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Sample records for include external exposure

  1. Control of external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Control of external radiation exposure: working time, working distance, shielding: Total Linear Attenuation Coefficient, Half-Value Layer (HVL), Tenth-Value Layer (TVL); Build-up Factor

  2. External radiation exposure of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1977-01-01

    Results of several ten thousand measurements on external radiation (outside buildings, in living rooms) are used for illustrating by isodose charts covering the total area of the Federal Republic of Germany the exposure of the public from external radiation originating from natural radiation of the environment. Results of calculations on external radiation exposure of the public due to releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear installations are used for illustrating by coloured isodose charts the exposure of the public in the plant site vicinity. From comparison of the exposure levels it becomes obvious that if exposure levels of several 10 mrem per year are considered to be of real concern to public health, control of natural radoactivity in the environment of man would require more attention than present and foreseeable releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear inst

  3. External exposure measurements at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Lessard, E.T.

    1979-01-01

    External exposure rate surveys from 1975 to 1977 on the islands Nam, Eneu and Bikini of Bikini Atoll gave average external exposure rates of 24, 5.7, and 32 μR/hr respectively. The exposure rate on Eneu Island is uniform, whereas those on Bikini and Nam range from 7.0 to 80. μR/hr. Based on an assumed living pattern at Bikini Island, the adult male Bikinian is estimated to be in the presence of an external radiation field corresponding to 16 μR/hr due to debris and fallout from the 1954 BRAVO incident. This corresponds to a 30 year dose equivalent of 2.8 rem

  4. The treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Wangyang; Liu Yulong

    2009-01-01

    Radiation dermatitis is often seen and is often a complication of radiation therapy of tumors. It is characterized by poor healing, stubborn relapse, and carcinogenesis.. The treatment include drug, physical therapy and surgery. This article describes the treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure. (authors)

  5. Dose evaluation for external exposure in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal exposures including emergency and accidental are categorized into external exposure and internal contamination, although both of these may be associated with external contamination. From a point of view of lifesaving in the abnormal exposures, it is primarily important to evaluate radiation dose of exposed persons as soon as possible. This report reviews the status of early dosimetry in the accidental exposures and discusses the optimum methodology of the early dose determination for external exposures in abnormal exposures. Personal monitors generally give an indication of dose to an exposed person only at a single part of the body. The data obtained from the personal monitors should be interpreted with care and in the light of information about the circumstances of exposure. In most cases, the records of environmental monitors or the survey with area monitors provide valuable information on the radiation fields. In the some cases, the reconstruction of the abnormal exposure is required for the dose evaluation by means of phantom experiments. In the case of neutron exposures, activation products in the body or its components or personnel possession can be useful for the early dosimetry. If the dose received by the whole body is evaluated as being very high, clinical observations and biological investigations may be more important guide to initial medical treatment than the early dosimetry. For the dose evaluation of general public, depending on the size of abnormal exposure, information that could be valuable in the assessment of abnormal exposures will come from the early dose estimates with environmental monitors and radiation survey meters. (author)

  6. Report on emergency exposure to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W.M.

    1960-01-01

    The Medical Research Council has continued a study of the effects on the health of persons in the neighbourhood of atomic energy installations should there be a release of radioactive material as a result of fires or other incidents. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations has already reported (Medical Research Council, 1959) on the maximum permissible dietary contamination for iodine 131, strontium 89, strontium 90 and caesium. 137, since it was considered that for the members of the public normally resident in the area affected ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident and that intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances The present report deals with the problem of exposure from the exterior, namely, from external sources of beta and gamma radiation. This exposure might be derived from two sources, one of relatively short duration from the passage of a cloud of radioactive material, the other of longer duration from deposited material

  7. Report on emergency exposure to external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochin, E E; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W M [Medical Research Council, Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1960-12-01

    The Medical Research Council has continued a study of the effects on the health of persons in the neighbourhood of atomic energy installations should there be a release of radioactive material as a result of fires or other incidents. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations has already reported (Medical Research Council, 1959) on the maximum permissible dietary contamination for iodine 131, strontium 89, strontium 90 and caesium. 137, since it was considered that for the members of the public normally resident in the area affected ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident and that intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances The present report deals with the problem of exposure from the exterior, namely, from external sources of beta and gamma radiation. This exposure might be derived from two sources, one of relatively short duration from the passage of a cloud of radioactive material, the other of longer duration from deposited material.

  8. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  9. AIRGAMMA, External Gamma-Ray Exposure from Radioactive Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Akihide; Iijima, Tshinori

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: AIRGAMMA calculates quickly the external exposure to gamma rays from a radioactive cloud. 2 - Method of solution: The external exposure is calculated by interpolating the normalized doses providing on the basis of the Gaussian plume model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Memory requirement is 30 Kbytes

  10. Review of retrospective dosimetry techniques for external ionising radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsbury, E. A.; Bakhanova, E.; Barquinero, J. F.; Brai, M.; Chumak, V.; Correcher, V.; Darroudi, F.; Fattibene, P.; Gruel, G.; Guclu, I.; Horn, S.; Jaworska, A.; Kulka, U.; Lindholm, C.; Lloyd, D.; Longo, A.; Marrale, M.; Monteiro Gil, O.; Oestreicher, U.; Pajic, J.; Rakic, B.; Romm, H.; Trompier, F.; Veronese, I.; Voisin, P.; Vral, A.; Whitehouse, C. A.; Wieser, A.; Woda, C.; Wojcik, A.; Rothkamm, K.

    2011-01-01

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements. (authors)

  11. External radiation exposure after deposition of man-made radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.

    1991-01-01

    The first step in assessing the external radiation exposure of the population is the determination of the gamma dose rate over meadows, which are used as reference points for various reasons. The second step is the description of external radiation exposures in urban and rural environments. The relation to the radiation exposure in a meadow is a function of the radionuclide distribution, i.e. the type of deposition. Finally, a simple method of calculating external radiation exposure is developed on the basis of recent findings. The method is compared with the method used in the UNSCEAR report for calculating radiation exposures after Chernobyl and with the method described in the AVV (General Administrative Regulation) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  12. External exposure due to natural radiation (KINKI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A field survey of exposure rates due to natural radiation has been conducted throughout the Kinki district of Japan during both September and October 1973. In each location, measurements of exposures at one to fifteen sites, one of where contained 5 stations at least, were made. A total of 143 sites were measured. Observations were made using a spherical ionization chamber and several scintillation surveymeters. The spherical plastic ionization chamber of which inner diameter and wall thickness are 200 mm and 3 mm (acrylate) respectively has adequate sensitivity for field survey. The chamber was used as a standard of apparatus, but it is difficult to use the apparatus in all locations only by the apparatus, so that a surveymeter with a NaI(Tl) 1''phi x 1'' scintillator was used for regular measurements. Two types of surveymeters, the one with a 2''phi x 2'' NaI(Tl) scintillator and the other with a 3''phi x 3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator, were used as auxiliary devices. Both the chamber and the surveymeter were used in 20 sites and their readings were compared for drawing a relationship between them. Practically the direct reading of the surveymeter were reduced into the corresponding value of the plastic chamber through the relationship of linear proportion. Systematic error at calibration ( 60 Co) and reading error (rodoh) of the plastic chamber were within +-6% (maximum over all error) and within +-3.5% (standard error for 6μ R/hr) respectively. Reading error of the surveymeter is about +-3% (standard error for 6μ R/hr). Measurements in open bare field were made at one meter above the ground and outdoor gamma-rays exposure rates (μ R/hr) were due to cosmic rays as well as terrestrial radiation, as it may be considered that the contribution of fallout due to artificial origin was very small. (J.P.N.)

  13. Years of life lost due to external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Merkle, J.M.; Ehrhardt, J.; Ninkovic, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for calculation of the years of life lost per excess death (YLL) due to stochastic health effects is applied to external exposure pathways. The short-term external exposures are due to the passage of radioactive cloud (CL) and due to the skin and clothes contamination (SK). The long-term external exposure is the one from the radioactive material deposited on ground (GR). Three nuclides, 131 I , 137 Cs and 239 Pu with extremely wide range of the half-life are considered to examine its possible influence on the calculated YLL values. For each of these nuclides, the YLL is found as a decreasing function of the age at exposure and presented graphically in this paper. Another negative correlation is established between the fully averaged YLL and the duration of the nuclide's half-life has been found for protracted exposure (GR). On the other hand, the YLL for the short-term external exposures (CL and SK) practically does not depend on the nuclide's half-life. In addition, a weak YLL dependence of the dose was commented. (author)

  14. The modelling of external exposure and inhalation pathways in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Simmonds, JR.; Ehrhardt, J.; Hasemann, I.

    1991-01-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to atmosphere the major direct exposure pathways of concern are: external irradiation from material in the cloud; internal exposure following inhalation of material in the cloud; external irradiation from material deposited on the ground; and external irradiation due to contamination of skin and clothes. In addition material resuspended from the ground can be inhaled and lead to internal exposure. In this paper the way that these exposure pathways are modelled in COSYMA is described. At present in COSYMA external exposure from deposited material is modelled using a dataset of doses per unit deposit of various radionuclides. This dataset, is based on activity deposited on undisturbed soil. The basic data are for doses outdoors and shielding factors are used to estimate doses for people indoors. Various groups of people spending different amounts of time indoors and out can be considered and shielding factors appropriate to three building types can be adopted. A more complex model has also been developed to predict radiation exposure following deposition to different surfaces in the environment. This model called EXPURT is briefly described in this paper. Using EXPURT, doses as a function of time after a single deposit have been calculated for people living in three types of area. These results are described in the paper and compared with those that are currently used in COSYMA. The paper will also discuss what future work is required in this area and the adequacy of existing models

  15. Years of life lost due to external radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Jagoš J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for calculation of the years of life lost per excess death due to stochastic health effects is applied to external exposure pathways. The short-term external exposures are due to the passage of radioactive cloud and due to the skin and clothes contamination. The long-term external exposure is the one from the radioactive material deposited on the ground (groundshine. Three nuclides, 131I, 137Cs, and 239Pu, and with the extremely wide range of half-life are considered in order to examine their possible influence on the calculated values of years of life lost. For each of these nuclides, the number of years of life lost has been found as a decreasing function of the age at the expo sure and presented graphically in this paper. For protracted exposures, the fully averaged number of years of life lost is negative correlated with the nuclide’s half-life. On the other hand, the short-term external exposures do not depend on the nuclide’s half-life. In addition, a weak years of life lost dependence of the dose has been commented.

  16. Measurement of man's exposure to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1975-01-01

    After outlining briefly the rationale for personnel radiation monitoring with integrating detectors, a review is presented of some developments which have taken place in personnel and environmental dosimetry during the past 3.5 years. The results of a pilot field experiment concerning the stability of film and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in four Latin-American countries are summarized. It shows that film dosimeters should be used only with caution, and in locations with a moderate climate. A survey is being conducted on the current status and trends in personnel monitoring, involving detailed questioning of over 150 laboratories in about forty countries to obtain information on the type of service and detectors, evaluation and recordkeeping, additional applications, problem and development areas, intercomparisons, practical experiences with different systems, administrative and legal aspects, etc. According to the preliminary results, the trend is away from photographic film and towards mostly automatic TLD systems, not only in the industrialized countries but also in several of the larger and more advanced developing countries. The need for higher quality standards and frequent performance tests under realistic conditions is emphasized. Differences in the requirements for personnel and []stationary environmental dosimeters are outlined. As evidenced by the results of a recent international intercomparison of such dosimeters under laboratory and field conditions, involving 56 dosimeter sets from eleven countries, reasonably accurate results can be obtained with several TLD systems including LiF, CaSO 4 :Dy, and CaF 2 :Mn; however CaF 2 :Dy is less reliable than the others and film is not adequate at all. Transit doses were found to be erratic and frequently high. Limitations in the assessment of population doses from stationary detector readings are discussed. (auth)

  17. External gamma exposure to radon progeny in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1985-01-01

    The external γ-exposure from radon progeny uniformly distributed in indoor air was estimated by a computer program that was developed. This program can calculate the fluence rate, exposure rate and average energy for any given point in a room of any given size. As numerical example, the exposure rate normalized to unit airborne activity is presented, together with the fluence-weighted and exposure-weighted average photon energies, for a room of representative geometry containing radon progeny in equilibrium. To cover other conditions encountered in practice, quantitative evaluations are additionally presented of the effect on the exposure brought by changes in certain parameters, such as equilibrium factor, wall thickness, room size and receptor position. The study has quantitatively substantiated the prevailing postulate that the effective dose equivalent due to external exposure resulting from normal indoor concentrations of airborne radon progeny in the room of representative geometry should only amount to 0.04 % of that from the internal exposure from the same sources, and that it should be of similarly negligible order compared with internal exposure also in the case of other room geometries. (author)

  18. External exposure model for various geometries of contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LePoire, D.; Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.

    1996-01-01

    A computational model for external exposure was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's residual radioactive material guideline computer code (RESRAD) on the basis of dose coefficients from Federal Guidance Report No. 12 and the point-kernel method. This model includes the effects of different materials and exposure distances, as well as source geometry (cover thickness, source depth, area, and shape). A material factor is calculated on the basis of the point-kernel method using material-specific photon cross-section data and buildup factors. This present model was incorporated into RESRAD-RECYCLE (a RESRAD family code used for computing radiological impacts of metal recycling) and is being incorporated into RESRAD-BUILD (a DOE recommended code for computing impacts of building decontamination). The model was compared with calculations performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Code (MCNP) and the Microshield code for three different source geometries, three different radionuclides ( 234 U, 238 U, and 60 Co, representing low, medium, and high energy, respectively), and five different source materials (iron, copper, aluminum, water, and soil). The comparison shows that results of this model are in very good agreement with MCNP calculations (within 5% for 60 Co and within 30% for 238 U and 234 U for all materials and source geometries). Significant differences (greater than 100%) were observed with Microshield for thin 234 U sources

  19. External exposure to radionuclides in air, water, and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. The dose coefficients are intended for use by Federal Agencies in calculating the dose equivalent to organs and tissues of the body

  20. Estimation of effective dose to public from external exposure to natural background radiation in saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The effective dose values in sixteen cities in Saudi Arabia due to external exposure to natural radiation were evaluated. These doses are based on natural background components including external exposure to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The importance of evaluating the effective dose to the public due to external exposure to natural background radiation lies in its epidemiological and dosimetric importance and in forming a basis for the assessment of the level of radioactive contamination or pollution in the environment in the future. The exposure to terrestrial radiation was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The exposure from cosmic radiation was determined using empirical correlation. The values evaluated for the total annual effective dose in all cities were within the world average values. The highest total annual effective dose measured in Al-Khamis city was 802 μSv/y, as compared to 305 μSv/y in Dammam city, which was considered the lowest value

  1. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of infinite exposure, estimated exposure, and 1-yr effective biological exposure are explained

  3. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs

  4. External exposure in radionuclide therapy with 153 Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezio, M.T.; Vieira, M.R. [Instituto Portugues Oncologia de Francisco Gentil, CROL, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Aim: The radiopharmaceutical 153 Sm is an beta emitter used in metastatic bone pain palliation. The prescribed activity is 37 MBq/kg body weight.. The aim of this study is to measure the dose rate of the patients during 4 to 6 hours after 153 Sm - E.D.T.M.P. administration in order to prevent external exposure of nursing staff, family members and general public. Material and Methods: Twelve patients were treated with 153 Sm in our department. External exposure rates( {mu}Sv/h) at different times and at one meter were measured, with a Geiger-Muller detector. Results: The mean dose rate at one meter was 12 {mu}Sv/h, one hour after injection and 3{mu} Sv/h, 6 hours after injection. Conclusion: The policy in our department is to keep the patient in the hospital 4-6 h, due to the risk of contamination. Based on our results, the external exposure of the nursing staff, family members and the general public is very low, in agreement with other studies. (authors)

  5. External exposure in radionuclide therapy with 153 Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezio, M.T.; Vieira, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Aim: The radiopharmaceutical 153 Sm is an beta emitter used in metastatic bone pain palliation. The prescribed activity is 37 MBq/kg body weight.. The aim of this study is to measure the dose rate of the patients during 4 to 6 hours after 153 Sm - E.D.T.M.P. administration in order to prevent external exposure of nursing staff, family members and general public. Material and Methods: Twelve patients were treated with 153 Sm in our department. External exposure rates( μSv/h) at different times and at one meter were measured, with a Geiger-Muller detector. Results: The mean dose rate at one meter was 12 μSv/h, one hour after injection and 3μ Sv/h, 6 hours after injection. Conclusion: The policy in our department is to keep the patient in the hospital 4-6 h, due to the risk of contamination. Based on our results, the external exposure of the nursing staff, family members and the general public is very low, in agreement with other studies. (authors)

  6. Trauma Exposure and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescents: Results From the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Hannah; Gary, Dahsan; McLaughlin, Katie A; Keyes, Katherine M

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to violence and other forms of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are common among youths with externalizing psychopathology. These associations likely reflect both heightened risk for the onset of externalizing problems in youth exposed to PTEs and elevated risk for experiencing PTEs among youth with externalizing disorders. In this study, we disaggregate the associations between exposure to PTEs and externalizing disorder onset in a population-representative sample of adolescents. We analyzed data from 13- to 18-year-old participants in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) (N = 6,379). Weighted survival models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for onset of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance use disorders (SUDs) associated with PTEs, and for exposure to PTEs associated with prior-onset externalizing disorders. Multiplicative interaction terms tested for effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity, and household income. All types of PTEs were associated with higher risk for SUD (HRs = 1.29-2.21), whereas only interpersonal violence (HR = 2.49) was associated with onset of CD and only among females. No associations were observed for ODD. Conversely, ODD and CD were associated with elevated risk for later exposure to interpersonal violence and other/nondisclosed events (HRs = 1.45-1.75). Externalizing disorders that typically begin in adolescence, including SUDs and CD, are more likely to emerge in adolescents with prior trauma. ODD onset, in contrast, is unrelated to trauma exposure but is associated with elevated risk of experiencing trauma later in development. CD and interpersonal violence exposure exhibit reciprocal associations. These findings have implications for interventions targeting externalizing and trauma-related psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extension of Gibbs-Duhem equation including influences of external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangze, Han; Jianjia, Meng

    2018-03-01

    Gibbs-Duhem equation is one of the fundamental equations in thermodynamics, which describes the relation among changes in temperature, pressure and chemical potential. Thermodynamic system can be affected by external field, and this effect should be revealed by thermodynamic equations. Based on energy postulate and the first law of thermodynamics, the differential equation of internal energy is extended to include the properties of external fields. Then, with homogeneous function theorem and a redefinition of Gibbs energy, a generalized Gibbs-Duhem equation with influences of external fields is derived. As a demonstration of the application of this generalized equation, the influences of temperature and external electric field on surface tension, surface adsorption controlled by external electric field, and the derivation of a generalized chemical potential expression are discussed, which show that the extended Gibbs-Duhem equation developed in this paper is capable to capture the influences of external fields on a thermodynamic system.

  8. External radiation exposure control system in accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-01-01

    The external exposure control systems in KEK and CERN are discussed to find out good practices and unreasonableness of radiation control in accelerator facilities, which plays an important role in optimizing national and/or site specific radiological regulations, referring to relevant ICRP publications. Personal dose limits and radiation area classifications were analyzed and their reasonableness were explored. Good example of supervised areas, area classification based on realistic assumptions on working time etc are found. On the other hand, unreasonable systems, that are often attributed to the national regulation or ideas presented in the old publications are also found. (author)

  9. Internal and external radiation exposures of Fukushima residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    The soil at Fukushima prefecture and its outskirts was heavily contaminated with radioactive materials from the troubled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and the residents suffered risk from internal and external radiation exposure. At first, the average dose of internal radiation exposure was estimated to be several mSv based upon the results of Chernobyl nuclear disaster. But the result of massive measurements using whole body counters shows that the average quantity of internal radioactive cesium is less than that at the Cold Water period. In the meantime, someone shows exposure dose much higher than the average. The distribution of these abnormal doses is called 'Long Tail'. One must pay attention to the long tail at the assessment of the internal radiation exposure by Fukushima nuclear disaster. The main origin of the long tail is related to frequency eating of special food. It is thus important to find persons situated in the long tail and give them guidance on the meals. (J.P.N.)

  10. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaverde, Freddy Lazo

    2008-01-01

    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the 226 Ra, 232 Th, 210 Pb e 40 K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. The results of 40 K were lower than 81 Bq kg -1 . The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y -1 for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy -1 for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy -1 for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy -1 , an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  11. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  12. Dose Record Analysis of External Exposure of Workers in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, R.; Ratovonjanahary, J. F.; Randriantsizafy, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    External personnel monitoring of workers in diagnostic radiology in Madagascar using thermoluminescence techniques has been studied in previous work for the period of 1990 to 2000. The study was based on the average of Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) and on the annual dose distribution. The results showed that mean doses are very low compared with the annual dose limits for workers of 20 mSv per year and are comparable with natural contribution of telluric X and gamma exposure which is evaluated as 3.21 mSv per year in Antananarivo. No trend in the average was observed, however, the last 4 years, the results showed a substantial decrease in the average from 2 mSv to 1 mSv. It was assumed that this was the impact of the implementation by radiation staff in their workplace of the in force regulation which is in compliance with the new basic safety standards. Indeed, since 1996, Madagascar-Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Madagascar-INSTN) and the Association Nationale de Radioprotection de Madagascar (ANARAPMAD), the Madagascar radiation protection society and associate member of IRPA, set up a national program for training of radiation workers. The number of workers trained during this period is evaluated as 50% of the total number of radiation workers in Madagascar. The present work is a continuation of the above mentioned survey during the period of 2001 to 2003. The training program was upgraded to involve personnel who will be in charge of radiation protection and safety in workplace and the training cycle lasts 2 years instead of 3 days in the previous program. The survey has been extended to include all radiation workers in Madagascar though the medical field is still the main application and represents more than 90 percent of the latter. The results shows that for this last 3 years, an other substantial decrease from 1 mSv to 0.5 mSv was observed in the average. In the dose distribution, more than 98 percent of the Hp(0.07) and more than 99

  13. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. II. Test series after Hardtack II, 1958, and summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Wheeler, D.L.; Church, B.W.; Quinn, V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The historical data on the cumulative individual external gamma exposures are tabulated for communities around the Nevada Test Site for the time periods of 1961 to the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty on 5 August 1963, and from then until 1975. The collective exposures during the two time periods are calculated to be 610 and 320 person-R, respectively. The total collective external gamma exposure from 1951 through 1975 for these communities s calculated to be 86,000 person-R. The area considered includes the countries of Clark, Lincoln, Nye, and White Pine in Nevada and the countries of Iron and Washington in Utah; inclusion of Salt Lake City would have substantially increased the calculated collective exposure because of the large population. The methods of calculation are reviewed. Also, the historical data on the assessment of dose via ingestion are reviewed with emphasis on the dose to the thyroid of infants living in St. George, UT, at the time of fallout from event HARRY on 19 May 1953

  14. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  15. Exposures from external radiation and from inhalation of resuspended material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Roth, P.; Golikov, V.; Balonov, M.; Erkin, V.; Likhtariov, I.; Garger, E.; Kashparov, V.

    1996-01-01

    In the modelling of external exposures due to cesium released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl, gamma dose rates in air over open undisturbed sites are considered to be different according to the unsoluble fraction in the deposit. This is taken into account by forming different classes according to the distance from the Chernobyl NPP. The effect of the different migration behavior in these distance classes on the gamma dose rate in air is found to increase with time. Predictions of gamma dose rates in air are based on measurements of the nuclear weapons tests fallout. Various population groups in the CIS countries are defined according to their place of residence (rural or urban), their occupation or age (indoor resp. outdoor workers, pensioners, school-children, or preschool-children), and their kind of residence (wooden, brick, or multi-storey house). Model results for various population groups are compared with the results of TLD-measurements of individual external exposures. For the calculation of inhalation doses, the new ICRP model for the respiratory tract was used. The dose assessments were conducted for measured size resolved activity distributions of resuspended material, obtained at different locations and for several kinds of agricultural operations. Inhalation doses vary considerably with respect to different kinds of work. Tractor drivers receive much higher doses than other agricultural workers, especially when the cabin window of the tractor is open. Effective doses due to the inhalation of resuspended plutonium are assessed to be a few μSv per initial deposit of one kBq/m 2 . Inhalation doses from 137 Cs are usually smaller by an order of magnitude than the doses from Pu, provided a high solubility is assumed for resuspended Cs

  16. Evaluation of an external exposure of a worker during manipulation with waste packages stored in Bohunice radioactive waste treatment centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimak, A.; Hrncir, T.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper briefly describes current state of radioactive waste management as well as radioactive waste treatment and conditioning technologies used in Bohunice Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre. Radioactive Waste management includes pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, storage, transport and disposal of radioactive waste. Presented paper deals with the evaluation of an external exposure of a worker during manipulation with fibre-reinforced concrete container stored under shelter object. The external exposure of a worker was evaluated using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA code. (Authors)

  17. External exposure from radionuclides in soil: analytical vs. simulation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Hugo; Rizzotto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The external gamma irradiation resulting from radionuclides deposited on the ground surface can be an important source of radiation exposure. The assessment of this irradiation is extremely complex due to the large number of environmental factors which affect the gamma photon flux in air originating from the ground. The source energy affects the interaction between the radiation and the medium, and the characteristics and the properties of the soil are the most relevant factors to determine the energy and the angular distribution of gamma radiation in air 1 m above the ground surface. From an analytical point of view the calculations are based on the point-kernel integration method and assume that the source concentration at any depth in soil is uniform over an infinite surface parallel to the ground plane. The dose-rate factor is applied to environmental dose assessments by means of the general equation: H(t)= χ (t) x DRF where H is the external dose rate at time t, χ is the source concentration at the location of the exposed individual, and DRF is the dose-rate factor. Dose-rate factors in air at a height of 1 m above ground are tabulated for discrete photon energies between 0.01 and 10 MeV and for source depths in soil between 0 and 300 cm. These factors were determined for sources distributed in a slab of finite thickness and sources which are exponentially distributed with depth. A Monte Carlo algorithm was developed to simulate the gamma photons transport calculation for the soil/air configuration. In this case the soil constituents were assumed to be similar to those on the earth's crust. The model considers the gamma photons source distributed uniformly in the soil profile, from the ground surface to a depth beyond which the soil is considered uncontaminated. Source gamma photons were randomly selected from the contaminated soil zone and their subsequent interactions determined by the probability of occurrence via photoelectric effect, Compton

  18. Late biological effects from internal and external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Information on late biological effects of radiation was obtained from the long-term medical followup of a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954. Endocrine data are compatible with a sequence of nonstochastic radiation effects. The ingestion of radioisotopes of iodine produced clinical thyroid hypofunction in children, biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction in some adults, thyroid adenomatous module formation, and, as a possible indirect effect of thyroid damage, at least two cases of pituitary adenoma. In contrast, the only evidence of a stochastic effect has been a real increase in thyroid cancers among the more highly exposed people of Rongelap, none of whom have evidence of residual disease. While three nonthyroidal cancers which are known to be inducible in humans by external irradiation have been documented in the exposed population, three similar cancers have occurred in an unexposed comparison population of Marshallese. Nonstochastic effects of radiation exposure may be common but subtle. In the Marshallese experience the morbidity of delayed nonstochastic effects far exceeds that of the stochastic. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V; Buglova, E; McKenna, T

    2011-01-01

    Lessons learned from responses to past events have shown that more guidance is needed for the response to radiation emergencies (in this context, a 'radiation emergency' means the same as a 'nuclear or radiological emergency') which could lead to severe deterministic effects. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for preparedness and response for a radiation emergency, inter alia, require that arrangements shall be made to prevent, to a practicable extent, severe deterministic effects and to provide the appropriate specialised treatment for these effects. These requirements apply to all exposure pathways, both internal and external, and all reasonable scenarios, to include those resulting from malicious acts (e.g. dirty bombs). This paper briefly describes the approach used to develop the basis for emergency response criteria for protective actions to prevent severe deterministic effects in the case of external exposure and intake of radioactive material.

  20. Exposure of a liquefied gas container to an external fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Phani K.

    2005-01-01

    In liquefied gas, bulk-storage facilities and plants, the separation distances between storage tanks and between a tank and a line of adjoining property that can be built are governed by local regulations and/or codes (e.g. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 58, 2004). Separation distance requirements have been in the NFPA 58 Code for over 60 years; however, no scientific foundations (either theoretical or experimental) are available for the specified distances. Even though the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry has operated safely over the years, there is a question as to whether the code-specified distances provide sufficient safety to LPG-storage tanks, when they are exposed to large external fires. A radiation heat-transfer-based model is presented in this paper. The temporal variation of the vapor-wetted tank-wall temperature is calculated when exposed to thermal radiation from an external, non-impinging, large, 30.5 m (100 ft) diameter, highly radiative, hydrocarbon fuel (pool) fire located at a specified distance. Structural steel wall of a pressurized, liquefied gas container (such as the ASME LP-Gas tank) begins to lose its strength, when the wall temperature approaches a critical temperature, 810 K (1000 deg F). LP-Gas tank walls reaching close to this temperature will be a cause for major concern because of increased potential for tank failure, which could result in catastrophic consequences. Results from the model for exposure of different size ASME (LP-Gas) containers to a hydrocarbon pool fire of 30.5 m (100 ft) in diameter, located with its base edge at the separation distances specified by NFPA 58 [NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, Table 6.3.1, 2004 ed., National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2004] indicate that the vapor-wetted wall temperature of the containers never reach the critical temperature under common wind conditions (0, 5 and 10 m/s), with the flame tilting towards the tank. This indicates that the separation

  1. Quality assurance of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the quality assurance work of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level. It mainly introduces instrumentation used in external exposure measurement and its properties, the measurement results of three times of national in-site intercomparison, and in-site sample check results of measurement results from 29 provinces, cities and autonomous regions and Wuhan, Baotou cities

  2. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities ...

  3. Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy with Combined Exposure of External and Interstitial Light Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Sato, Kazuhide; Ogata, Fusa; Okuyama, Shuhei; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2018-02-21

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new target-cell-specific cancer treatment that induces highly selective necrotic/immunogenic cell death after systemic administration of a photoabsorber antibody conjugate and subsequent NIR light exposure. However, the depth of NIR light penetration in tissue (approximately 2 cm) with external light sources limits the therapeutic effects of NIR-PIT. Interstitial light exposure using cylindrical diffusing optical fibers can overcome this limitation. The purpose in this study was to compare three NIR light delivery methods for treating tumors with NIR-PIT using a NIR laser system at an identical light energy; external exposure alone, interstitial exposure alone, and the combination. Panitumumab conjugated with the photoabsorber IRDye-700DX (pan-IR700) was intravenously administered to mice with A431-luc xenografts which are epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive. One and 2 days later, NIR light was administered to the tumors using one of three methods. Interstitial exposure alone and in combination with external sources showed the greatest decrease in bioluminescence signal intensity. Additionally, the combination of external and interstitial NIR light exposure showed significantly greater tumor size reduction and prolonged survival after NIR-PIT compared to external exposure alone. This result suggested that the combination of external and interstitial NIR light exposure was more effective than externally applied light alone. Although external exposure is the least invasive means of delivering light, the combination of external and interstitial exposures produces superior therapeutic efficacy in tumors greater than 2 cm in depth from the tissue surface.

  4. Adequacy of individual monitoring of external exposure at the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Individual monitoring of workers exposed to external radiations must fulfill technical, regulatory and organizational requirements. The external dosimetry should be adapted to the workplace. The relevant dosimetric techniques have to be chosen upon the workplace study that conditions both the categorization of exposed workers and classification of areas. Solutions exist which are satisfactory for the most situations. However, rational solutions still have to be found for a few specific situations. (author)

  5. Occupational external radiation exposure in the GDR in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, W.

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 a total of 36,794 occupationally exposed persons were monitored by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, using film badges. The monthly over-exposures (more than 4 mGy) totalled 415. In 11 cases the monthly exposure exceeded 30 mGy and 6 annual exposure values were in the range of 50 to 120 mGy. An attempt has been made to assess the annual collective and annual per caput doses for the exposed population as a whole and some subgroups without completely summing up the individual exposure data. (author)

  6. Distribution of external exposures in the Russian population after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Golikov, V.Yu.; Erkin, V.G.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The data of the monitoring of external exposure in the population of the Chernobyl accident area in Russia during seven years are presented. The deterministic model has been developed for estimation of the average dose of external exposure for different groups of urban and rural populations. The model has been verified with the results of over 10 thousand measurements of individual doses in inhabitants by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters. The stochastic model is being developed by forming the dose of external exposure in the population of a contaminated area, which allows to predict the dose distribution in critical groups of a population for the purposes of radiation protection. (author)

  7. Assessment of occupational exposures to external radiation - IAEA recommendation 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trousil, J; Plichta, J [CSOD, Praha (Czech Republic); Nikodemova, D [SOD, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The IAEA recommendation contains the guidance on: (1) establishing monitoring programmes; (2) the interpretation of results; (3) records keeping; (4) quality assurance. The objectives for workplace monitoring including the recommended methods are also involved. The choice of personal dosemeter depends not only on the type of radiation but also on the method of interpretation what will be used: (1) photon dosemeters giving information only on the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) - mostly TL or RPL dosemeters are used; (2) photon dosemeter of discriminating type giving, in addition to Hp(10) and Hp(0.07), some indication of radiation type and effective energy and detection of electrons - data which must be known for E calculation -mostly film badge is used; (3) extremity dosemeters giving information on Hp(0.07) - mostly TL dosemeters are used; (4) neutron dosemeters giving information on Hp(10) -track-etch or albedo dosemeters are used. The monitoring service should have quality assurance testing which is an organization`s internal system of procedures and practices which assures the quality of its service. This process may be part of the approval performance testing which is a part of approved procedures carried out be the authoritative organization in regular intervals. The approved monitoring service should perform the dose records keeping which serve the protection of the workers and these data are the part of the Register of the Professional Exposures which is mostly organized by the authoritative body. (J.K.).

  8. Assessment of occupational exposures to external radiation - IAEA recommendation 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousil, J.; Plichta, J.; Nikodemova, D.

    1995-01-01

    The IAEA recommendation contains the guidance on: (1) establishing monitoring programmes; (2) the interpretation of results; (3) records keeping; (4) quality assurance. The objectives for workplace monitoring including the recommended methods are also involved. The choice of personal dosemeter depends not only on the type of radiation but also on the method of interpretation what will be used: (1) photon dosemeters giving information only on the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) - mostly TL or RPL dosemeters are used; (2) photon dosemeter of discriminating type giving, in addition to Hp(10) and Hp(0.07), some indication of radiation type and effective energy and detection of electrons - data which must be known for E calculation -mostly film badge is used; (3) extremity dosemeters giving information on Hp(0.07) - mostly TL dosemeters are used; (4) neutron dosemeters giving information on Hp(10) -track-etch or albedo dosemeters are used. The monitoring service should have quality assurance testing which is an organization's internal system of procedures and practices which assures the quality of its service. This process may be part of the approval performance testing which is a part of approved procedures carried out be the authoritative organization in regular intervals. The approved monitoring service should perform the dose records keeping which serve the protection of the workers and these data are the part of the Register of the Professional Exposures which is mostly organized by the authoritative body. (J.K.)

  9. A method for including external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM and implementation into ORIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, A.E.; Wieselquist, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for handling external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM. • Source term can have polynomial or exponentially decaying time-dependence. • CRAM with source term and adjoint capability implemented to ORIGEN in SCALE. • The new solver is faster and more accurate than the original solver of ORIGEN. - Abstract: A method for including external feed with polynomial time dependence in depletion calculations with the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) is presented and the implementation of CRAM to the ORIGEN module of the SCALE suite is described. In addition to being able to handle time-dependent feed rates, the new solver also adds the capability to perform adjoint calculations. Results obtained with the new CRAM solver and the original depletion solver of ORIGEN are compared to high precision reference calculations, which shows the new solver to be orders of magnitude more accurate. Furthermore, in most cases, the new solver is up to several times faster due to not requiring similar substepping as the original one

  10. Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory including the coupling to external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.

    2018-05-01

    If any violation of Lorentz symmetry exists in the hadron sector, its ultimate origins must lie at the quark level. We continue the analysis of how the theories at these two levels are connected, using chiral perturbation theory. Considering a 2-flavor quark theory, with dimension-4 operators that break Lorentz symmetry, we derive a low-energy theory of pions and nucleons that is invariant under local chiral transformations and includes the coupling to external fields. The pure meson and baryon sectors, as well as the couplings between them and the couplings to external electromagnetic and weak gauge fields, contain forms of Lorentz violation which depend on linear combinations of quark-level coefficients. In particular, at leading order the electromagnetic couplings depend on the very same combinations as appear in the free particle propagators. This means that observations of electromagnetic processes involving hadrons—such as vacuum Cerenkov radiation, which may be allowed in Lorentz-violating theories—can only reliably constrain certain particular combinations of quark coefficients.

