condition (n = 9, fixed IHT group), and training at 14.5%O 2 (3000 m) up to 2 weeks and 16.5%O 2 (2000 m) simulated hypoxic condition (n = 8, mixed IHT group) for 3 weeks. We compared their average exercise load, respiratory metabolic, and acid-base response of the capillary blood during 80% HRmax submaximal bicycle exercise before and after 4 weeks training. Fixed and mixed IHT groups showed positive improvement in respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of the capillary blood during 80% HRmax submaximal bicycle exercise after 4 weeks training. However, all dependent variables showed no significant difference between fixed IHT and mix IHT. Results suggested that mixed and fixed IHT is effective in improving respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of capillary blood in male elite Taekwondo players. Thus, IHT could be a novel and effective method for improving exercise performance through respiratory metabolic and acid-base response.

  18. Effects of surfactant mixtures, including Corexit 9527, on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruheim, P.; Bredholt, H.; Eimhjellen, K. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Biotechnology

    1999-04-01

    Mixtures of nonionic and anionic surfactants, including Corexit 9527, were tested to determine their effects on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil by cells pregrown on these substrates. Corexit 9527 inhibited oxidation of the alkanes in crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 31012, while Span 80, a Corexit 9527 constituent, markedly increased the oil oxidation rate. Another Corexit 9257 constituent, the negatively charged dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), strongly reduced the oxidation rate. The combination of Span 80 and AOT increased the rate, but not as much as Span 80 alone increased it, which tentatively explained the negative effect of Corexit 9527. The results of acetate uptake and oxidation experiments indicated that the nonionic surfactants interacted with the acetate uptake system while the anionic surfactant interacted with the oxidation system of the bacteria. The overall effect of Corexit 9527 on alkane oxidation by A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012 thus seems to be the sum of the independent effects of the individual surfactants in the surfactant mixture. When Rhodococcus sp. strain 094 was used, the alkane oxidation rate decreased to almost zero in the presence of a mixture of Tergitol 15-S-7 and AOT even though the Tergitol 15-S-7 surfactant increased the alkane oxidation rate and AOT did not affect it. This indicated that there was synergism between the two surfactants rather than an additive effect like that observed for A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012.

  19. Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial to test the effect of a smartphone application on oral-health behavior and oral hygiene in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerman, Janneke F M; van Meijel, Berno; van Empelen, Pepijn; Kramer, Gem J C; Verrips, Gijsbert H W; Pakpour, Amir H; Van den Braak, Matheus C T; van Loveren, Cor

    2018-02-07

    Adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances are at high risk of developing dental caries. To date, new smartphone technologies have seldom been used to support them in the preventive behavior that can help prevent dental caries. After an intervention-mapping process, we developed a smartphone application (the WhiteTeeth app) for preventing dental caries through improved oral-health behavior and oral hygiene. The app, which is intended to be used at home, will help adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances perform their oral self-care behavior. The app is based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) theory, and incorporates several behavior-change techniques that target the psychosocial factors of oral-health behavior. This article describes the protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effects of the WhiteTeeth app on oral-health behavior and oral-hygiene outcomes (presence of dental plaque and gingival bleeding) compared with those of care as usual, in patients aged 12-16 with fixed orthodontic appliances. The RCT has two conditions: an experimental group that will receive the WhiteTeeth app in addition to care as usual, and a control group that will only receive care as usual. Care as usual will include routine oral-health education and instruction at orthodontic check-ups. In the western part of the Netherlands 146 participants will be recruited from four orthodontic clinics. Data will be collected during three orthodontic check-ups: baseline (T0), 6 weeks of follow-up (T1) and 12 weeks of follow-up (T2). The primary study outcomes are the presence of dental plaque (measured with a modified Silness and Loë Plaque Index); and gingival bleeding (measured with the Bleeding on Marginal Probing Index). Secondary outcomes include changes in self-reported oral-health behaviors and its psychosocial factors identified by the HAPA theory, such as outcome expectancies, intention, action self-efficacy, coping planning and action

  20. Social class, employment status and inequality in psychological well-being in the UK: Cross-sectional and fixed effects analyses over two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lindsay; Paskov, Marii

    2016-10-01

    A body of academic research has shown a social class gradient in psychological well-being. Some recent work has also suggested that the gradient is worsening over time, though the evidence is mixed. We focus on two straightforward research questions: Is there a class gradient in mental health? Has this gradient changed over time? We answer these questions with attention to two specific causal pathways: employment status and unobserved heterogeneity. We use two data sources: repeated cross-sections from the Health Survey of England (HSE) and longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The combination of pooled OLS regression (with HSE) and fixed effects analysis (with BHPS) allows for a robust analysis of the relationship between class and psychological well-being. We argue that employment status is a confounder in the analysis of class inequalities and show that, along with unobserved heterogeneity, these two pathways go a long way to explain the class gradient. The effects of employment status are substantive and, unlike social class, cannot be explained away by unobserved heterogeneity. We conclude that employment status deserves greater prominence in the debate as both a pathway by which the class gradient transpires, and as another 'dimension' of inequality in its own right. Our overtime analysis suggests that skilled and unskilled manual workers had higher psychological well-being in the 1990s but by 2008 were closer to the average. Class inequalities do not appear to be widening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustained Effectiveness of a Fixed-Dose Combination of Artesunate and Amodiaquine in 480 Patients with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brice Assi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to monitor the effectiveness of artesunate-amodiaquine fixed-dose combination tablets (ASAQ Winthrop® in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Côte d’Ivoire. Two enrolment periods (November 2009 to May 2010 and March to October 2013 were compared using an identical design. Subjects with proven monospecific P. falciparum infection according to the WHO diagnostic criteria were eligible. 290 patients during each period received a dose of ASAQ Winthrop tablets appropriate for their age. The primary outcome measure was PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response at Day 28 in the per protocol population (255 in Period 1 and 240 in Period 2. This was achieved by 95.7% of patients during Period 1 and 96.3% during Period 2. Over 95% of patients were afebrile at Day 3 and complete parasite clearance was achieved at Day 3 in >99% of patients. Nineteen adverse events in nineteen patients were considered as possibly related to treatment, principally vomiting, abnormal liver function tests, and pruritus. There was no evidence for loss of effectiveness over the three-year period in spite of strong drug pressure. This trial was registered in the US Clinical Trials Registry (clinical.trials.gov under the identifier number NCT01023399.

  2. Juglans regia L. tree plantations for wood production in mining area of S. Barbara (AR. Evaluation of N-fixing accessory trees effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in experimental plots located in the Arno valley (Cavriglia, province of Arezzo - Italy. The experimental plots, walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations both pure and mixed to accessory trees (Alnus cordata Loisel., Corylus avellana L., Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L., were established in 1986 and 1989. Data on grown and architectural characteristics were collected in different periods on trees aged 9, 13 and 16. Walnut trees grown with accessory trees showed the best performances, especially if associated with N-fixing species. These positive effects are probably due to many co-occuring favourable causes, a remarkable aspect of which is the higher availability of N. To better investigate the above effect, N concentration in the soil and in walnut leaves was measured in plantations both pure and mixed with Italian alder (Alnus cordata or black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, and N concentration values were compared with growth characteristics. The results showed that Juglans regia trees associated with Italian alder grow faster, with straighter stems and better stem shapes for qualified wood production. Even if walnut trees growing in plantations with black locust show similar N concentration values, growth performances are worse.

  3. Third-order transfer matrices calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser including fringing-field effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mordik, S N

    2002-01-01

    The third-order transfer matrices are calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser using a rigorously conserved matrix method that implies the conservation of the beam phase volume at each step in the calculations. The transfer matrices (matrizants) obtained, include the fringing-field effect due to the stray fields. In the case of a rectangular distribution of the field components along the optical axis, the analytical expressions for all aberration coefficients, including the dispersion ones, are derived accurate to the third-order terms. In simulations of real fields with the stray field width other than zero, a smooth distribution of the field components is used for which similar aberration coefficients were calculated by means of the conserved numerical method . It has been found that for a smooth model, as the stray field width tends to zero, the aberration coefficients approach the corresponding aberration values in the rectangular model.

  4. Topological fixed point theory of multivalued mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Górniewicz, Lech

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents a broad introduction to the topological fixed point theory of multivalued (set-valued) mappings, treating both classical concepts as well as modern techniques. A variety of up-to-date results is described within a unified framework. Topics covered include the basic theory of set-valued mappings with both convex and nonconvex values, approximation and homological methods in the fixed point theory together with a thorough discussion of various index theories for mappings with a topologically complex structure of values, applications to many fields of mathematics, mathematical economics and related subjects, and the fixed point approach to the theory of ordinary differential inclusions. The work emphasises the topological aspect of the theory, and gives special attention to the Lefschetz and Nielsen fixed point theory for acyclic valued mappings with diverse compactness assumptions via graph approximation and the homological approach. Audience: This work will be of interest to researchers an...

  5. Accurate inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveforms for nonspinning black-hole binaries including the effect of subdominant modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Chandra Kant; Varma, Vijay; Ajith, Parameswaran

    2017-12-01

    We present an analytical waveform family describing gravitational waves (GWs) from the inspiral, merger, and ringdown of nonspinning black-hole binaries including the effect of several nonquadrupole modes [(ℓ=2 ,m =±1 ),(ℓ=3 ,m =±3 ),(ℓ=4 ,m =±4 ) apart from (ℓ=2 ,m =±2 )]. We first construct spin-weighted spherical harmonics modes of hybrid waveforms by matching numerical-relativity simulations (with mass ratio 1-10) describing the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown of the binary with post-Newtonian/effective-one-body waveforms describing the early inspiral. An analytical waveform family is constructed in frequency domain by modeling the Fourier transform of the hybrid waveforms making use of analytical functions inspired by perturbative calculations. The resulting highly accurate, ready-to-use waveforms are highly faithful (unfaithfulness ≃10-4- 10-2 ) for observation of GWs from nonspinning black-hole binaries and are extremely inexpensive to generate.

  6. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Coudeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time. METHODS: We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy, or adults of various ages. RESULTS: In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1 a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2 a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years. These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between -77% and -80% including additional vaccination costs. The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.

  7. 3-D MDT with spherical targets by bilinear interpolation for determining blood velocity profiles including the vessel wall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon; Natenapit, Mayuree

    2018-02-01

    A numerical simulation of three-dimensional (3-D) implant assisted-magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT) using ferromagnetic spherical targets, including the effect from the vessel wall on the blood flow, is presented. The targets were implanted within arterioles and subjected to an externally uniform applied magnetic field in order to increase the effectiveness of targeting magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs). The capture area (As) of the MDCPs was determined by inspection of the particle trajectories simulated from the particle equations of motion. The blood flow velocities at any particle position around the target were obtained by applying bilinear interpolation to the numerical blood velocity data. The effects on As of the type of ferromagnetic materials in the targets and MDCPs, average blood flow rates, mass fraction of the ferromagnetic material in the MDCPs, average radii of MDCPs (Rp) and the externally applied magnetic field strength (μ0H0) were evaluated. Furthermore, the appropriate μ0H0 and Rp for the IA-MDT design is suggested. In the case of the SS409 target and magnetite MDCPs, dimensionless capture areas ranging from 4.1- to 12.4 and corresponding to particle capture efficiencies of 31-94% were obtained with Rp ranging from 100- to 500 nm, weight fraction of 80%, μ0H0 of 0.6 T and an average blood flow rate of 0.01 ms-1. In addition, the more general 3-D modelling of IA-MDT in this work is applicable to IA-MDT using spherical targets implanted within blood vessels for both laminar and potential blood flows including the wall effect.

  8. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, N A; Millett, D T; Mattick, C R; Hickman, J; Macfarlane, T V; Worthington, H V

    2003-01-01

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. To evaluate the effectiveness of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Date of most recent searches: August 2002 (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2002). Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in duplicate by pairs of reviewers (Nicky Mandall (NM) and Rye Mattick (CRM); Declan Millett (DTM) and Joy Hickman (JH2)). Since the data were not presented in a form that was amenable to meta-analysis, the results of the review are presented in narrative form only. Three trials satisfied the inclusion criteria. A chemical cured composite was compared with a light cure composite (one trial), a conventional glass ionomer cement (one trial) and a polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer) (one trial). The quality of the trial reports was generally poor. It is difficult to draw any conclusions from this review, however, suggestions are made for methods of improving future research involving

  9. Fixed-Term Homotopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Vazquez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new tool for the solution of nonlinear differential equations is presented. The Fixed-Term Homotopy (FTH delivers a high precision representation of the nonlinear differential equation using only a few linear algebraic terms. In addition to this tool, a procedure based on Laplace-Padé to deal with the truncate power series resulting from the FTH method is also proposed. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, two nonlinear problems are solved and compared against other semianalytic methods. The obtained results show that FTH is a power tool capable of generating highly accurate solutions compared with other methods of literature.

  10. Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Transformation of VAT on Fixed Assets Investment Based on the Data of Jiang Su Listed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Jiating Yan; Qingchun Lu

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the transformation of VAT on the full implementation of the national. Transformation of VAT has brought huge influence on the fixed assets investment, thus affecting the development of the district economy. This study based on the data of Jiang Su listed companies studies whether the transformation of VAT increases the investment of enterprise fixed assets, whether to improve the benefit of investment, whether to accomplish the desired purpose. Research shows that the transformation ...

  11. Gravitational fixed points from perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, Max R

    2009-09-04

    The fixed point structure of the renormalization flow in higher derivative gravity is investigated in terms of the background covariant effective action using an operator cutoff that keeps track of powerlike divergences. Spectral positivity of the gauge fixed Hessian can be satisfied upon expansion in the asymptotically free higher derivative coupling. At one-loop order in this coupling strictly positive fixed points are found for the dimensionless Newton constant g(N) and the cosmological constant lambda, which are determined solely by the coefficients of the powerlike divergences. The renormalization flow is asymptotically safe with respect to this fixed point and settles on a lambda(g(N)) trajectory after O(10) units of the renormalization mass scale to accuracy 10(-7).

  12. Toward including the effect of manufacturing processes in the pre-estimated losses of the switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyhab El-Kharahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of losses plays a key role in the process of building any electrical machine. How to estimate those losses while designing any machine; by obtaining the characteristic of the electrical steel from the catalogue and calculate the losses. However, this way is inaccurate since the electrical steel performs several manufacturing processes during the process of building any machine, which affects directly the magnetic property of the electrical steel and accordingly the characteristic of the electrical steel will be affected. That means the B–H curve of the steel that was obtained from the catalogue will be changed. Moreover, during loading and rotating the machine, some important changes occur to the B–H characteristic of the electrical steel such as the stress on the laminated iron. Accordingly, the pre-estimated losses are completely far from the actual losses because they were estimated based on the data of the electrical steel obtained from the catalogue. So in order to estimate the losses precisely significant factors of the manufacturing processes must be included. The paper introduces the systematic estimation of the losses including the effect of one of the manufacturing factors. Similarly, any other manufacturing factor can be included in the pre-designed losses estimations.