  11. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Lene H. S.; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M. Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B.; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M.; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly 50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2–4 Gy, leveled off between 10–30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94–4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation. PMID:27128740

  12. Fertility of women after exposure to internal and external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Fertility was examined in 199 women exposed to internal and external radiation while employed in the radium watch-dial painting industry in Illinois between 1916 and 1929. In women with at least one live birth, mean log live-birth rate was significantly lower in the highest (estimated) ovarian-dose group (i.e., greater than or equal to 20 rem) than in the lowest group (<5 rem). In multiple regression analysis, intake dose (proportional to alpha-particle dose to ovaries) but not duration of employment (relevant to external gamma-ray dose to ovaries) was a statistically significant predictor of log live-birth rate. There was no evidence for an increase in fetal deaths with increasing ovarian dose level (rem). This suggests that the findings on live-birth rate may not involve post-implantation dominant lethal mutations, but pre-implantation losses could not be evaluated. Some possible explanations for these findings are discussed

  13. Fertility of women after exposure to internal and external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fertility was examined in 199 women exposed to internal and external radiation while employed in the radium watch-dial painting industry in Illinois between 1916 and 1929. In women with at least one live birth, mean log live-birth rate was significantly lower in the highest (estimated) ovarian-dose group (i.e., greater than or equal to 20 rem) than in th lowest group (<5 rem). In multiple regression analysis, intake dose (proportional to alpha-particle dose to ovaries) but not duration of employment (relevant to external gamma-ray dose to ovaries) was a statistically significant predictor of log live-birth rate. There was no evidence for an increase in fetal deaths with increasing ovarian dose level (rem). This suggests that the findings on live-birth rate may not involve post-implantation dominant lethal mutations, but preimplantation losses could not be evaluated. Some possible explanations for these findings are discussed

  14. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: external decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jech, J.J.; Berry, J.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    An accident resulted in the deposition on an injured workman's skin surfaces, in acid-burned areas and in lacerations, of something in excess of 6 mCi americium-241. The external decontamination procedures used, the change in americium content of the skin during the course of treatment, and some of the unusual problems encountered from the extrusion of foreign material and flaking of skin and scar tissue are described

  15. Patterns of poverty exposure and children’s trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinette Comeau

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we compare trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children exposed to five patterns of poverty from birth to age 14: always or never poor – stable patterns; a single transition into or out of poverty, or repeated fluctuations in and out of poverty – changing patterns. We also examine how low maternal education and single parenthood interact with these poverty exposures to compound their adverse effects. Finally, we compare the magnitude of effects associated with the patterns of poverty exposure, as well as their interactions with low maternal education and single parenthood, on trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors to determine if they are significantly different. Results reveal that initial levels and rates of change in children’s trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors are similar across the three changing patterns of poverty exposure, leading us to combine them into a single group representing intermittent poverty. Initial disparities between children who are never poor and their counterparts who are always or intermittently poor are constant over time for internalizing behaviors and grow in magnitude for externalizing behaviors. The cumulative negative effect of poverty exposure over time is stronger for externalizing vs. internalizing behaviors. Low maternal education compounds the adverse effects of persistent poverty, an effect that is similar for externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Keywords: United States, Poverty, Child mental health disparities, Externalizing behaviors, Internalizing behaviors, Multiple risk exposure

  16. External and internal exposure to natural radiations inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Elmagd, M [National Institute for Standard, Radiation Measurements Department, P.O. Box 136 Giza code no. 12211 (Egypt); Metwally, S M [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Elmongy, S A [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Safety, Cairo (Egypt); Salama, E [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); El-Fiki, S A [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-02-15

    Some ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara are closed for visit to undergo fixation processes. The workers inside these tombs exposed to natural radiations from natural Gamma emitters (external exposure) and inhale unknown radon doses (internal exposure) for long periods. The external exposure in all studied tombs is lower than the maximum recommended action level. The internal exposure in terms of annual effective dose in the south tomb is equal to 28.83mSv/year which highly exceed the recommended level (3-10mSv/year). In this tomb, the external exposure is equal to 21.43{mu}Sv/year. This reflects the hazards of radon over the other natural radiations in the closed area. Among the workers inside the studied tombs, the expected morality is equal to 0.0033%, 0.0199% and 0.0724% for the south entrance of Zoser pyramid, the Serapeum tomb, and the south tomb respectively. ctively.

  17. External and internal exposure to natural radiations inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elmagd, M.; Metwally, S.M.; Elmongy, S.A.; Salama, E.; El-Fiki, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Some ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara are closed for visit to undergo fixation processes. The workers inside these tombs exposed to natural radiations from natural Gamma emitters (external exposure) and inhale unknown radon doses (internal exposure) for long periods. The external exposure in all studied tombs is lower than the maximum recommended action level. The internal exposure in terms of annual effective dose in the south tomb is equal to 28.83mSv/year which highly exceed the recommended level (3-10mSv/year). In this tomb, the external exposure is equal to 21.43μSv/year. This reflects the hazards of radon over the other natural radiations in the closed area. Among the workers inside the studied tombs, the expected morality is equal to 0.0033%, 0.0199% and 0.0724% for the south entrance of Zoser pyramid, the Serapeum tomb, and the south tomb respectively. ctively

  18. Thyroid doses from external gamma-exposure following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakevich, Sergey; Kukhta, Tatyana; Minenko, Victor; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrouch, Valeri; Shinkarev, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Full text: An increase of thyroid cancer incidence among children in Belarus has been observed after the Chernobyl accident. The main contributor to the thyroid dose was caused by 131 I intake with fresh milk in 1986. Other contributions to the thyroid dose (external gamma-exposure, short-lived iodine isotopes, internal radiocesium) were small in comparison to the dose from 131 I intakes soon after the accident. However, exposures to external radiation continued for a number of years after the accident. Thyroid doses from external gamma-exposure following the Chernobyl accident were mainly caused by gamma-exposure to 24 nuclides: 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Mo, 99 mTc, 103 Ru, 103m Rh, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 125m Te, 131m Te, 131 I, 132 Te, 132 I, 133 I, 135 I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 239 Np. Data of personal interview were used to take into account the personal residence history for the time elapsed from the Chernobyl accident until the interview (10 to 15 years later). Cumulative thyroid doses caused by external gamma-exposure during the passage of the radioactive cloud and from the ground contamination following the Chernobyl accident have been reconstructed. The median thyroid dose from external gamma-exposure to ∼11,770 cohort members of an epidemiological study was estimated to be ∼6 mGy. There are ∼3,400 persons with external dose estimates that exceed 20 mGy. Exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground was the main source of external dose. The contribution from the passing radioactive cloud to external dose was found to be negligible. (author)

  19. Urbapat: External exposure and countermeasures after a radiological accident in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Gallego, E.

    1992-01-01

    URBAPAT (URBAN PATHWAY) is a computer model, written in FORTRAN 77, for the evaluation of the gamma external exposure, and the adequate countermeasures, after a radiological accident involving dispersion and deposition of radioactive material on different urban surfaces. The code estimates the evolution of radioactive material in the urban environment using a dynamic model consisting on 21 compartments, that simulate five different urban surfaces with their particular retention properties. For the assessment of the gamma external exposure in urban areas, one of then main contributors to the long-term individual dose, the model considers the contribution of each surface to the dose rate delivered by five radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134, I-131, Te-132, Ba-140) in different locations outside and inside three types of buildings (semi-detached houses, terrace houses and multi-stored buildings). The population is classified in various groups, attending to their stay time in each location. The model can evaluate the dose avoided by the introduction of countermeasures like decontamination of the urban surfaces or relocation. An assessment of their associated costs will permit to perform the needed cost-benefit analysis of the different countermeasures and alternatives, following IAEA and ICRP recommendations. The capability to perform sensitivity and uncertainty assessment of the more important parameters affecting the results obtained will also be included in the model. (Author)

  20. Internal exposure from building materials exhaling (222)Rn and (220)Rn as compared to external exposure due to their natural radioactivity content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujić, Predrag; Celiković, Igor; Kandić, Aleksandar; Vukanac, Ivana; Durasević, Mirjana; Dragosavac, Dusan; Zunić, Zora S

    2010-01-01

    The main scope of this paper is to point out the importance of introducing radon and thoron exhalation measurements from building materials in the regulating frame. Currently (2009), such a regulation of this kind of exposure is not explicitly included in the Serbian regulating network. To this end, this work reports concentration measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials used in Serbia. Following detailed analysis, it was noticed that both internal exposures to radon and/or thoron exhaling from building materials may exceed external exposures to their precursors contained therein.

  1. External exposure from gamma radiation in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation doses received by workers in a high ore grade uranium mine are compared to those of other radiation workers and the need to be able to calculate the exposure rate from an ore body is indicated. The uranium-238 decay chain is presented and particular reference is made to the main gamma emitters and secular equilibrium of the members of the chain. Difficulties in dealing with a self attenuating volume source, in which scattering is important, are pointed out and traditional methods of solution are mentioned. It is shown that in the special case of an infinite ore body a simple solution may be obtained using the energy conservation principle. A straightforward method for calculating the exposure rate from an arbitrarily shaped ore body is given and corrections due to air attenuation, different soil types and possible lack of secular equilibrium are dealt with. The gamma ray spectrum from the ore is discussed with specific reference to the selection of suitable exposure monitors and the calculation of transmission through shields

  2. Fertility of women after exposure to internal and external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fertility was examined in 199 women exposed to internal and external radiation while employed in the radium watch-dial painting industry in Illinois between 1916 and 1929. In women with at least one live birth, mean log live-birth rate was significantly lower in the highest (estimated) ovarian-dose group than in the lowest group. In multiple regression analysis, intake dose but not duration of employment was a statistically significant predictor of log live-birth rate. There was no evidence for an increase in fetal deaths with increasing ovarian dose level (rem). This suggests that the findings on live-birth rate may not involve post-implantation dominant lethal mutations, but preimplantation losses could not be evaluated. Some possible explanations for these findings are discussed

  3. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: A brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Within months of Roentgen's discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts, leukemia and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intra-uterine exposure. No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements, the F 1 mortality, cytogenetic studies or biochemical genetic studies. Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes, and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes. Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia, a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others. The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased frequencies of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cancers and certain causes of death other than cancer. 88 refs., 1 fig

  4. Evaluation of internal/external exposure from interior building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Morita-Murase, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Internal exposure to alpha particles emitted from 222 Rn (radon) and its daughters is the second leading cause of lung cancer. As a source of indoor radon in home, there are interior building materials that contain radioactive minerals. These radioactive consumer products have been claimed by distributors to have effect of 'minus-ion' or 'radon spring' for healthy promotion. We analyzed radioactive nuclides contained in the interior building materials, and measured radon levels released from them. The results of gamma-ray spectrometry revealed that these interior building materials contain U- and Th-series nuclides. The densities of some radioactive nuclides in the tile used for a bathroom exceeded the exempt limits of International Basic Safety Standards. However, the radon densities released from the tile was lower than detectable limit. In contrast, one of the wallpaper released 34 Bq·m -3 of radon gas in a 50-liter container. This value is two times higher than the average radon level in Japanese homes. The minus-ion effect' wallpapers are thought to be a cause of residential exposure to radon. (author)

  5. Patterns of poverty exposure and children's trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Jinette; Boyle, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    Using data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we compare trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children exposed to five patterns of poverty from birth to age 14: always or never poor - stable patterns; a single transition into or out of poverty, or repeated fluctuations in and out of poverty - changing patterns. We also examine how low maternal education and single parenthood interact with these poverty exposures to compound their adverse effects. Finally, we compare the magnitude of effects associated with the patterns of poverty exposure, as well as their interactions with low maternal education and single parenthood, on trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors to determine if they are significantly different. Results reveal that initial levels and rates of change in children's trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors are similar across the three changing patterns of poverty exposure, leading us to combine them into a single group representing intermittent poverty. Initial disparities between children who are never poor and their counterparts who are always or intermittently poor are constant over time for internalizing behaviors and grow in magnitude for externalizing behaviors. The cumulative negative effect of poverty exposure over time is stronger for externalizing vs. internalizing behaviors. Low maternal education compounds the adverse effects of persistent poverty, an effect that is similar for externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

  6. External exposure estimates for individuals near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.W.; Smale, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Individuals living near the Nevada Test Site were exposed to both beta and gamma radiations from fission products and activation products resulting from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. These exposures were functions of the amount of material deposited, the time of arrival of the debris, and the amount of shielding afforded by structures. Results are presented for each of nine generic life styles. These are representative of the living patterns of the people residing in the area. For each event at each location for which data exist, a representative of each life style was closely followed for a period of thirty days. The results of these detailed calculations are then extrapolated to the present. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Carcinogenesis--a synopsis of human experience with external exposure in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Studies in the 1980s of medically irradiated populations have increased our knowledge of radiation carcinogenesis. (1) Investigations of prenatal x-ray exposures, especially in twins, provide evidence that very low doses of ionizing radiation may cause cancer in humans. (2) Fractionated doses appear as effective as single exposures of the same total dose in causing breast cancer, but seem less effective for lung cancer. (3) Excess breast cancers can occur among women exposed under age 10, indicating that the immature breast is susceptible to the carcinogenic action of radiation. (4) Moderate doses on the order of 1 Gy to the brains of children can cause tumors later in life; moderately high doses to the skin can cause cancer when followed by frequent exposure to ultraviolet light. (5) Radiotherapy for cervical cancer can increase the rate of subsequent leukemia with the best fitting dose-response functions including a negative exponential term to account for cell-killing. (6) Low-dose exposures of about 10 cGy may increase the risk of thyroid cancer. (7) Second cancers following radiotherapy for a variety of cancers occur primarily among long-term survivors. (8) Radiotherapy may not significantly increase the risk of leukemia following childhood cancer, whereas chemotherapy with alkylating agents is a major risk factor. (9) Bone cancer occurs after high-dose radiotherapy for childhood cancer, but children with retinoblastoma are not more susceptible to radiation-induced disease than children with other malignancies. (10) High-dose external beam therapy can cause thyroid cancer. (11) Studies of cervical cancer patients indicate that the risk of radiation-induced second malignancies follows a time-response model consistent with a constant multiplication of the underlying background incidence. 83 references

  8. Risk assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticles via oral exposure, including toxicokinetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, Minne B; Geraets, Liesbeth; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Vandebriel, Rob J; de Jong, Wim H; Oomen, Agnes G

    2016-12-01

    Titanium dioxide white pigment consists of particles of various sizes, from which a fraction is in the nano range (food as additive E 171 as well as in other products, such as food supplements and toothpaste. Here, we assessed whether a human health risk can be expected from oral ingestion of these titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs), based on currently available information. Human health risks were assessed using two different approaches: Approach 1, based on intake, i.e. external doses, and Approach 2, based on internal organ concentrations using a kinetic model in order to account for accumulation over time (the preferred approach). Results showed that with Approach 1, a human health risk is not expected for effects in liver and spleen, but a human health risk cannot be excluded for effects on the ovaries. When based on organ concentrations by including the toxicokinetics of TiO 2 NPs (Approach 2), a potential risk for liver, ovaries and testes is found. This difference between the two approaches shows the importance of including toxicokinetic information. The currently estimated risk can be influenced by factors such as absorption, form of TiO 2 , particle fraction, particle size and physico-chemical properties in relation to toxicity, among others. Analysis of actual particle concentrations in human organs, as well as organ concentrations and effects in liver and the reproductive system after chronic exposure to well-characterized TiO 2 (NPs) in animals are recommended to refine this assessment.

  9. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  10. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  11. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  12. Accidents and incidents with external and/or internal radiation-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    An individual radiation exposure accident is an unexpected and unintended event which gives rise to an overexposure (external or internal). By overexposure one means all external or internal exposure which could lead to the exceeding of the regulatory norms. Going beyond these limits does not always produce pathological manifestations. The term radiological accident is, in practice, used only when there is an occurrence of some biological or clinical response, or when some therapeutic action is required. A radio-exposure accident can occur: within or from a nuclear power plant or from a center employing ionizing radiation. These are the most frequent; and during the transport of radioactive materials. These are exceptional events. The tanks and containers used in the transport of highly radioactive substances are exhaustively studied for their resistance to accidents, and the conditions of transport determined by very strict national and international regulations. The transport of substances of low radioactivity (labelled molecules, radiopharmaceuticals...) carries only minor risks

  13. Assessment of internal and external exposure to ionizing radiation in laboratories of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Doniec, J.; Kocznow, W.; Hawrynski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigations with determination of radioisotopes in urine led to detection of contamination with 99m Tc and radioactive iodine. The measurements and dosimetry of external radiation demonstrated that workers in laboratories of radioisotope diagnosis received a mean annual equivalent doses amounted less than 5% of the permissible dose for persons with occupational exposure. It was also established that external exposure was mainly responsible for this. The data about the levels of internal exposure in laboratories of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy demonstrated that introduction of a permanent central system of control of internal contamination of workers would be useless since the observation of the already accepted principles of radiological protection is sufficient for avoiding contamination. (author)

  14. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of Natural External Hazards Including Earthquakes. Workshop Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic, 17-20 June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident triggered discussions about the significance of external hazards and their treatment in safety analyses. In addition, stress tests results have shown vulnerabilities and potential of cliff-edge effects in plant responses to external hazards and have identified possibilities and priorities for improvements and safety measures' implementation at specific sites and designs. In order to address these issues and provide relevant conclusions and recommendations to CSNI and CNRA, the CSNI Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) directed, in cooperation with the CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (WGIAGE), a workshop hosted by UJV Rez. The key objectives of the workshop were to collect information from the OECD member states on methods and approaches being used, and experience gained in probabilistic safety assessment of natural external hazards, as well as to support the fulfillment of the CSNI task on 'PSA of natural external hazards including earthquakes'. These objectives are described more in detail in the introduction in Chapter 1 of this report. The WGRISK activities preceding the workshop and leading to the decision to organize it are described in Chapter 2 of this report. The focus of the workshop was on external events PSA for nuclear power plants, including all modes of operation. The workshop scope was generally limited to external, natural hazards, including those hazards where the distinction between natural and man-made hazards is not sharp. The detailed information about the presentations, discussions, and results of the workshop is presented in Chapter 3 of this report. Some general conclusions were agreed on during the workshop, which are presented in the following paragraphs. - The lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents and related actions at the national, regional, and global level have emphasized the importance to assess risks associated (authors) with

  15. Human internal and external exposure to PBDEs--a review of levels and sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with particular focus on external exposure routes (e.g. dust, diet, and air) and the resulting internal exposure to PBDEs (e.g. breast milk and blood). Being lipophilic and persistent organic...... ingest more dust than adults. Infants are also exposed to PBDEs via breast milk. Internal human exposure has generally been found to be one order of magnitude larger in North America than in Europe and Asia. These differences cannot solely be explained by the dietary intake as meat products are the only...... food group where some differences has been observed. However, indoor air and dust concentrations have been found to be approximately one order of magnitude higher in North America than in Europe, possibly a result of different fire safety standards. Within Europe, higher PBDE concentrations in dust...

  16. Methodology of external exposure calculation for reuse of conditional released materials from decommissioning - 59138

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondra, Frantisek; Vasko, Marek; Necas, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The article presents methodology of external exposure calculation for reuse of conditional released materials from decommissioning using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. Production of rails has been used as an example application of proposed methodology within the CONRELMAT project. The article presents a methodology for determination of radiological, material, organizational and other conditions for conditionally released materials reuse to ensure that workers and public exposure does not breach the exposure limits during scenario's life cycle (preparation, construction and operation of scenario). The methodology comprises a proposal of following conditions in the view of workers and public exposure: - radionuclide limit concentration of conditionally released materials for specific scenarios and nuclide vectors, - specific deployment of conditionally released materials eventually shielding materials, workers and public during the scenario's life cycle, - organizational measures concerning time of workers or public stay in the vicinity on conditionally released materials for individual performed scenarios and nuclide vectors. The above mentioned steps of proposed methodology have been applied within the CONRELMAT project. Exposure evaluation of workers for rail production is introduced in the article as an example of this application. Exposure calculation using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool was done within several models. The most exposed profession for scenario was identified. On the basis of this result, an increase of radionuclide concentration in conditional released material was proposed more than two times to 681 Bq/kg without no additional safety or organizational measures being applied. After application of proposed safety and organizational measures (additional shielding, geometry changes and limitation of work duration) it is possible to increase concentration of radionuclide in conditional released material more than ten times to 3092 Bq/kg. Storage

  17. Patterns of poverty exposure and children’s trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Comeau, Jinette; Boyle, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we compare trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children exposed to five patterns of poverty from birth to age 14: always or never poor – stable patterns; a single transition into or out of poverty, or repeated fluctuations in and out of poverty – changing patterns. We also examine how low maternal education and single parenthood interact with these poverty exposures to compound their...

  18. The system of personal monitoring and the evaluation of occupational exposure to external ionizing radiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Daniel; Castro, Ailza; Martinez, Ernesto; Pernas, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Personal monitoring of workers is recommended or required by the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. In our country the personal monitoring of external exposure to ionizing radiation is carried out by External Dosimetry Laboratory (LDE) of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR). We have implemented an individual monitoring service based on thermoluminescence dosimetry system. The service includes whole body and extremity dosimeters. We have two systems; one is base on a manual Toledo TLD reader and the other on an automatic RADOS TLD system. This service is recognized by the National Regulatory Authority in the field of radiation protection and safety. We have implemented a quality assurance (QA) programme designed according to the recommendations of the ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The papers deals with the presentation of these QA programme which includes administrative data and information, technical checking of the equipment, acceptance tests of new dosimeters and equipment, issuing and processing of the dosimeters, dose evaluation, record keeping and reporting, traceability, handling of complaints, internal reviews and external audits. The papers also describe the results of occupational exposure for the different practices during 2006-2007 period. (author)

  19. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed

  20. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Gren, D.C.; Simon, S.L.; Wrenn, M.E.; Hawthorne, H.A.; Lotz, T.M.; Stevens, W.; Till, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS

  1. Anharmonic 1D actuator model including electrostatic and Casimir forces with fractional damping perturbed by an external force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori Kermani, Maryam; Dehestani, Maryam

    2018-06-01

    We modeled a one-dimensional actuator including the Casimir and electrostatic forces perturbed by an external force with fractional damping. The movable electrode was assumed to oscillate by an anharmonic elastic force originated from Murrell-Mottram or Lippincott potential. The nonlinear equations have been solved via the Adomian decomposition method. The behavior of the displacement of the electrode from equilibrium position, its velocity and acceleration were described versus time. Also, the changes of the displacement have been investigated according to the frequency of the external force and the voltage of the electrostatic force. The convergence of the Adomian method and the effect of the orders of expansion on the displacement versus time, frequency, and voltage were discussed. The pull-in parameter was obtained and compared with the other models in the literature. This parameter was described versus the equilibrium position and anharmonicity constant.

  2. Anharmonic 1D actuator model including electrostatic and Casimir forces with fractional damping perturbed by an external force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori Kermani, Maryam; Dehestani, Maryam

    2018-03-01

    We modeled a one-dimensional actuator including the Casimir and electrostatic forces perturbed by an external force with fractional damping. The movable electrode was assumed to oscillate by an anharmonic elastic force originated from Murrell-Mottram or Lippincott potential. The nonlinear equations have been solved via the Adomian decomposition method. The behavior of the displacement of the electrode from equilibrium position, its velocity and acceleration were described versus time. Also, the changes of the displacement have been investigated according to the frequency of the external force and the voltage of the electrostatic force. The convergence of the Adomian method and the effect of the orders of expansion on the displacement versus time, frequency, and voltage were discussed. The pull-in parameter was obtained and compared with the other models in the literature. This parameter was described versus the equilibrium position and anharmonicity constant.

  3. Exposure of healthy subjects with emissions from a gas metal arc welding process: part 1--exposure technique and external exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P; Havlicek, P; Steiners, M; Holzinger, K; Reisgen, U; Kraus, T; Gube, M

    2013-01-01

    Studies concerning welding fume-related adverse health effects in welders are hampered by the heterogeneity of workplace situations, resulting in complex and non-standardized exposure conditions. In order to carry out welding fume exposure studies under controlled and standardized conditions, the Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory was developed. This laboratory consists of an emission room, in which welding fume is produced, and an exposure room in which human subjects are exposed to these fumes. Both rooms are connected by a ventilation system which allows the welding fume concentration to be regulated. Particle mass concentration was measured with a TEOM microbalance and the particle number-size distribution using a Grimm SMPS device. In a study, which is the subject of this paper, it has been shown that welding fume concentration can easily be regulated between 1 and about 3 mg m(-3). The chosen concentration can be kept constant for more than 8 h. However, transport of the particles from the emission room into the exposure room leads to a change in particle size distribution, which is probably due to coagulation of the fraction of smallest particles. The Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory is suitable for controlled exposure studies with human subjects.

  4. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology. PMID:27695145

  5. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleniak, Charlotte; Jenness, Jessica L; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-06-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.

  6. Stochastic health effects assessment due to short-term external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Raskob, W.; Merkle, M.; Ninkovic, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The new model for calculation of stochastic health effects is presented in this paper. The exposure pathways which are briefly considered are the short-term external exposure due to passage of the radioactive cloud (cloudshine) and the short-term external exposure due to radioactive material deposited on skin and clothes (skin contamination). The quantitative assessment of stochastic effects is expressed in numbers of deaths, which are given as a functions of the time at the accident, and age at death, what on the other side enables estimation of the number of deaths within the specified range of the time/age parameters. That means the model calculates the number of deaths within one particular year, summed up over all ages at deaths, or vice versa, it finds the number of deaths within the specified range of ages at death, summed up over all observation times. Results presented in this paper are implemented in the module LATEHEAL, which is incorporated in RODOS, a new European system for decision support for nuclear emergencies. (author)

  7. Calculation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are presented for the calculation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radioactive decay. A dose-rate conversion factor is defined as the dose-equivalent rate per unit radionuclide concentration. Exposure modes considered are immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and irradiation from a contaminated ground surface. For each radiation type and exposure mode, dose-rate conversion factors are derived for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. In addition, photon dose-rate conversion factors are estimated for 22 body organs. The calculations are based on the assumption that the exposure medium is infinite in extent and that the radionuclide concentration is uniform. The dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air and water then follow from the requirement that all of the energy emitted in the radioactive decay is absorbed in the infinite medium. Dose-rate conversion factors for ground-surface exposure are calculated at a reference location above a smooth, infinite plane using the point-kernel integration method and known specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in air

  8. Basis for calculating body equivalent doses after external radiation exposure. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Berechnungsgrundlage fuer die Ermittlung von Koerper-Aequivalentdosen bei aeusserer Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarenio, O. (comp.) [Geschaeftsstelle der Strahlenschutzkommission beim Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on the basis for calculating body equivalent doses after external radiation exposure includes the following issues: introduction covering the scope of coverage and body equivalent doses for radiation protection, terminology, photon radiation, neutron radiation, electron radiation, mixed radiation fields and the estimation of body equivalent doses for skin surface contamination.

  9. Analysis of the mortality among Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz-Flamant, C.; Hitz, M.; Samson, E.; Rogel, A.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Tirmarche, M.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.

    2006-01-01

    The present study follows 9287 Cogema workers exposed to low level of ionizing radiation from the beginning of employment to the end of 1994. This paper presents analyses of the mortality of Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure and the relation between their mortality and their cumulative external radiation dose. Workers were followed up for an average of 13 years. The percentage of subjects lost to follow up was less than 1%. during the follow-up period, 441 deaths occurred. The mean cumulative dose among the whole cohort was 19.4 mSv. As expected, the mortality of the cohort was lower than that of the French national population. The healthy worker effect is often observed in other nuclear workers studies. Part of the healthy worker effect is explained by a proportion of unemployed persons in general population, with a higher mortality rate. All causes S.M.R. increased with calendar period and duration of employment. this increase was not significant for all cancers S.M.R. by duration of employment. This could illustrate the decrease of the initial selection at employment with time. A significant increase in risk was observed for all cancers excluding leukemia mortality with increase of radiation dose in the 15-country study. Significant excess of leukemia by cumulative radiation exposure was observed in the 3-country study and was borderline significant in the 15-country study and in the UK National register for radiation workers study. A positive trend, not statistically significant, by level of external doses was observed in our study for all cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia mortality, but the analyses lack of statistical power. A significant trend was observed only for non-Hodgkin lymphoma death, but considering the large number of statistic tests computed, this result must be carefully interpreted. A borderline significant trend was observed for lung cancer death, a significant increase risk of lung cancer death

  10. Exposure to Family Violence and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ainhoa; Calvete, Esther

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment may have devastating consequences on children's development. The aim of this research was to examine the predictive associations between exposure to violence at home (witnessing violence against the mother and/or direct victimization by the parents) and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. A total of 613 Spanish adolescents (13-18 years) took part in this study. Results indicate that psychological victimization by the parents predicted an increase in anxious/depressive symptoms, aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, and substance abuse at Time 2. In addition, rule-breaking behavior predicted an increase in adolescents' substance abuse at Time 2. Concerning gender, psychological victimization predicted an increase in anxiety/depression, aggressive behavior, rule-breaking behavior, and substance abuse in boys; whereas in girls, psychological victimization only predicted an increase in anxiety/depression.

  11. External radiation exposure and radiotoxicity considerations in plutonium/uranium mixed-oxide fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.; Crosby, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear-reactor-produced plutonium emits significant electromagnetic and neutron radiations. In addition, because of its high specific alpha activity and its tendency to deposit in the lung and the soft tissues of the bone, plutonium presents a significant radiotoxicity hazard. Shielding, containment, and dosimetry techniques practiced at the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) have resulted in exemplary annual safety report statistics relevant to non-remote-handling plutonium operations. Whereas a few employees exceeded the NUMEC external exposure action level, no employee exceeded the Regulatory maximum permissible external exposure. In addition, a few employees were observed to have a lung burden in excess of the minimum sensitivity of an in vivo counting system, and one employee was observed by in vivo counting to have a lung burden in excess of the maximum permissible for a brief period. No employee was observed to have a body burden as indicated by a positive quarterly urinalysis result. Further, there were no serious incidents at the facility requiring immediate Regulatory notification, and there were no moderate incidents at the facility requiring 24-h Regulatory notification. However, there were a few reportable incidents at the facility requiring 30-day Regulatory notification, and there were a few minor incidents at the facility requiring the preparation of a NUMEC Incident Report. Details of this safety record are presented along with the health physics techniques that have contributed to the results

  12. Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, Hp(d)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantuzzi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA - Bologna has organised a one day-workshop on the subject: Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H p (d). The aim of the workshop was the discussion of the new implications and modifications to be expected in the routine individual monitoring of external radiation, due to the issue of the Decree 241/00 (G.U. 31/8/2000) in charge since 01/01/2001. The decree set up in Italian law the standards contained in the European Directive EURATOM 96/29-Basic Standards for the Protection of Health of Workers and the General Public against Dangers arising from Ionizing Radiation. Among others, the definition of the operational quantities for external radiation for personal and environmental monitoring, H p (d) e H * (d) respectively as defined by ICRU (International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurements), requires to update the methods of measurements and calibration of the personal dosemeters and environmental monitors. This report collects the papers presented at the workshop dealing with the Personal Dose Equivalent, H p (d), the conversion coefficients, H p (d)/K a e H p (d)/ , obtained through Monte Carlo calculations published by ICRU and ICRP (International Commission for Radiation Protection), the new calibration procedures and the practical implication in the routine of individual monitoring in terms of H p (d). Eventually, in the last chapter, the answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) are briefly reported [it

  13. Changes of medullary hemopoiesis produced by chronic exposure to tritium oxide and external γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murzina, L.D.; Muksinova, K.N.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study of a chronic effect of tritium oxide ( 3 HOH) and external γ-radiation by 137 Cs on medullary hemopoiesis was conducted in experiments on Wistar rats. 3 HOH was administered for 3mos., 37x10 4 Bk per lg per of body mass daily (the absorbed dose 10.8 Gy), external irradiation was given in correlated values of dose rates and integral doses. Bone marrow depopulation was 1.9 times as deeper in rats exposed to 3 HOH as compared to that in irradiated rats. This difference is caused by early and stable inhibition of erythropoiesis with the administration of the radionuclide. The integral index showing the injuring effect of tritium on erythropoiesis was 4 times as high as compared to that of external γ-irradiation by 137 Cs. The time course of value of the proliferative pool of bone marrow granulocytes with the exposure to 2 types of radiation was monotypic. Differences in maturing and functioning granulocytic pools were marked in early time of the experiment

  14. Study on the measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Saito, K.; Tsutsumi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Several important issues which affect external exposure in contaminated Chernobyl areas have been investigated using field measurements and computational simulations since 1992. The objectives of the study were: 1) the development of a mobile survey method to collect radiation data over the contaminated wide areas in a shot time; 2) the verification of a method to infer external dose to the population; 3) the provision of basic data used for evaluation of external dose due to gamma ray using a Monte Carlo simulation method. To develop a method to rapidly measure radiation over wide areas and map the extend of fallout, a mobile survey system was constructed and tested; the conversion factors to convert the measured data to required quantities were examined; and finally a detailed contamination map was created. The field surveys were implemented by using a land rover and a helicopter. To infer external dose to inhabitants, radiation measurements were carried out in the living environments using accurate dose meters in addition to individual dose measurements using glass dosimeters. Individual doses were inferred from occupancy factors and dose rate data measured with portable dose rate meters in and around houses. The evaluated doses were compared to directly measured individual doses with glass dosimeters in the seven settlements. A good agreement was observed with an error margin of approximate 20%. Basic data used for the evaluation of environmental gamma-ray dose rate were calculated using a Monte Carlo method. The following two kinds of data have been provided from the calculation: a) conversion factors from the nuclide concentration in the ground to the air kerma rate at 1 m height; and b) shielding factors of a typical Chernobyl house for gamma radiation. (M. Suetake)

  15. Evaluation of external exposures of the population of Ozyorsk, Russia, with luminescence measurements of bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Clemens; Jacob, P; Ulanovsky, A; Fiedler, I; Mokrov, Y; Rovny, S

    2009-11-01

    Recently discovered historical documents indicate that large releases of noble gases (mainly (41)Ar and radioactive isotopes of Kr and Xe) from the Mayak Production Association (MPA) over the period from 1948 to 1956 may have caused considerable external exposures of both, inhabitants of Ozyorsk and former inhabitants of villages at the upper Techa River. To quantify this exposure, seven brick samples from three buildings in Ozyorsk, located 8-10 km north-northwest from the radioactive gas release points, were taken. The absorbed dose in brick was measured in a depth interval of 3-13 mm below the exposed surface of the bricks by means of the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method. Generally, luminescence properties using TL were more favorable for precise dose determination than using OSL, but within their uncertainties the results from both methods agree well with each other. The absorbed dose due to natural radiation was assessed and subtracted under the assumption of the bricks to be completely dry. The weighted average of the anthropogenic dose for all samples measured by TL and OSL is 10 +/- 9 and 1 +/- 9 mGy, respectively. An upper limit for a possible anthropogenic dose in brick that would not be detected due to the measurement uncertainties is estimated at 24 mGy. This corresponds to an effective dose of about 21 mSv. A similar range of values is obtained in recently published dispersion calculations that were based on reconstructed MPA releases. It is concluded that the release of radioactive noble gases from the radiochemical and reactor plants at Mayak PA did not lead to a significant external exposure of the population of Ozyorsk. In addition, the study demonstrates the detection limit for anthropogenic doses in ca. 60-year-old bricks to be about 24 mGy, if luminescence methods are used.

  16. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2016-01-01

    , Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, Lind DV, Husby S, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Skakkebæk NE, Jensen TK. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261-1268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409637.......BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS...

  17. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, S., E-mail: dewjisa@ornl.gov; Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hertel, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 and Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0745 (United States); Sherbini, S.; Saba, M. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    specific activities of {sup 131}I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for {sup 131}I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ∼27% of administered {sup 131}I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ∼4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ∼3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with {sup 131}I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered {sup 131}I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. The method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  18. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K.; Hertel, N.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.

    2015-01-01

    in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131 I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ∼27% of administered 131 I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ∼4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ∼3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131 I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131 I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. The method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location

  19. Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Akerman, Måns

    2008-10-01

    We report a population based case-control study of exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Male and female subjects aged 18-74 years living in Sweden were included during December 1, 1999, to April 30, 2002. Controls were selected from the national population registry. Exposure to different agents was assessed by questionnaire. In total 910 (91 %) cases and 1016 (92%) controls participated. Exposure to herbicides gave odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.51. Regarding phenoxyacetic acids highest risk was calculated for MCPA; OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.27-6.22, all these cases had a latency period >10 years. Exposure to glyphosate gave OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.71 and with >10 years latency period OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.16-4.40. Insecticides overall gave OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.96-1.72 and impregnating agents OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07-2.30. Results are also presented for different entities of NHL. In conclusion our study confirmed an association between exposure to phenoxyacetic acids and NHL and the association with glyphosate was considerably strengthened.