  13. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  14. The effects of fixed-bed drying on the yield and composition of essential oil from long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Braga

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervium C.DC (Piperaceae is popularly known as long pepper. It grows in degraded areas of natural fields in the state of Acre, Brazil. Its leaves are 3 to 4 % essential oil rich in safrole, within the range of 90 to 94 %. In the chemical industry, safrole is an important raw material, mainly due to two of its derivatives: heliotropin, which is widely used as a fragrance and flavoring agent, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO, a vital ingredient of pyrethroid insecticides. Natural pyrethrum in particular would not be an economical insecticide without the synergistic effect of PBO; therefore, its industrial future is linked to the continued availability of PBO. As a fragrance, safrole has many applications in household products such as floor waxes, polishes, soaps, detergents and cleaning agents. In this work, leaves were dried in a fixed-bed dryer using different drying-air temperatures (35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 ºC and drying times (900, 2700 and 3600 seconds. Essential oil was extracted by cohobation (meaning that the condensed water that comes out of the flask is recycled from both raw and dried leaves. The essential oil yield and safrole content are susceptible to rapid loss of moisture by Piper hispidinervium C. DC leaves. It was observed that the essential oil yield increased twice after the drying process. However, safrole content decreased about 20 percent when temperature was above 50 ºC and drying times were more than 2700 minutes.

  15. Effects of two grading techniques of zirconia material on the fatigue limit of full-contour 3-unit fixed dental prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villefort, Regina Furbino; Amaral, Marina; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Zhang, Yu; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; de Melo, Renata Marques

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effects of two grading zirconia techniques on the fatigue limit of 3-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Methods Presintered blocks of 3Y-TZP were milled to obtain sixty-nine 3-unit FDPs, which were divided into three groups (n = 23). The control group (CTL) was sintered and glazed following manufacturer’s instructuctions. The two experimental groups presintered FDPs received a surface silica/glass infiltration treatment before the sintering process. Silica sol-gel group (SSG) was graded by the sol-gel processing route, while the glass-zirconia-glass group (GZG) was graded by an enameling technique. Graded groups did not receive a glaze layer after sintering. All FDPs were then luted with a dual-curing resin cement on composite abutments, embedded in polyurethane and stored in water for five days. The initial load of the fatigue test was calculated based on the results of the monotonic testing applied on three specimens of each group. To determine the fatigue limit, 20 samples of each group were subjected to staircase testing (100,000 cycles/5 Hz). Results The fatigue limits (in Newtons) were CTL = 1607.27, SSG = 1824.31, and GZG = 2006.57, and the Dixon and Mood test indicated statistically significant differences among groups (95% confidence interval). Significance The infiltration of silica and glass on bulk zirconia, by two different grading methods, increased the fatigue limits of monolithic zirconia FDPs. PMID:28118929

  16. An improved and cost-effective methodology for the reduction of autofluorescence in direct immunofluorescence studies on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, M S; Martins, T C; Seco, F; do Carmo, A

    2007-01-01

    Interference by autofluorescence is one of the major shortcomes of immunofluorescence analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM requires minimal tissue autofluorescence and reduced unspecific fluorescence background, requisites that become more critical when direct immunofluorescence studies are concerned. To control autofluorescence, different reagents and treatments can be used. Until now, the efficacy of the processes described depended on the tissue type and on the processing technique, no general recipe for the control of autofluorescence being available. Using paraffin sections of archival formalin-fixed murine liver, kidney and pancreas, we have found that previously described techniques were not able to reduce autofluorescence to levels that allowed direct immunofluorescence labelling. In this work, we aimed at improving currently described methodologies so that they would allow reduction of the autofluorescent background without affecting tissue integrity or direct immunofluorescence labelling. We have found that the combination of short-duration, high-intensity UV irradiation and Sudan Black B was the best approach to reduce autofluorescence in highly vascularised, high lipofuscins' content tissues, such as murine liver and kidney, and poorly vascularised, low lipofuscins' content tissues such as the pancreas. In addition, we herein show that this methodology is highly effective in reducing autofluorescent background to levels that allow detection of specific signals by direct immunofluorescence.

  17. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in formalin-fixed porcine intestinal tissue samples: comparison of immunofluorescence and in-situ hybridization, and evaluation of the effects of controlled autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T K; Boesen, H T; Vigre, H; Boye, M

    2010-01-01

    Two methods, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA; with a Lawsonia intracellularis-specific monoclonal antibody) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH; with a specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of the bacterium), were compared for their ability to detect L. intracellularis (the cause of porcine proliferative enteritis [PE]) in formalin-fixed samples of intestinal tissue. Of 69 intestinal samples with gross lesions of PE, 63 were positive by both FISH and IFA, but six were positive only by IFA. This indicated that the sensitivity of FISH was 91% that of IFA. However, both methods had a specificity of 100%. Fifty normal porcine intestines were negative by both tests. IFA was much less susceptible than FISH to the effects of autolysis. Thus, three of nine samples from pigs with PE were FISH-negative after being kept at 20 degrees C for 4 days, and seven were FISH negative after 2 weeks; after 4 weeks at this temperature, however, six of the nine samples were still IFA positive. After being kept at 4 degrees C for 12 weeks, the majority of samples (> or = 66%) were positive by both methods.

  18. The effects of extreme rainfall events on carbon release from Biological Soil Crusts covered soil in fixed sand dunes in the Tengger Desert, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Li, Xinrong; Pan, Yanxia; Hui, Rong

    2016-04-01

    How soil cover types and extreme rainfall event influence carbon (C) release in temperate desert ecosystems has largely been unexplored. We assessed the effects of extreme rainfall (quantity and intensity) events on the carbon release from soils covered by different types of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in fixed sand dunes in the Tengger Desert, Shapotou regionof northern China. We removed intact crusts down to 10 cm and measured them in PVC mesocosms. A Li-6400-09 Soil Chamber was used to measure the respiration rates of the BSCs immediately after the rainfall stopped, and continued until the respiration rates of the BSCs returned to the pre-rainfall basal rate. Our results showed that almost immediately after extreme rainfall events the respiration rates of algae crust and mixed crust were significantly inhibited, but moss crust was not significantly affected. The respiration rates of algae crust, mixed crust, and moss crust in extreme rainfall quantity and intensity events were, respectively, 0.12 and 0.41 μmolCO2/(m2•s), 0.10 and 0.45 μmolCO2/(m2•s), 0.83 and 1.69 μmolCO2/(m2•s). Our study indicated that moss crust in the advanced succession stage can well adapt to extreme rainfall events in the short term. Keywords: carbon release; extreme rainfall events; biological soil crust

  19. Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformation in a solution: Including mass transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqshenas, S. R.; Ford, I. J.; Saffari, N.

    2018-01-01

    Effects of acoustic waves on a phase transformation in a metastable phase were investigated in our previous work [S. R. Haqshenas, I. J. Ford, and N. Saffari, "Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on nucleation," J. Chem. Phys. 145, 024315 (2016)]. We developed a non-equimolar dividing surface cluster model and employed it to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallisation induced by an acoustic field in a mass-conserved system. In the present work, we developed a master equation based on a hybrid Szilard-Fokker-Planck model, which accounts for mass transportation due to acoustic waves. This model can determine the kinetics of nucleation and the early stage of growth of clusters including the Ostwald ripening phenomenon. It was solved numerically to calculate the kinetics of an isothermal sonocrystallisation process in a system with mass transportation. The simulation results show that the effect of mass transportation for different excitations depends on the waveform as well as the imposed boundary conditions and tends to be noticeable in the case of shock waves. The derivations are generic and can be used with any acoustic source and waveform.

  20. Effect of Antigen Retrieval Methods on Nonspecific Binding of Antibody-Metal Nanoparticle Conjugates on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuying; Wang, Xin-Ping; Perner, Sven; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Schlücker, Sebastian

    2018-01-02

    Immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues provides important diagnostic and prognostic information in pathology. Metal nanoparticles (NPs) and, in particular, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags as a new class of labeling reagents are promising to be used for multiplexed protein profiling on tissue sections. However, nonspecific binding of NPs onto the tissue specimens greatly hampers their clinical applications. In this study, we found that the antigen retrieval method strongly influences the extent of nonspecific binding of the antibody-SERS NP conjugates to the tissue. Our SERS labels comprised ca. 70 nm Au nanostars coated with ethylene glycol-modified Raman reporter molecules for hydrophilic stabilization and subsequent covalent bioconjugation to antibodies. We systematically investigated the influence of heat- and protease-induced epitope retrieval (HIER and PIER, respectively) on the immunostaining quality of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) on human prostate tissue sections. The best staining results were obtained with PIER. Pretreatment of the tissue sections by HIER led to selective but nonspecific adsorption of the antibody-Au nanostar conjugates onto epithelial cells, while enzymatic treatment within PIER did not. In addition to gold nanostars, also other types of metal NPs with different shapes and sizes (including ca. 20 nm quasi-spherical Au NPs and ca. 60 nm quasi-spherical Au/Ag nanoshells) as well as tissue sections from different organs (including prostate and breast) were tested; in each case the same tendency was observed, i.e., PIER yielded better results than HIER. Therefore, we recommend PIER for future NP-based tissue immunostaining such as immuno-SERS microscopy. Alternatively, for antigens that can only be unmasked by heating, PEGylation of the NPs is recommended to avoid nonspecific binding.

  1. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the fixed-dose dual bronchodilator combination tiotropium-olodaterol for patients with COPD in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Job Fm; Kocks, Janwillem Wh; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    The fixed-dose dual bronchodilator combination (FDC) of tiotropium and olodaterol showed increased effectiveness regarding lung function and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with the use of its mono-components. Yet, while effectiveness and safety have been shown, the health economic implication of this treatment is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-utility and budget impact of tiotropium-olodaterol FDC in patients with moderate to very severe COPD in the Netherlands. A cost-utility study was performed, using an individual-level Markov model. To populate the model, individual patient-level data (age, height, sex, COPD duration, baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were obtained from the tiotropium-olodaterol TOnado trial. In the model, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and patient-level data were extrapolated to utility and survival, and treatment with tiotropium-olodaterol FDC was compared with tiotropium. Cost-utility analysis was performed from the Dutch health care payer's perspective using a 15-year time horizon in the base-case analysis. The standard Dutch discount rates were applied (costs: 4.0%; effects: 1.5%). Both univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Budget impact was annually assessed over a 5-year time horizon, taking into account different levels of medication adherence. As a result of cost increases, combined with quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gains, results showed that tiotropium-olodaterol FDC had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €7,004/QALY. Without discounting, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €5,981/QALY. Results were robust in univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Budget impact was estimated at €4.3 million over 5 years assuming 100% medication adherence. Scenarios with 40%, 60%, and 80% adherence resulted in lower 5-year incremental cost increases of €1.7, €2

  2. Including the Copenhagen Adduction Exercise in the FIFA 11+ Provides Missing Eccentric Hip Adduction Strength Effect in Male Soccer Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harøy, Joar; Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The FIFA 11+ was developed as a complete warm-up program to prevent injuries in soccer players. Although reduced hip adduction strength is associated with groin injuries, none of the exercises included in the FIFA 11+ seem to specifically target hip adduction strength. PURPOSE......: To investigate the effect on eccentric hip adduction strength of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program with or without the Copenhagen adduction exercise. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: We recruited 45 eligible players from 2 U19 elite male soccer teams. Players were randomized...... into 2 groups; 1 group carried out the standard FIFA 11+ program, while the other carried out the FIFA 11+ but replaced the Nordic hamstring exercise with the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Both groups performed the intervention 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Players completed eccentric strength and sprint...

  3. Tracer experiment data sets for the verification of local and meso-scale atmospheric dispersion models including topographic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Schuler, W.

    1992-01-01

    Software and data for nuclear energy applications are acquired, tested and distributed by several information centres; in particular, relevant computer codes are distributed internationally by the OECD/NEA Data Bank (France) and by ESTSC and EPIC/RSIC (United States). This activity is coordinated among the centres and is extended outside the OECD area through an arrangement with the IAEA. This article proposes more specifically a scheme for acquiring, storing and distributing atmospheric tracer experiment data (ATE) required for verification of atmospheric dispersion models especially the most advanced ones including topographic effects and specific to the local and meso-scale. These well documented data sets will form a valuable complement to the set of atmospheric dispersion computer codes distributed internationally. Modellers will be able to gain confidence in the predictive power of their models or to verify their modelling skills. (au)

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Including a Nurse Specialist in the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Primary Care in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Holtzer-Goor

    Full Text Available Incontinence is an important health problem. Effectively treating incontinence could lead to important health gains in patients and caregivers. Management of incontinence is currently suboptimal, especially in elderly patients. To optimise the provision of incontinence care a global optimum continence service specification (OCSS was developed. The current study evaluates the costs and effects of implementing this OCSS for community-dwelling patients older than 65 years with four or more chronic diseases in the Netherlands.A decision analytic model was developed comparing the current care pathway for urinary incontinence in the Netherlands with the pathway as described in the OCSS. The new care strategy was operationalised as the appointment of a continence nurse specialist (NS located with the general practitioner (GP. This was assumed to increase case detection and to include initial assessment and treatment by the NS. The analysis used a societal perspective, including medical costs, containment products (out-of-pocket and paid by insurer, home care, informal care, and implementation costs.With the new care strategy a QALY gain of 0.005 per patient is achieved while saving €402 per patient over a 3 year period from a societal perspective. In interpreting these findings it is important to realise that many patients are undetected, even in the new care situation (36%, or receive care for containment only. In both of these groups no health gains were achieved.Implementing the OCSS in the Netherlands by locating a NS in the GP practice is likely to reduce incontinence, improve quality of life, and reduce costs. Furthermore, the study also highlighted that various areas of the continence care process lack data, which would be valuable to collect through the introduction of the NS in a study setting.

  5. SU-E-J-215: Onboard Split PET Including the Effects of Attenuation, Scatter, and Random Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, N [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Kao, C [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Thomadsen, B; Mackie, T [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) using split PET geometry was investigated as an on-board system for functional imaging and PET marker tracking, specifically with tomotherapy. The open dual ring PET would allow measurement of both inter and intra-fractional variation, improving the delineation of tumor volume at any stage in the radiation treatment delivery process. We present results from data obtained using Monte Carlo simulations including the effects of attenuation, random events, and scatter. Methods: PET design was accomplished via Monte Carlo simulations with GATE, the Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography. Images were reconstructed using Software for Image Reconstruction (STIR) with a fully 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) image reconstruction technique. Results: Monte Carlo simulations of the split PET geometry indicate that including physical factors that degrade image quality such as attenuation, random events, and scatter still prove the feasibility of near real-time PET for both inter and intra-fractional radiation delivery. The image quality of scan times under 1 minute reveals that it is possible to utilize PET scanning and reconstruction during the treatment session intrafractionally. GATE also simulates the depth information but does not correct obliqueness of the path of line of response so the data is much more realistic than the data obtained with ray tracing. Conclusion: Onboard split PET with TomoTherapy can generate quality images under 1 minute scan times without the need to correct for attenuation, scatter, random events, or depth information of the interaction.