  20. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutaka, T.; Naito, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  1. Studies on occupational exposure to external radiation at Fukuoka University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Teiichi; Oshima, Yoshio; Ono, Yo

    1982-01-01

    This is a report of the yearly changes of exposure received by workers in radiological occupations at Fukuoka University Hospital from August 1973 to December 1980. The total number of the workers during this period involving diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and the other related fields included 153 physicians, 27 technicians, 29 nurses and 16 assistants. Out of 225 workers, only two angiographers and two involved in intracavitary radiation therapy received more than 500 mrem of the annual exposure dose. The highest dose was 610 mrem. The exposure doses have gradually decreased each year. The exposure of the workers has remarkably decreased to almost negligible since a remote afterloading system was installed for intracavitary radiation therapy. In no worker was any somatic effect of radiation detected in the periodical physical examinations, even in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. (author)

  2. Studies on occupational exposure to external radiation at Fukuoka University Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyauchi, Teiichi; Oshima, Yoshio; Ono, Yo [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan)

    1982-09-01

    This is a report of the yearly changes of exposure received by workers in radiological occupations at Fukuoka University Hospital from August 1973 to December 1980. The total number of the workers during this period involving diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and the other related fields included 153 physicians, 27 technicians, 29 nurses and 16 assistants. Out of 225 workers, only two angiographers and two involved in intracavitary radiation therapy received more than 500 mrem of the annual exposure dose. The highest dose was 610 mrem. The exposure doses have gradually decreased each year. The exposure of the workers has remarkably decreased to almost negligible since a remote afterloading system was installed for intracavitary radiation therapy. In no worker was any somatic effect of radiation detected in the periodical physical examinations, even in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.

  3. Evaluation of the external exposure to Rn-222 progeny in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.M.; Taha, T.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; El-Hussein, A.M.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Rn-222 progeny annual effective dose, skin dose and effective doses to different organs such as Gonad, Lung, Red Marrow, Bone surface, Thyroid, and the Remainder. Dose Coefficients of external exposure to Rn-222 in air was used in mSv s/Bqm -3 to calculate the organ doses. The study was monitored for two places, Nuclear Research Center and Al-Minia University. We have confirmed that the inhalation modes, sleep, sitting, light and heavy exercise influence the activity inhalation rate Bq/hr. It varies from 0.3 to 39.6 Bq/hr., the organ doses of Pb-214 is higher than Bi-214/Po-214 and Po-218 respectively in the case of the organ dose relative to environmental media

  4. Calculation of conversion coefficients for radiological protection against external radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.

    2001-01-01

    Calculations are essential for radiation protection practice because organ doses and effective doses cannot be measured directly. Conversion coefficients describe the numerical relationships of protection quantities and operational quantities. The latter can be measured in practical situations using suitable dosimeters. The conversion coefficients are calculated using radiation transport codes - usually based on Monte Carlo methods - that simulate the interactions of radiation with matter in computational models of the human body. A new generation of human body models, the so-called voxel models, are constructed from image data of real persons using suitable image processing systems, consequently, they represent the human anatomy more realistically than the so-called mathematical models. The numerical effects of realistic body anatomy on the calculated conversion coefficients can amount to 70% and more for external exposures. (orig.) [de

  5. Calculation of age-dependent effective doses for external exposure using the MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tran Van

    2013-01-01

    Age-dependent effective dose for external exposure to photons uniformly distributed in air were calculated. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources with source energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years-old and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. From the calculated results, it is shown that the effective doses depend on the body size; the effective doses in younger phantoms are higher than those in the older phantoms, especially below 100 keV. (orig.)

  6. Calculation of age-dependent effective doses for external exposure using the MCNP code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Tran Van [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, ThuDuc, HoChiMinh City (VT)

    2013-07-15

    Age-dependent effective dose for external exposure to photons uniformly distributed in air were calculated. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources with source energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years-old and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. From the calculated results, it is shown that the effective doses depend on the body size; the effective doses in younger phantoms are higher than those in the older phantoms, especially below 100 keV. (orig.)

  7. Natural radioactivity and external gamma radiation exposure at the coastal Red Sea in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclides which present in different beach sands are sources of external exposure that contribute to the total radiation exposure of human. In this work, superficial samples of beach sand were collected from the Red Sea coastline (Ras Gharib, Hurghada, Safaga, Qusier and Marsa Alam areas) and at 20 km on Qena-Safaga road. The distribution of natural radionuclides in sand beach samples was studied by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations of primordial and artificial radionuclides in samples that are collected from the coastal environment of the Red Sea were 19.2 ± 3 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb, 21.1 ± 1 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 22.7 ± 2 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 1.0 ± 0.1 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, 11.6 ± 1 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, 13.0 ± 1 Bq kg -1 for 228 Th, 12.4 ± 1 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, 930 ± 32 Bq kg -1 for 40 K and 1.2 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs. The mean external gamma-dose rate was 62.5 ± 3.2 nSv h -1 , 54.4 ± 2.8 nGy h -1 Ra equivalent activity (Ra eq ) was 107 ± 5.8 Bq kg -1 , 0.86 ± 0.04 Bq kg -1 for representative level index (Iγ) and effective dose rate was 0.067 ± 0.003 mSv y -1 in beach sand red sea, in air due to naturally occurring radionuclides. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of dose conversion coefficients for external exposure using Taiwanese reference man and woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.J.; Hung, S.Y.; Liu, Y.L.; Jiang, S.H.; Wu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Reference man has been widely used for external and internal dose evaluation of radiation protection. The parameters of the mathematical model of organs suggested by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) are adopted from the average data of Caucasians. However, the organ masses of Asians are significantly different from the data of Caucasians, leading to potentially dosimetric errors. In this study, a total of 40 volunteers whose heights and weights corresponded to the statistical average of Taiwanese adults were recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed, and T2-weighted images were acquired. The Taiwanese reference man and woman were constructed according to the measured organ masses. The dose conversion coefficients (DCFs) for anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right lateral (RLAT) and left lateral (LLAT) irradiation geometries were simulated. For the Taiwanese reference man, the average differences of the DCFs compared with the results of ICRP-74 were 7.6, 5.1 and 11.1 % for 0.1, 1 and 10 MeV photons irradiated in the AP direction. The maximum difference reached 51.7 % for the testes irradiated by 10 MeV photons. The size of the trunk, the volume and the geometric position of organs can cause a significant impact on the DCFs for external exposure of radiation. The constructed Taiwanese reference man and woman can be used in radiation protection to increase the accuracy of dose evaluation for the Taiwanese population. (authors)

  9. External exposure doses due to gamma emitting natural radionuclides in some Egyptian building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharram, B M; Suliman, M N; Zahran, N F; Shennawy, S E; El Sayed, A R

    2012-01-01

    Using of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K and their progeny results in an external exposures of the housing of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for typical Egyptian rooms are calculated using the analytical method and activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in some building materials. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling assumed. Different room models are assumed to discuss variation of indoor dose rates according to variation in room construction. Activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K content in eight samples representative Clay soil and different building materials used in most recent Egyptian building were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The specific activity for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, from the selected samples, were in the range 14.15-60.64, 2.75-84.66 and 7.35-554.4Bqkg(-1), respectively. The average indoor absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 0.005μGyh(-1) to 0.071μGyh(-1) and the corresponding population-weighted annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation varies from 0.025 to 0.345mSv. An outdoor dose rate for typical building samples in addition to some radiological hazards has been introduced for comparison. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MR arthrography including abduction and external rotation images in the assessment of atraumatic multidirectional instability of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffeler, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Chur (Switzerland); Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Traumatology, Munich (Germany); Haller, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Schroeder, Michael [Center for Sports Orthopedics and Medicine, Orthosportiv, Munich (Germany); Imhoff, Andreas B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate diagnostic signs and measurements in the assessment of capsular redundancy in atraumatic multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder on MR arthrography (MR-A) including abduction/external rotation (ABER) images. Twenty-one MR-A including ABER position of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed MDI and 17 patients without instability were assessed by three radiologists. On ABER images, presence of a layer of contrast between the humeral head (HH) and the anteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) (crescent sign) and a triangular-shaped space between the HH, AIGHL and glenoid (triangle sign) were evaluated; centring of the HH was measured. Anterosuperior herniation of the rotator interval (RI) capsule and glenoid version were determined on standard imaging planes. The crescent sign had a sensitivity of 57 %/62 %/48 % (observers 1/2/3) and specificity of 100 %/100 %/94 % in the diagnosis of MDI. The triangle sign had a sensitivity of 48 %/57 %/48 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/100 %. The combination of both signs had a sensitivity of 86 %/90 %/81 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/94 %. A positive triangle sign was significantly associated with decentring of the HH. Measurements of RI herniation, RI width and glenoid were not significantly different between both groups. Combined assessment of redundancy signs on ABER position MR-A allows for accurate differentiation between patients with atraumatic MDI and patients with clinically stable shoulders; measurements on standard imaging planes appear inappropriate. (orig.)

  11. Mercury risk assessment combining internal and external exposure methods for a population living near a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunyan; Xie, Han; Ye, Xuejie; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Maodian; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessments for human health have been conducted for municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in many western countries, whereas only a few risk assessments have been performed for MSWIs in developing countries such as China where the use of waste incineration is increasing rapidly. To assess the mercury exposure risks of a population living near the largest MSWI in South China, we combined internal exposure and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire. The mercury concentrations in air, soil, and locally collected food around the MSWI were assessed. The total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) of 447 blood samples from a control group, residential exposure group, and MSWI workers were measured. The internal and external exposures of the subject population were analyzed. Significant difference in MeHg concentrations was observed between the control group and the exposed group, between the control group and the MSWI workers, and between the exposed group and the MSWI workers (median levels: 0.70 μg/L, 0.81 μg/L, and 1.02 μg/L for the control group, exposed group, and MSWI workers, respectively). The MeHg/T-Hg ratio was 0.51 ± 0.19, 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.58 ± 0.25, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that MeHg concentrations were positively correlated with the gaseous mercury in the air. Combining internal and external exposure assessment showed that the direct contribution of MSWI emissions was minor compared with the dietary contribution. The external and internal exposures were well matched with each other. This study also suggested that an integrated method combining internal and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire is feasible to assess the risks for a population living near a MSWI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. DEEP code to calculate dose equivalents in human phantom for external photon exposure by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1991-01-01

    The present report describes a computer code DEEP which calculates the organ dose equivalents and the effective dose equivalent for external photon exposure by the Monte Carlo method. MORSE-CG, Monte Carlo radiation transport code, is incorporated into the DEEP code to simulate photon transport phenomena in and around a human body. The code treats an anthropomorphic phantom represented by mathematical formulae and user has a choice for the phantom sex: male, female and unisex. The phantom can wear personal dosimeters on it and user can specify their location and dimension. This document includes instruction and sample problem for the code as well as the general description of dose calculation, human phantom and computer code. (author)

  13. Integrated toxic evaluation of sulfamethazine on zebrafish: Including two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Yang, Qiulian; Jiang, Weili; Lu, Jilai; Xiang, Zhongrun; Guo, Ruixin; Chen, Jianqiu

    2018-03-01

    Persistence of antibiotics in aquatic environment may pose a risk to the non-target aquatic organisms. This study provided an integrated evaluation to analyze the toxic stress of sulfamethazine (SMZ) on zebrafish in two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure). Zebrafish embryos and adult zebrafish were exposed to SMZ at 0.2, 20 and 2000 μg/L, respectively. The results showed that SMZ at any given concentration inhibited the hatching of embryos at 58-96 hpf (hours post-fertilization). Our result also indicated that two major kinds of the malformation, which was induced by the antibiotic, were edema and spinal curvature. Additionally, the antibiotic stimulated the heartbeat while reduced the body length of the embryo at 72 hpf. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents significantly increased at 120 hpf when the embryos were exposed to the lowest concentration (0.2 μg/L) of the antibiotic. On the other hand, the antibiotic induced SOD activities and MDA contents in adult zebrafish in the exposure and re-exposure periods. The MDA contents could recover while SOD activities still increased in 2 d after the exposure. Both SOD activities and MDA contents could recover in 7 d after the exposure. Levels of SOD and MDA in the re-exposure were higher than those in the first exposure. Our results suggested that SMZ had toxic effects on both embryos and adult zebrafish, and provided an integrated evaluation of the toxic effects of SMZ on zebrafish at a new perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Theoretical vs. measured risk estimates for the external exposure to ionizing radiation pathway - a case study of a major industrial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundon, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    Two methods of estimating the risk to industrial receptors to ionizing radiation are presented here. The first method relies on the use of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) external exposure slope factor combined with default exposure parameters for industrial land uses. The second method employs measured exposure rate date and site-specific exposure durations combined with the BEIR V radiological risk coefficient to estimate occupational risk. The uncertainties in each method are described qualitatively. Site-specific information was available for the exposure duration and the exposure frequency as well as historic dosimetry information. Risk estimates were also generated for the current regulatory cleanup level (removal risks included) and for a no action scenario. The study showed that uncertainties for risks calculated using measured exposure rates and site-specific exposure parameters were much lower and defendable than using EPA slope factors combined with default exposure parameters. The findings call into question the use of a uniform cleanup standard for depleted uranium that does not account for site-specific land uses and relies on theoretical models rather than measured exposure rate information

  15. Harmonisation (legal, dosimetric, quality aspects) of individual monitoring, and integration of monitoring for external and internal exposures (EURADOS working group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.A.; Currivan, L.; Falk, R.; Olko, P.; Wernli, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Dijk, J.W.E. van

    2003-01-01

    The EURADOS Working Group II on 'Harmonisation of individual monitoring' consists of experts from almost all EU Member States and Newly Associated States (NAS), involved in tasks related to the assessment of doses for internal and external radiation. The final objective is to achieve harmonisation in individual monitoring for occupational exposures. Sub-group 2 activities are focused on investigating how the results from personal dosemeters for external radiation and workplace monitoring and from monitoring for internal exposure can be combined into a complete and consistent system of individual monitoring. Three questionnaires were prepared, covering Individual monitoring of external radiation (Questionnaire 1), 'Internal exposure' (Questionnaire 2) and 'Natural sources of radiation at workplace' (Questionnaire 3). With the agreement of a 'contact-person' selected in each country, the distribution of the three EURADOS 2002 questionnaires was carried out by e-mail among the dosimetry facilities of 28 European countries. The preliminary results of these actions are presented here. (author)

  16. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  17. SOILD: A computer model for calculating the effective dose equivalent from external exposure to distributed gamma sources in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.; Yu, C.; Schafetz, S.; Mehta, P.

    1991-01-01

    The SOLID computer model was developed for calculating the effective dose equivalent from external exposure to distributed gamma sources in soil. It is designed to assess external doses under various exposure scenarios that may be encountered in environmental restoration programs. The models four major functional features address (1) dose versus source depth in soil, (2) shielding of clean cover soil, (3) area of contamination, and (4) nonuniform distribution of sources. The model is also capable of adjusting doses when there are variations in soil densities for both source and cover soils. The model is supported by a data base of approximately 500 radionuclides. 4 refs

  18. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kae; Lopez-Colon, Dalia; Shuster, Jonathan J; Philip, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS), including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points ( p  < 0.001). When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45-60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  19. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  20. Nuclear energy - Radioprotection - Procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation and describes the procedure in radiation protection monitoring for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation in nuclear installations. This radiation comprises β - radiation, β + radiation and conversion electron radiation as well as photon radiation with energies below 15 keV. This International Standard describes the procedure in radiation protection planning and monitoring as well as the measurement and analysis to be applied. It applies to regular nuclear power plant operation including maintenance, waste handling and decommissioning. The recommendations of this International Standard may also be transferred to other nuclear fields including reprocessing, if the area-specific issues are considered. This International Standard may also be applied to radiation protection at accelerator facilities and in nuclear medicine, biology and research facilities

  1. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers. Considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, L.; Laurent, O.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Ionizing Radiation Epidemiology Lab.; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris (France); Le Guen, B. [EDF, Saint Denis (France)

    2016-11-15

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricite de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  2. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers: considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L; Laurent, O; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Laroche, P; Le Guen, B; Laurier, D; Leuraud, K

    2016-11-01

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricité de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  3. Retrospective dose assessment for the population living in areas of local fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Part 1: external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, Konstantin; Shinkarev, Sergey; Ilyin, Leonid; Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Simon, Steven L.; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    A short analysis of all 111 atmospheric events conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in 1949-1962 with regard to significant off-site exposure (more than 5 mSv of the effective dose during the first year after the explosion) has been made. The analytical method used to assess external exposure to the residents living in settlements near the STS is described. This method makes used of the archival data on the radiological conditions, including the measurements of exposure rate. Special attention was given to the residents of Dolon and Kanonerka villages exposed mainly as a result of the first test, detonated on August 29, 1949. For the residents of those settlements born in 1935, the dose estimates calculated according to the analytical method, are compared to those derived from the thermoluminescence measurements in bricks and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements in teeth. The methods described in this paper were used for external dose assessment for the cohort members at an initial stage of an ongoing epidemiological study conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Recently revised methods and estimates of external exposure for that cohort are given in another paper (Simon et al.) in this conference. (author)

  4. Evaluation of external radiation exposure of personnel involved in veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, N.; Ito, N.; Natsuhori, M.; Sano, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Futatsugawa, S.; Terasaki, K.; Hirayama, H.

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary nuclear medicine has been widely applied in the US and Europe, especially for dogs, cats, and horses. The needs of the nuclear medicine in veterinary practice are also growing in Japan. This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Two sorts of well often medically used radionuclide, 18 F and 99m Tc were chosen for evaluating the exposed doses of the veterinarian, the animal owner, and the general public. Air absorption doses around a physical phantom containing radioactive materials ( 18 F or 99m Tc) were measured by glass dosimeters. (Asahi Techno Glass Ltd.) It was verified that the measurement values were corresponding to the calculation values using EGS4. Then, canine pectoral and abdominal mathematical phantom was designed, external radiation exposure of the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public from the phantom containing radioactive materials were calculated by using EGS4. Calculated exposure doses were compared with the dose limit or the dose constraint. (20mSv/yr for the veterinarian: ICRP, 5mSv/yr for the animal owner: IAEA, and 1mSv/yr for the general public: ICRP 2 ). The future integration exposed doses of the animal owner and the public didn't exceed the dose constraint or the dose limit at the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. In this study, all the calculation conditions were set up on the safety side. Therefore, it is thought that actual exposed doses lower considerably. The safety guideline for the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan will be established by further application of this type of research. (author)

  5. Conceptualizing a Dynamic Fall Risk Model Including Intrinsic Risks and Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Schwickert, Lars; Rapp, Kilan; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Todd, Chris; Lord, Stephen R; Kerse, Ngaire

    2017-11-01

    Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors. First, current models consider risk factors to be stable for each person and not change over time, an assumption that does not reflect real-life experience. Second, current models do not consider the interplay of individual exposure including type of activity (eg, walking, undertaking transfers) and environmental risks (eg, lighting, floor conditions) in which activity is performed. Therefore, we posit a dynamic fall risk model consisting of intrinsic risk factors that vary over time and exposure (activity in context). eHealth sensor technology (eg, smartphones) begins to enable the continuous measurement of both the above factors. We illustrate our model with examples of real-world falls from the FARSEEING database. This dynamic framework for fall risk adds important aspects that may improve understanding of fall mechanisms, fall risk models, and the development of fall prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Disorders of oxidation homeostasis in the blood and organs of rats under the influence of external x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzlenkova, N.Je.

    2009-01-01

    The study was performed in the blood and organs (lungs and skin) of male rats weighing 160-180 g. Single external x-ray exposure to minimal and medial lethal doses causes stable disorders in oxidation homeostasis resulting in peroxidation state and development of chronic oxidative stress in the organism of the exposed rats.

  7. Transfer shuttle for vitrified residue canisters control of risks associated with external exposure and heat release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIndel, L.; Gamess, A.; Lejeune, E.; Cellier, P.; Maillard, A. [SGN Reseau Eurisys, 78 - Saint Quentin (France)

    1998-07-01

    In the La Hague COGEMA's plant area, nuclear residue isolated by reprocessing are transported by means of specific transfer shuttles between the different processing and/or conditioning facilities and the storage ones. These shuttles are designed by reference to the applicable dose equivalent rate (DER) limits for transport on the site and the thermal behavior limitations of certain mechanical components which guarantee the containment of the transported waste. This paper describes and example of a study conducted on a transfer shuttle for vitrified residue canisters. Concerning the control of risks associated with external exposure and with heat releases, these were handled by the 'Shielding-Criticality-Dispersion' and 'process Modelling and Simulation' Sections of the Technical Division of SGN. The dose profiles around the shuttle, as a function of the shielding heterogeneities and possible radiation leakage, as well as the thermal fields within the shuttle, were calculated using 3D models. These design studies ultimately helped to select and validate the optimal solutions. (authors)

  8. Occupational exposure from external radiation used in medical practices in Pakistan by film badge dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, A.; Munir, M.; Khalil, A.; Masood, M.; Akhter, P.

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposure data of workers due to external sources of radiation in various medical practices such as nuclear medicine (NM), radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology (DR) in Pakistan were collected and analysed. Whole-body doses of workers were measured by film badge dosimetry technique during 2003-2007. Annual average effective dose in NM, radio-therapy and DR varied in the range of 1.39-1.80, 1.05-1.45 and 1.22-1.71 mSv, respectively, during 2003-2007. These values are quite low and well below the annual limit of 20 mSv averaged over a period of 5 consecutive years. Nobody received the radiation dose >50 mSv in any single year over a period of 5 consecutive years; therefore, no overexposure case has been detected. Decreasing trend of annual average dose values in aforementioned categories of work during 2003-2007 indicates the improvement of radiation protection status in medical field in Pakistan. (authors)

  9. Dose conversion coefficients calculated using a series of adult Japanese voxel phantoms against external photon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Saito, Kimiaki

    2008-10-01

    This report presents a complete set of conversion coefficients of organ doses and effective doses calculated for external photon exposure using five Japanese adult voxel phantoms developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). At the JAEA, high-resolution Japanese voxel phantoms have been developed to clarify the variation of organ doses due to the anatomical characteristics of Japanese, and three male phantoms (JM, JM2 and Otoko) and two female phantoms (JF and Onago) have been constructed up to now. The conversion coefficients of organ doses and effective doses for the five voxel phantoms have been calculated for six kinds of idealized irradiation geometries from monoenergetic photons ranging from 0.01 to 10 MeV using EGS4, a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport. The dose conversion coefficients are given as absorbed dose and effective dose per unit air-kerma free-in-air, and are presented in tables and figures. The calculated dose conversion coefficients are compared with those of voxel phantoms based on the Caucasian and the recommended values in ICRP74 in order to discuss (1) variation of organ dose due to the body size and individual anatomy, such as position and shape of organs, and (2) effect of posture on organ doses. The present report provides valuable data to study the influence of the body characteristics of Japanese upon the organ doses and to discuss developing reference Japanese and Asian phantoms. (author)

  10. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve durability of flat roofs with external insulation, it is necessary to secure proper drainage of the roof, i.e. to avoid water leaking into the insulation. The design of the tapered insulation of the roof is quite difficult as requirements with respect to both drainage...

  11. Developmental Timing and Continuity of Exposure to Interparental Violence and Externalizing Behavior as Prospective Predictors of Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J.; Englund, Michelle M.; Egeland, Byron

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or continuity of externalizing behavior mediated these pathways. Results indicated that EIPV in early childhood directly predicted perpetration and victimization at age 23. There were significant indirect effects from EIPV to dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23. Independent of EIPV, externalizing behavior in middle childhood also predicted dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23, but this pathway stemmed from maltreatment. These results highlight that the timing of EIPV and both the timing and continuity of externalizing behavior are critical risks for the intergenerational transmission of dating violence. Findings support a developmental perspective that negative early experiences and children's externalizing behavior are powerful influences for dating violence in early adulthood. PMID:24229543

  12. Developmental timing and continuity of exposure to interparental violence and externalizing behavior as prospective predictors of dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or continuity of externalizing behavior mediated these pathways. Results indicated that EIPV in early childhood directly predicted perpetration and victimization at age 23. There were significant indirect effects from EIPV to dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23. Independent of EIPV, externalizing behavior in middle childhood also predicted dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23, but this pathway stemmed from maltreatment. These results highlight that the timing of EIPV and both the timing and the continuity of externalizing behavior are critical risks for the intergenerational transmission of dating violence. The findings support a developmental perspective that negative early experiences and children's externalizing behavior are powerful influences for dating violence in early adulthood.

  13. Critical evaluation of the external occupational exposure in nuclear medicine services in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Ana Luiza Silva Lima

    2016-01-01

    Currently in Brazil (2016), there are 421 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). In nuclear medicine, the possibility of occupational internal contamination and external exposure is unavoidable. The chest individual monitoring, to estimate the effective dose, is mandatory, but the extremity monitoring is not always made. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of data for external exposure of NMS professionals in Brazil from 1987 to 2010, analysing them in terms of trends and comparing them with measurements carried out in this work and in other countries. Although most of the NMS is still located in large urban centres (54% in the Southeast region), there is no state without any NMS. The increasing number of NMS has generated the need for more professionals. In the year 1987, they were 755 workers and, in 2010, 4134, with the following distribution of specialties: 29% of Nuclear Medicine Technicians (NMT), 23% of Nursing professionals, 29% of Physicians and 3% of Physicists. The average annual effective dose reached more than 3.0 mSv in some regions of the country, from 1987 to 2010, but tends to 1.0 mSv in 2010. The highest doses, as expected, are received by NMT and Nursing. The professionals who handle radiopharmaceuticals have their hands much more exposed than the chest. During 2010, only 31% of NMT and 16% of Nursing used extremity dosimeters as compared to chest dosimeters. The data from the measurements indicate that not all individual dosimeters are used properly. Generally, both in the measurements as in national registries, the hand doses were higher for professionals who prepared the radiopharmaceutical (NMT) than those who injected (Nursing). The value measured by chest dosimeters can be used to estimate the equivalent dose to the eye lenses, except for NMT at preparation practices at conventional NMS, where the equivalent dose of the lens is about 2 times higher than the dose at the chest. The most exposed areas of the hands are the tips of the index

  14. Mortality from internal and external radiation exposure in a cohort of male German uranium millers, 1946-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, M.; Dufey, F.; Schnelzer, M.; Sogl, M.; Walsh, L. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Protection and Health; Laurier, D. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Paris (France); Nowak, D. [LMU Muenchen (Germany). Inst. for Occupational Medicine and Environmental Medicine; Marsh, J.W. [Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    To examine exposure-response relationships between ionizing radiation and several mortality outcomes in a subgroup of 4,054 men of the German uranium miner cohort study, who worked between 1946 and 1989 in milling facilities, but never underground or in open pit mines. Mortality follow-up was from 1946 to 2008, accumulating 158,383 person-years at risk. Cumulative exposure to radon progeny in working level months (WLM) (mean = 8, max = 127), long-lived radionuclides from uranium ore dust in kBqh/m{sup 3} (mean = 3.9, max = 132), external gamma radiation in mSv (mean = 26, max = 667) and silica dust was estimated by a comprehensive job-exposure matrix. Internal Poisson regression models were applied to estimate the linear excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure. Overall, a total of 457, 717 and 111 deaths occurred from malignant cancer, cardiovascular diseases and non-malignant respiratory diseases, respectively. Uranium ore dust and silica dust were not associated with mortality from any of these disease groups. A statistically significant relationship between cumulative radon exposure and mortality from all cancers (ERR/100 WLM = 1.71; p = 0.02), primarily due to lung cancer (n = 159; ERR/100 WLM = 3.39; p = 0.05), was found. With respect to cumulative external gamma radiation, an excess of mortality of solid cancers (n = 434; ERR/Sv = 1.86; p = 0.06), primarily due to stomach cancer (n = 49, ERR/Sv = 10.0; p = 0.12), was present. The present findings show an excess mortality from lung cancer due to radon exposure and from solid cancers due to external gamma radiation in uranium millers that was not statistically significant. Exposure to uranium was not associated with any cause of death, but absorbed organ doses were estimated to be low.

  15. Mortality from internal and external radiation exposure in a cohort of male German uranium millers, 1946-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, M.; Dufey, F.; Schnelzer, M.; Sogl, M.; Walsh, L.; Nowak, D.

    2015-01-01

    To examine exposure-response relationships between ionizing radiation and several mortality outcomes in a subgroup of 4,054 men of the German uranium miner cohort study, who worked between 1946 and 1989 in milling facilities, but never underground or in open pit mines. Mortality follow-up was from 1946 to 2008, accumulating 158,383 person-years at risk. Cumulative exposure to radon progeny in working level months (WLM) (mean = 8, max = 127), long-lived radionuclides from uranium ore dust in kBqh/m 3 (mean = 3.9, max = 132), external gamma radiation in mSv (mean = 26, max = 667) and silica dust was estimated by a comprehensive job-exposure matrix. Internal Poisson regression models were applied to estimate the linear excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure. Overall, a total of 457, 717 and 111 deaths occurred from malignant cancer, cardiovascular diseases and non-malignant respiratory diseases, respectively. Uranium ore dust and silica dust were not associated with mortality from any of these disease groups. A statistically significant relationship between cumulative radon exposure and mortality from all cancers (ERR/100 WLM = 1.71; p = 0.02), primarily due to lung cancer (n = 159; ERR/100 WLM = 3.39; p = 0.05), was found. With respect to cumulative external gamma radiation, an excess of mortality of solid cancers (n = 434; ERR/Sv = 1.86; p = 0.06), primarily due to stomach cancer (n = 49, ERR/Sv = 10.0; p = 0.12), was present. The present findings show an excess mortality from lung cancer due to radon exposure and from solid cancers due to external gamma radiation in uranium millers that was not statistically significant. Exposure to uranium was not associated with any cause of death, but absorbed organ doses were estimated to be low.

  16. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L.S.; Landrum, P.F.; Luoma, S.N.; Meador, J.P.; Merten, A.A.; Shephard, B.K.; van Wezelzz, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The tissue residue dose concept has been used, although in a limited manner, in environmental toxicology for more than 100 y. This review outlines the history of this approach and the technical background for organic chemicals and metals. Although the toxicity of both can be explained in tissue residue terms, the relationship between external exposure concentration, body and/or tissues dose surrogates, and the effective internal dose at the sites of toxic action tends to be more complex for metals. Various issues and current limitations related to research and regulatory applications are also examined. It is clear that the tissue residue approach (TRA) should be an integral component in future efforts to enhance the generation, understanding, and utility of toxicity testing data, both in the laboratory and in the field. To accomplish these goals, several key areas need to be addressed: 1) development of a risk-based interpretive framework linking toxicology and ecology at multiple levels of biological organization and incorporating organism-based dose metrics; 2) a broadly applicable, generally accepted classification scheme for modes/mechanisms of toxic action with explicit consideration of residue information to improve both single chemical and mixture toxicity data interpretation and regulatory risk assessment; 3) toxicity testing protocols updated to ensure collection of adequate residue information, along with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics information, based on explicitly defined toxicological models accompanied by toxicological model validation; 4) continued development of residueeffect databases is needed ensure their ongoing utility; and 5) regulatory guidance incorporating residue-based testing and interpretation approaches, essential in various jurisdictions. ??:2010 SETAC.

  17. External exposure rates from terrestrial radiation at Guarapari and Meaipe in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinami, N.; Koga, T.; Morishima, H.

    2000-01-01

    Recently epidemiological and cytogenetic studies on inhabitants living in high background radiation areas have been carried out in order to examine health effects of exposure to low dose radiation. Guarapari and Meaipe are towns built on the monazite sand region along the Atlantic coast in Brazil, which is one of the widely known high background radiation areas in the world. As an initial step toward studies on health effects of high background radiation on inhabitants living in Guarapari and Meaipe, we surveyed absorbed dose rates in air in these towns with a portable NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in September 1998. Sand and soil were also sampled there so as to determine the concentrations of Th-232 and Ra-226 in them. In Guarapari and Meaipe, dose rates in the streets ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 μ Gy/h except for a few places such as near the Areia Preta beach and Meaipe beach. Dose rates inside houses were lower than 0.2 μ Gy/h except that two houses attained a dose rate of 0.4 μ Gy/h. Our effective dose rate from external terrestrial irradiation (outdoors and indoors) was 0.17 μ Sv/h on the average, during the period of our three day stay in Guarapari and Meaipe. From comparison of our present values with those observed in the 1960s, which were cited in UNSCEAR reports, it is indicated that dose rate levels have decreased clearly in downtown, while the levels have scarcely changed in beaches and unpaved beach streets which have not been developed yet. This fact suggests that the natural radiation environment of Guarapari and Meaipe has varied with urbanization which brought paved streets, and changes in the structure and building materials of houses. A detailed survey is necessary in order to evaluate present absorbed dose rates in air in this area. (author)

  18. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  19. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, Michael B.; Kane, Jave; Nasstrom, John; Homann, Steve; Pobanz, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  20. Overview of the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external idealised exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Zankl, M; Bolch, W E; Eckerman, K F; Hertel, N E; Hunt, J G; Pelliccioni, M; Schlattl, H; Menzel, H-G

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the ICRP Publications 110 and 116 describing the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its 2007 Recommendations made several revisions to the methods of calculation of the protection quantities. In order to implement these recommendations, the DOCAL task group of the ICRP developed computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and female and then calculated a set of dose conversion coefficients for various types of idealised external exposures. This paper focuses on the dose conversion coefficients for neutrons and investigates their relationship with the conversion coefficients of the protection and operational quantities of ICRP Publication 74. Contributing factors to the differences between these sets of conversion coefficients are discussed in terms of the changes in phantoms employed and the radiation and tissue weighting factors.

  1. External exposure dose of car mechanics during the maintenance of the cars from the risk cautionary area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroto; Yamada, Norikazu; Sasaki, Satoru; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-12-01

    At the request of the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters, JNES has estimated the effective external exposure dose of car mechanics during the maintenance of the cars from the risk cautionary area. JNES investigated the contamination of the cars from the risk cautionary area and of the average cars at Fukushima city cooperated by the Japan Automobile Dealers Association. Data of screed cars by the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters is also considered in. Effective external exposure dose of car mechanics treating the cars screened with the emergency situation screening level is estimated to be less than 1 mSv/y under the conservative conditions. This result shows that particular health concern isn't necessary for them. (author)

  2. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio

    2011-10-26

    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  3. Federal guidelines for estimating external exposure of radiation workers in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizhov, K.; Kryuchkov, V.; Mark, N.K.; Szoeke, I.; Sneve, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of Russian federal guidelines for optimizing work procedures in terms of radiation protection for planned field work is presented. The general provisions, procedures and methods for applying the principles of optimization are provided in accordance with the Radiation Safety Standards (NRB-99/2009) and Basic sanitary rules of radiation safety (OSPORB-99/2010). Jobs in environments with actual or potential radiation hazards shall be planned on the basis of the principle of optimization in order to prevent unexpected exposure of the personnel. Control and optimization of dose to workers is a continuous process, which is carried out at various stages of radiation-hazardous work under constant involvement of the personnel in the planning procedure. Implementation of the principle of optimization should include considerations for human and organizational aspects for ensuring high level safety. The planning and optimization process includes education and training of personnel, estimation of radiation doses for the upcoming work, preparations for unplanned situations, and implementation of practical safety measures within the targeted radiation-hazardous works. The optimization principle is most important in the planning phase where uncertainties in planned exposure must be considered. Variability of radiation risks related to different scenarios (choices) can be managed by modern simulation technology, and use of advanced tools (software) for simulating planned activities and conditions in digital models including the environment (premises of an industrial complex) with dynamic visualization of the radiation exposure conditions. Existing hardware and emerging information technologies allow practical application of such techniques. Application of advanced information technology can reduce uncertainties related to the radiation environment by turning invisible radiation into directly perceivable risk information. In addition, virtual reality

  4. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  5. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs

  6. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The authors determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentally exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individuals more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the above literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. The authors computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. The small number of cancers in the exposed population and the influence of increased levels of TSH, nonuniform irradiation of the thyroid, and thyroid cell killing at high dose make it difficult to draw firm conclusions from these studies. 14 references, 8 tables

  7. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  8. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  9. Overview of the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external idealised exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Akira; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Hertel, Nolan E.; Hunt, John G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Menzel, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the ICRP Publications 110 and 116 describing the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its 2007 Recommendations made several revisions to the methods of calculation of the protection quantities. In order to implement these recommendations, the DOCAL task group of the ICRP developed computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and female and then calculated a set of dose conversion coefficients for various types of idealised external exposures. This paper focuses on the dose conversion coefficients for neutrons and investigates their relationship with the conversion coefficients of the protection and operational quantities of ICRP Publication 74. Contributing factors to the differences between these sets of conversion coefficients are discussed in terms of the changes in phantoms employed and the radiation and tissue weighting factors. This paper briefly reviews the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures that were published jointly by ICRP and ICRU. Both these publications appeared as a consequence of the ICRP 2007 Recommendations; to implement these recommendations, the ICRP has developed reference computational phantoms representing the adult male and female. These phantoms are used to calculate reference dose conversion coefficients for external and internal sources. Using the reference phantoms and methodology consistent with the 2007 Recommendations, dose conversion coefficients for both effective doses and organ-absorbed doses for various types of idealised external exposures have been calculated. These data sets supersede the existing ICRP/ICRU data sets and expand the particle types and energy ranges. For neutrons, the new effective dose conversion coefficients become smaller compared with those in ICRP74, for energies below hundreds of keV. This is mainly

  10. Solid cancer mortality associated with chronic external radiation exposure at the French atomic energy commission and nuclear fuel company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2011-07-01

    Studies of nuclear workers make it possible to directly quantify the risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure at low doses and low dose rates. Studies of the CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique) and AREVA Nuclear Cycle (AREVA NC) cohort, currently the most informative such group in France, describe the long-term risk to nuclear workers associated with external exposure. Our aim is to assess the risk of mortality from solid cancers among CEA and AREVA NC nuclear workers and its association with external radiation exposure. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and internal Poisson regressions were conducted, controlling for the main confounding factors [sex, attained age, calendar period, company and socioeconomic status (SES)]. During the period 1968-2004, there were 2,035 solid cancers among the 36,769 CEA-AREVA NC workers. Cumulative external radiation exposure was assessed for the period 1950-2004, and the mean cumulative dose was 12.1 mSv. Mortality rates for all causes and all solid cancers were both significantly lower in this cohort than in the general population. A significant excess of deaths from pleural cancer, not associated with cumulative external dose, was observed, probably due to past asbestos exposure. We observed a significant excess of melanoma, also unassociated with dose. Although cumulative external dose was not associated with mortality from all solid cancers, the central estimated excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv of 0.46 for solid cancer mortality was higher than the 0.26 calculated for male Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors 50 years or older and exposed at the age of 30 years or older. The modification of our results after stratification for SES demonstrates the importance of this characteristic in occupational studies, because it makes it possible to take class-based lifestyle differences into account, at least partly. These results show the great potential of a further joint international study of

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  12. Model of external exposure of population living in the areas subjected to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.Yu.; Balonov, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, we formulated the general approach to assessment of external doses to population living in contaminated areas (the model equation and the set of parameters). The model parameters were assessed on the basis of results of monitoring in the environment, phantom experiments, and social and demographic information obtained on the contaminated areas. Verification of model assessments performed by comparison with measurement results of individual external doses in inhabitants within the thermoluminescent dosimetry method have shown that differences in dose assessments within both methods does not exceed 1.5 times at a confidence level of 95%. In the paper, we present the results illustrating specific features of external dose formation in population living in the areas of Russia subjected to radioactive contamination due to nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site, radioactive releases from the Mayak enterprise, and the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the occupational exposure to external sources of ionizing radiation in Cuba in the period 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, D.; Martinez H, E.; Castro S, A.

    2006-01-01

    The single radiological surveillance of the occupational exposure to external radiation sources in Cuba it is carried out by the Radiation Protection and Hygiene Center (CPHR). The data corresponding to the external exposure are presented. The service it covers to all the occupationally exposed workers (TOEs) of the country that work fundamentally the radiodiagnostic practices, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy and research. The purpose of this work is to carry out an analysis of the occupational exposures of the TOE of the country starting of the results registered by the service of single radiological surveillance in the period 2001 to 2005, keeping in mind the indicators used by the UNSCEAR. The annual average effective dose (E) for each practice is shown. The obtained results showed that the values of annual average effective dose (E) its are bigger for the radiodiagnostic practices, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. In a general way, all the E values are inferior to 2.00 mSv. The number of TOEs that overcame the 20 mSv established as annual dose limit, it went inferior to 1% of the controlled total universe. (Author)

  14. Temperament Moderates Associations between Exposure to Stress and Children's Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a temperament profile (four groups determined by high vs. low resistance to control [unmanageability] and unadaptability [novelty distress]) and family stress in predicting externalizing problems at school in children followed from kindergarten through eighth grade (ages 5-13) was investigated. The sample consisted of 556…

  15. Analysis of radioactivity increase of rad waste filled in fibre-reinforced concrete container regarding external exposure of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratova, D.; Hrncir, T.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the assessment of the external radiation exposure of workers performing the individual tasks associated with disposal of the fibre-reinforced concrete containers in the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce. Models for fibre-reinforced concrete containers with maximum activity allowable for transport and for fibre-reinforced concrete containers contained radionuclides at the common level of activity concentration were created in order to analyze the option of fibre-reinforced concrete containers radioactivity increase. Calculations of individual effective doses have been carried out for three workers who work in the control area of the waste disposal facility dosimetrist, assistant and crane worker. (Authors)

  16. Effects of soil water content on the external exposure of fauna to radioactive isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2016-01-01

    Within a recent model intercomparison about radiological risk assessment for contaminated wetlands, the influence of soil saturation conditions on external dose rates was evidenced. This issue joined concerns of assessors regarding the choice of the soil moisture value to input in radiological assessment tools such as the ERICA Tool. Does it really influence the assessment results and how? This question was investigated under IAEA's Modelling and Data for Radiological Impacts Assessments (MODARIA) programme via 42 scenarios for which the soil water content varied from 0 (dry soil) to 100% (saturated soil), in combination with other parameters that may influence the values of the external dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) calculated for terrestrial organisms exposed in soil. A set of α, β, and γ emitters was selected in order to cover the range of possible emission energies. The values of their external DCCs varied generally within a factor 1 to 1.5 with the soil water content, excepted for β emitters that appeared more sensitive (DCCs within a factor of about 3). This may be of importance for some specific cases or for upper tiers of radiological assessments, when refinement is required. But for the general purpose of screening assessment of radiological impact on fauna and flora, current approaches regarding the soil water content are relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Calculation of external exposure during transport and disposal of radioactive waste arisen from dismantling of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornacek, M.; Necas, V.

    2014-01-01

    The dismantling of large components (reactor pressure vessel, reactor internals, steam generator) represents complex of processes involving preparation, dismantling, waste treatment and conditioning, transport and final disposal. To optimise all of these activities in accordance with the ALARA principle the prediction of the exposure of workers is an essential prerequisite. The paper deals with the calculation of external exposure of workers during transport and final disposal of heat exchange tubes of steam generator used in Slovak nuclear power plant V1 in Jaslovske Bohunice. The type of waste packages, the calculation models of truck and National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce are presented. The detailed methodology of radioactive waste disposal is showed and the degree of influence of time decay (0, 5 and 10 years) on the radiological conditions during transport and disposal is studied. All of the results do not exceed the limits given in Slovak and international regulatory documents. (authors)

  18. A method, using ICRP 26 weighting factors, to determine effective dose equivalent due to nonuniform external exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has recently implemented a methodology and supporting procedures to calculate effective dose equivalent for external exposures. The calculations are based on ICRP 26 methodology and are used to evaluate exposures when multibadging is used. The methodology is based upon the concept of open-quotes whole bodyclose quotes compartmentalization (i.e., the whole body is separated into seven specific regions of radiological concern and weighted accordingly). The highest dose measured in each compartment is used to determine the weighted dose to that compartment. Benefits of determining effective dose equivalent are compliance with DOE Orders, more accurate dose assessments, and the opportunity for improved worker protection through new ALARA opportunities

  19. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) techniques used in breast cancer treatment to reduce cardiac exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Esther; Hendry, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy in breast cancer treatment has been shown to reduce local recurrence and improve survival rates. However, there is a concern that breast radiotherapy can cause an increase in cardiac mortality, particularly in patients being treated for left-sided breast cancer. This review aims to investigate how cardiac exposure is minimised in breast radiotherapy and determine an optimal method for reducing cardiac dose, using literature from ScienceDirect, Medline and CINAHL. IMRT and breathing-adapted radiotherapy both reduce cardiac exposure but IMRT also increases the irradiated volume at low dose. Several issues were reported with regards to the clinical implementation of these techniques. It is suggested that inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy, is the preferred solution to minimising cardiac exposure but more research is warranted to confirm this. Long-term follow-up is required to determine dose–response relationships. Research needs to focus on breast cancer treatment as a whole in order to effectively reduce cardiac mortality.

  20. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  1. Intercomparison for individual monitoring of external exposure from photon radiation. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This TECDOC presents the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have endorsed the use of the operational quantities for monitoring purposes. Specifically, personal dose equivalent, H p (d), is to be used for individual dosimetry to demonstrate compliance with the exposure limit recommendations, while for workplace area monitoring the ambient dose equivalent and the directional dose equivalent are recommended. In view of the technical difficulties associated with the introduction of these operational quantities the IAEA decided to assist Member States in their provision of appropriate dosimetry for occupational protection. In this respect, intercomparisons have proven to be a cost effective method of providing such support. A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) was started in 1997 on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation, involving more than twenty laboratories from eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union, and focusing on personnel dosimetry services for nuclear power plants. This CRP was part of the activities of the IAEA Occupational Protection Programme, the objective4s of which are to promote and internationally harmonized approach for optimizing occupational radiation protection through: the development of guides, within the IAEA activities for establishing standards for radiation protection, for restricting radiation exposures in the workplace and for applying current occupational radiation protection techniques, and the promotion of the application of these guidelines. The preparatory phase included, in May 1997, a workshop aimed at familiarizing the participants with the new operational quantities

  2. Comparison of External Exposure of Central and Eastern-European States as a Factor Threatening Financial Security of Their Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Redo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and Eastern-European countries are strongly linked to the international economic and financial systems, which results in their dependence on foreign capital and on the upturn in the global markets. This situation also makes them vulnerable to external shocks. Resilience of the economies of CEE countries was additionally diminished by their relatively quick and uncompromising opening up to the process of globalization and European integration. All the economies subject to scrutiny have quite a substantial external debt level (reaching 55–139% of GDP, their net international investment position is quite strongly in the negative (constituting 25–71% of GDP. They are also characterized by high level of foreign liabilities (85–350% of GDP, a significant degree of trade openness (export and import of goods and services amounting to 41–94% of GDP, considerable rate of foreign liquid portfolio investments (even as much as 32% of GDP. Another common feature is the strong financial support received from the EU budget, with CEE countries being its net beneficiaries (with the accumulated value of funds received from the EU budget in 2004–2015 at the level of 21–42% of GDP. It should be borne in mind that Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Slovenia and Slovakia are members of the Eurozone, i.e. operate an international currency, which improves their creditworthiness and augments the trust of the global markets. What seems not without significance for investors is the fact that the IMF classified these five CEE countries – as well as the Czech Republic – as advanced economies. In light of the above, it should be stated that the Polish economy is characterized by a relatively strong external exposure relative to the creditworthiness the country boasts. This exposure increases Poland’s vulnerability to shocks and makes it less immune thereto. These circumstances partially explain the higher estimation of the risk premium for investments in

  3. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 4. Organ doses for adults due to idealized external photon exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Zankl, M; Petoussi-Henss, N; Regulla, D

    2002-01-01

    The present report contains extensive tables and figures of conversion coefficients of organ and tissue equivalent dose, normalised to air kerma free in air for voxel anthropomorphic phantoms and for standard geometries of external photon radiation, estimated with Monte Carlo techniques. Four realistic adult voxel phantoms were used for the calculations, based on computed tomographic data of real people: three male phantoms, two of them being of average size, one representing a big man, and one female phantom of a tall and somewhat over weighted woman.

  4. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 4. Organ doses for adults due to idealized external photon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Fill, U.; Regulla, D.

    2002-01-01

    The present report contains extensive tables and figures of conversion coefficients of organ and tissue equivalent dose, normalised to air kerma free in air for voxel anthropomorphic phantoms and for standard geometries of external photon radiation, estimated with Monte Carlo techniques. Four realistic adult voxel phantoms were used for the calculations, based on computed tomographic data of real people: three male phantoms, two of them being of average size, one representing a big man, and one female phantom of a tall and somewhat over weighted woman. (orig.)

  5. Incorporation of additional radionuclides and the external exposure pathway into the BECAMP [Basic Environmental Compliance and Monitoring Program] radiological assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yook C.; Rodean, H.C.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1988-11-01

    The Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) Model of transport and dose for transuranic radionuclides was modified and expanded for the analysis of radionuclides other than pure alpha-emitters. Doses from internal and external exposures were estimated for the inventories and soil distributions of the individual radionuclides quantified in Areas 2 and 4 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). We found that the dose equivalents via inhalation to liver, lungs, bone marrow, and bone surface from the plutonium isotopes and 241 Am, those via ingestion to bone marrow and bone surfaces from 90 Sr, and those via ingestion to all the target organs from 137 Cs were the highest from internal exposures. The effective dose equivalents from 137 Cs, 152 Eu, and 154 Eu were the highest from the external exposures. The 60 Co, 152 Eu, 154 Eu, and 155 Eu dose estimates for external exposures greatly exceeded those for internal exposures. The 60 Co, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs dose equivalents from internal exposures were underestimated due to the adoption of some of the foodchain parameter values originally selected for 239 Pu. Nonetheless, the ingestion pathway contributed significantly to the dose estimates for 90 Sr and 137 Cs, but contributed very much less than external exposures to the dose estimates for 60 Co. Therefore, the use of more appropriate values would not alter the identification of important radionuclides, pathways, target organs, and exposure modes in this analysis. 19 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  6. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 835 - Derived Air Concentration (DAC) for Workers From External Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive Material C Appendix C to Part 835 Energy... Concentration (DAC) for Workers From External Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive...-infinite cloud of airborne radioactive material. The DACs listed in this appendix may be modified to allow...

  7. The long or short of it: Determinants of foreign currency exposure in external balance sheets

    OpenAIRE

    LANE, PHILIP RICHARD

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there have been numerous advances in modelling optimal international portfolio allocations in macroeconomic models. A major focus of this literature has been on the role of currency movements in determining portfolio returns that may hedge various macroeconomic shocks. However, there is little empirical evidence on the foreign currency exposures that are embedded in international balance sheets. Using a new database, we provide stylized facts concerning the cross-country and time-se...

  8. The Long or Short of it: Determinants of Foreign Currency Exposure in External Balance Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Philip R.; Shambaugh, Jay C

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there have been numerous advances in modelling optimal international portfolio allocations in macroeconomic models. A major focus of this literature has been on the role of currency movements in determining portfolio returns that may hedge various macroeconomic shocks. However, there is little empirical evidence on the foreign currency exposures that are embedded in international balance sheets. Using a new database, we provide stylized facts concerning the cross-country and time-se...

  9. The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods. Pt. 7. Organ doses due to parallel and environmental exposure geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zankl, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Drexler, G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Petoussi-Henss, N. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Saito, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a tabulation of organ and tissue equivalent dose as well as effective dose conversion coefficients, normalised to air kerma free in air, for occupational exposures and environmental exposures of the public to external photon radiation. For occupational exposures, whole-body irradiation with idealised geometries, i.e. broad parallel beams and fully isotropic radiation incidence, is considered. The directions of incidence for the parallel beams are anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left lateral, right lateral and a full 360 rotation around the body`s longitudinal axis. The influence of beam divergence on the body doses is also considered as well as the dependence of effective dose on the angle of radiation incidence. Regarding exposure of the public to environmental sources, three source geometries are considered: exposure from a radioactive cloud, from ground contamination and from the natural radionuclides distributed homogeneously in the ground. The precise angular and energy distributions of the gamma rays incident on the human body were taken into account. The organ dose conversion coefficients given in this catalogue were calculated using a Monte Carlo code simulating the photon transport in mathematical models of an adult male and an adult female, respectively. Conversion coefficients are given for the equivalent dose of 23 organs and tissues as well as for effective dose and the equivalent dose of the so-called `remainder`. The organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients are given separately for the adult male and female models and - as arithmetic mean of the conversion coefficients of both - for an average adult. Fitted data of the coefficients are presented in tables; the primary raw data as resulting from the Monte Carlo calculation are shown in figures together with the fitted data. (orig.)

  10. The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods. Pt. 7. Organ doses due to parallel and environmental exposure geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a tabulation of organ and tissue equivalent dose as well as effective dose conversion coefficients, normalised to air kerma free in air, for occupational exposures and environmental exposures of the public to external photon radiation. For occupational exposures, whole-body irradiation with idealised geometries, i.e. broad parallel beams and fully isotropic radiation incidence, is considered. The directions of incidence for the parallel beams are anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left lateral, right lateral and a full 360 rotation around the body's longitudinal axis. The influence of beam divergence on the body doses is also considered as well as the dependence of effective dose on the angle of radiation incidence. Regarding exposure of the public to environmental sources, three source geometries are considered: exposure from a radioactive cloud, from ground contamination and from the natural radionuclides distributed homogeneously in the ground. The precise angular and energy distributions of the gamma rays incident on the human body were taken into account. The organ dose conversion coefficients given in this catalogue were calculated using a Monte Carlo code simulating the photon transport in mathematical models of an adult male and an adult female, respectively. Conversion coefficients are given for the equivalent dose of 23 organs and tissues as well as for effective dose and the equivalent dose of the so-called 'remainder'. The organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients are given separately for the adult male and female models and - as arithmetic mean of the conversion coefficients of both - for an average adult. Fitted data of the coefficients are presented in tables; the primary raw data as resulting from the Monte Carlo calculation are shown in figures together with the fitted data. (orig.)

  11. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  12. Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on external exposure doses from terrestrial radioactivity in Southern Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huy, N.Q.; Luyen, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for 106 samples of surface soil collected in Southern Vietnam. The mean values of mass activity of radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for Southern Vietnam are 28.6, 50.7 and 292.6 Bq kg -1 , respectively, which lead to the population-weighted absorbed dose rate of 54.5 nGy h -1 . The average annual effective doses outdoors, indoors and in total of Southern Vietnam are estimated to be 0.067, 0.374 and 0. 441 mSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of soil in Southern Vietnam are in the range 23.2-254.1 Bq kg -1 and 0.06-0.69, respectively. (author)

  14. Study on external exposure doses from terrestrial radioactivity in Southern Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huy, N. Q.; Luyen, T. V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for 106 samples of surface soil collected in Southern Vietnam. The mean values of mass activity of radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for Southern Vietnam are 28.6, 50.7 and 292.6 Bq kg -1 , respectively, which lead to the population-weighted absorbed dose rate of 54.5 nGy h -1 . The average annual effective doses outdoors, indoors and in total of Southern Vietnam are estimated to be 0.067, 0.374 and 0.441 mSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of soil in Southern Vietnam are in the range 23.2-254.1 Bq kg -1 and 0.06-0.69, respectively. (authors)

  15. Natural radiation external exposures levels in Chilean Sub-Antarctic and country stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1983 gamma exposures levels, at 1,5 m above the soil are being investigated using TLD detectors. A network of 12 stations have been established from ARICA (18 deg 20' S latitude) in Northern Chile to YELCHO (64 deg 52' S latitude) in Antartic territory. One year monitoring period was used at Antartic stations and a four months period in the country. The main subject of this study is to assess the average background radiation levels along the territory which is relevant to get a reference level and specially an estimate of the average natural radiation contribution to the population dose in Southern Chile

  16. Estimated Internal and External Radiation Exposure of Caregivers of Patients With Pediatric Neuroblastoma Undergoing 131I Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangwon; Yoo, Seon Hee; Koh, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Jong Jin

    2017-04-01

    Current recommendations suggest that family members should participate in the care of children receiving in-hospital I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy for neuroblastoma. The present study aimed to measure the external radiation exposure and estimate the internal radiation exposure of caregivers during the hospital stay for I MIBG therapy. Caregivers received radiation safety instructions and a potassium iodide solution for thyroid blockade before patient admission. External radiation exposure was determined using a personal pocket dosimeter. Serial 24-hour urine samples were collected from caregivers during the hospital stay. Estimated internal radiation exposure was calculated based on the urine activity. Twelve cases (mean age, 6.2 ± 3.5 years; range, 2-13 years) were enrolled. The mean administered activity was 233.3 ± 74.9 (range, 150.0-350.0) mCi. The mean external radiation dose was 5.8 ± 7.2 (range, 0.8-19.9) mSv. Caregivers of children older than 4 years had significantly less external radiation exposure than those of children younger than 4 years (1.9 ± 1.0 vs 16.4 ± 5.0 mSv; P = 0.012). The mean estimated internal radiation dose was 11.3 ± 10.2 (range, 1.0-29.8) μSv. Caregivers receive both external and internal radiation exposure while providing in-hospital care to children receiving I MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma. However, the internal radiation exposure was negligible compared with the external radiation exposure.

  17. Aspects of ICRP 60 and ICRU 47 relevant to individual monitoring of external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Menzel, H.G.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure limits recommended by the ICRP and used in regulations are expressed in risk related quantities such as effective dose or effective dose equivalent. Operational quantities such as ambient dose equivalent or personal dose equivalent are defined in phantoms and are designed to give reasonable estimates of exposure limiting quantities. The readings of individual dosemeters are calibrated in terms of operational quantities. The international commissions involved in the definition of risk related quantities (ICRP) and operational quantities (ICRU) have introduced various new definitions and modifications to previous quantities used in their respective publications ICRP 60 and ICRU 39, ICRU 47. The consequences of these alterations for the relationships between quantities within the hierarchy have to be examined and the new quantitative relationships (conversion coefficients) between basic physical radiation quantities such as particle fluence or air kerma and the new quantities have to be evaluated. In 1992, the ICRP and ICRU charged a joint task group with addressing these tasks with a view to revising ICRP Publication 51. This paper presents an outline for the subject of the report to be prepared by the task group. An introduction to the new phantom-based quantities is given and conceptional differences between the newly introduced and the previous quantities are discussed. (author)

  18. A theoretical study for the real-time assessment of external gamma exposure using equivalent-volume numerical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Moon Hee

    1995-02-01

    An approximate method for estimating gamma external dose due to an arbitrary distribution of radioactive material has been developed. For the assessment of external gamma dose, the space over which radioactive material is distributed has been assumed to be composed of hexagonal cells. The evaluation of three-dimensional integration over the space is an extremely time-consuming task. Hence, a different approach has been used for the study, i.e., a equivalent-volume spherical approach in which a regular hexahedron is modeled as a equivalent-volume sphere to simplify the integration. For the justification of the current approach, two case studies have been performed: a comparison with a point source approximation and a comparison of external dose rate with the Monte Carlo integration. These comparisons show that the current approach gives reasonable results in a physical sense. Computing times of the developed and Monte Carlo integration method on VAX system have been compared as a function of the number of hexagonal cells. This comparison shows that CPU times for both methods are comparable in the region of small number of cells, but in the region of large number, Monte Carlo integration needs much more computing times. The proposed method is shown to have an accuracy equivalent to Monte Carlo method with an advantage of much shorter calculation time. Then, the method developed here evaluates early off-site consequences of a nuclear accident. An accident consequence assessment model has been integrated using Gaussian puff model which is used to obtain the distribution of radioactive material in the air and on the ground. For this work, the real meteorological data measured at Kori site for 10 years (1976 - 1985) have been statistically analyzed for obtaining site-specific conditions. The short-term external gamma exposures have been assessed for several site-specific meteorological conditions. The results show that the extent and the pattern of short-term external

  19. Modelling the external radiation exposure from the Chernobyl fallout using data from the Swedish municipality measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Mattias; Tondel, Martin; Isaksson, Mats; Finck, Robert; Wålinder, Robert; Mamour, Afrah; Rääf, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl fallout and the subsequent deposition of radionuclides in Sweden, Swedish municipalities launched a measurement program to monitor the external radiation exposure. This program encompasses measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rate 1 m above ground at selected locations, and repeats those measurements at the same locations at 7-month intervals. Measurement data compiled from the seven locations with the highest deposition were combined with data from aerial surveys since May 1986 of ground deposition of 137 Cs, high-resolution gamma spectrometry performed at four locations in May 1986, and measurements from fixed continuous air gamma rate monitoring stations from 28 April to 15 May 1986. Based on these datasets, a model of the time pattern of the external dose rate in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate from the Chernobyl fallout was developed. The decrease in the ambient dose equivalent rate could, on average, be described by a four-component exponential decay function with effective half-times of 6.8 ± 0.3 d, 104 ± 26 d, 1.0 ± 0.02 y and 5.5 ± 0.09 y, respectively. The predominant contributions to the external dose rate in the first month were from short-lived fission products superseded by 134 Cs and then 137 Cs. Integrated over 70 y and using extrapolation of the curve fits, our model predicts that 137 Cs contributes about 60% and 134 Cs contributes about 30% of the external effective dose at these seven locations. The projected time-integrated 70 y external effective dose to an unshielded person from all nuclides per unit total activity deposition of 137 Cs is estimated to be 0.29 ± 0.0.08 mSv/(kBq m -2 ). These results are in agreement with those found in Chernobyl contaminated Russian forest areas, and emphasize the usefulness of maintaining a long-term and regular measurement program in contaminated areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radionuclide mobility in soils and its effect on the external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Hillmann, U.; Jacob, P.; Kretner, R.; Schimmack, W.; Tikhomirov, F.; Scheglov, A.; Arkhipov, N.P.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Kruglov, S.V.; Loschilov, N.; Ivanov, Y.; Levchuk, S.; Kashparov, V.; Oreshich, L.

    1996-01-01

    In order to predict the gamma-dose rate of 137 Cs for a period of about 100 years after the Chernobyl accident, the present vertical distribution of radiocesium in several meadow soils in the Chernobyl area and in Germany was determined and the corresponding residence half-times of this radionuclide in the various soil layers were evaluated with a compartment model. The resulting residence half-times were subsequently used to calculate the vertical distribution of 137 Cs in the soil as a function of time and finally to predict the external gamma-dose rates in air for these sites at various times. The results show that the time dependence of the relative gamma-dose rate in air D/D t=0 at both sites can be described by a two-term exponential equation. At a given time, the relative gamma-dose rate at the Chernobyl sites is always higher as compared to the German sites. This difference is the result of the slower vertical migration of 137 Cs at the Chernobyl sites

  1. Electron dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure of the skin from uniformly deposited activity on the body surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors have been calculated for external exposure of the skin from electrons emitted by sources that are deposited uniformly on the body surface. The dose-rate factors are obtained from electron scaled point kernels developed by Berger. The dose-rate factors are calculated at depths of 4, 8, and 40 mg cm-2 below the body surface as recommended by Whitton, and at a depth of 7 mg cm-2 as recommended in ICRP Publication 26 (ICRP77). The dependence of the dose-rate factors at selected depths on the energy of the emitted electrons is displayed. The dose-rate factors for selected radionuclides of potential importance in radiological assessments are tabulated

  2. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em residencia construida com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaverde, Freddy Lazo

    2008-07-01

    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Pb e {sup 40}K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. The results of {sup 40}K were lower than 81 Bq kg{sup -1}. The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y{sup -1} for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy{sup -1} for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy{sup -1} for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy{sup -1}, an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  3. Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, J; Ulanovsky, A; Pröhl, G

    2009-10-01

    The use of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U and their progeny results in external exposures of the residents of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for a typical Jordan concrete room are calculated using Monte Carlo method. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling are assumed. Using activity concentrations of natural radionuclides typical for the Jordan houses and assuming them to be in secular equilibrium with their progeny, the maximum annual effective doses are estimated to be 0.16, 0.12 and 0.22 mSv a(-1) for (40)K, (232)Th- and (238)U-series, respectively. In a total, the maximum annual effective indoor dose due to external gamma-radiation is 0.50 mSv a(-1). Additionally, organ dose coefficients are calculated for all organs considered in ICRP Publication 74. Breast, skin and eye lenses have the maximum equivalent dose rate values due to indoor exposures caused by the natural radionuclides, while equivalent dose rates for uterus, colon (LLI) and small intestine are found to be the smallest. More specifically, organ dose rates (nSv a(-1)per Bq kg(-1)) vary from 0.044 to 0.060 for (40)K, from 0.44 to 0.60 for radionuclides from (238)U-series and from 0.60 to 0.81 for radionuclides from (232)Th-series. The obtained organ and effective dose conversion coefficients can be conveniently used in practical dose assessment tasks for the rooms of similar geometry and varying activity concentrations and local-specific occupancy factors.

  4. Estimation of dose from exposure to external radiation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Siro; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    1978-01-01

    Meteorological factors which influence the external radiation were analysed. Attention was paid to the relationship between the concentration of the radioactive aerosol and the outdoor radiation level. Twelve kinds of data were obtained at Kumatori Site of Kyoto University. The mean diurnal variation and annual variation of each factors were obtained from the data of 25 months periods from August 1974 to August 1976. Outstanding was the result that the outdoor gamma radiation varied just slightly in spite of the large variation of the airborne activities and others. It implies that the individual effect due to the factor would compensate and cancel each other. Otherwise the major contribution on the variation might distribute at random with respect to time. Contrary to the apparent independence of the outdoor gamma radiation level of the airborne activity, however, the partial correlation coefficient between them was not negligibly small. Analysis of each time series of individual data has revealed that the rainfall has the largest influence on the variation of the outdoor gamma radiation level particularly in its initial period. Airborne activity was also revealed to have a strong connection with the atmospheric stability and the wind velocity though it depends on the rainfall just a little. The atmospheric stability could be expressed by the vertical gradient of the atmospheric temperature which is strongest at the ''inversion''. However problem remains as to the nature of the wind. Which of the atmospheric turbulence and the prevailing wind corresponds to the wind here will have to be analysed referring to the large scale weather charts. Regression analysis showed that the atmospheric temperature was the essential cause of the variation of the radiation level. (author)

  5. Comparative measurements of external radiation exposure using mobile phones, dental ceramic, household salt and conventional personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulánek, Boris; Judas, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Because retrospective dosimetry utilises commonly occurring materials and objects, it is particularly useful in cases of large-scale radiation accidents or malevolent acts with radioactive materials where casualties are inflicted on the general public and first emergency responders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether retrospective dosemeters can provide dose estimates with comparable accuracy like conventional personal dosemeters. Using an external source of radiation 137 Cs and an anthropomorphic phantom, we simulated serious irradiation of a human body in anterior-posterior and rotational geometries. Retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects, such as mobile phones, dental ceramic and household salt, and conventional personal dosemeters (thermoluminescent and electronic) were fixed to the anthropomorphic phantom. The doses obtained were compared with specific reference values. In most cases, relative deviations between the measured doses and the reference values did not exceed 20%. As the retrospective and conventional dosemeters show no significant differences in laboratory conditions, the retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects represent a very promising tool if handled properly. - Highlights: • A serious external exposure of human body was simulated. • Doses were measured using both retrospective and conventional dosemeters. • Utilised retrospective dosimetry materials were alumina resistors from mobile phones, household salt and dental ceramic. • Doses obtained were compared with reference values. • Both retrospective and conventional dosemeters gave similar results

  6. Suggested Methods for Assessment of Accidental External Exposure and Internal Contamination of Workers and their Medical Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K.A.; Morsy, Samira M.; Hanna, I.R.A.; Hafez, M.B.; Mohamed, H.O.; Jahns, E.; Saied, F.I.A.

    1969-01-01

    Certain assumptions are given for the amount of fission products released from a research reactor after the occurrence of an accident. The size and location of radioactive cloud are assumed, and the corresponding external and internal exposures of workers are computed. A method is suggested for assessment of accidental external radiation dose based on experimental studies performed on the changes of quenching effect of plasma or sera as a.result of whole- body gamma-radiation ranging from 25-200 rems. For assessment of accidentally internally incorporated gamma emitters we suggest the standard chair whole-body counter technique which was found to detect reliably 1/100 of the maximum permissible body burden within eight minutes. It was also suggested that a separation method based on the use of absorption phenomena observed for Sephadex (gel resin) can be applied for quick determination of gross alpha activity in urine. For management of accidentally exposed workers to radiation doses of a lethal or sublethal nature, bone-marrow transplantation therapy and blood component therapy in sterile rooms is discussed in the light of experience gained from treatment of leukaemia with intensive chemotherapy. (author)

  7. Gene expression analysis in rice plants after external radiation exposure in Iitate village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, G.; Fukumoto, M. [Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University (Japan); Imanaka, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Shibato, J. [Department of Anatomy I, School of Medicine, Showa University (Japan); Kubo, A. [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Plant Genome Research Unit, Agrogenomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (Japan); Rakwal, R. [Organization for Educational Initiatives, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Rice plants exposed to radiation respond to the stress by activating self-defense mechanisms. A well-established molecular approach to measure stress is by cataloging global gene expression profiles. Here, we examined the effect of radiation exposure in a cereal crop model plant - rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare - in the village of Iitate of Fukushima prefecture. Iitate village is a highly radio-contaminated site due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The experimental approach comprised of five steps. First, healthy rice seedlings were grown in the greenhouse facility at National Institute for Environmental Sciences. Post-germination at 30 deg. C similarly germinated seeds were placed in neat rows in seedling pots having commercial soil (JA Zen-Noh, Japan; http//www.zennoh.or.jp/) with recommended NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash) doses at a controlled (25 deg. C, 70% relative humidity and natural light condition) greenhouse. Second, the seedlings were transported from a controlled greenhouse in Tsukuba to Iitate Farm (ITF) and placed, with no direct contact with soil, in a low-level gamma field where the rate of Cs-137 was 700 kBq/m{sup 2}. Third, exposure periods were set at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after arrival at ITF, and rice leaves at the 3. position (from the base) from 6 to 10 seedlings were sampled in dry ice. As control, rice leaves were sampled at the start in Tsukuba and immediately at arrival upon ITF; to know the radiation levels during growth and transport of the rice to ITF, accumulated radiation dose was calculated using a MYDOSE mini electronic pocket dosimeter (model PDM-222-52, ALOKA, Japan). A sample set was also taken at 72 h from healthy rice seedlings in the greenhouse at Tsukuba. All samples were stored at -80 deg. C. Accumulated total dose for exposed rice seedlings at 72 h was 200 mSv. Fourth, gene expression analysis was initiated by grinding the leaves to a

  8. Emotional inertia and external events: The roles of exposure, reactivity, and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Peter; Brose, Annette; Pe, Madeline L; Houben, Marlies; Erbas, Yasemin; Champagne, Dominique; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Increased moment-to-moment predictability, or inertia, of negative affect has been identified as an important dynamic marker of psychological maladjustment, and increased vulnerability to depression in particular. However, little is known about the processes underlying emotional inertia. The current article examines how the emotional context, and people's responses to it, are related to emotional inertia. We investigated how individual differences in the inertia of negative affect (NA) are related to individual differences in exposure, reactivity, and recovery from emotional events, in daily life (assessed using experience sampling) as well as in the lab (assessed using an emotional film-clip task), among 200 participants commencing their first year of tertiary education. This dual-method approach allowed us to assess affective responding on different timescales, and in response to standardized as well as idiographic emotional stimuli. Our most consistent finding, across both methods, was that heightened NA inertia is related to decreased NA recovery following negative stimuli, suggesting that higher levels of inertia may be mostly driven by impairments in affect repair following negative events. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. External Quality Assessment Scheme for Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Toxic Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Lee

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: The EQAS has taken a primary role in improving the reliability of analytical data. A total quality assurance scheme is suggested, including the validation of technical documentation for the whole analytical procedure.

  10. Evaluation of external exposure during building and operation of concrete bridges constructions that reuse the conditionally released steels - 59120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panik, Michal; Necas, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ongoing results of the project presented at ICEM'10 [1] related to the topics of reusing the conditionally released materials from decommissioning. The subject of the reuse of conditionally released materials in this case is modeling of bridge constructions which reuse the conditionally released steel in the form of reinforcement bars for the concrete bridges. A general approach for the project was presented at ICEM'10. The activities of the project continue in evaluating the individual effective doses from the external exposure based on reused conditionally released steels separately for public and for professionals (the internal exposure will be evaluated in next stages of the project). Evaluated scenarios are related to critical groups of professionals constructing the bridges (worker's scenarios). The computer code VISIPLAN 3D ALARA 4.0 planning tool was used for the calculation of the individual effective dose for professionals. Various limits of the annual individual effective dose are used for the evaluation of calculation results. The aim of the ongoing modeling is to develop a set of data of maximal radioactivity concentration for individual radionuclides in the conditionally released steel used in the bridges model constructions in order not to exceed the limits for the individual effective dose. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring in ore treatment unit: I external exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Py Junior, D.A.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Dantas, M.V.A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is an uranium mining and milling complex deactivated in 1995 that operated monazite during the years 2004 and 2005 in a plant used especially for that purpose called Chemical Treatment of Monazite (CTM). This study aims to analyze the monitoring of area to exposure rate from 2002 to 2012, comparing periods of suspended operation of OTU and identifying the influences of CTM and of the radioactive waste deposit, from other facilities of OTU. A total of 22,294 samples were analyzed for area dose rates; average values were obtained of 6.74 μSv h{sup -1} with an amplitude from 0 to 420 μSv h{sup -1}. 92% of the monitoring were below the derivative limit for workers, and 1,702 monitoring samples showed values above this limit. Ignoring the monitoring that was realized at CTM and at the deposit of radioactive waste, the number of monitoring samples were reduced to 1,341. In this case, the average reduces to 0.96 μSv h{sup -1}, going from 0 to 25 μSv h{sup -1}, only 15 samples remained above the threshold for workers and 675 samples were below the limit for individual public. It can be concluded that the OTU is an installation with nearly 99% of monitoring area safe for workers and 50% for individual public. The inclusion of new practices (CTM) and the deposit of radioactive waste coming from other facilities alter this picture dramatically, increased the dose rates. (author)

  12. A geostatistical investigation of the spatial variation of external gamma exposure in urban area of Pocos de Caldas Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Macacini, Jose F.; Taddei, Maria H.T.; Montano, Marcelo; Fontes, Aurelio T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Pocos de Caldas Plateau has been recognized as High Level of Natural Radiation Area for a long time. It consists in an alkaline intrusion with some uranium and thorium anomalies, where the first Brazilian uranium mining and milling facilities is located. Due to these facts, the population of Pocos de Caldas city shows a great deal of concern about radiation health effects. This perception of the risks of radiation exposure leads to much confusion among the population that attributes an imaginary excess (without an scientific support) of cancer cases and deformities in newborns in the city to radiation. In order to obtain information for help radiation risks management by government and to explore the spatial variation external gamma exposure a survey in the urban area of Pocos de Caldas city was done. The measurements were performed using a Mobile Radioactivity Measurement System - Mobisys (ESM Eberline model FHT 1376). The system consists of a high-sensitivity 5-liter scintillation detector, an electronic for measurement system that is able to on-line separate natural and artificial gamma radiation (Natural Background Rejection Detector NBR), one compact Global Positioning System GPS and a computer (notebook). Data was collected at approximately 50,000 points spread over all streets of city. The obtained results ranged from 40 nSv.h -1 to 420 nSv.h -1 where the mean value was 112 nSv.h -1 . The spatial distribution of gamma exposure over the city is quite homogeneous with lowest and highest values in western and southern area, respectively. (author)

  13. Chromosome aberrations in workers with exposure to α-particle radiation from internal deposits of plutonium: expectations from in vitro studies and comparisons with workers with predominantly external γ-radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curwen, Gillian B.; Tawn, E.J. [The University of Manchester, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research (CIGMR), School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sotnik, Natalia V.; Azizova, Tamara V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region 456780 (Russian Federation); Cadwell, Kevin K. [Medical School, Newcastle University, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Hill, Mark A. [University of Oxford, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Gray Laboratories, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    mFISH analysis of chromosome aberration profiles of 47 and 144 h lymphocyte cultures following exposure to 193 mGy α-particle radiation confirmed that the frequency of stable aberrant cells and stable cells carrying translocations remains constant through repeated cell divisions. Age-specific rates and in vitro dose-response curves were used to derive expected translocation yields in nine workers from the Mayak nuclear facility in Russia. Five had external exposure to γ-radiation, two of whom also had exposure to neutrons, and four had external exposure to γ-radiation and internal exposure to α-particle radiation from incorporated plutonium. Doubts over the appropriateness of the dose response used to estimate translocations from the neutron component made interpretation difficult in two of the workers with external exposure, but the other three had translocation yields broadly in line with expectations. Three of the four plutonium workers had translocation yields in line with expectations, thus supporting the application of the recently derived in vitro α-particle dose response for translocations in stable cells. Overall this report demonstrates that with adequate reference in vitro dose-response curves, translocation yield has the potential to be a useful tool in the validation of red bone marrow doses resulting from mixed exposure to external and internal radiation. (orig.)