  6. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  7. Effect of rice husk ash mass on sustainability pyrolysis zone of fixed bed downdraft gasifier with capacity of 10 kg/hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjosatyo, Adi; Haq, Imaduddin; Dafiqurrohman, Hafif; Gibran, Felly Rihlat

    2017-03-01

    The formation of pyrolysis sustainability (Sustainable Pyrolysis) is the objective of the gasification process. Pyrolysis zone in the gasification process is the result of the endothermic reaction that get heat from oxidation (combustion) of the fuel with oxygen, where cracking biomass rice husk result of such as charcoal, water vapor, steam tar, and gas - gas (CO, H 2, CH 4, CO 2 and N 2) and must be maintained at a pyrolysis temperature to obtain results plentiful gas (producer gas) or syngas (synthetic gas). Obtaining continuously syngas is indicated by flow rate (discharge) producer gas well and the consistency of the flame on the gas burner, it is highly influenced by the gasification process and the operation of the gasifier and the mass balance (mass balance) between the feeding rate of rice husk with the disposal of ash (ash removal). In experiments conducted is using fixed bed gasifier type downdraft capacity of 10 kg/h. Besides setting the mass of rice husks into the gasifier and disposal arrangements rice husk ash may affect the sustainability of the pyrolysis process, but tar produced during the gasification process causes sticky rice husk ash in the plenum gasifier. Modifications disposal system rice husk ash can facilitate the arrangement of ash disposal then could control the temperature pyrolysis with pyrolysis at temperatures between 500-750 ° C. The experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of mass quantities of rice husk ash issued against sustainability pyrolysis temperature which is obtained at each time disposal of rice husk ash to produce 60-90 grams of ash issued. From some experimental phenomena is expected to be seen pyrolysis and its effect on the flow rate of syngas and the stability of the flame on the gas burner so that this research can find a correlation to obtain performance (performance) gasifier optimal.

  8. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  9. Including the effects of elastic compressibility and volume changes in geodynamical modeling of crust-lithosphere-mantle deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monserrat, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2016-04-01

    Materials in Earth's interior are exposed to thermomechanical (e.g. variations in stress/pressure and temperature) and chemical (e.g. phase changes, serpentinization, melting) processes that are associated with volume changes. Most geodynamical codes assume the incompressible Boussinesq approximation, where changes in density due to temperature or phase change effect buoyancy, yet volumetric changes are not allowed, and mass is not locally conserved. Elastic stresses induced by volume changes due to thermal expansion, serpentinization, and melt intrusion should cause 'cold' rocks to brittlely fail at ~1% strain. When failure/yielding is an important rheological feature, we think it plausible that volume-change-linked stresses may have a significant influence on the localization of deformation. Here we discuss a new Lagrangian formulation for "elasto-compressible -visco-plastic" flow. In this formulation, the continuity equation has been generalised from a Boussinesq incompressible formulation to include recoverable, elastic, volumetric deformations linked to the local state of mean compressive stress. This formulation differs from the 'anelastic approximation' used in compressible viscous flow in that pressure- and temperature- dependent volume changes are treated as elastic deformation for a given pressure, temperature, and composition/phase. This leads to a visco-elasto-plastic formulation that can model the effects of thermal stresses, pressure-dependent volume changes, and local phase changes. We use a modified version of the (Miliman-based) FEM code M2TRI to run a set of numerical experiments for benchmarking purposes. Three benchmarks are being used to assess the accuracy of this formulation: (1) model the effects on density of a compressible mantle under the influence of gravity; (2) model the deflection of a visco-elastic beam under the influence of gravity, and its recovery when gravitational loading is artificially removed; (3) Modelling the stresses

  10. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  11. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bons, Jeffrey [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Ameri, Ali [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling

  12. The Evaporation and Survival of Cluster Galaxy Coronae. I. The Effectiveness of Isotropic Thermal Conduction Including Saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rukmani; Sarazin, Craig, E-mail: rukmani@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    We simulate the evolution of cluster galaxy hot interstellar medium (ISM) gas that is a result of the effects of ram pressure and thermal conduction in the intracluster medium (ICM). At the density and temperature of the ICM, the mean free paths of ICM electrons are comparable to the sizes of galaxies, therefore electrons can efficiently transport heat that is due to thermal conduction from the hot ICM to the cooler ISM. Galaxies consisting of dark matter halos and hot gas coronae are embedded in an ICM-like “wind tunnel” in our simulations. In this paper, we assume that thermal conduction is isotropic and include the effects of saturation. We find that as heat is transferred from the ICM to the ISM, the cooler denser ISM expands and evaporates. This process is significantly faster than gas loss due to ram pressure stripping; for our standard model galaxy, the evaporation time is 160 Myr, while the ram pressure stripping timescale is 2.5 Gyr. Thermal conduction also suppresses the formation of shear instabilities, and there are no stripped ISM tails since the ISM evaporates before tails can form. Observations of long-lived X-ray emitting coronae and ram pressure stripped X-ray tails in galaxies in group and cluster environments therefore require that thermal conduction is suppressed or offset by some additional physical process. The most likely process is anisotropic thermal conduction that is due to magnetic fields in the ISM and ICM, which we simulate and study in the next paper in this series.

  13. The Evaporation and Survival of Cluster Galaxy Coronae. I. The Effectiveness of Isotropic Thermal Conduction Including Saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rukmani; Sarazin, Craig

    2017-01-01

    We simulate the evolution of cluster galaxy hot interstellar medium (ISM) gas that is a result of the effects of ram pressure and thermal conduction in the intracluster medium (ICM). At the density and temperature of the ICM, the mean free paths of ICM electrons are comparable to the sizes of galaxies, therefore electrons can efficiently transport heat that is due to thermal conduction from the hot ICM to the cooler ISM. Galaxies consisting of dark matter halos and hot gas coronae are embedded in an ICM-like “wind tunnel” in our simulations. In this paper, we assume that thermal conduction is isotropic and include the effects of saturation. We find that as heat is transferred from the ICM to the ISM, the cooler denser ISM expands and evaporates. This process is significantly faster than gas loss due to ram pressure stripping; for our standard model galaxy, the evaporation time is 160 Myr, while the ram pressure stripping timescale is 2.5 Gyr. Thermal conduction also suppresses the formation of shear instabilities, and there are no stripped ISM tails since the ISM evaporates before tails can form. Observations of long-lived X-ray emitting coronae and ram pressure stripped X-ray tails in galaxies in group and cluster environments therefore require that thermal conduction is suppressed or offset by some additional physical process. The most likely process is anisotropic thermal conduction that is due to magnetic fields in the ISM and ICM, which we simulate and study in the next paper in this series.

  14. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  15. The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

    2011-07-01

    The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission

  16. Effect of an experimental silica-nylon reinforcement on the fracture load and flexural strength of bisacrylic interim partial fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carolina Souza; Amaral, Marina; de Cássia Papaiz Gonçalves, Fernanda; de Arruda Paes-Junior, Tarcisio José