  14. The Roles of Family and Teacher Support in Moderating and Mediating Externalized and Internalized Outcomes of Exposure to Community Violence Among Arab and Jewish Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil B

    2018-02-01

    The study examined family and teacher support as factors that can protect adolescents from internalized and externalized problems after exposure to community violence (ECV). Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by a sample of 1,832 Arab and Jewish Israeli high school students. The Arab adolescents reported significantly higher levels of community violence victimization, internalized problems, externalized problems, family support, and teacher support than the Jewish adolescents. The girls reported higher levels of internalized problems, and the boys reported higher levels of externalized problems. ECV predicted high levels of internalized and externalized problems, family support predicted low levels of internalized and externalized problems, and teacher support had no predictive role. Path analysis confirmed the significance of the relationships between ECV effects, support variables, and gender. The limitations of the study and implications of the findings for future research and for the development of family care and family intervention programs are discussed.

  15. Interpreting biomarker data from the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects: Using external exposure data to understand biomarker differences among countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Den Hond, E.; Koppen, G.; Govarts, E.; Willems, H.; Casteleyn, L.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Fiddicke, U.; Castaño, A.; Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J.; Esteban, M.; Sepai, O.; Exley, K.; Bloemen, L.; Horvat, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Joas, A.; Joas, R.; Biot, P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects performed the first ever harmonized human biomonitoring survey in 17 European countries. In more than 1800 mother–child pairs, individual lifestyle data were collected and cadmium, cotinine and certain phthalate metabolites were measured in urine. Total mercury was determined in hair samples. While the main goal of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects was to develop and test harmonized protocols and procedures, the goal of the current paper is to investigate whether the observed differences in biomarker values among the countries implementing DEMOCOPHES can be interpreted using information from external databases on environmental quality and lifestyle. In general, 13 countries having implemented DEMOCOPHES provided high-quality data from external sources that were relevant for interpretation purposes. However, some data were not available for reporting or were not in line with predefined specifications. Therefore, only part of the external information could be included in the statistical analyses. Nonetheless, there was a highly significant correlation between national levels of fish consumption and mercury in hair, the strength of antismoking legislation was significantly related to urinary cotinine levels, and we were able to show indications that also urinary cadmium levels were associated with environmental quality and food quality. These results again show the potential of biomonitoring data to provide added value for (the evaluation of) evidence-informed policy making. - Highlights: • External data was collected to interpret HBM data from DEMOCOPHES. • Hg in hair could be related to fish consumption across different countries. • Urinary cotinine was related to strictness of anti-smoking legislation. • Urinary Cd was borderline significantly related to air and food quality. • Lack of comparable data among countries hampered the analysis

  16. Interpreting biomarker data from the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects: Using external exposure data to understand biomarker differences among countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R., E-mail: roel.smolders@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risks and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Den Hond, E.; Koppen, G.; Govarts, E.; Willems, H. [Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risks and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Casteleyn, L. [KU LEUVEN (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Fiddicke, U. [Federal Environment Agency (UBA) (Germany); Castaño, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance - Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA) (Germany); Esteban, M. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Sepai, O.; Exley, K. [Public Health England (United Kingdom); Bloemen, L. [Environmental Health Sciences International (Netherlands); Horvat, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Joas, A.; Joas, R. [BiPRO (Germany); Biot, P. [FPS Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment (Belgium); and others

    2015-08-15

    In 2011 and 2012, the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects performed the first ever harmonized human biomonitoring survey in 17 European countries. In more than 1800 mother–child pairs, individual lifestyle data were collected and cadmium, cotinine and certain phthalate metabolites were measured in urine. Total mercury was determined in hair samples. While the main goal of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects was to develop and test harmonized protocols and procedures, the goal of the current paper is to investigate whether the observed differences in biomarker values among the countries implementing DEMOCOPHES can be interpreted using information from external databases on environmental quality and lifestyle. In general, 13 countries having implemented DEMOCOPHES provided high-quality data from external sources that were relevant for interpretation purposes. However, some data were not available for reporting or were not in line with predefined specifications. Therefore, only part of the external information could be included in the statistical analyses. Nonetheless, there was a highly significant correlation between national levels of fish consumption and mercury in hair, the strength of antismoking legislation was significantly related to urinary cotinine levels, and we were able to show indications that also urinary cadmium levels were associated with environmental quality and food quality. These results again show the potential of biomonitoring data to provide added value for (the evaluation of) evidence-informed policy making. - Highlights: • External data was collected to interpret HBM data from DEMOCOPHES. • Hg in hair could be related to fish consumption across different countries. • Urinary cotinine was related to strictness of anti-smoking legislation. • Urinary Cd was borderline significantly related to air and food quality. • Lack of comparable data among countries hampered the analysis.

  17. The Role of Arsenic Speciation in Dietary Exposure Assessment and the Need to Include Bioaccessibility and Biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical form specific exposure assessment for arsenic has long been identified as a source of uncertainty in estimating the risk associated with the aggregate exposure for a population. Some speciation based assessments document occurrence within an exposure route; however, the...

  18. Psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure including psychosocial support required in case of such a scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, Kaustubh

    2014-01-01

    In the early years of the Atomic Age, radiation accidents or exposure was limited to laboratories or facilities. After the major accidents at TMI, Goainia, Chernobyl, when a large proportion of the population were exposed, interest in the psychosocial aspects has developed. In order to understand the psychological impact, an understanding of the causation of symptoms is necessary. Stress, anxiety, fear, physiological correlates and psychological consequences are thus explained. The different clinical entities and the ways and means of tackling them are described. Further, 'psychological first aid' and ameliorating measures are discussed too. Finally, prevention of psychological impact including education, community support, information dissemination etc. is described. (author)

  19. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation

  20. Typologies of intimate partner violence-maternal parenting and children's externalizing problems: The moderating effect of the exposure to other forms of family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Pinto, Ricardo; Levendosky, Alytia

    2018-07-01

    Typologies of IPV and parenting practices in mothers who experienced police-reported IPV remain surprisingly unexplored, in addition to how those typologies are linked with children's externalizing problems. Using data from 162 Portuguese mother-child dyads with a police or child protection services referral of IPV, this study aimed to: (a) identify IPV-parenting typologies; (b) test the associations between typologies and children's externalizing problems, and (c) examine the moderating effect of children's exposure to other forms of family violence in those associations. Using a person-centered approach, two IPV-parenting typologies were found: a spillover typology, with high levels of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and high levels of harsh and inconsistent parenting practices; and a compartmentalized typology, with high levels of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and lower ineffective parenting practices. Results also showed that externalizing symptoms (reported by mothers and teachers) were significantly lower in children of mothers in the compartmentalized typology compared to those in the spillover typology. Children's direct exposure to other forms of family violence moderated this association. Findings suggested that children with a high exposure to other forms of family violence showed the highest levels of externalizing problems when their mothers were classified into the spillover typology, and they exhibited the lowest levels of externalizing problems when their mothers were classified in the compartmentalized typology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation are calculated for 240 radionuclides of potential importance in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Exposure modes considered are immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and irradiation from a contaminated ground surface. For each exposure mode, dose-rate conversion factors for photons and electrons are calculated for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. Dose-rate conversion factors for photons only are calculated for 22 body organs. (author)

  2. Proposal of a methodology to be applied for the characterization of external exposure risk of employees in nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, Rafael Figueiredo Pohlmann

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medicine procedure requires the administration of radioactive material by injection, ingestion or inhalation. After incorporation, the patient becomes a mobile source of radiation and, after their examination; they can irradiate everyone on their way out of the Nuclear Medicine Service (NMS). A group of workers in this path is considered a critical group, but there are no conviction on this classification, because there are not measurements available. Thus, workers claiming for occupationally exposed individual's (OEI) rights are common. Employers are always in a complex situation, because if they decided to undertake the individual external monitoring of the critical working groups, the Court considers all as OEI and employers are taxed. On the other hand, if they do not provide monitoring, it is impossible to prove that these workers were not exposed to effective doses higher than individual annual public's limit and they lose the actions, too. This work proposes a methodology to evaluate, using TLD environmental monitors, air kerma rate at critical staff points in a NMS. This method provides relevant information about critical groups' exposure. From these results, the clinic or hospital may prove technically, without individual monitoring of employees, the classification of areas and can estimate the maximum flow of patients in the free areas which guarantees exposures below the public individual dose limit. This methodology has been applied successfully to a private clinic in Rio de Janeiro, which operates a NMS. The only critical group that received exposure statistically different from clinic background radiation was that on the antechamber of the NMS. This is a site that should be characterized as a supervised area and the group of workers in this environment as OEI, as the estimated extrapolated annual effective dose in this position was 1.2 +- 0.7 mSv/year, above the public annual limit (1,0 mSv/year). Normalizing by the number of patients, it can

  3. Risk factors for exposure to influenza a viruses, including subtype H5 viruses, in Thai free-grazing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L; Kitikoon, P; Schreiner, P J; Singer, R S; Sasipreeyajan, J; Amonsin, A; Gramer, M R; Pakinsee, S; Bender, J B

    2014-08-01

    Free-grazing ducks (FGD) have been associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks and may be a viral reservoir. In July-August 2010, we assessed influenza exposure of Thai FGD and risk factors thereof. Serum from 6254 ducks was analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to influenza A nucleoprotein (NP), and haemagglutinin H5 protein. Eighty-five per cent (5305 ducks) were seropositive for influenza A. Of the NP-seropositive sera tested with H5 assays (n = 1423), 553 (39%) were H5 ELISA positive and 57 (4%) suspect. Twelve per cent (74 of 610) of H5 ELISA-positive/suspect ducks had H5 titres ≥ 1 : 20 by haemagglutination inhibition. Risk factors for influenza A seropositivity include older age, poultry contact, flock visitors and older purchase age. Study flocks had H5 virus exposure as recently as March 2010, but no HPAI H5N1 outbreaks have been identified in Thailand since 2008, highlighting a need for rigorous FGD surveillance. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  5. Quantifying the spatial and temporal variation in dose from external exposure to radiation: a new tool for use on free-ranging wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, Thomas G.; Byrne, Michael E.; Webster, Sarah; Beasley, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate dosimetry is often the fundamental problem in much of the controversial research dealing with radiation effects on free-ranging wildlife. Such research is difficult because of the need to measure dose from several potential pathways of exposure (i.e., internal contamination, external irradiation, and inhalation). Difficulties in quantifying external exposures can contribute significantly to the uncertainties of dose-effect relationships. Quantifying an animal's external exposure due to spatial–temporal use of habitats that can vary by orders of magnitude in radiation levels is particularly challenging. Historically, wildlife dosimetry studies have largely ignored or been unable to accurately quantify variability in external dose because of technological limitations. The difficulties of quantifying the temporal–spatial aspects of external irradiation prompted us to develop a new dosimetry instrument for field research. We merged two existing technologies [Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and electronic dosimeters] to accommodate the restrictive conditions of having a combined unit small enough to be unobtrusively worn on the neck of a free-ranging animal, and sufficiently robust to withstand harsh environmental conditions. The GPS–dosimeter quantifies the spatial and temporal variation in external dose as wildlife traverse radioactively contaminated habitats and sends, via satellites, an animal's location and short term integrated dose to the researcher at a user-defined interval. Herein we describe: (1) the GPS–dosimeters; (2) tests to compare their uniformity of response to external irradiation under laboratory conditions; (3) field tests of their durability when worn on wildlife under natural conditions; and (4) a field application of the new technology at a radioactively contaminated site. Use of coupled GPS–dosimetry will allow, for the first time, researchers to better understand the relationship of animals to their contaminated

  6. Upgrade the intervention levels derived for water and foods, to be include in the PERE 607 procedure the external radiological emergency plan in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llado Castillo, R.; Aguilar Pacheco, R.

    1998-01-01

    The work shows the results obtained in the upgrade the intervention levels derived for water and foods, to be include in the PERE 607 procedure the external radiological emergency plan in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  7. Ionizing radiations and their impact on basic functions of the genital system on the women (external exposure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, G.

    1976-01-01

    Data were summarized from dispensary polyclinic follow-up records over the period September 1969 through 1975 for 400 female X-ray personnel and 90 control employees free of occupational radiation exposure. In 80% of subjects in the survey group, first employment in radiation work was at less than 30 years of age. Exposure rates, as estimated from dosimetry film records, ranged from 20 to 100 mR/month, and integrated doses in no case exceeded the permissible annual levels over the past 5 years. The proportion of subjects presenting with menstrual disturbances was 42% for radiation workers versus 7.7% for controls. Distribution by types of disorders was as follows: oligomenorrhea, 35%; hypermenorrhea, 29%; irregular cycles, 15%; secondary amenorrhea, 9%; and dysmenorrhea associated with oligo- or hypermenorrhea, 22%. In 30 subjects with menstrual disturbances developing during the follow-up period, examinations included vaginal microbiology, cyclic vaginal cytodiagnostics, and pregnandiol levels. Immunoserologic assays were conducted in a total of 275 subjects, with or without menstrual disturbances, who were matched to allow comparison of results. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in 30 subjects with menstrual disturbances indicated radiation-induced chromosome aberrations to be present in 17 cases. Benign tumors and cancer of genital organs were diagnosed in 7.5 and 8.0%, respectively, of radiation workers as compared with 10.0 and 0.0%, respectively, in controls. All of the 66 pregnancies observed ended at term with delivery of live, apparently normal, progeny and an uneventful placental period. Gross and microscopic examination of 20 placentas and 30 chorions from artificially interrupted pregnancies disclosed no pathologic alterations. For the total of subjects under dispensary observation, there was a high rate of abortions by request. In conclusion, occupational radiation exposure, even where well below the maximum permissible level, does

  8. Personnel radiation protection. Situation of the dosimetry surveillance of external exposure in 2003; La radioprotection des travailleurs. Bilan de la surveillance dosimetrique de l'exposition externe en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The situation of external exposure of workers for the year 2003 has been realised according to the same method than this one of the year 2002. It does not show big variations of trends, both in term of workforce watched and collective doses alike associated in the different sectors of activity. Some differences observed between the two years can explain by real evolutions of situations. For example, the 2800 workers registered in the veterinary sector are the result of a better awareness of this profession for the radiation protection during the last months. Some variations can be the results of artefacts in the data processing. The centralization at I.R.S.N. of the whole of dosimetry data should allow to make easy the data treatment and to improve the statistics of occupational exposure. (N.C.)

  9. Mathematical modeling of HIV prevention measures including pre-exposure prophylaxis on HIV incidence in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Yoon, Myoungho; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Changsoo; Kwon, Hee-Dae; Lee, Jeehyun; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation. We constructed a mathematical model of HIV infection among MSM in South Korea, dividing the MSM population into seven groups, and simulated the effects of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), early diagnosis, PrEP, and combination interventions on the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection, as compared to the current situation that would be expected without any new prevention measures. Overall, the model suggested that the most effective prevention measure would be PrEP. Even though PrEP effectiveness could be lessened by increased unsafe sex behavior, PrEP use was still more beneficial than the current situation. In the model, early diagnosis of HIV infection was also effectively decreased HIV incidence. However, early ART did not show considerable effectiveness. As expected, it would be most effective if all interventions (PrEP, early diagnosis and early treatment) were implemented together. This model suggests that PrEP and early diagnosis could be a very effective way to reduce HIV incidence in South Korea among MSM.

  10. Estimated fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to photons from 50 keV to 10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the literature, no conversion coefficients are available for use in radiological protection of the embryo and foetus against external exposure to photons. This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external photon fields. Monoenergetic photons ranging from 50 keV to 10 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries included antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal brain and body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months. Photon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were estimated for the four prenatal ages. (authors)

  11. Study of anticipated impact on DOE programs from proposed reductions to the external occupational radiation exposure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Many years of radiation exposure experience in all phases of nuclear energy applications were surveyed to evaluate the impact of reducing the present DOE limit of 5 rem/yr. Conclusions drawn are: (1) Reduction of the occupational exposure limit would result in significant increase in total accumulated exposure to the current radiation worker population and could require an increase in the work force with attending personnel and administrative problems. (2) Important programs/facilities would have to be abandoned. (3) Some engineering technology is not sufficiently developed to design or operate at the 0.5 rem/yr limit. (4) Exposure reduction to 2.5 rem/yr would significantly increase costs and would result in a small increase in total exposure to the work force. (5) Significant initial capital cost plus increased annual costs would result. (6) The major emphasis in controlling occupational exposure should be on continued work toward further reduction of total man-rem. This should involve continued development of ALAP programs along with improvements in dose measurement and recording methods, more sophisticated exposure records, and containment, handling and remote maintenance techniques. (7) Radiation protection practices at DOE facilities have maintained exposures of the bulk of the nuclear work force substantially below current limits for many years. (8) The current standards of 5 rem/yr is used only as a limit. For example, 97% of the employees receive less than 0.5 rem/yr

  12. Problems with regard to occupational exposure of external personnel (section 15 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, W.

    2002-01-01

    The annual radiation dose to the group of external personnel working in nuclear facilities accounts for more than 39% of the total annual collective dose of all occupationally exposed persons in Germany. This is a fact causing problems for plant operators employing external personnel as well as the sending companies, with respect to compliance with the radiation protection regulations. The amended German Radiation Protection Ordinance does not really make things easier in this respect, but in fact is expected to aggravate the situation in the course of increasing globalisation in the industrial sector. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Levels of {sup 131}I Activity in Patients to Enable Hospital Discharge, Based on External Exposure of Family Members of the Patient in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, K.; Nishizawa, K.; Koga, S.; Orito, T

    1999-07-01

    The activity levels for discharge from hospital of patients treated with {sup 131}I in Japan are described. The level was determined by considering the public annual dose limit in Japan of 1 mSv and the possible exposure of family members with whom the patients were in daily contact. All analyses are based on a partner, where both the partner and the children will be subject to exposure. The external exposure was calculated by using the data on the distance between the patient and family members, the length of the time spent at each distance, and each member's age. It was assumed that the mother must continue to take responsibility for care of children during the period that she is radioactive. The conclusions of this work are that a maximum residual {sup 131}I radioactivity of <97 MBq, with a distance from the patient in bed greater than 50 cm and the ages of patient's children all over 1 year, will be required to ensure that the maximum dose to any contact will not exceed 1 mSv. More than 50 cm distance suggests either an unmarried housewife or the partner sleeping in an adjacent room or twin beds. No restriction is needed in respect of external exposure for patients with residual radioactivity of 42 MBq, although levels lower than this may be required where there is a risk of contamination, e.g. due to urinary incontinence. This conflicts with recommended activity levels for discharge (ICRP 25) of 560 MBq (for a dose limit of 5 mSv). The findings of this work are only directly relevant for the age range under 55 years. No account was taken in this paper of internal exposure from internal pathways. (author)

  14. Levels of 131I Activity in Patients to Enable Hospital Discharge, Based on External Exposure of Family Members of the Patient in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshida, K.; Nishizawa, K.; Koga, S.; Orito, T.

    1999-01-01

    The activity levels for discharge from hospital of patients treated with 131 I in Japan are described. The level was determined by considering the public annual dose limit in Japan of 1 mSv and the possible exposure of family members with whom the patients were in daily contact. All analyses are based on a partner, where both the partner and the children will be subject to exposure. The external exposure was calculated by using the data on the distance between the patient and family members, the length of the time spent at each distance, and each member's age. It was assumed that the mother must continue to take responsibility for care of children during the period that she is radioactive. The conclusions of this work are that a maximum residual 131 I radioactivity of <97 MBq, with a distance from the patient in bed greater than 50 cm and the ages of patient's children all over 1 year, will be required to ensure that the maximum dose to any contact will not exceed 1 mSv. More than 50 cm distance suggests either an unmarried housewife or the partner sleeping in an adjacent room or twin beds. No restriction is needed in respect of external exposure for patients with residual radioactivity of 42 MBq, although levels lower than this may be required where there is a risk of contamination, e.g. due to urinary incontinence. This conflicts with recommended activity levels for discharge (ICRP 25) of 560 MBq (for a dose limit of 5 mSv). The findings of this work are only directly relevant for the age range under 55 years. No account was taken in this paper of internal exposure from internal pathways. (author)

  15. A comparison of important international and national standards for limiting exposure to EMF including the scientific rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Colin R; Martin, Lindsay J

    2007-06-01

    A comparison of Eastern (from Russia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, and the Czech Republic) and Western (represented by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers standards) radiofrequency standards reveals key differences. The Eastern approach is to protect against non-thermal effects caused by chronic exposure to low level exposure, and the occupational basic restriction is power load (the product of intensity and exposure duration). In contrast, the Western approach is to protect against established acute biological effects that could signal an adverse health effect, and the principal basic restriction is the specific absorption rate to protect against thermal effects. All of the standards are science-based, but a fundamental difference arises from a lack of agreement on the composition of the reference scientific database and of which adverse effect needs to be protected against. However, differences also exist between the ICNIRP and IEEE standards. An additional complication arises when standards are derived or modified using a precautionary approach. For ELF the differences between ICNIRP and IEEE are more fundamental; namely, differences in the basic restriction used (induced current; in-situ electric field) and the location of breakpoints in the strength-frequency curves result in large differences. In 2006, ICNIRP will initiate the review of their ELF and radiofrequency guidelines, and this will provide an opportunity to address differences in standards and the move towards harmonization of EMF standards and guidelines.

  16. Study of anticipated impact on DOE programs from proposed reductions to the external occupational radiation exposure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    A study of the impact of reducing the occupational radiation exposure limit from 5 rem/yr to 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 rem/yr, respectively produced the following conclusions: reduction of the occupational exposure limit would result in significant increase in total accumulated exposure to the current radiation worker population and could require an increase in the work force; important programs would have to be abandoned at a planned exposure limit of 0.5 rem/yr; some engineering technology is not sufficiently developed to design or operate at the 0.5 rem/yr limit; even a factor of 2 reduction (2.5 rem/yr) would significantly increase costs and would result in an increase in total exposure to the work force; in addition to a significant one-time initial capital cost resulting from a 0.5 rem/yr limit, there would be a significant increase in annual costs; the major emphasis in controlling occupational exposure should be on further reduction of total man-rem; and current standards are used only as a limit. For example, 97% of the employees receive less than 0.5 rem/yr

  17. A comparative assessment of human exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A and eight bisphenols including bisphenol A via indoor dust ingestion in twelve countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Abualnaja, Khalid O; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Covaci, Adrian; Gevao, Bondi; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kumosani, Taha A; Malarvannan, Govindan; Minh, Tu Binh; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sinha, Ravindra K; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and eight bisphenol analogues (BPs) including bisphenol A (BPA) were determined in 388 indoor (including homes and microenvironments) dust samples collected from 12 countries (China, Colombia, Greece, India, Japan, Kuwait, Pakistan, Romania, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, U.S., and Vietnam). The concentrations of TBBPA and sum of eight bisphenols (ƩBPs) in dust samples ranged from exposure doses through diet, dust ingestion accounted for less than 10% of the total exposure doses in China and the U.S. For TBBPA, the EDI for infants and toddlers ranged from 0.01 to 3.4 ng/kg bw/day, and dust ingestion is an important pathway for exposure accounting for 3.8-35% (median) of exposure doses in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Evaluation of Conventional X-ray Exposure Parameters Including Tube Voltage and Exposure Time in Private and Governmental Hospitals of Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Gholami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In radiography, dose and image quality are dependent on radiographic parameters. The problem is caused from incorrect use of radiography equipment and from the radiation exposure to patients much more than required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to implement a quality-control program to detect changes in exposure parameters, which may affect diagnosis or patient radiation dose. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on seven stationary X-ray units in sixhospitals of Lorestan province. The measurements were performed, using a factory-calibrated Barracuda dosimeter (model: SE-43137. Results According to the results, the highest output was obtained in A Hospital (M1 device, ranging from 107×10-3 to 147×10-3 mGy/mAs. The evaluation of tube voltage accuracy showed a deviation from the standard value, which ranged between 0.81% (M1 device and 17.94% (M2 device at A Hospital. The deviation ranges at other hospitals were as follows: 0.30-27.52% in B Hospital (the highest in this study, 8.11-20.34% in C Hospital, 1.68-2.58% in D Hospital, 0.90-2.42% in E Hospital and 0.10-1.63% in F Hospital. The evaluation of exposure time accuracy showed that E, C, D and A (M2 device hospitals complied with the requirements (allowing a deviation of ±5%, whereas A (M1 device, F and B hospitals exceeded the permitted limit. Conclusion The results of this study showed that old X-ray equipments with poor or no maintenance are probably the main sources of reducing radiographic image quality and increasing patient radiation dose.

  19. Repeated exposure to high-frequency spanking and child externalizing behavior across the first decade: a moderating role for cumulative risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-12-01

    This study used the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study to examine the effects of repeated exposure to harsh parenting on child externalizing behavior across the first decade of life, and a moderating role for cumulative ecological risk. Maternal report of harsh parenting, defined as high frequency spanking, was assessed at age 1, 3, 5, and 9, along with child externalizing at age 9 (N=2,768). Controlling for gender, race, maternal nativity, and city of residence, we found a cumulative risk index to significantly moderate the effects of repeated harsh parenting on child behavior, with the effects of repeated high-frequency spanking being amplified for those experiencing greater levels of cumulative risk. Harsh parenting, in the form of high frequency spanking, remains a too common experience for children, and results demonstrate that the effects of repeated exposure to harsh parenting across the first decade are amplified for those children already facing the most burden. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Guidelines for planning interventions against external exposure in industrial area after a nuclear accident. Pt. 2. Calculation of doses using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kis, Z.; Eged, K.; Meckbach, R.; Mueller, H.

    2003-01-01

    Countermeasures being different from the usual urban ones and largely applicable in industrial area are collected and evaluated in a separate report. The industrial area is defined here as such an area where productive and/or commercial activity is carried out. A good example is a supermarket or a factory. Based on the history of calculation models it is unambiguous that the Monte Carlo based simulation is the perspective to the dose assessment from external exposures in such a complex environment. A method of the calculation of doses from external exposures in urban-industrial environment is presented. Moreover, this report gives a summary about the time dependence of the source strengths relative to a reference surface and a short overview about the mechanical and chemical intervention techniques which can be applied in this area. Using a hypothetical scenario (a supermarket area contaminated by 137 Cs) the details of an exemplary calculation are given directly addressing the dose and averted dose blocks of the templates of industrial countermeasures. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the results is presented. (orig.)

  1. Study on Public Exposure and External Radiation Level at Gamma Green House and around MINT Dengkil Complex Boarder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Ismail Sulaiman; Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol; Ahmad Bazlie Abdul Kadir; Noor Fadilla Ismail; Hassan Sham; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discussing on the measurement of external radiation and the dose level which is acceptable to the public around the Gamma Green House and the border between Malaysian Nuclear Agency and housing project developed by Mah Sing Group. This research is made to verify the level of safety, especially for civilians residing in this area and to ensure compliance with the limit that has been set by the authorities, AELB (BSS/2010). Measurement method used in this research by using survey meter, TLD and OSL. (author)

  2. [Mediator processes in the brain structures in the late periods after external and combined exposure to ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taĭts, M Iu; Dudina, T V; Kandybo, T S; Elkina, A I

    1990-01-01

    In experiments with mature Wistar male rats it was shown that X-radiation of 12.9 mCi/kg and the combined effect of X-rays and 131I of 6.5 mCi/kg changed the rate of mediator processes in the structures responsible for the hypothalamic function regulation. At remote times (6 months) following irradiation differences were observed in the discoordination of mediator interrelations associated with the peculiarities of the indirect effect of external and combined irradiation implemented via endocrine mechanism system.

  3. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  5. The assumption of heterogeneous or homogeneous radioactive contamination in soil/sediment: does it matter in terms of the external exposure of fauna?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.

    2014-01-01

    The classical approach to environmental radioprotection is based on the assumption of homogeneously contaminated media. However, in soils and sediments there may be a significant variation of radioactivity with depth. The effect of this heterogeneity was investigated by examining the external exposure of various sediment and soil organisms, and determining the resulting dose rates, assuming a realistic combination of locations and radionuclides. The results were dependent on the exposure situation, i.e., the organism, its location, and the quality and quantity of radionuclides. The dose rates ranged over three orders of magnitude. The assumption of homogeneous contamination was not consistently conservative (if associated with a level of radioactivity averaged over the full thickness of soil or sediment that was sampled). Dose assessment for screening purposes requires consideration of the highest activity concentration measured in a soil/sediment that is considered to be homogeneously contaminated. A more refined assessment (e.g., higher tier of a graded approach) should take into consideration a more realistic contamination profile, and apply different dosimetric approaches. - Highlights: • Defining contamination as homogeneous may not be conservative for dose assessment. • The impact of source heterogeneity on dose is closely linked to the exposure scenario. • Dosimetric calculations (method and tool) should differ from screening to higher tiers

  6. The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte-Carlo methods. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zankl, M.; Williams, G.; Drexler, G.

    1982-12-01

    By the help of a Monte-Carlo program the dose that single organs, organ groups and bigger or smaller parts of body would receive on an average, caused by an irradiation definitely fixed by the geometry of irradiation and photon energy, can be determined. Thus the phantom in connection with the Monte-Carlo program can be used for several considerations as for example - calculation of dose from occupational exposures - calculation of dose from diagnostic procedures - calculation of dose from radiotherapy procedures. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of the external doses at low and high exposures by Agfa personal monitoring film, FD-III-B badge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, F.; Stochioiu, A.; Bercea, S.; Udup, E.; Tudor, I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A growing number of papers report occupational exposure monitoring by different dosemeter devices. Researches into improvement of the personal dosemeter systems are encouraged. Dose measurement and especially skin dose measurement, are therefore increasingly important. Methods and acceptable dosemeter are not clearly defined and differ from a dosimetry laboratory to other depending on their specifically work procedure and type of dosemeter utilized. Taking into account the characteristic of the work place (industry, research, medical application) dosemeter have to cover a large dose range. The dose assessment problems are manly in low doses range (under 0.2 mSv) and higher doses range. For example, typical for radiation oncology and nuclear accident dosimetry the dose ranges are on the order of 2-70 Gy and 0.1-5 Gy. This work presents the performance of the Agfa personal monitoring film, badge FD-III-B type used in the most of the occupational exposure monitoring from Romania. The FD-III-B dosimeter, manufactured in Romania, is used for monitoring personnel working in radioactive environment - the photodosimetric method is the one of the most reliable method presenting the advantage that the film may be considered as master probe over 30 year and may be utilized during litigation. The dosimeter contains metallic filters of Al, Cu, Pb with different thicknesses, a plastic filter and a open window. The badge FD-III-B is a class B dosimeter according to the dose range and an indices 3 dosimeter from energy range of the radiations in conformity with Romanian Standard in force. Film Agfa 'personal monitoring', tacked in this experiment, consists of a low speed film (D2) and a very sensitive film (D10) designed for recording X-ray, gamma and beta radiation over the doses range 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv. The experiments have been effectuated at different background optical density (base fog) of the films and at different sources of radiation: 13 :7Cs, 60 Co and 24 : 1 Am

  8. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  9. Estimation of local and external contributions of biomass burning to PM2.5 in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetello, Francesca; Squizzato, Stefania; Hofer, Angelika; Masiol, Mauro; Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Fermo, Paola; Formenton, Gian Maria; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    A total of 85 PM 2.5 samples were collected at a site located in a large industrial zone (Porto Marghera, Venice, Italy) during a 1-year-long sampling campaign. Samples were analyzed to determine water-soluble inorganic ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan, and results were processed to investigate the seasonal patterns, the relationship between the analyzed species, and the most probable sources by using a set of tools, including (i) conditional probability function (CPF), (ii) conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF), (iii) concentration weighted trajectory (CWT), and (iv) potential source contribution function (PSCF) analyses. Furthermore, the importance of biomass combustions to PM 2.5 was also estimated. Average PM 2.5 concentrations ranged between 54 and 16 μg m -3 in the cold and warm period, respectively. The mean value of total ions was 11 μg m -3 (range 1-46 μg m -3 ): The most abundant ion was nitrate with a share of 44 % followed by sulfate (29 %), ammonium (14 %), potassium (4 %), and chloride (4 %). Levoglucosan accounted for 1.2 % of the PM 2.5 mass, and its concentration ranged from few ng m -3 in warm periods to 2.66 μg m -3 during winter. Average concentrations of levoglucosan during the cold period were higher than those found in other European urban sites. This result may indicate a great influence of biomass combustions on particulate matter pollution. Elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) showed similar behavior, with the highest contributions during cold periods and lower during summer. The ratios between biomass burning indicators (K + , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , levoglucosan, EC, and OC) were used as proxy for the biomass burning estimation, and the contribution to the OC and PM 2.5 was also calculated by using the levoglucosan (LG)/OC and LG/PM 2.5 ratios and was estimated to be 29 and 18 %, respectively.

  10. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  11. Measurements and evaluation of the risks due to external radiation exposures and to intake of activated elements for operational staff engaged in the maintenance of medical cyclotrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandrino, R; del Vecchio, A; Parisi, R; Todde, S; De Felice, P; Savi, A; Pepe, A; Mrskova, A

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the activation phenomena and to evaluate the risk of external exposure and intake doses for the maintenance staff of two medical cyclotrons. Two self-shielded cyclotrons are currently operating in the facility for the routine production of (11)C and (18)F. Four radiochemistry laboratories are linked to the cyclotrons by means of shielded radioisotope delivery lines. Radiopharmaceuticals are prepared both for the PET Diagnostic Department, where four CT-PET scanners are operating with a mean patient workload of 40 d(-1) and for [(18)F]FDG external distribution, to provide radiopharmaceuticals for other institutions. In spite of the fact that air contamination inside the radiochemistry laboratories during the synthesis represents the largest 'slice of the pie' in the evaluation of annual intake dose, potential contamination due to the activated particulate, generated during cyclotron irradiation by micro-corrosion of targets and other components potentially struck by the proton beam and generated neutrons, should be considered. In this regard, the most plausible long-lived (T(1/2) > 30 d) radioisotopes formed are: (97)Tc, (56)Co, (57)Co, (58)Co, (60)Co, (49)V, (55)Fe, (109)Cd, (65)Zn and (22)Na. The results for the operating personnel survey has revealed only low-level contamination for (65)Zn in one test, together with minor (18)F intake, probably due to the environmental dispersion of the radioisotope during the [(18)F]FDG synthesis.

  12. External radiation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site

  13. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  14. Fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to protons from 100 MeV to 100 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the literature, no conversion coefficients are available for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to protons. This study used the Monte Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to proton fields. Monoenergetic protons ranging from 100 MeV to 100 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal brain and body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months. Proton fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. (authors)

  15. The assumption of heterogeneous or homogeneous radioactive contamination in soil/sediment: does it matter in terms of the external exposure of fauna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2014-12-01

    The classical approach to environmental radioprotection is based on the assumption of homogeneously contaminated media. However, in soils and sediments there may be a significant variation of radioactivity with depth. The effect of this heterogeneity was investigated by examining the external exposure of various sediment and soil organisms, and determining the resulting dose rates, assuming a realistic combination of locations and radionuclides. The results were dependent on the exposure situation, i.e., the organism, its location, and the quality and quantity of radionuclides. The dose rates ranged over three orders of magnitude. The assumption of homogeneous contamination was not consistently conservative (if associated with a level of radioactivity averaged over the full thickness of soil or sediment that was sampled). Dose assessment for screening purposes requires consideration of the highest activity concentration measured in a soil/sediment that is considered to be homogeneously contaminated. A more refined assessment (e.g., higher tier of a graded approach) should take into consideration a more realistic contamination profile, and apply different dosimetric approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mortality through 1990 among white male workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory: Considering exposures to plutonium and external ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggs, L.D.; Johnson, E.R.; Cox-DeVore, C.A.; Voelz, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    A cohort mortality study was conducted of 15,727 white men employed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a nuclear research and development facility. Some of the workers at this facility have been exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation and other potentially hazardous materials. These analyses focused on whole-body ionizing radiation exposures and internal depositions of plutonium. The results indicated that overall mortality among this cohort is quite low, even after nearly 30 y of follow-up. No cause of death was significantly elevated among plutonium-exposed workers when compared with their unexposed coworkers; however, a rate ratio for lung cancer of 1.78 (95% CI = 0.79-3.99) was observed. A case of osteogenic sarcoma, a type of cancer related to plutonium exposure in animal studies, was also observed. Dose-response relationships for whole-body dose from external ionizing radiation and tritium were observed for cancers of the brain/central nervous system, the esophagus, and Hodgkin's disease. 34 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  17. Development of a external exposure computational model for studying of input dose in skin for radiographs of thorax and vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Bianca C.; Menezes, Claudio J.M.; Vieira, Jose W.

    2014-01-01

    The dosimetric measurements do not always happen directly in the human body. Therefore, these assessments can be performed using anthropomorphic models (phantoms) evidencing models computational exposure (MCE) using techniques of Monte Carlo Method for virtual simulations. These processing techniques coupled with more powerful and affordable computers make the Monte Carlo method one of the tools most used worldwide in radiation transport area. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGS4 program was used to develop a computer model of external exposure to study the entrance skin dose for chest and column X-radiography and, aiming to optimize these practices by reducing doses to patients, professionals involved and the general public. The results obtained experimentally with the electrometer Radcal, model 9015, associated with the ionization chamber for radiology model 10X5-6, showed that the proposed computational model can be used in quality assurance programs in radiodiagnostic, evaluating the entrance skin dose when varying parameters of the radiation beam such as kilo voltage peak (kVp), current-time product (mAs), total filtration and distance surface source (DFS), optimizing the practices in radiodiagnostic and meeting the current regulation

  18. Dose estimates from protracted external exposure of inhabitants living in contaminated area of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, H.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kurotaki, K.; Uchiyama, M.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Barishkov, N.; Mishin, A.; Barkovski, A.

    2000-01-01

    With respect to the radiation risk assessment, it is important to estimate the accurate doses of inhabitants, due to protracted exposure after the Chernobyl accident as well as the high doses just after the accident. We used a model for estimation of the dose with a long-term temporal change using information of dose rate on the ground and profile of the activity depth distribution in soil. A value C t [μSv h -1 /(MBq m -2 )], which is dose rate in air corresponding to the initial deposition of 137 Cs on the ground just after the accident, was analyzed using the results of the measurements of dose rate in air and activity in soil samples in the contaminated area of Bryansk region in Russia. From the analysis, the value, C 12 at 12 years after the accident can be predicted by categorizing usage of the land. The values obtained from the results of the actual measurement were 1.5 for forest, 1.0 for pasture, 0.6 for yard, and 0.45 for arable or kitchen garden. Temporal change of C t was estimated with a vertical migration model of activity in soil developed by Golikov et al. Annual dose due to 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in the period from 1987 to 1999 in farmers, and forest workers were estimated by the model using above values. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by using the personal dose monitoring. The cumulative doses of the inhabitants estimated by the model range from 10 to 60 mSv. (author)

  19. The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.; Zankl, M.; Drexler, G.

    1984-12-01

    This report considers the contribution from scattered radiation to the dose to organs and tissues which lie outside the useful therapy beams. The results presented are the product of Monte Carlo studies used to determine the tissue doses due to internal scattering of the useful beams only. General cases are calculated in which central target volumes in the trunk are treated with 10 x 14 cm 2 and 14 x 14 cm 2 fields from 200 kV, Co-60, 8 MV and 25 MV therapy equipment. Target volumes in the neck are considered to be treated with 5 x 5 cm 2 fields. Different treatment plans are calculated including rotational therapy. Also two specific cases are more fully analysed, namely for Ankylosing Spondylitis and central abdomen malignant disease in the region of the head of the pancreas. The calculated organ doses are presented in tables as a percentage of the target volume dose. (orig.)

  20. Skeletal dosimetry for external exposures to photons based on {mu}CT images of spongiosa: Consideration of voxel resolution, cluster size, and medullary bone surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; Brown, K. A. Robson [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire 1000, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 50740-540, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire 500, CEP 50740-540, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil and Escola Politecnica, UPE, Rua Benfica 455, CEP 50751-460, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, 43 Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UU (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Skeletal dosimetry based on {mu}CT images of trabecular bone has recently been introduced to calculate the red bone marrow (RBM) and the bone surface cell (BSC) equivalent doses in human phantoms for external exposure to photons. In order to use the {mu}CT images for skeletal dosimetry, spongiosa voxels in the skeletons were replaced at run time by so-called micromatrices, which have exactly the size of a spongiosa voxel and contain segmented trabecular bone and marrow microvoxels. A cluster (=parallelepiped) of 2x2x2=8 micromatrices was used systematically and periodically throughout the spongiosa volume during the radiation transport calculation. Systematic means that when a particle leaves a spongiosa voxel to enter into a neighboring spongiosa voxel, then the next micromatrix in the cluster will be used. Periodical means that if the particle travels through more than two spongiosa voxels in a row, then the cluster will be repeated. Based on the bone samples available at the time, clusters of up to 3x3x3=27 micromatrices were studied. While for a given trabecular bone volume fraction the whole-body RBM equivalent dose showed converging results for cluster sizes between 8 and 27 micromatrices, this was not the case for the BSC equivalent dose. The BSC equivalent dose seemed to be very sensitive to the number, form, and thickness of the trabeculae. In addition, the cluster size and/or the microvoxel resolution were considered to be possible causes for the differences observed. In order to resolve this problem, this study used a bone sample large enough to extract clusters containing up to 8x8x8=512 micromatrices and which was scanned with two different voxel resolutions. Taking into account a recent proposal, this investigation also calculated the BSC equivalent dose on medullary surfaces of cortical bone in the arm and leg bones. The results showed (1) that different voxel resolutions have no effect on the RBM equivalent dose but do influence the BSC equivalent

  1. Externalities of energy and atomic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Energy technology ensures not only energy supply but also has great impacts on society and environments. Economical value and effect evaluation alone doesn't mean appropriate so the evaluation of 'externalities' should be appreciated. In order to assess atomic power in this context, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan set up a research committee on 'externalities of energy and atomic power' from April 2002 to March 2006, whose activities were described in this report. In addition to environmental effects and environmental externalities, four areas were newly studied as follows: (1) biological effects of low dose rate exposure and externalities, (2) externalities as social/economical effects including stable supply and security, (3) energy technologies evaluation and (4) social choice and decision-making. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  3. External exposure from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Shielding factors have been calculated by the point kernel method by Riso National Laboratory for indoor residences in selected European single-family and multistory houses and outdoor residences in built-up urban areas. Parametric variations (thickness of outer and inner walls, floors and roofs) have been performed to identify the most important factors responsible for affording protection indoors against plume gamma radiation. Recommendations have been made for representative shielding factors. G S F considers three types of buildings: a house of prefabricated parts, a two storey semi-detached house, and a houseblock in two different urban surroundings. The calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo photon transport code SAM-CE. Shielding factors are calculated for the living rooms, basements and outside locations of the buildings. In France a representative sample of about twenty dwellings is defined in each of the 31 French 'departements' where a survey on housing characteristics has been conducted. Using Monte-Carlo techniques the shielding factors are calculated in these houses. The shielding factor distribution for a radionuclide is summarized in each 'departement' by a conservative average and by the two extreme values: the worst shielded apartment and the best one's. Furthermore two experimental campaigns have been made to validate the computer codes. These results are discussed not only according to the respective calculation method, but also to the considered housing characteristics. The differences which come from the methods are not negligible, but they are small compared to those which come from the housing characteristics. For similar main house parameters, a relatively good agreement between the results from the different calculation methods is found

  4. Critical evaluation of the external occupational exposure in nuclear medicine services in Brazil; Avaliacao critica da exposicao ocupacional externa nos servicos de medicina nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Ana Luiza Silva Lima

    2016-07-01

    Currently in Brazil (2016), there are 421 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). In nuclear medicine, the possibility of occupational internal contamination and external exposure is unavoidable. The chest individual monitoring, to estimate the effective dose, is mandatory, but the extremity monitoring is not always made. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of data for external exposure of NMS professionals in Brazil from 1987 to 2010, analysing them in terms of trends and comparing them with measurements carried out in this work and in other countries. Although most of the NMS is still located in large urban centres (54% in the Southeast region), there is no state without any NMS. The increasing number of NMS has generated the need for more professionals. In the year 1987, they were 755 workers and, in 2010, 4134, with the following distribution of specialties: 29% of Nuclear Medicine Technicians (NMT), 23% of Nursing professionals, 29% of Physicians and 3% of Physicists. The average annual effective dose reached more than 3.0 mSv in some regions of the country, from 1987 to 2010, but tends to 1.0 mSv in 2010. The highest doses, as expected, are received by NMT and Nursing. The professionals who handle radiopharmaceuticals have their hands much more exposed than the chest. During 2010, only 31% of NMT and 16% of Nursing used extremity dosimeters as compared to chest dosimeters. The data from the measurements indicate that not all individual dosimeters are used properly. Generally, both in the measurements as in national registries, the hand doses were higher for professionals who prepared the radiopharmaceutical (NMT) than those who injected (Nursing). The value measured by chest dosimeters can be used to estimate the equivalent dose to the eye lenses, except for NMT at preparation practices at conventional NMS, where the equivalent dose of the lens is about 2 times higher than the dose at the chest. The most exposed areas of the hands are the tips of the index

  5. Radiation exposure records management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiter, H.P.

    1975-12-01

    Management of individual radiation exposure records begins at employment with the accumulation of data pertinent to the individual and any previous occupational radiation exposure. Appropriate radiation monitorinng badges or devices are issued and accountability established. A computer master file is initiated to include the individual's name, payroll number, social security number, birth date, assigned department, and location. From this base, a radiation exposure history is accumulated to include external ionizing radiation exposure to skin and whole body, contributing neutron exposure, contributing tritium exposure, and extremity exposure. It is used also to schedule bioassay sampling and in-vivo counts and to provide other pertinent information. The file is used as a basis for providing periodic reports to management and monthly exposure summaries to departmental line supervision to assist in planning work so that individual annual exposures are kept as low as practical. Radiation exposure records management also includes documentation of radiation surveys performed by the health physicist to establish working rates and the individual estimating and recording his estimated exposure on a day-to-day basis. Exposure information is also available to contribute to Energy Research and Development Administration statistics and to the National Transuranium Registry

  6. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the external radiation exposure dosimetry and calculation of maximum permissible concentration values for airborne materials containing 18F, 15O, 13N, 11C and 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piltingsrud, H.V.; Gels, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    To better understand the dose equivalent (D.E.) rates produced by airborne releases of gaseous positron-emitting radionuclides under various conditions of cloud size, a study of the external radiation exposure dosimetry of these radionuclides, as well as negatron, gamma and x-ray emitting 133Xe, was undertaken. This included a calculation of the contributions to D.E. as a function of cloud radii, at tissue depths of 0.07 mm (skin), 3 mm (lens of eye) and 10 mm (whole body) from both the particulate and photon radiations emitted by these radionuclides. Estimates of maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values were also calculated based on the calculated D.E. rates and current regulations for personnel radiation protection (CFR84). Three continuous air monitors, designed for use with 133Xe, were evaluated for applications in monitoring air concentrations of the selected positron emitters. The results indicate that for a given radionuclide and for a cloud greater than a certain radius, personnel radiation dosimeters must respond acceptably to only the photon radiations emitted by the radionuclide to provide acceptable personnel dosimetry. For clouds under that radius, personnel radiation dosimeters must also respond acceptably to the positron or negatron radiations to provide acceptable personnel dosimetry. It was found that two out of the three air concentration monitors may be useful for monitoring air concentrations of the selected positron emitters

  8. Estimation of individual doses from external exposures and dose-group classification of cohort members in high background radiation area in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yongling; Shen Hong; Sun Quanfu; Wei Luxin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: In order to estimate annual effective doses from external exposures in the high background radiation area (HBRA) and in the control area (CA) , the authors measured absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial gamma radiation with different dosimeters. A dose group classification was an important step for analyzing the dose effects relationship among the cohort members in the investigated areas. The authors used the hamlet specific average annual effective doses of all the 526 hamlets in the investigated areas. A classification of four dose groups was made for the cohort members (high, moderate, low and control) . Methods: For the purpose of studying the dose effect relationships among the cohort members in HBRA and CA, it would be ideal that each subject has his own record of individual accumulated doses received before the evaluation. However, rt is difficult to realize it in practice (each of 106517 persons should wear TLD for a long time) . Thus the authors planned two sets of measurements. Firstly, to measure the environmental dose rates (outdoor, indoor, over the bed) in every hamlet of the investigated area (526 hamlets) , considering the occupancy factors for males and females of different age groups to convert to the annual effective dose from the data of dose rates. Secondly, to measure the individual cumulative dose with TLD for part of the subjects in the investigated areas. Results: Based on the two sets of measurements, the estimates of average annual effective doses in HBRA were 211.86 and 206.75 x 10 -5 Sv/a, respectively, 68.60 and 67.11 x 10 -5 Sv/a, respectively(gamma radiation only) . The intercomparison between these two sets of measurement showed that they were in good correlation. Thus the authors are able to yield the equations of linear regression: Y = 0.9937 + 6.0444, r = 0.9949. Conclusions: The authors took the value obtained from direct measurement as 'standard' , and 15 % for uncertainty of measurement. Since the estimates of

  9. Biomedical HIV Prevention Including Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Opiate Agonist Therapy for Women Who Inject Drugs: State of Research and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kimberly; Tsui, Judith; Maher, Lisa; Choopanya, Kachit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Mock, Philip A; Celum, Connie; Martin, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at higher risk of HIV compared with their male counterparts as a result of multiple factors, including biological, behavioral, and sociostructural factors, yet comparatively little effort has been invested in testing and delivering prevention methods that directly target this group. In this article, we discuss the need for expanded prevention interventions for WWID, focusing on 2 safe, effective, and approved, yet underutilized biomedical prevention methods: opiate agonist therapy (OAT) and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Although both interventions are well researched, they have not been well examined in the context of gender. We discuss the drivers of women injectors' higher HIV risk, review the effectiveness of OAT and PrEP interventions among women, and explain why these new HIV prevention tools should be prioritized for WWID. There is substantial potential for impact of OAT and PrEP programs for WWID in the context of broader gender-responsive HIV prevention initiatives. Although awaiting efficacy data on other biomedical approaches in the HIV prevention research "pipeline," we propose that the scale-up and implementation of these proven, safe, and effective interventions are needed now.

  10. Maternal exposure to procymidone has no effects on fetal external genitalia development in male rabbit fetuses in a modified developmental toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inawaka, Kunifumi; Kishimoto, Noriyuki; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Kawamura, Satoshi

    2010-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of procymidone (PCM) on development of male rabbit fetal external genitalia. PCM was administered once daily by gavage at dose levels of 0 (control) and 125mg/kg/day to pregnant rabbits from gestation day 6 through 28 and fetal external genitalia was observed in detail. This treatment period covered the critical stage of sexual differentiation of fetal external genitalia in rabbits. In the maternal animals, food consumption was reduced in the PCM group. There were no effects of PCM on maternal caesarean sectioning data or fetal external observations. In fetal external genitalia observations, there were no significant differences between the control and PCM treatment group in any of the following parameters: ano-genital distance (AGD), phallus boundary-genital distance, diameter of preputial lamella, ventral gap of preputial lamella, or ventral gap to diameter ration of preputial lamella, though severe feminization such as decreasing of AGD and hypospadias in male rat offspring at the dose level of 125 mg/kg of PCM were reported. These results suggest that PCM has no effect on fetal external genitalia development in male rabbit fetuses, and species difference of developmental effects of PCM on sexual differentiation exists.

  11. Probabilistic modelling of human exposure to intense sweeteners in Italian teenagers: validation and sensitivity analysis of a probabilistic model including indicators of market share and brand loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Soggiu, M E; Leclercq, C

    2003-10-01

    For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic approach. Within the EU-funded 'Monte Carlo' project, a stochastic model of exposure to chemical substances from the diet and a computer software program were developed. The aim of this paper was to validate the model with respect to the intake of saccharin from table-top sweeteners and cyclamate from soft drinks by Italian teenagers with the use of the software and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion/exclusion of indicators on market share and brand loyalty through a sensitivity analysis. Data on food consumption and the concentration of sweeteners were collected. A food frequency questionnaire aimed at identifying females who were high consumers of sugar-free soft drinks and/or of table top sweeteners was filled in by 3982 teenagers living in the District of Rome. Moreover, 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. Producers were asked to provide the intense sweeteners' concentration of sugar-free products. Results showed that consumer behaviour with respect to brands has an impact on exposure assessments. Only probabilistic models that took into account indicators of market share and brand loyalty met the validation criteria.

  12. Evaluation of the occupational exposure to external sources of ionizing radiation in Cuba in the period 2001-2005; Evaluacion de la exposicion ocupacional a fuentes externas de radiacion ionizante en Cuba en el periodo 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina P, D.; Martinez H, E.; Castro S, A. [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Externa, CPHR, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: daniel@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The single radiological surveillance of the occupational exposure to external radiation sources in Cuba it is carried out by the Radiation Protection and Hygiene Center (CPHR). The data corresponding to the external exposure are presented. The service it covers to all the occupationally exposed workers (TOEs) of the country that work fundamentally the radiodiagnostic practices, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy and research. The purpose of this work is to carry out an analysis of the occupational exposures of the TOE of the country starting of the results registered by the service of single radiological surveillance in the period 2001 to 2005, keeping in mind the indicators used by the UNSCEAR. The annual average effective dose (E) for each practice is shown. The obtained results showed that the values of annual average effective dose (E) its are bigger for the radiodiagnostic practices, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. In a general way, all the E values are inferior to 2.00 mSv. The number of TOEs that overcame the 20 mSv established as annual dose limit, it went inferior to 1% of the controlled total universe. (Author)

  13. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help. Previous work established that this distinction-whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive-has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict. The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behavior of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup. Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced. The main results are that (1) behavior is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2) People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3) Groupness-the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being-is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it). In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate.

  14. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: Exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori eWeisel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help.Previous work established that this distinction---whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive---has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict.The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behaviour of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup.Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced.The main results are that(1 behaviour is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2 People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3 emph{Groupness}---the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being---is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it. In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate.

  15. Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from fallout and the related radionuclide compositions. Operation Tumbler-Snapper, 1952

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-07-01

    This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from Events that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex

  16. Radiation exposure and risk estimates for inhaled airborne radioactive pollutants including hot particles. Annual report 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-03-01

    Contents: Mixed-oxide fuel fabrication; Generation of aerosols of mixed uranium-plutonium oxides from dry powders for animal inhalation exposures; Analytical radiochemical determination of U, Pu and Am in biological samples; Physical chemical characterization of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide nuclear fuel as samples during animal inhalation exposure; Pilot studies of deposition and retention of industrial mixed-oxide aerosols in the laboratory rat; Extended radiation dose pattern studies of aerosols of mixed uranium-plutonium oxides treated at 750C inhaled by Fishcer-344 rats, beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys; Extended radiation dose pattern studies of aerosols of plutonium dioxide, treated at 850C and inhaled by Fischer-344 rats, beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys

  17. The influence of environmental exposure to complex mixtures including PAHs and lead on genotoxic effects in children living in Upper Silesia, Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna

    2006-01-01

    of exposure were as follows: PbB 7.69 microg/dl, DNA adducts 9.59 adducts per 10(8) nt, 1-OHP 0.54 micromol/mol creatinine, and urinary mutagenicity presented as the number of revertants per mmol of creatinine: 485 for TA 98 and 1318 for YG1024. Mean value of MN was 4.44 per 1000 binucleated cells and SCE...

  18. Parent-child relationship quality and family transmission of parent posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and child externalizing and internalizing symptoms following fathers' exposure to combat trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Gewirtz, Abigail; Schrepferman, Lynn; Gird, Suzanne R; Quattlebaum, Jamie; Pauldine, Michael R; Elish, Katie; Zamir, Osnat; Hayes, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Transactional cascades among child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and fathers' and mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined in a sample of families with a male parent who had been deployed to recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The role of parents' positive engagement and coercive interaction with their child, and family members' emotion regulation were tested as processes linking cascades of parent and child symptoms. A subsample of 183 families with deployed fathers and nondeployed mothers and their 4- to 13-year-old children who participated in a randomized control trial intervention (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools) were assessed at baseline prior to intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline, using parent reports of their own and their child's symptoms. Parents' observed behavior during interaction with their children was coded using a multimethod approach at each assessment point. Reciprocal cascades among fathers' and mothers' PTSD symptoms, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, were observed. Fathers' and mothers' positive engagement during parent-child interaction linked their PTSD symptoms and their child's internalizing symptoms. Fathers' and mothers' coercive behavior toward their child linked their PTSD symptoms and their child's externalizing symptoms. Each family member's capacity for emotion regulation was associated with his or her adjustment problems at baseline. Implications for intervention, and for research using longitudinal models and a family-systems perspective of co-occurrence and cascades of symptoms across family members are described.

  19. Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Family Transmission of Parent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Child Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms Following Fathers’ Combat-Trauma Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Gewirtz, Abigail; Schrepferman, Lynn; Gird, Suzanne R.; Quattlebaum, Jamie; Pauldine, Michael R.; Elish, Katie; Zamir, Osnat; Hayes, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Transactional cascades among child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and fathers’ and mothers’ post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were examined in a sample of families with a male parent who had been deployed to recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The role of parents’ positive engagement and coercive interaction with their child, and family members’ emotion regulation were tested as processes linking cascades of parent and child symptoms. A subsample of 183 families with deployed fathers and non-deployed mothers and their 4 to 13 year old children who participated in a randomized control trial intervention (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools, or ADAPT) were assessed at baseline prior to intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline, using parent reports of their own and their child’s symptoms. Parents’ observed behavior during interaction with their children was coded using a multi-method approach at each assessment point. Reciprocal cascades among fathers’ and mothers’ PTSD symptoms, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms were observed. Fathers’ and mothers’ positive engagement during parent-child interaction linked their PTSD symptoms and their child’s internalizing symptoms. Fathers’ and mothers’ coercive behavior toward their child linked their PTSD symptoms and their child’s externalizing symptoms. Each family members’ capacity for emotion regulation was associated with their adjustment problems at baseline. Implications for intervention, and for research using longitudinal models and a family-systems perspective of co-occurrence and cascades of symptoms across family members are described. PMID:27739388

  20. Effect of localized intraoperative x-rays irradiation followed by intermittent external exposure on certain histochemical parameters related to pancreatic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Azeem, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the pancreatic enzyme activities in rabbits, whose splenic part of pancreas was exposed to local intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) at level of 30 Gy X-rays followed by fractionated external radiation therapy (ERT) at a total dose of 40 Gy (2 Gy day after day) starting from the 15th day following the local intraoperative irradiation. The control pancreas was that received only external X-rays radiation without local irradiation. The exocrine pancreatic functions were assessed by determination of insulin hormone and enzyme activity of lipase as well as alkaline and acid phosphatases. After local X-rays irradiation on days 2 and 10 and after external X-rays irradiation on days 23 , 33 , 43 and 53, technovit-8100 plastic embedding (Kulzer and Heraeus) was used to prepare the cold blocks. The quantitative morphometric method was used to evaluate the histochemical pancreatic activity of the irradiated and control pancreas of each rabbit. Most of the studied parameters recorded non-significant changes as a result of the applied different levels of X-rays irradiation, which would give the chance to use this type of irradiation in pancreatic radiotherapy without any hazards to the pancreas

  1. Comprehensive Study of Human External Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants via Air, Dust, and Hand Wipes: The Importance of Sampling and Assessment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuchao; Giovanoulis, Georgios; van Waes, Sofie; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Magnér, Jorgen; Haug, Line Småstuen; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-07-19

    We compared the human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption using different sampling and assessment strategies. Air (indoor stationary air and personal ambient air), dust (floor dust and surface dust), and hand wipes were sampled from 61 participants and their houses. We found that stationary air contains higher levels of ΣPFRs (median = 163 ng/m(3), IQR = 161 ng/m(3)) than personal air (median = 44 ng/m(3), IQR = 55 ng/m(3)), suggesting that the stationary air sample could generate a larger bias for inhalation exposure assessment. Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate isomers (ΣTCPP) accounted for over 80% of ΣPFRs in both stationary and personal air. PFRs were frequently detected in both surface dust (ΣPFRs median = 33 100 ng/g, IQR = 62 300 ng/g) and floor dust (ΣPFRs median = 20 500 ng/g, IQR = 30 300 ng/g). Tris(2-butoxylethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) accounted for 40% and 60% of ΣPFRs in surface and floor dust, respectively, followed by ΣTCPP (30% and 20%, respectively). TBOEP (median = 46 ng, IQR = 69 ng) and ΣTCPP (median = 37 ng, IQR = 49 ng) were also frequently detected in hand wipe samples. For the first time, a comprehensive assessment of human exposure to PFRs via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption was conducted with individual personal data rather than reference factors of the general population. Inhalation seems to be the major exposure pathway for ΣTCPP and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), while participants had higher exposure to TBOEP and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) via dust ingestion. Estimated exposure to ΣPFRs was the highest with stationary air inhalation (median =34 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 38 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), followed by surface dust ingestion (median = 13 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 28 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), floor dust ingestion and personal air inhalation. The median dermal exposure on hand wipes was 0.32 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1) (IQR

  2. Internal and external exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at the workplace - the German PAH study; Eine deutschlandweite Studie zur inneren und aeusseren Exposition gegenueber polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) am Arbeitsplatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, R.; Rossbach, B.; Mueller, J.; Angerer, J. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    During a period of nearly three years we investigated altogether 270 employees from seven different industrial branches concerning their external and internal exposure to PAH (ambient and biological monitoring). In 20% (range: 6 to 30%) of the air samples benzo[a]pyrene concentrations above the relevant technical exposure limit (German TRK value) were observed. The internal exposure was determined by means of the urinary metabolites of monohydroxylated phenanthrenes and 1-hydroxypyrene. We hereby found 1-hydroxypyrene median levels ({mu}g/g creatinine) of 1.51 (coal tar distillation - TD), 4.30 (coking plants - KK), 5.17 (installation of fire proof materials - FFV), 8.65 (graphite electrode plants - GE) and 11.27 (production of fire proof materials - FFH). The corresponding concentrations of the sum of five isomeric hydroxyphenanthrenes were 6.87 (GE), 7.05 (TD), 9.81 (FFH), 10.29 (KK) and 15.75 (FFV) {mu}g/g creatinine. This study showed that ambient monitoring apart does not assure an adequate protection from health hazards as a result of occupational PAH exposure. This is due to the fact, that PAHs are absorbed through the skin to a considerable extent. In order to objectify this non-inhalative PAH absorption we introduced the 'relative internal burden' (RIB). (orig.)

  3. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  4. Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the aluminum age, it is clearly unpalatable for aluminum, the globe's most successful metal, to be implicated in human disease. It is unpalatable because for approximately 100 years human beings have reaped the rewards of the most abundant metal of the Earth's crust without seriously considering the potential consequences for human health. The aluminum industry is a pillar of the developed and developing world and irrespective of the tyranny of human exposure to aluminum it cannot be challenged without significant consequences for businesses, economies, and governments. However, no matter how deep the dependency or unthinkable the withdrawal, science continues to document, if not too slowly, a burgeoning body burden of aluminum in human beings. Herein, I will make the case that it is inevitable both today and in the future that an individual's exposure to aluminum is impacting upon their health and is already contributing to, if not causing, chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This is the logical, if uncomfortable, consequence of living in the aluminum age.

  5. Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from local fallout and the related radionuclide compositions of two hypothetical 1-MT nuclear bursts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and local surface deposition of related radionuclides resulting from two hypothetical 1-Mt nuclear bursts. Calculations are made of the debris from two types of bombs: one containing 235 U as a fissionable material (designated oralloy), the other containing 238 U (designated tuballoy). 4 references

  6. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  7. Health effects of low dose exposures to external ionizing radiation in the French cohort of nuclear workers CEA-AREVA-EDF - 5287

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuraud, K.; Fournier, L.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Laroche, P.; Le Guen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of nuclear workers are particularly relevant to study health effects of low dose and low dose-rate exposures to ionizing radiation. In France, a cohort of nuclear workers employed by CEA, AREVA NC, or EDF, and badge-monitored for radiation exposure, has been followed-up. Annual exposure to penetrating photons was reconstructed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated using national mortality rates as the reference. Estimates of radiation dose-mortality associations were obtained using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A total of 59,004 workers were followed-up between 1968 and 2004, for an average of 25 years. The mean cumulative photons dose was 16.1 mSv. At the end of the follow-up, workers were 56 years old and 6,310 workers had died. A strong healthy worker effect was observed. Positive but imprecise estimates of ERR/Sv were observed for all solid cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A significant ERR/Sv was found for myeloid leukemia. This cohort study is the most informative ever conducted in France among nuclear workers. Results confirmed a healthy worker effect due to selection at hiring and health monitoring from occupational medicine. Observed dose-risk relationships were consistent with risks estimated in other studies, even if they remained associated to a large uncertainty. (authors)

  8. DOSE-Analyzer. A computer program with graphical user interface to analyze absorbed dose inside a body of mouse and human upon external neutron exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Daiki; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Shigemori, Yuji; Sakamoto, Kensaku

    2010-06-01

    DOSE-Analyzer is a computer program to retrieve the dose information from a database and generate a graph through a graphical user interface (GUI). The database is constructed for absorbed dose, fluence, and energy distribution inside a body of mouse and human exposed upon external neutrons, which is calculated by our developed Monte-Carlo simulation method using voxel-based phantom and particle transport code PHITS. The input configurations of irradiation geometry, subject, and energy are set by GUI. The results are tabulated at particle types, i.e. electron, proton, deuteron, triton, and alpha particle, and target organs on a data sheet of Microsoft Office Excel TM . Simple analysis to compare the output values for two subjects is also performed on DOSE-Analyzer. This report is a user manual of DOSE-Analyzer. (author)

  9. Continuous real-time in vivo measurement of cerebral nitric oxide supports theoretical predictions of an irreversible switching in cerebral ROS after sufficient exposure to external toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Niall J; O'Riordan, Saidhbhe L; Lowry, John P; Cloutier, Mathieu; Wellstead, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models of the interactions between alphasynuclein (αS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) predict a systematic and irreversible switching to damagingly high levels of ROS after sufficient exposure to risk factors associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). We tested this prediction by continuously monitoring real-time changes in neurochemical levels over periods of several days in animals exposed to a toxin known to cause Parkinsonian symptoms. Nitric oxide (NO) sensors were implanted in the brains of freely moving rats and the NO levels continuously recorded while the animals were exposed to paraquat (PQ) injections of various amounts and frequencies. Long-term, real-time measurement of NO in a cohort of animals showed systematic switching in levels when PQ injections of sufficient size and frequency were administered. The experimental observations of changes in NO imply a corresponding switching in endogenous ROS levels and support theoretical predictions of an irreversible change to damagingly high levels of endogenous ROS when PD risks are sufficiently large. Our current results only consider one form of PD risk, however, we are sufficiently confident in them to conclude that: (i) continuous long-term measurement of neurochemical dynamics provide a novel way to measure the temporal change and system dynamics which determine Parkinsonian damage, and (ii) the bistable feedback switching predicted by mathematical modelling seems to exist and that a deeper analysis of its characteristics would provide a way of understanding the pathogenic mechanisms that initiate Parkinsonian cell damage.

  10. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  11. Technical basis document for external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    This document supports the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis and presents the technical basis for the FR-equencies of externally initiated accidents. The consequences of externally initiated events are discussed in other documents that correspond to the accident that was caused by the external event. The external events include aircraft crash, vehicle accident, range fire, and rail accident

  12. Outline of the 1996-1998 IAEA co-ordinated research project on intercomparison for individual monitoring of external exposure from photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Gustafsson, M.; Ouvrard, R.

    1999-01-01

    The outline of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project 1996-1998 on intercomparison for individual monitoring is described. The intercomparison focused on IAEA Member States in Eastern Europe and was based on the operational quantity personal dose equivalent, H p (10). The three phases of the intercomparison were: the preparatory phase including a workshop, the 'type-test' intercomparison, and the 'simulated workplace field' intercomparison. Details of the phases are given. (author)

  13. Immediate and long-term effects in the hematopoietic system and the morphology of the respiratory system in experimental animals under chronic combined action of external gamma exposure and inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarkin, Sergey; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Aleksandr, Shafirkin; Barantseva, Maria; Ivanova, Svetlana

    The need to solve hygiene problems valuation of environmental factors in the implementation of the projected manned interplanetary missions, determined the relevance of studying the effect of external gamma-irradiation with inhalation of mixtures of chemicals on the parameters of major critical body systems: hematopoiesis and respiratory (morphological and morphometric parameters) in the short and long periods. The study conducted on 504 male mice F1 (CBA × C57BL6) under chronic fractional gamma-irradiation (within 10 weeks at a total dose 350sGr) and then under inhalation by mixtures of chemicals in low concentrations. Duration of the experiment (124 days) and 90 -day recovery period. Displaying adaptive reorganization in hematopoietic system, which was characterized by a tension of regulatory systems of animals and by a proliferation of bone marrow cells and by dynamic changes in amount of lymphoid cells in peripheral blood, elevated levels of the antioxidant activity of red blood cells, and morphological manifestations of "incomplete recovery " of the spleen, which are retained in the recovery period. Morphological changes in the respiratory organs of animals testified about immunogenesis activation and development of structural changes as a chronic inflammatory process. Increase of fibrous connective tissue in the walls of the trachea, bronchus and lung, against reduction of loose fibrous connective tissue (more pronounced in respiratory parts of the respiratory system) in experimental animals, which may indicate a reduction of the functional reserves of the body and increase the risk of adverse long-term effects.

  14. Occupational radiation exposure in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.; Cabanekova, H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently are 2 nuclear power plants in operation in the Slovak republic. Apart from nuclear facilities there are 450 licensed undertakings with monitored workers. The majority of the licensed undertakings are active in health care. In Slovak republic are five dosimetry services performing assessments on personal doses due to external exposure and two dosimetry services are approved to carry out monitoring of internal exposure. Dosemeters used for the monitoring of external individual exposure include: personal whole-body film dosemeters, thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSL) for measurements of beta and gamma radiation; TLD for measurements of neutron radiation and TLD for extremities. The measured operational dose quantities are Hp(10), Hp(3) and Hp(0.07). Approved dosimetry service reports the measured dose data to the employers and to the Central register of occupational doses (CROD). Annually are monitored about 12500 - 16200 active workers. Average effective doses per one monitored worker are presented. (author)

  15. Results of the 1996-1998 IAEA co-ordinated research project on intercomparison for individual monitoring of external exposure to photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrard, R.; Boehm, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the conclusions drawn at the end of the intercomparison, the purpose of which was to examine the performance of the dosimetry systems in radiation fields similar to those encountered in practical routine monitoring. These fields included, for a range of doses, mixed normally incident and wide angle fields of simulated direct source and room scatter radiation for some typical energy distributions and high-energy photons (6-7 MeV) with and without secondary electron equilibrium. Almost all of the participating services satisfied the evaluation criteria on overall accuracy for all fields. (author)

  16. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.W.; Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report

  17. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  18. Persistence of external signs in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes with ichthyophoniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lucas M.; Conway, Carla M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    The progression of external signs of Ichthyophonus infection in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes was highly variable and asynchronous after intraperitoneal injection with pure parasite preparations; however, external signs generally persisted through the end of the study (429 days post-exposure). Observed signs included papules, erosions and ulcers. The prevalence of external signs plateaued 35 days post-exposure and persisted in 73–79% of exposed individuals through the end of the first experiment (147 days post-exposure). Among a second group of infected herring, external signs completely resolved in only 10% of the fish after 429 days. The onset of mortality preceded the appearance of external signs. Histological examination of infected skin and skeletal muscle tissues indicated an apparent affinity of the parasite for host red muscle. Host responses consisted primarily of granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and necrosis in the skeletal muscle and other tissues. The persistence and asynchrony of external signs and host response indicated that they were neither a precursor to host mortality nor did they provide reliable metrics for hindcasting on the date of exposure. However, the long-term persistence of clinical signs in Pacific herring may be useful in ascertaining the population-level impacts of ichthyophoniasis in regularly observed populations.

  19. Exposures to natural radiation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murith, Ch.; Gurtner, A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionising radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. There are two main sources that contribute to this exposure: high-energy cosmic-ray particles incident to the earth's atmosphere and radioactive nuclides that originated in the earth's crust and are present everywhere in the environment, including human body itself. Both external and internal exposures to humans arise from these sources. Exposures to natural radiation sources in Switzerland and some of their variations are here summarised and the resulting effective doses are compared to those from man-made sources exposures. It results that the natural background exposures are more significant for the population than most exposures to man-made sources. (authors)

  20. Genetic vulnerability interacts with parenting and early care education to predict increasing externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Shannon T; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental regulation. Early environments included both family (overreactive parenting) and out-of-home factors (center-based Early Care and Education; ECE). Overreactive parenting predicted more child externalizing behaviors. Attending center-based ECE was associated with increasing externalizing behaviors only for children with genetic liability for dysregulation. Additionally, children who were at risk for externalizing behaviors due to both genetic variability and exposure to center-based ECE were more sensitive to the effects of overreactive parenting on externalizing behavior than other children.