    2016-03-01

    Materials used in the fabrication of interim restorations usually have mechanical properties inferior to those used in definitive prostheses. Various techniques may be used to reinforce these materials. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the fracture strength of interim partial fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with and without an experimental silica-nylon reinforcement placed in different orientations (horizontal or vertical) before and after thermocycling and to evaluate the flexural strength of the bisacrylic resin used for fabricating these prostheses. For fracture strength testing, 72 four-unit interim partial FDPs were fabricated from bisacrylic resin and divided into 3 groups: no reinforcement, horizontal reinforcement, and vertical reinforcement. Half of the specimens from each group were thermocycled before testing (1000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C) (n=12). An increasing load was applied to the center of the prosthesis until fracture. The flexural strength of bisacrylic resin reinforced with the experimental mesh was measured by using a 3-point bending test with 25×10.5×3.3 mm bars of resin, with or without thermocycling. The results were evaluated with analysis of variance and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (α=.05). The results showed that incorporating the experimental silica-nylon reinforcement in a horizontal orientation provided the highest values of fracture strength for the 4-unit partial FDPs. Reinforcement also enhanced the flexural strength values of bisacrylic resin bars. Silica-nylon reinforcement is an effective method of increasing the strength of interim restorations. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of type of luting agents on stress distribution in the bone surrounding implants supporting a three-unit fixed dental prosthesis: 3D finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Ehsan; Abedian, Alireza; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Khazaei, Saber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osseointegration of dental implants is influenced by many biomechanical factors that may be related to stress distribution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of type of luting agent on stress distribution in the bone surrounding implants, which support a three-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) using finite element (FE) analysis. Materials and Methods: A 3D FE model of a three-unit FDP was designed replacing the maxillary first molar with maxillary second premolar and second molar as the abutments using CATIA V5R18 software and analyzed with ABAQUS/CAE 6.6 version. The model was consisted of 465108 nodes and 86296 elements and the luting agent thickness was considered 25 μm. Three load conditions were applied on eight points in each functional cusp in horizontal (57.0 N), vertical (200.0 N) and oblique (400.0 N, θ = 120°) directions. Five different luting agents were evaluated. All materials were assumed to be linear elastic, homogeneous, time independent and isotropic. Results: For all luting agent types, the stress distribution pattern in the cortical bone, connectors, implant and abutment regions was almost uniform among the three loads. Furthermore, the maximum von Mises stress of the cortical bone was at the palatal side of second premolar. Likewise, the maximum von Mises stress in the connector region was in the top and bottom of this part. Conclusion: Luting agents transfer the load to cortical bone and different types of luting agents do not affect the pattern of load transfer. PMID:25709676

  18. The effect of aging of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues on the in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry signals in cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuovo, Allison J; Garofalo, Michela; Mikhail, Alexandria; Nicol, Alcina F; Vianna-Andrade, Cecilia; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2013-09-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are widely used in biomedical research but little is known about the effect of the age of the block or unstained slides on the in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry signal. We compared the in situ-based and immunohistochemistry-based signals for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia samples that ranged from 0 to 15 years of age. There was a progressive and statistically significant decrease in the strength of the p16 signal when comparing tissues prepared from recent unstained slides (0 to 1 y old, mean score of 92%) to those of intermediate age (5 to 7 y old, mean score of 49%) to old unstained slides (cut 13 to 15 y ago, mean score of 10%). Equivalent, progressive, and significant decreases in the intensity of the signals for microRNAs, CD45, and human papillomavirus DNA were seen in tissues stored on slides from 5 to 7 years and 13 to 15 years, respectively. However, the diminution of signal was much less, although still statistically significant, if the sections from the 13- to 15-year-old paraffin blocks were prepared in 2012. The data likely does not represent degradation of the targets as extraction of several microRNA from the old blocks showed no detectable degradation, despite the markedly weakened in situ hybridization signal. It is concluded that in situ-based signal for DNA, microRNAs, and proteins in paraffin-embedded tissues are significantly reduced over time, especially when stored long term on glass slides which, in turn, can lead to a significant underestimation of the amount and presence of the nucleic acid or protein target.

  19. Chronic cocaine exposure in adolescence: Effects on spatial discrimination reversal, delay discounting, and performance on fixed-ratio schedules in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Derek A; Boomhower, Steven R; Hutsell, Blake A; Teixeira, Kathryn M; Newland, M Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is marked by the continued development of the neural pathways that support choice and decision-making, particularly those involving dopamine signaling. Cocaine exposure during adolescence may interfere with this development and manifest as increased perseveration and delay discounting in adulthood, behavioral processes that are related to drug addiction. Adolescent mice were exposed to 30mg/kg/day of cocaine (n=11) or saline vehicle (n=10) for 14days and behavior was assessed in adulthood. In Experiment 1, performance on a spatial-discrimination-reversal procedure was evaluated. In the first two sessions following the first reversal, cocaine-exposed mice produced more preservative errors relative to controls. In Experiment 2, cocaine-exposed mice displayed steeper delay discounting than saline-exposed mice, effects that were reversed by acute cocaine administration. Experiment 3 examined responding maintained by a range of fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. An analysis based on a theoretical framework called Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement (MPR) was applied to response-rate functions of individual mice. According to MPR, differences in response-rate functions in adulthood were due to a steepening of the delay-of-reinforcement gradient, disrupted motoric capacity (lower maximum response rates), and enhanced reinforcer efficacy for the adolescent cocaine- compared with saline-exposed mice. Overall, these experiments suggest that chronic exposure to cocaine during adolescence may impair different features of 'executive functions' in adulthood, and these may be related to distortions in the impact of reinforcing events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ab initio effective core potentials including relativistic effects and their application to the electronic structure calculations of heavy atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.S.

    1977-11-01

    The effects of the 4f shell of electrons and the relativity of valence electrons are compared. The effect of 4f shell (lanthanide contraction) is estimated from the numerical Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations of pseudo-atoms corresponding to Hf, Re, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi without 4f electrons and with atomic numbers reduced by 14. The relativistic effect estimated from the numerical Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) calculations of those atoms is comparable in the magnitude with that of the 4f shell of electrons. Both are larger for 6s than for 5d or 6p electrons. The various relativistic effects on valence electrons are discussed in detail to determine the proper level of the approximation for the valence electron calculations of systems with heavy elements. An effective core potential system has been developed for heavy atoms in which relativistic effects are included in the effective potentials.

  1. A quasi-static algorithm that includes effects of characteristic time scales for simulating failures in brittle materials

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing

    2013-04-24

    When the brittle heterogeneous material is simulated via lattice models, the quasi-static failure depends on the relative magnitudes of Telem, the characteristic releasing time of the internal forces of the broken elements and Tlattice, the characteristic relaxation time of the lattice, both of which are infinitesimal compared with Tload, the characteristic loading period. The load-unload (L-U) method is used for one extreme, Telem << Tlattice, whereas the force-release (F-R) method is used for the other, Telem T lattice. For cases between the above two extremes, we develop a new algorithm by combining the L-U and the F-R trial displacement fields to construct the new trial field. As a result, our algorithm includes both L-U and F-R failure characteristics, which allows us to observe the influence of the ratio of Telem to Tlattice by adjusting their contributions in the trial displacement field. Therefore, the material dependence of the snap-back instabilities is implemented by introducing one snap-back parameter γ. Although in principle catastrophic failures can hardly be predicted accurately without knowing all microstructural information, effects of γ can be captured by numerical simulations conducted on samples with exactly the same microstructure but different γs. Such a same-specimen-based study shows how the lattice behaves along with the changing ratio of the L-U and F-R components. © 2013 The Author(s).

  2. Off-target effects of sulforaphane include the derepression of long terminal repeats through histone acetylation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Scott R; Zbasnik, Richard; Schlegel, Vicki; Zempleni, Janos

    2014-06-01

    Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate in cruciferous vegetables. Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylases, leading to the transcriptional activation of genes including tumor suppressor genes. The compound has attracted considerable attention in the chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Here we tested the hypothesis that sulforaphane is not specific for tumor suppressor genes but also activates loci such as long terminal repeats (LTRs), which might impair genome stability. Studies were conducted using chemically pure sulforaphane in primary human IMR-90 fibroblasts and in broccoli sprout feeding studies in healthy adults. Sulforaphane (2.0 μM) caused an increase in LTR transcriptional activity in cultured cells. Consumption of broccoli sprouts (34, 68 or 102 g) by human volunteers caused a dose dependent elevation in LTR mRNA in circulating leukocytes, peaking at more than a 10-fold increase. This increase in transcript levels was associated with an increase in histone H3 K9 acetylation marks in LTR 15 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects consuming sprouts. Collectively, this study suggests that sulforaphane has off-target effects that warrant further investigation when recommending high levels of sulforaphane intake, despite its promising activities in chemoprevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fracture strength of direct surface-retained fixed partial dentures : Effect of fiber reinforcement versus the use of particulate filler composites only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumbuloglu, Ovul; Ozcan, Mutlu; User, Atilla

    This study compared the fracture strengths and analyzed the failure types of direct, surface-retained, anterior fixed-partial-dentures (FPD), reinforced with four types of fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) versus non-fiber-reinforced FPDs made of three particulate filler composites (PFC). To this

  4. The effects of age-in-block on RNA-seq analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archival samples represent a vast resource for identification of chemical and pharmaceutical targets. Previous use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples has been limited due to changes in RNA introduced by fixation and embedding procedures. Recent advances in RNA-seq...