  1. Proposal of a methodology to be applied for the characterization of external exposure risk of employees in nuclear medicine services; Proposta de uma metodologia para caracterizacao de risco de exposicao externa de funcionarios de servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Rafael Figueiredo Pohlmann

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear medicine procedure requires the administration of radioactive material by injection, ingestion or inhalation. After incorporation, the patient becomes a mobile source of radiation and, after their examination; they can irradiate everyone on their way out of the Nuclear Medicine Service (NMS). A group of workers in this path is considered a critical group, but there are no conviction on this classification, because there are not measurements available. Thus, workers claiming for occupationally exposed individual's (OEI) rights are common. Employers are always in a complex situation, because if they decided to undertake the individual external monitoring of the critical working groups, the Court considers all as OEI and employers are taxed. On the other hand, if they do not provide monitoring, it is impossible to prove that these workers were not exposed to effective doses higher than individual annual public's limit and they lose the actions, too. This work proposes a methodology to evaluate, using TLD environmental monitors, air kerma rate at critical staff points in a NMS. This method provides relevant information about critical groups' exposure. From these results, the clinic or hospital may prove technically, without individual monitoring of employees, the classification of areas and can estimate the maximum flow of patients in the free areas which guarantees exposures below the public individual dose limit. This methodology has been applied successfully to a private clinic in Rio de Janeiro, which operates a NMS. The only critical group that received exposure statistically different from clinic background radiation was that on the antechamber of the NMS. This is a site that should be characterized as a supervised area and the group of workers in this environment as OEI, as the estimated extrapolated annual effective dose in this position was 1.2 +- 0.7 mSv/year, above the public annual limit (1,0 mSv/year). Normalizing by the number of

  2. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...... of 38 checklist items. Empirical support was considered the most valid methodology for item inclusion. Assessment of methodological justification showed that none of the items were supported empirically. Other kinds of literature justified the inclusion of 22 of the items, and 17 items were included...

  3. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-01-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull

  4. Fluence-to-Absorbed Dose Conversion Coefficients for Use in Radiological Protection of Embryo and Foetus Against External Exposure to Muons from 20MeV to 50GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing

    2008-01-01

    This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external muon fields. Monoenergetic muons ranging from 20 MeV to 50 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include anteroposterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months, respectively. Muon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. Since such conversion coefficients are yet unknown, the results presented here fill a data gap

  5. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs

  6. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  7. Calculation for shielding based on the new law in the nuclear medicine facilities. Calculation methods of effective dose concerning the external and internal exposures and of radioisotope concentration concerning the exhaust gas drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Takeda, Hiromitsu; Asanuma, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Following the revision of the law which incorporated the ICRP 1990 Recommendation, the medical law enforcement rule and related notices are also revised and enforced from April 1, 2001. Revised points related with the nuclear medicine facilities involve the reported items (addition of the scheduled maximum amount to be used in the next 3 months), change of dose limits at the boundary of the controlled area (from 300 μSv/w to 1.3 mSv/3 m), change of density limits in air, exhausted air and drainage, change of evaluation of radioisotope density in air (from average density during 8 hr to 1 week), change of exposure dose limits in medical workers and change of calculation method of effective dose due to internal exposure. This paper concerns the calculation methods for above and their concepts in nuclear medicine facilities in Hokkaido area. Numerical data for shielding and conditions of the facilities for clinical practice including diagnostic nuclide are taken into consideration and the actual paper forms for these items are also shown. (K.H.)

  8. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  9. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs

  10. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  11. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  12. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  13. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  14. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  15. Approaches in estimation of external cost for fuel cycles in the ExternE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.A.; Maksimenko, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes, content and main results of studies realized within the frameworks of the International Project ExternE which is the first comprehensive attempt to develop general approach to estimation of external cost for different fuel cycles based on utilization of nuclear and fossil fuels, as well as on renewable power sources are discussed. The external cost of a fuel cycle is treated as social and environmental expenditures which are not taken into account by energy producers and consumers, i.e. these are expenditures not included into commercial cost nowadays. The conclusion on applicability of the approach suggested for estimation of population health hazards and environmental impacts connected with electric power generation growth (expressed in money or some other form) is made

  16. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  17. Studies on the reference Korean and estimation of radiation exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.J.; Kim, J.B.; Chung, G.H.; Kim, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    For the purpose of establishment of Reference Korean and estimation of internal and external exposure doses in the Reference Korean, we have surveyed reference values for Koreans such as physical standards including height, weight, and body surface area, food consumption rate of daily intake of radioactive substances and exposure dose from natural radiation. (Author)

  18. Personal exposure control using TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Hideharu; Takeda, Shinso

    1979-01-01

    In the Tokai Works of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), for personal exposure control, the switching from film badges to TLD badges (and also finger-ring type local dosimeters) was made in fiscal 1974. The facilities involved are a fuel reprocessing plant, a PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed fuel production facility, and a centrifugal uranium enrichment development facility. The types of radiation concerned are various, such as γ(x), β and n. The situation of personal exposure control with TLD and the dose evaluation methods for respective radiations are explained. The number of personnel subject to exposure control, including transient people, is about 2500 - 3000 per three months. The TLD badges used are a special PNC type with TLDs to measure separately γ(x), β and n. With casings made of ABS resin, the external dimensions are 76 mm x 46 mm. (J.P.N.)

  19. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  20. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  1. Study of external exposure doses received by Cuban population due to terrestrial component of the environmental radiation sources; Estudio de las dosis por exposicion externa que recibe la poblacion cubana debidas a la componente terrestre de la radiacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerquera, Juan Tomas; Prendes Alonso, Miguel [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba); Brigido Flores, Osvaldo [Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental de Camaguey (Cuba); Hernandez Perez, Alberto [Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental de Oriente, Holguin (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The work presents the results of the study carried out to evaluate the doses that the Cuban population receives for the external exposition to the terrestrial component of the environmental sources of radiation. Starting from the carried out measurements it was possible to estimate the doses effective representative annual stockings that the Cuban population receives for external exposition to the terrestrial radiation, considering the permanency in indoors and outdoors. The dose received due to this component was 180{+-}14 mSv/year. These values are in the range of those reported internationally. (author)

  2. A device for external γ-irradiation of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskaya, N.F.; Talakin, Yu.N.; Lekakh, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A device was developed for external gamma-irradiation of experimental animals including a radiation source, a device for fixation of the total animal or a segment of its body in the focus of irradiation, and a shilding screen. To widen the sphere of this device application by making possible a simultaneous radiation exposure of a group of animals under various radiation schedules, the device involves two discs with a common axis. The lower disc is provided with an electric drive and containers with animals are placed on it, and the upper disc is for the shielding screen. The device is supplied with an operation block

  3. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, including neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus are thought to play an important role in the regulation of anxiety states. To investigate responses of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus to a mild anxiety-related stimulus, we exposed rats to an open-field, under low-light or high-light conditions....... Treatment effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic and non-serotonergic cells in the midbrain raphe nuclei were determined 2 h following open-field exposure or home cage control (CO) conditions. Rats tested under both light conditions responded with increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons...... within subdivisions of the midbrain raphe nuclei compared with CO rats. However, the total numbers of serotonergic neurons involved were small suggesting that exposure to the open-field may affect a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons. To determine if exposure to the open-field activates a subset...

  4. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  5. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D; Toman, M

    1994-07-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons.

  6. Early discharge after external anal sphincter repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe an accelerated-stay program for repair of the external anal sphincter. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients undergoing overlapping repair of the external anal sphincter were included in the study. Effect parameters were length of hospitalization....... CONCLUSION: We have described a safe accelerated-stay program (24 to 48 hours) for overlapping repair of external anal sphincter....

  7. Determination of Rn-222 in drinking water. An important parameter for the natural radioactivity exposure assessment; Bestimmung von {sup 222}Rn in Trinkwasser. Ein wichtiger Parameter fuer die Erfassung der natuerlich bedingten Strahlenbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoiy, Myroslav [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    The natural radiation exposure includes external exposure due to terrestric and cosmic radiation and internal exposure due to respiration and food - incorporation. Incorporated radionuclides are partially absorbed in the vascular and lymphatic systems and partially excreted after a certain biological half-time through kidneys and intestines, and partially the lungs. The radiation exposure is defined as effective annual dose in Sievert. In Germany the medium natural exposure is 2.1 mSv per year.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Quaak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs. The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs. Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5. The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure

  9. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkevic, V.A.; Duba, V.V.; Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

  10. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  11. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement 50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  12. Consequences of unforeseen cesium 137 exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    Published data on radition accidents associated with environmental contamination and 137 Cs man irradiation including Chernobyl NPP accident and 137 Cs source accident at gamma-therapeutic facility in Goyaniya (Brazil, 1987) are considered. Process scheme of dose accumulation attributed to external and internal exposure from radioactive fission products causing enviromental contamination are presented according to UNSCEAR data, 1975. 137 Cs input in total dose of external exposure from all radionuclides (2% in the first year after the accident up to 90% after 50 years), as well as bone marrow doses, caused by radionuclide fall-out resulting from Chernobyl NPP accident (1.19-1.64 rem at the Ukrainian territory and 1.63-2.78 rem in the RSFSR) are calculated on the basis of literature data. Attention is paid to consideration of radiation injuries to accident victims in Goyaniya

  13. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course are helpful. However, if trained ...

  14. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  15. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  16. Natural radio-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Although the amounts are small, man is exposed on a daily basis to alpha, beta, and gamma radiation emitted by radioactive elements present in the earth's crust. The natural radioactive elements are measurable, either by physicochemical means or by radiometric methods and can be the cause of external or internal exposure in man. Also of importance is cosmic radiation. Of galactic or solar origin, primary cosmic rays cause external radiation exposure. The majority of these particles disintegrate rapidly. They reach the ground at a mean rate of the order of one particle per square centimeter per minute

  17. Personnel external dose monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengyuan

    1989-01-01

    The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given

  18. IMPORTANCE OF DELIVERY CONDITIONS IN THE EXTERNAL PRICE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery conditions of the merchandise at export, established by the rules INCOTERMS2000, influence the external price structure. There are some conditions in which the external priceincludes only the value of the merchandise and other conditions in which, besides the value of themerchandise, the price includes also the external transport and insurance. In the case of the exportson commercial credit, when it appears the notion of external interest, this one may be included in theprice or may be invoiced separately, thus defining gross external prices and net external prices.

  19. Maternal Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Externalizing Behavioral Problems: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Beaver

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A body of empirical research has revealed that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is related to a host of negative outcomes, including reduced cognitive abilities, later-life health problems, and childhood behavioral problems. While these findings are often interpreted as evidence of the causal role that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke has on human phenotypes, emerging evidence has suggested that the association between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and behavioral phenotypes may be spurious. The current analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B revealed that the association between prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and externalizing behavioral problems was fully accounted for by confounding factors. The implications that these findings have for policy and research are discussed.

  20. Next decade in external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, a number of external dosimetry problems have been solved. However, changes in standards and legal concepts relating to the application of dosimetry results will require further enhancements in measurement techniques and philosophy in the next 10 y. The introduction of effective dose equivalent and the legal use of probability of causation will require that much greater attention be given to determination of weighted organ dose from external exposure. An imminent change--an increase in the fast neutron quality factor--will require a new round of technology development in a field that has just received a decade of close scrutiny. For the future, we must take advantage of developments in microelectronics. The use of random access memory (RAM) and metal-on-silicon (MOS) devices as detector elements, particularly for neutron dosimetry, has exciting possibilities that are just beginning to be explored. Advances in microcircuitry are leading, and will continue to lead, in the development of a new generation of small, rugged and smart radiation survey instruments that will make the most of detector data. It has become possible with very compact instruments to obtain energy spectra, linear-energy-transfer (LET) spectra, and quality factors in addition to the usual integrated dosimetric quantities: exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent. These instruments will be reliable and easy to use. The user will be able to select the level of sophistication that is required for any specific application. Moreover, since the processing algorithms can be changed, changes in conversion factors can be accommodated with relative ease. During the next decade, the use of computers will continue to grow in value to the health physicist

  1. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  2. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Yin; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO2 and NOx. Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society....... The aim of this study is to assess health impacts and external costs related to PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China with different baseline concentrations and valuation methods. The idea is to provide a reasonable estimate of the total health impacts and external cost due to PM2.5 pollution, as well...... as a quantification of the relevant uncertainty. PM2.5 concentrations were retrieved for the entire 2012 period in 16 districts of Beijing. The various PM2.5 related health impacts were identified and classified to avoid double counting. Exposure-response coefficients were then obtained from literature. Both...

  3. Means of regulating combustible materials and products in external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkola Esko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents proposals for defining means of regulating the use of combustible materials and products in external walls. Required protections are based on the quantities of fire loads and their contribution to fire development. The study is based on life safety and protection of property priorities taking into account reaction to fire classes related to different types of fire loads and fire compartmentation requirements of the adjacent spaces of concern. The proposals include the following main principles in relation to fire-separation requirements: In case of internal fire exposure the protective structure for combustible building parts needs to meet at least half of the fire-separating requirement for the compartment of concern. In case of external fire exposure the protection time requirement can be 15 minutes less than for the internal protection. The proposals are applicable for residential buildings and offices. In case of buildings with longer evacuation times more stringent requirement levels may be considered. For verification of protection performance of fire loads it is proposed to use existing standardized test methods (fire protection ability (K classes and fire-separating function (EI classes validated methods of calculation and/or large scale fire testing.

  4. External radiation toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    The section contains summaries of research on neutron and gamma-ray toxicity in rodents, late effects of low-dose rate, whole-body, protracted exposure to 60 Co gamma rays on young adult beagles, and the effects of protracted, low-dose rate exposure to 60 Co gamma rays on preclinical leukemic phase-related changes in the granulopoietic system of beagles

  5. Physical family violence and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M; Boel-Studt, Shamra

    2017-01-01

    Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents. After including parent and family level covariates in Poisson regressions, we found that a unique form of family violence victimization was associated with increased externalizing behaviors among children at each age group: exposure to physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among children ages 3-5, exposure to the physical abuse of a sibling among children ages 6-12, and child physical abuse among adolescents ages 13-18. No form of physical family violence was significantly associated with internalizing behaviors for children in any age group. Including exposure to the child maltreatment of a sibling is crucial when attempting to contextualize children's responses to family violence and providing comprehensive services in an effort to enhance the well-being of all children in a family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuch, K.M.; Iryboz, T.; Firat, M.; Levy, C.; Tubiana, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper illustrates the value of CT and MR in early diagnosis and spread of malignant external otitis. The authors retrospectively analyzed 15 patients with proved malignant external otitis examined with postcontrast high-resolution CT (15/15) and MR (6/15) (T1- and T2-weighting). Gallium studies were done in 6/15 patients. Early diagnosis was made when CT demonstrated a soft-tissue mass of the external auditory canal associated with scattered zones of cortical bone erosions (13/15). Spread of the disease was better delineated by MR than CT, especially skull base extension (6/15). Temporomandibular joint involvement with extension into parotid or/and masticator spaces 6/15 was as well detected with CT as with MR. If CT remains the first and best procedure for diagnosis, MR - despite its cost - appears a good procedure to depict exact anatomic spread, allowing therapeutic management

  7. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the impact of externalities on the host country's total factor productivity by taking into account different dimensions of spillover effects. Namely, engagement in exporting and foreign ownership is generally perceived as being beneficial to individual...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...

  8. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  9. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  10. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 4. Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly commencing energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy, the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XLI (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  11. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China: Uncertainty analysis of multiple health impacts and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Hao; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO 2 and NO x . Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society. The aim of this study is to assess health impacts and external costs related to PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China with different baseline concentrations and valuation methods. The idea is to provide a reasonable estimate of the total health impacts and external cost due to PM2.5 pollution, as well as a quantification of the relevant uncertainty. PM2.5 concentrations were retrieved for the entire 2012 period in 16 districts of Beijing. The various PM2.5 related health impacts were identified and classified to avoid double counting. Exposure-response coefficients were then obtained from literature. Both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the amended human capital (AHC) approach were applied for external costs estimation, which could provide the upper and lower bound of the external costs due to PM2.5. To fully understand the uncertainty levels, the external cost distribution was determined via Monte Carlo simulation based on the uncertainty of the parameters such as PM2.5 concentration, exposure-response coefficients, and economic cost per case. The results showed that the external costs were equivalent to around 0.3% (AHC, China's guideline: C 0  = 35 μg/m 3 ) to 0.9% (VSL, WHO guideline: C 0  = 10 μg/m 3 ) of regional GDP depending on the valuation method and on the assumed baseline PM2.5 concentration (C 0 ). Among all the health impacts, the economic loss due to premature deaths accounted for more than 80% of the overall external costs. The results of this study could help policymakers prioritizing the PM2.5 pollution control interventions and internalize the external costs through the application of economic policy instruments. - Highlights:

  12. Retrospective internal radiation exposure assessment in occupational epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neton, J.W.; Flora, J.T.; Spitz, H.B.; Taulbee, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of workers at U.S. Department of Energy facilities are being conducted by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to evaluate the health risk associated with exposure to sources of external and internal ionizing radiation. While exposure to external sources of radiation can be estimated from personal dosimeter data, reconstruction of exposure due to internally deposited radioactivity is more challenging because bioassay monitoring data is frequently less complete. Although comprehensive monitoring was provided for workers with the highest internal exposures, the majority of workers were monitored relatively infrequently. This monitoring was conducted to demonstrate compliance with regulations rather than to evaluate exposure for use in epidemiologic studies. Attributes of past internal monitoring programs that challenge accurate exposure assessment include: incomplete characterization of the workplace source term; a lack of timely measurements; insensitive and/or nonspecific bioassay measurements; and the presence of censored data. In spite of these limitations, many facilities have collected a large amount of worker and workplace monitoring information that can be used to evaluate internal exposure while minimizing worker misclassification. This paper describes a systematic approach for using the available worker and workplace monitoring data that can lead to either a qualitative or quantitative retrospective assessment of internal exposures. Various aspects of data analysis will be presented, including the evaluation of minimum detectable dose, the treatment of censored data, and the use of combinations of bioassay and workplace data to characterize exposures. Examples of these techniques applied to a cohort study involving chronic exposure scenarios to uranium are provided. A strategy for expressing exposure or dose in fundamental, unweighted units related to the quantity of radiation delivered to an organ will also

  13. Assessment of external dose indoors in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkyte, L.; Butkus, D.; Morkunas, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was an assessment of external exposure indoors and its dependence on construction materials and indoor radon concentrations in Lithuanian living houses. Relationship of absorbed dose rate in air indoors and activity indexes of the most commonly used construction materials (wood, concrete and bricks) have been studied using results received in measurements done in >4700 rooms in 1995-2005. Possible connections of dose rate indoors with indoor radon concentrations are also discussed. Findings of this study helped to make an assessment of the mean value of effective dose of Lithuanian population due to external exposure indoors which is equal to 0.58 mSv y -1 . The received data might also be used in improvement of quality of personal dosimetric measurements done in premises constructed of different construction materials. (authors)

  14. Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results

  15. External radiotherapy in a pleural mesothelioma tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.C.; Garcia, J.L.; Gomez, A.; Simon, J.L.; Maillo, M.; Jimenez Torres, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Pleural mesothelioma is an uncommon tumor compared with other thoracic malignancies and a 80% of the cases have asbestos exposure. From 1983 to 1992 we have examined patients suffering from malignant pleural mesothelioma treated with external radiotherapy. We treated 11 patients of which 9 were males and 2 were females. The most frequent symptom was the chest pain and all these patients underwent a torascoscopy followed by a pleasured. Of the 11 cases: 10 were malignant epithelial mesothelioma and 1 was a mixed pleural case. Afterwards, they were treated with external radiotherapy between 30 and 55 Gy, with few complications. At the moment, 5 patients are still alive and there is a survival rate of 50% at 24 and 60 months and of 25% at 120 months. We think that external radiotherapy is a good palliative treatment with few complications. (Author) 28 refs

  16. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building......The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  17. Hydropower externalities: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattmann, Matteo; Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to quantify and explain the economic values for positive and negative hydropower externalities. Different meta-regression model specifications are used to test the robustness of significant determinants of non-market values, including different types of hydropower impacts. The explanatory and predictive power of the estimated models is relatively high. Whilst controlling for sample and study characteristics, we find significant evidence for public aversion towards deteriorations of landscape, vegetation and wildlife caused by hydropower projects. There is however only weak evidence of willingness to pay for mitigating these effects. The main positive externality of hydropower generation, the avoidance of greenhouse gas emission, positively influences welfare estimates when combined with the share of hydropower in national energy production. Sensitivity to scope is detected, but not linked to specific externalities or non-market valuation methods. - Highlights: • A global meta-analysis of valuation studies of hydropower externalities is presented. • Positive and negative externalities are distinguished. • Welfare losses due to environmental deteriorations outweigh gains of GHG reductions. • There is only weak evidence of public WTP for mitigating negative externalities. • The non-market values of hydropower externalities are sensitive to scope.

  18. Early life trauma exposure and stress sensitivity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Ford, Julian D; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. The sample included 213 2-4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress. In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors had elevated internalizing and externalizing problems compared with trauma-exposed children without current stress and nontrauma-exposed children with and without current stressors. The trauma-exposed groups with or without current stressors did not differ on posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Accounting for number of traumatic events did not change these results. These findings suggest that early life trauma exposure may sensitize young children and place them at risk for internalizing or externalizing problems when exposed to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors.

  19. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  20. Microdosimetric basis for exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Braby, L.A.

    1986-10-01

    The new organ-weighted effective dose equivalents should provide a much more accurate estimation of the degree of hazard for a worker's exposure to ionizing radiations. The method involves the microdosimetric concept of lineal energy to help establish exposure limits and will provide a unified system applicable to all types of ionizing radiation. Rather than being only calculated values, the effective dose equivalents and quality factors will be experimentally measured using tissue equivalent proportional counters. The measurement may be difficult to perform at various depths in an anthropomorphic phantom. Operational health physicists will be concerned about the lack of survey instruments and personnel dosimeters that measure lineal energy distributions. Their possible objections may be mitigated by the commercial introduction of instruments based upon tissue equivalent proportional counters or related devices containing inexpensive microprocessors. The many potential benefits include providing a uniform method for implementing the proposed increases in quality factors for neutrons and photons, providing a more unified approach for combining external and internal exposures, and potentially resolving questions about dosimeter placement and dose assessment for nonuniform exposures to mixed radiations. 16 refs., 3 figs

  1. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  2. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  3. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  4. The natural sources of ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.

    1982-01-01

    Natural sources of ionizing radiation include external sources (cosmic rays, natural radionuclides present in the crust of the earth and in building materials) and internal sources (naturally occuring radionuclides in the human body, especially the potassium 40 and radon short lived decay products). The principal ways of human exposure to theses different components in ''normal'' areas are reviewed; some examples of the variability of exposure with respect to different regions of the world or the habits of life are given. Actual estimations of the doses delivered to the organs are presented; for the main contributors to population exposure, the conversion into effective dose equivalent has been made for allowing a better evaluation of their respective importance [fr

  5. The Little Data Book on External Debt 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The little data book on external debt, a pocket edition of Global Development Finance (GDF) 2009, volume two, summary and country tables, contains statistical tables on the external debt of the 128 countries that report public and publicly guaranteed external debt under the debtor reporting system. It also includes tables of selected debt and resource flow statistics for individual reporting ...

  6. Doses from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, H-G.; Harrison, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP’s 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effective dose. In preparation for the calculation of new dose coefficients, Committee 2 and its task groups have provided updated nuclear decay data (ICRP Publication 107) and adult reference computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). New dose coefficients for external exposures of workers are complete (ICRP Publication 116), and work is in progress on a series of reports on internal dose coefficients to workers from inhaled and ingested radionuclides. Reference phantoms for children will also be provided and used in the calculation of dose coefficients for public exposures. Committee 2 also has task groups on exposures to radiation in space and on the use of effective dose.

  7. Estimating location without external cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Cheung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  8. 10 CFR 835.203 - Combining internal and external equivalent doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combining internal and external equivalent doses. 835.203 Section 835.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal and External Exposure § 835.203 Combining internal and external equivalent doses. (a) The total effective dose...

  9. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    Energy produced by wind power and biogas is today more expensive than energy produced by fossil fuels. However, by including external costs related to the technologies, the renewable technologies are expected to result in social benefits compared to the conventional power technologies. The paper...... will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health...

  10. Development of a external exposure computational model for studying of input dose in skin for radiographs of thorax and vertebral column; Desenvolvimento de um modelo computacional de exposicao externa para estudo da dose de entrada na pele para radiografias de torax e coluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Bianca C.; Menezes, Claudio J.M., E-mail: bianca.cm95@gmail.com, E-mail: cjmm@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.net [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The dosimetric measurements do not always happen directly in the human body. Therefore, these assessments can be performed using anthropomorphic models (phantoms) evidencing models computational exposure (MCE) using techniques of Monte Carlo Method for virtual simulations. These processing techniques coupled with more powerful and affordable computers make the Monte Carlo method one of the tools most used worldwide in radiation transport area. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGS4 program was used to develop a computer model of external exposure to study the entrance skin dose for chest and column X-radiography and, aiming to optimize these practices by reducing doses to patients, professionals involved and the general public. The results obtained experimentally with the electrometer Radcal, model 9015, associated with the ionization chamber for radiology model 10X5-6, showed that the proposed computational model can be used in quality assurance programs in radiodiagnostic, evaluating the entrance skin dose when varying parameters of the radiation beam such as kilo voltage peak (kVp), current-time product (mAs), total filtration and distance surface source (DFS), optimizing the practices in radiodiagnostic and meeting the current regulation.

  11. N reactor external events probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    An external events probabilistic risk assessment of the N Reactor has been completed. The methods used are those currently being proposed for external events analysis in NUREG-1150. Results are presented for the external hazards that survived preliminary screening. They are earthquake, fire, and external flood. Core damage frequencies for these hazards are shown to be comparable to those for commercial pressurized water reactors. Dominant fire sequences are described and related to 10 CFR 50, Appendix R design requirements. Potential remedial measures that reduce fire core damage risk are described including modifications to fire protection systems, procedure changes, and addition of new administrative controls. Dominant seismic sequences are described. The effect of non-safety support system dependencies on seismic risk is presented

  12. First aid in the case of increased exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Describes first aid measures for persons who have been exposed to increased radiation, especially certain steps to be taken in the case of external exposure of the whole and/or the partial body, in the case of contamination and incorporation. The pamphlet not only includes definition of terms but also a list of regional radiation protection centres. (RW) [de

  13. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 3. Coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Lee, D.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy; the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  14. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  15. Practical applications of the new ICRP recommendation to external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1992-01-01

    Focussing on external dosimetry for occupational exposure the consequences of the new quantities equivalent dose (radiation weighting factor), effective dose (tissue weighting factor) and the ICRU operational quantities for individual and area dosimetry are discussed. Despite some arguments against the new quantities they should be introduced as rapidly as possible to keep international uniformity in radiation protection monitoring. It is shown that they provide a conservative estimate of the effective dose for photons and neutrons. In photon dosimetry only minor changes of the conversion factors relating operational quantities to effective dose is observed. In neutron dosimetry the conversion factors change by a factor of up to 2. It is pointed out that there is a urgent need to calculate standardized conversion factors for field quantities -operational quantities- organ and effective dose in a joint effort of ICRP and ICRU. This includes standardization of calibration methods for individual dosimetry using suitable phantoms instead of the sphere. (author)

  16. Estimation of the externalities associated with atmospheric emissions of the electric power production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Barreto, Alberto Avelar; Pereira, Maria Cristina; Branco, Otavio Eurico de Aquino; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays the activities connected to energy generation and distribution are those that most contribute to local, regional and global degradation of the environment. One of the most important contribution for externalities estimation is the ExternE Project, which has established a methodological framework called damage function approach to quantify both health and environmental impacts from electricity generation as well as to quantify in monetary terms the damage resulting from these physical impacts. In order to incorporate economic, social and environmental aspects in the decision process of energy planning in Brazil, a joint research project sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency is being carried out. The primary objective of this Project is to perform a comparative assessment of external costs of alternative fuel cycles for electricity production. It includes not only the quantification of the physical impacts and damage costs associated with airborne emissions from the traditional fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil) and nuclear energy, but also those from renewable resources, most specifically from hydroelectric. The main objective of this paper is to present preliminary results of the external costs associated to atmospheric emissions of an oil fired plant. Applying the Damage Function Approach methodology the quantification of healthy impacts and damage cost was performed. These results will later be compared with those from nuclear energy option. Atmospheric dispersion studies were carried out using the Industrial Complex Source Model. The healthy impacts were estimated using the exposure-response curves recommended by the ExternE Project. The monetary unit cost for different public health endpoints considered in this study were obtained indirectly by using unit cost values taken from Contingent Valuation studies sponsored by the World Bank, which are specific for developing countries. (author)

  17. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment......The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  18. Thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J; Schneider, A B

    2000-04-01

    The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs for radiation-induced oncogenesis and the magnitude of the risk from external radiation is well understood. This is not the case for internal radiation derived from the radioiodines, a matter of practical importance because of medical use and potential accidental exposure. This article reviews current knowledge derived from the follow-up of patients receiving diagnostic or therapeutic 131I and populations exposed to radioactive fallout. The latter includes the nuclear power station accident at Chernobyl and the results of atomic bomb development and testing at Hanford, the Nevada Test Site and the Marshall Islands. The most cogent information comes from Chernobyl where an epidemic of childhood thyroid cancer has followed exposure to radioiodine that was mainly 131I. Although much has been learned from this experience about the nature of radioiodine induced thyroid cancer in young children, the reconstruction of thyroid radiation doses is too preliminary to provide accurate knowledge of the risk in comparison to that from external radiation. In the Marshall Islands, much of the exposure was from short-lived radioiodines as well as external radiation, obviating the possibility to determine the risk from 131I. Exposure to 131I in the continental United States from atomic bomb testing is expected to have caused some thyroid cancers, but only in the immediate vicinity of the Nevada Test Site has any evidence of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasms been adduced. This evidence is minimally significant statistically, and not significant for thyroid cancer per se. Medical use of radioiodine has not been observed to cause thyroid cancer but very few of the patients studied were young children, the group most sensitive to thyroid radiation. Despite these limitations, this information is sufficient to make some suggestions concerning protective measures in the case of nuclear accidents and the follow up of individuals who

  19. External corners as heat bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, J.

    1984-08-01

    The maximum additional heat loss in vertical external corners depending on wall thickness is determined. In order to amire at a low k-value, a much smaller wall thickness is required in externally insulated walls than in monolithic constructions; the greater loss of heat bridge with external insulation stands in contrast to a higher loss in thick, monolithic walls. In relation to total losses, the additional losses through external corners are practically negligible.

  20. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  1. Determinants of dermal exposure relevant for exposure modelling in regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, J; Brouwer, D H; Gijsbers, J H J; Links, I H M; Warren, N; van Hemmen, J J

    2003-11-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European research programme, an analysis of potential dermal exposure determinants was made based on the available studies and models and on the expert judgement of the authors of this publication. Only a few potential determinants appear to have been studied in depth. Several studies have included clusters of determinants into vaguely defined parameters, such as 'task' or 'cleaning and maintenance of clothing'. Other studies include several highly correlated parameters, such as 'amount of product handled', 'duration of task' and 'area treated', and separation of these parameters to study their individual influence is not possible. However, based on the available information, a number of determinants could clearly be defined as proven or highly plausible determinants of dermal exposure in one or more exposure situation. This information was combined with expert judgement on the scientific plausibility of the influence of parameters that have not been extensively studied and on the possibilities to gather relevant information during a risk assessment process. The result of this effort is a list of determinants relevant for dermal exposure models in the scope of regulatory risk assessment. The determinants have been divided into the major categories 'substance and product characteristics', 'task done by the worker', 'process technique and equipment', 'exposure control measures', 'worker characteristics and habits' and 'area and situation'. To account for the complex nature of the dermal exposure processes, a further subdivision was made into the three major processes 'direct contact', 'surface contact' and 'deposition'.

  2. The assessment of personal dose due to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Young, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental basis of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) is discussed and a number of considerations in the measurement of thermoluminescence described, with particular reference to CaSO 4 :Dy. The steps taken to convert a thermoluminescence measurement to an exposure and then an absorbed dose are outlined. The calculation of effective dose equivalents due to external exposure to γ-radiation in a number of situations commonly encountered in a uranium mine is discussed. Factors which may affect the accuracy of external dose assessments are described

  3. PSA methodology including new design, operational and safety factors, 'Level of recognition of phenomena with a presumed dominant influence upon operational safety' (failures of conventional as well as non-conventional passive components, dependent failures, influence of operator, fires and external threats, digital control, organizational factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    2001-10-01

    The document represents a specific type of discussion of existing methodologies for the creation and application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in light of the EUR document summarizing requirements placed by Western European NPP operators on the future design of nuclear power plants. A partial goal of this discussion consists in mapping, from the PSA point of view, those selected design, operational and/or safety factors of future NPPs that may be entirely new or, at least, newly addressed. Therefore, the terms of reference for this stage were formulated as follows: Assess current level of knowledge and procedures in the analysis of factors and phenomena with a dominant influence upon operational safety of new generation reactors, especially in the following areas: (1) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of conventional passive safety system components; (2) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of non-conventional passive components of newly designed safety systems; (3) Phenomenology of types and mechanisms of dependent failures; (4) Human factor role in new generation reactors and its effect upon safety; (5) Fire safety and other external threats to new nuclear installations; (6) Reliability of the digital systems of the I and C system and their effect upon safety; and (7) Organizational factors in new nuclear installations. (P.A.)

  4. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  5. Bevalac external beamline optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  6. Bevalac external beamline optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested

  7. Management of accidental internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.

    1994-01-01

    Radionuclides can penetrate into the body via the lung, the digestive tract, wounds and sometimes through healthy skin. Once they have penetrated the body, they can either remain localized at the site of entry or be rapidly metabolized. The risk is late effects. Radioelements must be eliminated as rapidly as possible decreasing the exposure proportionally. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on early institution. Nevertheless, emergency intensive care or surgery may be required. As soon as possible, explorations must be carried out to evaluate the level of contamination (human spectrometry, radio toxicological examinations) and to start treatment. Modalities include non-specific techniques (lavage, insolubilization, laxatives) and specific techniques such as complexation or isotopic dilution (iodine for iodine, Prussian blue for cesium, DTPA for plutonium, Diamox or sodium bicarbonate for uranium). Surgical cleaning of wounds and burns is an excellent means of decontamination. External contamination is often associated. Further contamination must be prevented immediately. (author). 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. External dose estimates for future Bikini Atoll inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Crites, T.R.; Robison, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    To evaluate the potential radiation doses that may be received by the returning Bikinians, we surveyed the residual radioactivity on Bikini and Eneu Islands in June of 1975. An integral part of the survey included measurements of gamma-ray exposure rates which are used to estimate external gamma-ray doses. The survey showed that on Bikini Island the rates are highly variable: values near the shores are generally of the order of 10 to 20 μR/h, while those within the interior average about 40 μR/h with a range of roughly 30 to 100 μR/h. Eneu Island, however, is characterized by more or less uniformly distributed gamma radiation levels of less than 10 μR/h over the entire island. These data, in conjunction with population statistics and expected life styles, allowed us to estimate the potential external gamma-ray doses associated with proposed housing locations along the lagoon road and within the interior portions of Bikini Island as well as along the lagoon side of Eneu Island. As expected, living on Eneu Island results in the lowest doses: 0.12 rem during the first year and 2.9 rem during 30 years. The highest values, 0.28 rem during the first year and 5.9 rem over 30 years, may potentially be received by inhabitants living within the interior of Bikini Island. Other options under consideration produce intermediate values

  9. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  10. External event analysis methods for NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, M.P.; Lambright, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring probabilistic risk assessments of six operating commercial nuclear power plants as part of a major update of the understanding of risk as provided by the original WASH-1400 risk assessments. In contrast to the WASH-1400 studies, at least two of the NUREG-1150 risk assessments will include an analysis of risks due to earthquakes, fires, floods, etc., which are collectively known as eternal events. This paper summarizes the methods to be used in the external event analysis for NUREG-1150 and the results obtained to date. The two plants for which external events are being considered are Surry and Peach Bottom, a PWR and BWR respectively. The external event analyses (through core damage frequency calculations) were completed in June 1989, with final documentation available in September. In contrast to most past external event analyses, wherein rudimentary systems models were developed reflecting each external event under consideration, the simplified NUREG-1150 analyses are based on the availability of the full internal event PRA systems models (event trees and fault trees) and make use of extensive computer-aided screening to reduce them to sequence cut sets important to each external event. This provides two major advantages in that consistency and scrutability with respect to the internal event analysis is achieved, and the full gamut of random and test/maintenance unavailabilities are automatically included, while only those probabilistically important survive the screening process. Thus, full benefit of the internal event analysis is obtained by performing the internal and external event analyses sequentially

  11. Doses from radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  12. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China: Uncertainty analysis of multiple health impacts and costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Yin; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO2 and NOx. Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society....... The aim of this study is to assess health impacts and external costs related to PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China with different baseline concentrations and valuation methods. The idea is to provide a reasonable estimate of the total health impacts and external cost due to PM2.5 pollution, as well...... as a quantification of the relevant uncertainty. PM2.5 concentrations were retrieved for the entire 2012 period in 16 districts of Beijing. The various PM2.5 related health impacts were identified and classified to avoid double counting. Exposure-response coefficients were then obtained from literature. Both...