  5. The effects of rotator cuff tears, including shoulders without pain, on activities of daily living in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Osawa, Toshihisa; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Takasawa, Eiji; Takagishi, Kenji

    2012-03-01

    Few reports have so far evaluated the possible restrictions of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with asymptomatic rotator cuff tears (RCTs). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of RCTs, including shoulders without pain, on ADL in the general population. We performed medical checkups on 462 individuals (924 shoulders). All participants completed a questionnaire regarding their background and medical history. We then assessed their shoulder functions with the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and performed US (US) examinations of both shoulders to diagnose RCTs. We divided participants into tear and nontear groups and performed statistical analysis to compare total SST scores and each SST item between groups. Furthermore, we performed the same examinations for participants identified as having shoulders without pain. Among participants, those in the tear group showed significantly lower total SST scores than those in the nontear group. After examining each SST item, a significant difference was observed regarding the ability to sleep comfortably and to lift 3.6 kg to shoulder level. In shoulders without pain, the tear group showed significantly lower total SST scores than the nontear group. A significant difference was observed only regarding the ability to lift 3.6 kg to shoulder level. In the general population, ADL were restricted in participants with RCTs; they experienced night pain in the shoulder and muscle weakness during shoulder elevation. Furthermore, participants with RCTs, even if the condition itself did not induce any pain, tended to experience muscle weakness during shoulder elevation, thus resulting in restrictions of ADL.

  6. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China) using a 3D density-dependent model including tidal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Yang, Qingchun; Martín, Jordi D.; Juncosa, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    During the 1990s, groundwater overexploitation has resulted in seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the Shenzhen city, China. Although water supply facilities have been improved and alleviated seawater intrusion in recent years, groundwater overexploitation is still of great concern in some local areas. In this work we present a three-dimensional density-dependent numerical model developed with the FEFLOW code, which is aimed at simulating the extent of seawater intrusion while including tidal effects and different groundwater pumping scenarios. Model calibration, using waterheads and reported chloride concentration, has been performed based on the data from 14 boreholes, which were monitored from May 2008 to December 2009. A fairly good fitness between the observed and computed values was obtained by a manual trial-and-error method. Model prediction has been carried out forward 3 years with the calibrated model taking into account high, medium and low tide levels and different groundwater exploitation schemes. The model results show that tide-induced seawater intrusion significantly affects the groundwater levels and concentrations near the estuarine of the Dasha river, which implies that an important hydraulic connection exists between this river and groundwater, even considering that some anti-seepage measures were taken in the river bed. Two pumping scenarios were considered in the calibrated model in order to predict the future changes in the water levels and chloride concentration. The numerical results reveal a decreased tendency of seawater intrusion if groundwater exploitation does not reach an upper bound of about 1.32 × 104 m3/d. The model results provide also insights for controlling seawater intrusion in such coastal aquifer systems.

  7. Analysis of quantum ballistic electron transport in ultrasmall silicon devices including space-charge and geometric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, S. E.; Kumar, A.; Fischetti, M. V.

    2004-05-01

    A two-dimensional device simulation program which self consistently solves the Schrödinger and Poisson equations with current flow is described in detail. Significant approximations adopted in this work are the absence of scattering and a simple six-valley, parabolic band structure for silicon. A modified version of the quantum transmitting boundary method is used to describe open boundary conditions permitting current flow in device solutions far from equilibrium. The continuous energy spectrum of the system is discretized by temporarily imposing two different forms of closed boundary conditions, resulting in energies which sample the density-of-states and establish the wave function normalization conditions. These standing wave solutions ("normal modes") are decomposed into their traveling wave constituents, each of which represents injection from only one of the open boundary contacts ("traveling eigencomponents"). These current-carrying states are occupied by a drifted Fermi distribution associated with their injecting contact and summed to form the electron density in the device. Holes are neglected in this calculation. The Poisson equation is solved on the same finite element computational mesh as the Schrödinger equation; devices of arbitrary geometry can be modeled. Computational performance of the program including characterization of a "Broyden+Newton" algorithm employed in the iteration for self consistency is described. Device results are presented for a narrow silicon resonant tunneling diode (RTD) and many variants of idealized silicon double-gate field effect transistors (DGFETs). The RTD results show two resonant conduction peaks, each of which demonstrates hysteresis. Three 7.5 nm channel length DGFET structures with identical intrinsic device configurations but differing access geometries (straight, taper and "dog bone") are studied and found to have differing current flows owing to quantum-mechanical reflection in their access regions

  8. Solar tracker motor having a fixed caliper and a translating caliper each with an electromagnetic brake system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Scott James

    2013-01-29

    Concepts and technologies described herein provide for an accurate and cost-effective method for rotating a solar array disk for tracking the movement of the sun. According to various aspects, a motor includes a fixed caliper and a translating caliper positioned adjacent to one another. Electromagnetically controlled brakes on the translating caliper grip the solar array disk while adjacent, but spaced apart, electromagnets on the fixed caliper and the translating caliper are energized to create an attractive force that pulls the translating caliper with the solar array disk toward the fixed caliper. After reaching the fixed caliper, brakes on the fixed caliper are engaged with the disk, brakes on the translating caliper are released from the disk, and the translating caliper is pushed back to the starting location where the process repeats until the desired rotation is completed.

  9. Effective DNA/RNA co-extraction for analysis of microRNAs, mRNAs, and genomic DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kotorashvili

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies of archived human specimens, with known clinical follow-up, are used to identify predictive and prognostic molecular markers of disease. Due to biochemical differences, however, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE DNA and RNA have generally been extracted separately from either different tissue sections or from the same section by dividing the digested tissue. The former limits accurate correlation whilst the latter is impractical when utilizing rare or limited archived specimens. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For effective recovery of genomic DNA and total RNA from a single FFPE specimen, without splitting the proteinase-K digested tissue solution, we optimized a co-extraction method by using TRIzol and purifying DNA from the lower aqueous and RNA from the upper organic phases. Using a series of seven different archived specimens, we evaluated the total amounts of genomic DNA and total RNA recovered by our TRIzol-based co-extraction method and compared our results with those from two commercial kits, the Qiagen AllPrep DNA/RNA FFPE kit, for co-extraction, and the Ambion RecoverAll™ Total Nucleic Acid Isolation kit, for separate extraction of FFPE-DNA and -RNA. Then, to accurately assess the quality of DNA and RNA co-extracted from a single FFPE specimen, we used qRT-PCR, gene expression profiling and methylation assays to analyze microRNAs, mRNAs, and genomic DNA recovered from matched fresh and FFPE MCF10A cells. These experiments show that the TRIzol-based co-extraction method provides larger amounts of FFPE-DNA and -RNA than the two other methods, and particularly provides higher quality microRNAs and genomic DNA for subsequent molecular analyses. SIGNIFICANCE: We determined that co-extraction of genomic DNA and total RNA from a single FFPE specimen is an effective recovery approach to obtain high-quality material for parallel molecular and high-throughput analyses. Our optimized approach provides the option of

  10. Effective DNA/RNA Co-Extraction for Analysis of MicroRNAs, mRNAs, and Genomic DNA from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Christina; Lin, Juan; Ye, Kenny; Kim, Ryung; Hazan, Rachel; Rohan, Thomas; Fineberg, Susan; Loudig, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Background Retrospective studies of archived human specimens, with known clinical follow-up, are used to identify predictive and prognostic molecular markers of disease. Due to biochemical differences, however, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) DNA and RNA have generally been extracted separately from either different tissue sections or from the same section by dividing the digested tissue. The former limits accurate correlation whilst the latter is impractical when utilizing rare or limited archived specimens. Principal Findings For effective recovery of genomic DNA and total RNA from a single FFPE specimen, without splitting the proteinase-K digested tissue solution, we optimized a co-extraction method by using TRIzol and purifying DNA from the lower aqueous and RNA from the upper organic phases. Using a series of seven different archived specimens, we evaluated the total amounts of genomic DNA and total RNA recovered by our TRIzol-based co-extraction method and compared our results with those from two commercial kits, the Qiagen AllPrep DNA/RNA FFPE kit, for co-extraction, and the Ambion RecoverAll™ Total Nucleic Acid Isolation kit, for separate extraction of FFPE-DNA and -RNA. Then, to accurately assess the quality of DNA and RNA co-extracted from a single FFPE specimen, we used qRT-PCR, gene expression profiling and methylation assays to analyze microRNAs, mRNAs, and genomic DNA recovered from matched fresh and FFPE MCF10A cells. These experiments show that the TRIzol-based co-extraction method provides larger amounts of FFPE-DNA and –RNA than the two other methods, and particularly provides higher quality microRNAs and genomic DNA for subsequent molecular analyses. Significance We determined that co-extraction of genomic DNA and total RNA from a single FFPE specimen is an effective recovery approach to obtain high-quality material for parallel molecular and high-throughput analyses. Our optimized approach provides the option of collecting DNA, which

  11. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  12. Physics landscape-fixed target energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.L.

    1989-10-01

    An introductory review is presented of physics issues and opportunities at Fermilab fixed-target energies. Included are discussions of precision electroweak studies; deep inelastic lepton scattering; heavy quark production, spectroscopy, and decays; perturbative QCD; prompt photon production; massive lepton production; and spin dependence. 79 refs., 7 figs.

  13. ASIC For Complex Fixed-Point Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petilli, Stephen G.; Grimm, Michael J.; Olson, Erlend M.

    1995-01-01

    Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performs 24-bit, fixed-point arithmetic operations on arrays of complex-valued input data. High-performance, wide-band arithmetic logic unit (ALU) designed for use in computing fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and for performing ditigal filtering functions. Other applications include general computations involved in analysis of spectra and digital signal processing.

  14. Physics landscape-fixed target energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.

    1989-10-01

    An introductory review is presented of physics issues and opportunities at Fermilab fixed-target energies. Included are discussions of precision electroweak studies; deep inelastic lepton scattering; heavy quark production, spectroscopy, and decays; perturbative QCD; prompt photon production; massive lepton production; and spin dependence. 79 refs., 7 figs

  15. Florida Educational Fixed Capital Outlay Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Candice A.; Carpenter, James L.

    In July 1979, the Florida legislature commissioned a comprehensive evaluation of the state's educational fixed capital outlay (EFCO) program, through which the state funded all capital projects at all levels of public education. The study, completed for the 1980 legislative session, comprised 18 topical reports including EFCO funding recipients,…

  16. Fixed Dose Combination for TB treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, a third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. The disease is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths each year and over 8 million were developing active diseases. Moreover, according to WHO (2000, tuberculosis deaths are estimated to increase to 35 million between 2000-2020. The majority of tuberculosis patients worldwide are still treated with single drugs, or with 2-drug fixed-dose combinations (FDCs. To improve tuberculosis treatment, 2- and 3-drug FDCs were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as part of the DOTS strategy. Since 1999 a 4-drug FDC was included on the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Today, FDCs are important tools to further improve the quality of care for people with TB, and accelerate DOTS expansion to reach the global TB control targets. Fixed dose combination TB drugs could simplifies both treatment and management of drug supply, and may prevent the emergence of drug resistance .Prevention of drug resistance is just one of the potential benefits of the use of FDCs. FDCs simplify administration of drugs by reducing the number of pills a patient takes each day and decreasing the risk of incorrect prescriptions. Most tuberculosis patients need only take 3–4 FDCs tablets per day during the intensive phase of treatment, instead of the 15–16 tablets per day that is common with single-drug formulations It is much simpler to explain to patients that they need to take four tablets of the same type and colour, rather than a mixture of tablets of different shapes, colours and sizes. Also, the chance of taking an incomplete combination of drugs is eliminated, since the four essential drugs are combined into one tablet. FDCs are also simpler for care-givers as they minimize the risk of confusion. Finally, drug procurement, in all its components (stock management, shipping, distribution, is simplified by FDCs. Adverse reactions to drugs are not more

  17. IMPLICATION OF THE FIXED COMBINATIONS IN THE HYPERTENSION TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Kobalava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of fixed combinations in the hypertension (HT treatment is discussed. Theoretical and practical aspects of combination therapy, principles of rational combination therapy are present. Current guidelines on the use of fixed dose combinations, including start antihypertensive therapy are analyzed. Classification of combinations, advantages and limitations of some of them implementation are also presented. Significance of beta-blocker bisoprolol and thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide fixed combination (Lodoz is shown in HT treatment.

  18. Effect of Organic Loading Rates on biodegradation of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, oil and grease in greywater by Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hadi; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Aliasghar

    2017-05-15

    In this study, performance of Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) system in treatment of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS), and oil & grease in synthetic greywater and effect of Organic Loading Rates (OLRs) on removal efficiency within a period of 105 days were investigated. Present study was carried out in a pilot scale under such conditions as temperature of 30 ± 1 °C, dissolved oxygen of 2.32 ± 0.91 mg/l, pH of 8.01 ± 0.95 and OLRs of 0.11-1.3gCOD/L.d. Also, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were employed to specify rate of the biofilm formed on the media inside the reactor IFAS. The best removal efficiency for COD, LAS and oil and grease were respectively obtained as 92.52%, 94.24% and 90.07% in OLR 0.44gCOD/L.d. The assessment of loading rate indicated that with increased OLR to 0.44gCOD/L.d, removal efficiency of COD, oil and grease was increased while with increased OLR, removal efficiency was decreased. In doing so, based on the statistical test ANOVA, such a difference between removal efficiencies in diverse OLRs was significant for COD (p = 0.003), oil and grease (p = 0.01). However, in terms of LAS, with increased value of OLR to 0.44gCOD/L.d, the removal efficiency was increased and then with higher OLRs, removal efficiency was slightly decreased that is insignificant (p = 0.35) based on the statistical test ANOVA. The SEM images also showed that the biofilm formed on the media inside IFAS reactor plays a considerable role in adsorption and biodegradation of LAS, and oil & grease in greywater. The linear relation between inlet COD values and rate of removed LAS indicated that the ratio of inlet COD (mg/L) to removed LAS (mg/L) was 0.4. Therefore, use of IFAS system for biodegradation of LAS, oil and grease in greywater can be an applicable option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of gynecological screening on rates of conception and gestation total of Nellore cows submitted to three protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernandes Grillo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Grillo G.F., Guimarães A.L.L., Soares J.R., Mello M.R.B., Alonso L.S., Abidú-Figueiredo M. & Palhano H.B. [Effect of gynecological screening on rates of conception and gestation total of Nellore cows submitted to three protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI.] Efeito da triagem ginecológica sobre as taxas de concepção e gestação total de vacas Nelore submetidas a três protocolos de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:250-254, 2015. Área de Anatomia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. Email: helcimarpalhano@gmail.com The aim of this study was to assess the rates of total conception and gestation of Nellore cows total, commercial herd in the region of the coastal plains of the state of RJ, subjected to three hormonal protocols for synchronization of ovulation with screening of females for inclusion in the TAI program. Two hundred and six lactating females with multiple calvings hi