  13. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  14. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  15. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  16. Reconstructing exposures from biomarkers using exposure-pharmacokinetic modeling--A case study with carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen; Phillips, Martin; Grulke, Christopher; Yoon, Miyoung; Young, Bruce; McDougall, Robin; Leonard, Jeremy; Lu, Jingtao; Lefew, William; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Sources of uncertainty involved in exposure reconstruction for short half-life chemicals were characterized using computational models that link external exposures to biomarkers. Using carbaryl as an example, an exposure model, the Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System (CARES), was used to generate time-concentration profiles for 500 virtual individuals exposed to carbaryl. These exposure profiles were used as inputs into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict urinary biomarker concentrations. These matching dietary intake levels and biomarker concentrations were used to (1) compare three reverse dosimetry approaches based on their ability to predict the central tendency of the intake dose distribution; and (2) identify parameters necessary for a more accurate exposure reconstruction. This study illustrates the trade-offs between using non-iterative reverse dosimetry methods that are fast, less precise and iterative methods that are slow, more precise. This study also intimates the necessity of including urine flow rate and elapsed time between last dose and urine sampling as part of the biomarker sampling collection for better interpretation of urinary biomarker data of short biological half-life chemicals. Resolution of these critical data gaps can allow exposure reconstruction methods to better predict population-level intake doses from large biomonitoring studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The occupational exposure of radiation workers, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, S; Yamada, N; Sakurai, K [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    Because the medical use of x-rays and radioisotopes is gradually increasing for diagnosis and therapy, radiation workers, special doctors, nurses and radiological technicians have occupational exposure. Procedures for monitoring external exposure of personnel include the wearing of a filmbadge or a pocket chamber. The results of filmbadge monitoring in Yamaguchi University Hospital for the last 10 years were described. In 1964, the total number of filmbadges that radiation workers used during a 2 week period of radiological examination and therapy was 610. This has been increasing yearly, and in 1972 it was 1999. Radiological technicians generally had low occupational exposure, and about 90 per cent of their filmbadges were exposed to less than 10 mR. Approximately 65 per cent of the filmbadges that nurses used were less than 10 mR, but some nurses who worked in radium therapy at the isotope ward suffered large doses. Some nurses had occasionally exposure higher than 100 mR in radiological examination. Some doctors sustained an occupational exposure of more than 150 mR. From these data, some problems on radiation monitoring using a filmbadge were discussed.

  18. The occupational exposure of radiation workers, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Shoji; Yamada, Norimasa; Sakurai, Koh

    1975-01-01

    Because the medical use of x-rays and radioisotopes is gradually increasing for diagnosis and therapy, radiation workers, special doctors, nurses and radiological technicians have occupational exposure. Procedures for monitoring external exposure of personnel include the wearing of a filmbadge or a pocket chamber. The results of filmbadge monitoring in Yamaguchi University Hospital for the last 10 years were described. In 1964, the total number of filmbadges that radiation workers used during a 2 week period of radiological examination and therapy was 610. This has been increasing yearly, and in 1972 it was 1999. Radiological technicians generally had low occupational exposure, and about 90 per cent of their filmbadges were exposed to less than 10 mR. Approximately 65 per cent of the filmbadges that nurses used were less than 10 mR, but some nurses who worked in radium therapy at the isotope ward suffered large doses. Some nurses had occasionally exposure higher than 100 mR in radiological examination. Some doctors sustained an occupational exposure of more than 150 mR. From these data, some problems on radiation monitoring using a filmbadge were discussed. (author)

  19. Analysis of external events - Nuclear Power Plant Dukovany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, Milan

    2000-01-01

    PSA of external events at level 1 covers internal events, floods, fires, other external events are not included yet. Shutdown PSA takes into account internal events, floods, fires, heavy load drop, other external events are not included yet. Final safety analysis report was conducted after 10 years of operation for all Dukovany operational units. Probabilistic approach was used for analysis of aircraft drop and external man-induced events. The risk caused by man-induced events was found to be negligible and was accepted by State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS)

  20. Radiopharmaceutical chelates and method of external imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loberg, M.D.; Callery, P.S.; Cooper, M.

    1977-01-01

    A chelate of technetium-99m, cobalt-57, gallium-67, gallium-68, indium-111 or indium-113m and a substituted iminodiacetic acid or an 8-hydroxyquinoline useful as a radiopharmaceutical external imaging agent. The invention also includes preparative methods therefor

  1. Fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc; Marquette, Gerald P; Varin, Jocelyne; Champagne, Josette; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version for term breech singleton fetuses and to identify risk factors involved with this complication. A prospective observational study was performed including all patients undergoing a trial of external cephalic version for a breech presentation of at least 36 weeks of gestation between 1987 and 2001 in our center. A search for fetal erythrocytes using the standard Kleihauer-Betke test was obtained before and after each external cephalic version. The frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage were calculated. Putative risk factors for fetomaternal hemorrhage were evaluated by chi(2) test and Mann-Whitney U test. A Kleihauer-Betke test result was available before and after 1,311 trials of external cephalic version. The Kleihauer-Betke test was positive in 67 (5.1%) before the procedure. Of the 1,244 women with a negative Kleihauer-Betke test before external cephalic version, 30 (2.4%) had a positive Kleihauer-Betke test after the procedure. Ten (0.8%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 1 mL, and one (0.08%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 30 mL. The risk of fetomaternal hemorrhage was not influenced by parity, gestational age, body mass index, number of attempts at version, placental location, or amniotic fluid index. The risk of detectable fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version was 2.4%, with fetomaternal hemorrhage more than 30 mL in less than 0.1% of cases. These data suggest that the performance of a Kleihauer-Betke test is unwarranted in uneventful external cephalic version and that in Rh-negative women, no further Rh immune globulin is necessary other than the routine 300-microgram dose at 28 weeks of gestation and postpartum. II.

  2. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  3. Anesthesia for pediatric external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, Jennifer T.; Halperin, Edward C.; Hertz, Caryn M.; Schulman, Scott R.

    1999-01-01

    Background: For very young patients, anesthesia is often required for radiotherapy. This results in multiple exposures to anesthetic agents over a short period of time. We report a consecutive series of children anesthetized for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods: Five hundred twelve children ≤ 16 years old received EBRT from January 1983 to February 1996. Patient demographics, diagnosis, anesthesia techniques, monitoring, airway management, complications, and outcome were recorded for the patients requiring anesthesia. Results: One hundred twenty-three of the 512 children (24%) required 141 courses of EBRT with anesthesia. Anesthetized patients ranged in age from 20 days to 11 years (mean 2.6 ± 1.8 ). The frequency of a child receiving EBRT and requiring anesthesia by age cohort was: ≤ 1 year (96%), 1-2 years (93%), 2-3 years (80%), 3-4 years (51%), 4-5 years (36%), 5-6 years (13%), 6-7 years (11%), and 7-16 years (0.7%). Diagnoses included: primary CNS tumor (28%), retinoblastoma (27%), neuroblastoma (20%), acute leukemia (9%), rhabdomyosarcoma (6%), and Wilms' tumor (4%). Sixty-three percent of the patients had been exposed to chemotherapy prior to EBRT. The mean number of anesthesia sessions per patient was 22 ± 16. Seventy-eight percent of the treatment courses were once daily and 22% were twice daily. Anesthesia techniques included: short-acting barbiturate induction + inhalation maintenance (21%), inhalation only (20%), ketamine (19%), propofol only (12%), propofol induction + inhalation maintenance (7%), ketamine induction + inhalation maintenance (6%), ketamine or short-acting barbiturate induction + inhalation maintenance (6%). Monitoring techniques included: EKG (95%), O 2 saturation (93%), fraction of inspired O 2 (57%), and end-tidal CO 2 (55%). Sixty-four percent of patients had central venous access. Eleven of the 74 children with a central line developed sepsis (15%): 6 of the 11 were anesthetized with propofol (55%), 4 with a

  4. The external respiration and gas exchange in space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. M.; Tikhonov, M. A.; Kotov, A. N.

    Literature data and results of our own studies into an effect of micro- and macro-gravity on an external respiration function of man are presented. It is found that in cosmonauts following the 7-366 day space missions there is an enhanced tendency associated with an increased flight duration toward a decrease in the lung volume and breathing mechanics parameters: forced vital capacity of the lungs (FVC) by 5-25 percent, peak inspiratory and expiratory (air) flows (PIF, PEF) by 5-40 percent. A decrease in FVC appears to be explained by a new balance of elastic forces of the lungs, chest and abdomen occuring in microgravity as well as by an increased blood filling and pulmonary hydration. A decline of PIF and PEF is probalbly resulted from antigravitational deconditioning of the respiratory muscles with which a postflight decreased physical performance can in part be associated. The ventilation/perfusion ratios during orthostasis and +G Z and +G X accelerations are estimated. The biophysical nature of developing the absorption atelectases on a combined exposure to accelerations and 100% oxygen breathing is confirmed. A hypothesis that hypervolemia and pulmonary congestion can increase the tendency toward the development of atelectases in space in particular during pure oxygen breathing is suggested. Respiratory physiology problem area which is of interest for space medicine is defined. It is well known that due to present-day technologic progress and accomplishments in applied physiology including applied respiration physiology there currently exist sophisticated technical facilities in operation maintaining the life and professional working capacity of a man in various natural environments: on Earth, under water and in space. By the way, the biomedical involvement in developing and constructing such facilities has enabled an accumulation of a great body of information from experimental studies and full-scale trails to examine the effects of the changed environments

  5. Externalities of the energy. The nuclear case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, Carla; Perl, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    When referring to private energy cost, which reflects the market value of energy, important elements are left aside in the evaluation process. These elements or externalities have an impact on third parties. The impact can be positive or negative and nowadays it is increasingly relevant to take them into account and include them in the project evaluation, specially when we are looking for sustainable development. The environmental impact and health effects are the most visible items but not the unique which generate externalities. The supply security, prices stability, employment impact and trade balance, are also important factors, although not much improvement has been achieved in their quantitative evaluation. (author) [es

  6. Quantized fields in external field. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.

    1976-01-01

    The case of a charged scalar field is considered first. The existence of the corresponding Green's functions is proved. For weak fields, as well as pure electric or scalar external fields, the Bogoliubov S-operator is shown to be unitary, covariant, causal up-to-a-phase. These results are generalised to a class of higher spin quantized fields, 'nicely' coupled to external fields, which includes the Dirac theory, and in the case of minimal and magnetic dipole coupling, the spin one Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer theory. (orig.) [de

  7. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Natural gas fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.; Berry, J.; Johnson, C.; Lee, D.

    1994-01-01

    This document assesses the progress made in quantifying environmental and health damages associated with the natural gas fuel cycle for electricity generation. The methodology developed in the ExternE Project is described in more detail elsewhere (European Commission, 1994a; 1995, in preparation). The reader is referred to these earlier reports for wider discussion of many of the issues underlying this type of work. The increased desire for economic assessment of environmental damage reflects growing awareness of problems such as global warming, ozone depletion and the acidification and nutrification of ecosystems. A wide range of receptors are affected, including human health, forests, crops, and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. At the political level there are a variety of reasons for the growing interest in the quantification of the environmental impacts of energy use and the related external costs. These include the need to integrate environmental concerns when selecting between different fuels and energy technologies and the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards. These issues are reflected in European Union policy, through, for example, the Maastricht Treaty, the 5th Environmental Action Programme 'towards sustainability', the European Commission's White Paper 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and ways forward to the 21st century' and the establishment of the European Environmental Agency. The proposal for an Energy-Carbon tax is the first concrete proposal by the European Union for the direct use of economic instruments in environmental policy in the energy sector. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not

  8. Effectiveness of lead apron in external exposure reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrikrishna, U.V.; Veerendra, D.D.; Manojkumar, M.; Austine, N.X.; Jadhav, Y.S.; Jashi, K.B.; Bihari, R.R.; Venkataramana, K.

    2006-01-01

    Lead Apron as individual shielding is used primarily in Radiology for protection of personnel against ionizing radiation. Occasionally lead apron of specific design are being used in reactor environment where one-sided radiation fields are encountered. The protection provided by Apron has been evaluated using personnel dosimeter. Based on the results the utility of lead Apron has been discussed in view of ALARA. The paper discusses the results and the recommendations for use in reactor environment. (author)

  9. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook (2000, External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children are often more heavily exposed to environmental toxicants than adults. They consume more food and water and have higher inhalation rates per pound of body weight than adults. Young children play close to the ground and come into contact with contaminated soil outdoors an...

  10. Control of radiation exposure (principles and methods)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agwimah, R. I.

    1999-01-01

    Biological risks are directly related to the tissue radiation dose, so it is very important to maintain personnel doses as low as realistically possible. This goal can be achieved by minimizing internal contamination and external exposure to radioactive sources

  11. Determinants of Dermal Exposure Relevant for Exposure Modelling in Regulatory Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Links, I.H.M.; Warren, N.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European

  12. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination

  13. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  14. The ExternE project: methodology, objectives and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent studies on external costs of energy systems, in particular the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. To evaluate the impact and damage cost of a pollutant, one needs to carry out an impact pathway analysis; this involves the calculation of increased pollutant concentrations in all affected regions due to an incremental emission (e.g. μg/m 3 of particles, using models of atmospheric dispersion and chemistry), followed by the calculation of physical impacts (e.g. number of cases of asthma due to these particles, using a dose-response function). The entire so-called fuel chain (or fuel cycle) is evaluated and compared on the basis of delivered end use energy. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, NO x and SO x ) from the combustion of fossil fuels impose a heavy toll, in addition to the cost of global warming. The external costs are especially large for coal; even for 'good current technology' they may be comparable to the price of electricity. For natural gas the external costs are about a third to a half of coal. The external costs of nuclear are small compared to the price of electricity (at most a few %), and so are the external costs of most renewable energy systems. (authors)

  15. Scenarios identified internationally for occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Bejarano, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the exposure of workers; exposure limits, and the delegation of responsibilities and special measures of compensation, protection and security. Likewise, monitoring, personal exposure assessments, externally and internally, are analyzed [es

  16. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial...

  17. External costs of nuclear-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Glodeanu, F.; Popescu, D.; Andrei, V.

    2004-01-01

    External costs of nuclear power include: future financial liabilities arising from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities, health and environmental impacts of radioactivity releases in routine operation, radioactive waste disposal and effects of severe accidents. The nuclear energy industry operates under regulations that impose stringent limits to atmospheric emissions and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities as well as requiring the containment and confinement of solid radioactive waste to ensure its isolation from the biosphere as long as it may be harmful for human health and the environment. The capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities already internalize a major portion of the above-mentioned potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. The externality related to potential health and environmental impacts of radioactive releases during routine operations have been assessed in a large number of comprehensive studies, in particular the ExternE project that was created in the framework of the European Commission. With regard to effects of severe nuclear accidents, a special legal regime, the third-party liability system, has been implemented to provide limited third party liability coverage in the event of a nuclear accident. The nuclear plant owners are held liable for some specified first substantial part of damages to third parties, and must secure insurance coverage adequate to cover this part. The Government provides coverage for some specified substantial second part of the damages, with any remaining damages to be considered by the national legislation. Thus, the costs of an incident or accident are fully internalized in the costs borne by the nuclear plant owners. Externalities of energy are not limited to environmental and health related impacts, but may result also from macro-economic, policy or strategic factors not reflected

  18. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  19. The Sleeper Effect of Intimate Partner Violence Exposure: Long-Term Consequences on Young Children's Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) experience a wide variety of short-term social adjustment and emotional difficulties, including externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression. While children are affected by IPV at all ages, little is known about the long-term consequences of IPV exposure at…

  20. Internal and External Factors That Support Children's Minority First Language and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Tipton, Timothy

    2018-05-22

    Sequential bilingual children in the United States often speak 2 languages that have different social statuses (minority-majority) and separate contexts for learning (home-school). Thus, distinct factors may support the development of each language. This study examined which child internal and external factors were related to vocabulary skills in a minority language versus English. Participants included 69 children, aged 5-8 years, who lived in Southern California, spoke Vietnamese as the home language, and received school instruction in English. All participants had at least 1 foreign-born parent, and most mothers reported limited English proficiency. Parents completed a telephone survey, and children completed measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary in each language. Using correlations and stepwise regression, we examined predictors of vocabulary skills in each language that were internal to the child (age, gender, analytical reasoning, phonological memory) or that pertained to the surrounding environment (cumulative exposure, quantity and quality of input/output). Vietnamese vocabulary outcomes were related to multiple external factors, of which input and enrichment activities were the best predictors. In contrast, English vocabulary outcomes were related to internal factors, of which age and phonological memory were the best predictors. Parental use of Vietnamese contributed to children's Vietnamese vocabulary outcomes but was not related to children's English vocabulary outcomes. Vietnamese exposure does not hinder English development. Children from immigrant families are learning English with or without familial support. Rich and frequent exposure and opportunities for practice are essential for the continued development of a minority first language.

  1. Television viewing and externalizing problems in preschool children: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Hudziak, James J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Guxens, Mònica; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether the amount, type, and patterns of television viewing predict the onset or the persistence of externalizing problems in preschool children. Longitudinal study of a prospective population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Parents reported time of television exposure and type of programs watched by children. Externalizing problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist at 18 and 36 months. A population-based sample of 3913 children. Television viewing time, content, and patterns of exposure (at 24 and 36 months) in children with and without preexisting problems to assess the incidence and persistence of externalizing problems. Externalizing problems at 36 months. Program content and time of television exposure assessed at 24 months did not predict the incidence of externalizing problems at 36 months (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% CI, 0.97-5.18). However, the patterns of exposure over time reflecting high levels of television viewing were associated with the incidence of externalizing problems (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.07-3.75) and the persistence of the preexisting externalizing problems (2.59; 1.03-6.55). Our study showed that high television exposure increases the risk of the incidence and the persistence of externalizing problems in preschool children.

  2. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  3. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  4. External costs of atmospheric Pb emissions: valuation of neurotoxic impacts due to inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frohn Lise

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Impact Pathway Approach (IPA is an innovative methodology to establish links between emissions, related impacts and monetary estimates. Only few attempts have so far been presented regarding emissions of metals; in this study the external costs of airborne lead (Pb emissions are assessed using the IPA. Exposure to Pb is known to provoke impacts especially on children's cognition. As cognitive abilities (measured as IQ, intelligence quotient are known to have implications for lifetime income, a pathway can be established leading from figures for Pb emissions to the implied loss in earnings, and on this basis damage costs per unit of Pb emission can be assessed. Methods Different types of models are here linked. It is relatively straightforward to establish the relationship between Pb emissions and consequent increase in air-Pb concentration, by means of a Gaussian plume dispersion model (OML. The exposed population can then be modelled by linking the OML-output to population data nested in geo-referenced grid cells. Less straightforward is to establish the relationship between exposure to air-Pb concentrations and the resulting blood-Pb concentration. Here an Age-Dependent Biokinetic Model (ADBM for Pb is applied. On basis of previous research which established links between increases in blood-Pb concentrations during childhood and resulting IQ-loss we arrive at our results. Results External costs of Pb airborne emissions, even at low doses, in our site are in the range of 41-83 €/kg emitted Pb, depending on the considered meteorological year. This estimate applies only to the initial effects of air-Pb, as our study does not address the effects due to the Pb environmental-accumulation and to the subsequent Pb re-exposure. These are likely to be between one and two orders of magnitude higher. Conclusions Biokinetic modelling is a novel tool not previously included when applying the IPA to explore impacts of Pb emissions

  5. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  6. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  7. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...

  8. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China: Uncertainty analysis of multiple health impacts and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-07-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO 2 and NO x . Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society. The aim of this study is to assess health impacts and external costs related to PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China with different baseline concentrations and valuation methods. The idea is to provide a reasonable estimate of the total health impacts and external cost due to PM2.5 pollution, as well as a quantification of the relevant uncertainty. PM2.5 concentrations were retrieved for the entire 2012 period in 16 districts of Beijing. The various PM2.5 related health impacts were identified and classified to avoid double counting. Exposure-response coefficients were then obtained from literature. Both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the amended human capital (AHC) approach were applied for external costs estimation, which could provide the upper and lower bound of the external costs due to PM2.5. To fully understand the uncertainty levels, the external cost distribution was determined via Monte Carlo simulation based on the uncertainty of the parameters such as PM2.5 concentration, exposure-response coefficients, and economic cost per case. The results showed that the external costs were equivalent to around 0.3% (AHC, China's guideline: C 0  = 35 μg/m 3 ) to 0.9% (VSL, WHO guideline: C 0  = 10 μg/m 3 ) of regional GDP depending on the valuation method and on the assumed baseline PM2.5 concentration (C 0 ). Among all the health impacts, the economic loss due to premature deaths accounted for more than 80% of the overall external costs. The results of this study could help policymakers prioritizing the PM2.5 pollution control interventions and internalize the external costs through the application of economic policy instruments. Copyright © 2017

  9. Accessing external innovation in drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufféry, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    A decline in the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry research and development (R&D) pipeline has highlighted the need to reconsider the classical strategies of drug discovery and development, which are based on internal resources, and to identify new means to improve the drug discovery process. Accepting that the combination of internal and external ideas can improve innovation, ways to access external innovation, that is, opening projects to external contributions, have recently been sought. In this review, the authors look at a number of external innovation opportunities. These include increased interactions with academia via academic centers of excellence/innovation centers, better communication on projects using crowdsourcing or social media and new models centered on external providers such as built-to-buy startups or virtual pharmaceutical companies. The buzz for accessing external innovation relies on the pharmaceutical industry's major challenge to improve R&D productivity, a conjuncture favorable to increase interactions with academia and new business models supporting access to external innovation. So far, access to external innovation has mostly been considered during early stages of drug development, and there is room for enhancement. First outcomes suggest that external innovation should become part of drug development in the long term. However, the balance between internal and external developments in drug discovery can vary largely depending on the company strategies.

  10. Towards a Classification of Architecture Initiatives: Outlining the External Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    or bad, without including the contextual differences. The purpose of the external factors is to improve scoping and goal setting of architecture initiatives, and improve comparability between- and transferability of knowledge from architecture initiatives. The external factors are a first step towards......This paper introduced a set of external factors capturing the contextual differences that set the stage for architecture initiatives. These are derived from a systems theoretical approach recognizing the fact that architecture initiatives should respond the challenges posed by the external...

  11. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P; Leal, J; Saez, R M

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  12. The EPR-a comprehensive design concept against external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, U.; Waas, U.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of design provisions against external hazards is to ensure that the safety functions required to bring the plant to safe shutdown are not inadmissibly affected by any external hazards that might be postulated for the intended site of the plant. In the design of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) particular attention was paid to external hazards such as earthquake, airplane crash, and explosion pressure wave. The standard EPR covers a large range of possible site conditions, the design earthquake enveloping safe shutdown earthquakes (SSE) to be expected for potential sites. The loads for the design basis airplane crash and - if required - for the design extension airplane crash as well as for external Explosion Pressure Wave are defined depending on site specific requirements. Protection against other external load cases such as extreme winds and external flooding is also included in the standard design

  13. The Little Data Book on External Debt 2007

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The little data book on external debt, a pocket edition of Global Development Finance (GDF) 2007, volume two, summary and country tables, contains statistical tables on the external debt of the 135 countries that report public and publicly guaranteed debt under the debtor reporting system. It also includes tables of selected debt and resource flow statistics for individual reporting countr...

  14. Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d); Dosimetria personale esterna in termini di equivalente di dose personale, H{sub p}(d). Atti. Giornata di studio, Bologna, 28 febbraio 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E. [ENEA, Div. Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA - Bologna has organised a one day-workshop on the subject: Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d). The aim of the workshop was the discussion of the new implications and modifications to be expected in the routine individual monitoring of external radiation, due to the issue of the Decree 241/00 (G.U. 31/8/2000) in charge since 01/01/2001. The decree set up in Italian law the standards contained in the European Directive EURATOM 96/29-Basic Standards for the Protection of Health of Workers and the General Public against Dangers arising from Ionizing Radiation. Among others, the definition of the operational quantities for external radiation for personal and environmental monitoring, H{sub p}(d) e H{sup *}(d) respectively as defined by ICRU (International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurements), requires to update the methods of measurements and calibration of the personal dosemeters and environmental monitors. This report collects the papers presented at the workshop dealing with the Personal Dose Equivalent, H{sub p}(d), the conversion coefficients, H{sub p}(d)/K{sub a} e H{sub p}(d)/{sub ,} obtained through Monte Carlo calculations published by ICRU and ICRP (International Commission for Radiation Protection), the new calibration procedures and the practical implication in the routine of individual monitoring in terms of H{sub p}(d). Eventually, in the last chapter, the answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) are briefly reported. [Italian] L'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA di Bologna ha organizzato una giornata di studio Dosimetria personale esterna in termini di equivalente di dose personale, H{sub p}(d). Lo scopo della giornata e' stato quello di discutere le novita' e le modifiche da apportare alle pratiche di monitoraggio dell'esposizione esterna alle radiazioni ionizzanti, a seguito dell'entrata in vigore

  15. Alpha-risk: a European project on the quantification of risks associated with multiple radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D.; Monchaux, G.; Tirmarche, M.; Darby, S.; Cardis, E.; Binks, K.; Hofmann, W.; Muirhead, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha-Risk research project is being conducted within the Sixth European Framework Programme (EC-FP6, 2005 -2008). It aims to improve the quantification of risks associated with multiple exposures, taking into account the contribution of different radionuclides and external exposure using specific organ dose calculations. The Alpha-Risk Consortium involves 18 partners from 9 countries, and is coordinated by the IRSN. Its composition allows a multidisciplinary collaboration between researchers in epidemiology, dosimetry, statistics, modelling and risk assessment. Alpha-Risk brings together major epidemiological studies in Europe, which are able to evaluate long-term health effects of internal exposure from radionuclides. It includes large size cohort and case-control studies, with accurate registration of individual annual exposures: uranium miner studies, studies on lung cancer and indoor radon exposure, and studies of lung cancer and leukaemia among nuclear workers exposed to transuranic nuclides (mainly uranium and plutonium), for whom organ doses will be reconstructed individually. The contribution of experts in dosimetry will allow the calculation of organ doses in presence of multiple exposures (radon decay products, uranium dust and external gamma exposure). Expression of the risk per unit organ dose will make it possible to compare results with those from other populations exposed to external radiation. The multidisciplinary approach of Alpha-Risk promotes the development of coherent and improved methodological approaches regarding risk modelling. A specific work - package is dedicated to the integration of results and their use for risk assessment, especially for radon. Alpha-Risk will contribute to a better understanding of long-term health risks following chronic low doses from internal exposures. The project also has the great potential to help resolve major public health concerns about the effects of low and/or protracted exposures, especially

  16. External effects in Swiss hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, W.; Bonvin, J.; Vouillamoz, J.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the external costs and benefits of hydropower that are not internalised in normal book-keeping. Several negative and positive effects are discussed. The results of a study that addressed the difficult task of quantifying these external effects are presented. An assessment of the results gained shows that difficulties are to be met regarding system limits, methods of expressing the effects in monetary terms and ethical factors. The report also examines the consideration of external effects as a correction factor for falsified market prices for electricity

  17. Clinical governance and external audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, S G; Buchanan, J G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a model of clinical governance that was developed at South Auckland Health during the period 1995 to 2000. Clinical quality and safety are core objectives. A multidisciplinary Clinical Board is responsible for the development and publicising of sound clinical policies together with monitoring the effects of their implementation on quality and safety. The Clinical Board has several committees, including an organization-wide Continuous Quality Improvement Committee to enhance the explicit nature of the quality system in terms of structure, staff awareness and involvement, and to develop the internal audit system. The second stream stems from the Chief Medical Officer and clinical directors in a clinical management sense. The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors covers both clinical and financial audit. The reporting lines back to that committee are described and the role of the external auditor of clinical standards is explained. The aim has been to create a supportive culture where quality initiatives and innovation can flourish, and where the emphasis is not on censure but improvement.

  18. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  19. Exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report is given of a seminar on the exposure to enhanced natural radiation and its regulatory implications held in 1985 at Maastricht, the Netherlands. The themes of the working sessions included sources of enhanced natural radiation, parameters influencing human exposure, measurement and survey programmes, technical countermeasures, risk and assessment studies, philosophies of dose limitations and national and international policies. (U.K.)

  20. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  1. Recent developments in the external hazard risk assessment in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Ukrainian legislation prescribes safety analysis reports for all operating and future NPPs. Apart from main report they must include: safety analysis supplement; design basis accident analysis; beyond design basis accident analysis; probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); technical; substantiation of safety. Regulatory requirements to PSA contents cover the criteria for core damage frequency and large radioactive release frequency. Initiating events taken into account are internal events; internal hazards and external hazards. External hazards to be considered are seismic events, external fires, external floods, extreme ambient temperatures, aircraft crashes, etc. Current status of PSA development is related to operating WWER-440 and WWER-1000 NPPs and NPPs under construction. This presentation describes in detail the external hazard risk assessment for South Ukraine including methodology applied and expected future activities

  2. Externalities of energy. Swedish implementation of the ExternE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans; Gullberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The growing interest for developing economic instruments for efficient environmental policies has opened up a large area of multi-disciplinary research. ExternE is an example of this research, combining disciplines such as engineering, ecology, immunology and economics expertise to create new knowledge about how environmental pressures from energy production affect our nature and society. The ExternE Project aims to identify and, as far as possible quantify the externalities of energy production in Europe. The Stockholm Environment Institute has carried out a preliminary aggregation: -Coal Fuel Cycle: centred around Vaesteraas Kraftvaermeverk, Vaesteraas. This is the largest co-generation plant in Sweden, with four blocks and a maximum co-generation output of 520 MW electricity and 950 MW heat. The analysis is carried out on boiler B4. -Biomass Fuel Cycle: centred around Haendeloeverket, Norrkoeping. This plant predominately burns forestry residues, but a variety of fuels are combusted. Haendeloeverket has an installed capacity of 100 MW electricity and 375 MW heat, in a total of three boilers and two back-pressure turbines. The analysis is carried out on boiler P13. -Hydro Fuel Cycle: Klippens Kraftstation, Storuman. Built in 1990-1994, it is the youngest hydro power station in Sweden. It has been designed and built with significant efforts to account for and protect environmental values. Installed capacity is 28 MW. The environmental impact assessment from the construction of this plant is carried out, but the evaluation is still not finalized. The preliminary aggregation aimed to test whether ExternE results could be used to make estimates for the entire Swedish electricity production system. Hence, national results as well as results from other partner countries in ExternE has been applied

  3. Urban Sprawl and Transportation Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Holcombe, Randall G.; Williams, DeEdgra W.

    2010-01-01

    One argument in support of minimizing urban sprawl is that sprawl creates transportation externalities. A problem with empirically examining the relationship between sprawl and transportation externalities is that sprawl is a difficult concept to quantify. This paper uses a measure of sprawl designed by Ewing, Pendall, and Chen (2002) to examine the relationship between sprawl and commute times, automobile ownership, miles driven, fatal auto accidents, air pollution, and highway expenditures....

  4. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  5. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  6. Internal hiring or external recruitment?

    OpenAIRE

    DeVaro, Jed

    2016-01-01

    Hiring is one of a firm’s most important decisions. When an employer fills a vacancy with one of its own workers (through promotion or lateral transfer), it forgoes the opportunity to fill the position with a new hire from outside the firm. Although both internal and external hiring methods are used, firms frequently have a bias favoring insiders. Internal and external hires differ in observable characteristics (such as skill levels), as do the employers making each type of hiring decision. U...

  7. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  8. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2015-01-01

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles

  9. External costs of electricity production: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutier, D.

    1995-01-01

    The external costs of energy use, or the environmental effects not included in the market pricing system, must at some point be borne by society. This paper argues that the true cost of energy, including the remedying or prevention of its environmetnal consequences, should be included in the price paid by the consumer as this is the only effective method of minimizing the burden of environmental damage. The difficulties of quantifying the value of such damage and internalising it within power prices is described with reference to work in a number of countries. (UK)

  10. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  11. ISS External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    (1) The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit, (2) Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives, (3) Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle, and (4)The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  12. Radiation exposure management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure management includes administrative control, education and training, monitoring and dose assessments and planning of work and radiation protection. The information and discussion given in the paper are based on experiences in Sweden mainly from nuclear power installations. (Author)

  13. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  14. Family Violence Pathways and Externalizing Behavior in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzay, Melanie L; Joy, Lendi N; Verona, Edelyn

    2017-08-01

    While studies suggest that youth who experience violence in the home are more likely to engage in externalizing behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance use, rule breaking), research is needed to understand factors that may explain how family violence is linked to externalizing, and whether there may be gender-specific trajectories to this outcome. The present study used a cross-sectional design and multigroup, path analytic modeling to test the degree to which personality traits (negative emotionality, constraint) in boys and girls (Model 1), as well as status offending primarily in girls (Model 2), may help explain relationships between exposure to familial adversity (witnessing family violence and child abuse) and adolescent externalizing behaviors in a mixed-gender, community sample with both caregiver and youth reports ( N = 237, 57% female, 10-17 years old). Results indicated that personality traits fully explained the relationship between witnessing family violence and externalizing and partially explained the relationship between child abuse and externalizing among youth. Despite theory suggesting a female-specific trajectory involving status offenses, both models were similarly relevant for boys and girls. These findings have implications for understanding processes by which adverse family circumstances may relate to externalizing behavior in youth. Preliminary suggestions are provided for future longitudinal research, policy changes, and clinical techniques that may be essential in preventing the progression to long-term adverse outcomes among youth.

  15. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Steven L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Constine, Louis S.

    1995-01-01

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  16. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Constine, L.S. [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  17. The mid-childhood and adolescent antecedents of women's external locus of control orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Jean; Gregory, Steven; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Nowicki, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background : External locus of control orientation (ELOC) is a powerful predictor of adverse consequences in regard to health, educational attainment, inter-personal relationships and well-being. Although many cross-sectional studies have been carried out, relatively little is known about antecedent factors influencing the development of ELOC. Methods : Over 12,000 pregnant women who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in south-west England, had completed a brief version of the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External LOC scale, together with detailed questions concerning their own parents and childhood.  A series of hypothesis-free structured backwards stepwise logistic regression analyses used an exposome approach with ELOC as the outcome. Results : Significant positive associations were found with smoking of the parents of the surveyed women, including prenatal exposure, and their own onset of regular smoking in mid-childhood (6-11 years). Increased odds of ELOC were also found with the absence of their fathers in early childhood, presence of older siblings, and with being born and brought up in the same area as they resided in at the time surveyed. Protective influences in the surveyed women included positive rating of their mother's care, having a relatively educated mother, attending boarding school, their own age (the older they were, the less likely were they to have an external orientation), having a mentally ill parent, a sibling hospitalized or a relative die. Conclusions : There are two conclusions: (i) that not all stressful events contribute to the development of ELOC and it would be essential for models of antecedents of ELOC to take note of this complexity, and (ii) there are consistent (albeit unexpected) findings that highlight associations with cigarette smoke exposure of the woman from fetal life through to when starting to smoke regularly herself in mid-childhood. It is important that these findings

  18. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni [Shoreham, NY; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Setauket, NY

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  19. Radiation exposure on residents due to semipalatinsk nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, J.; Hoshi, M.; Nagatomo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Accumulated external radiation doses for residents near Semipalatinsk nuclear test site of the former USSR are presented as a results of the first study by thermoluminescence technique for bricks sampled at several settlements between 1995 and 1997. The external doses which we evaluated from brick dose were up to ∼100 cGy for resident. The external doses at several points in the center of Semipalatinsk city were ∼60 cGy that was remarkably high comparing with the previously reported value based on the military data. A total of 459 nuclear explosions were conducted by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1949 to 1989 at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) Kazakhstan, including 87 atmospheric, 26 on the ground, and 364 underground explosions. Total energy release of about 18 Mt equivalent of trinitrotoluene is eleven hundreds times of Hiroshima atomic bomb. However previous reports concerning the effects of radiation on residents near the SNTS based on data provided by the Defense Department of the former USSR do not have direct experimental data concerning effective equivalent dose. They just measured some doses for particular settlements after some nuclear explosions. These do not indicate integrated dose for the residents due to the whole explosions. The technique of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) which had been successfully applied to the dosimetry on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, enabled us to evaluate accumulated external gamma ray doses at specific places due to whole nuclear explosions in the Semipalatinsk test site. TLD technique is well-established one for not only instantaneous exposure like in A-bombs (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) but also prolonged exposure like in dating. Moreover this technique was applicable for dosimetry study of radioactive fallout as shown in studies of Chernobyl accident. The way of external dose estimation from TLD doses for brick will be discussed in case of radioactive fallout. We will

  20. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Eschbach, P.A.; Harty, R.; Millet, W.H.; Scholes, V.A.

    1992-12-01

    All US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors, are required to submit occupational radiation exposure records to a central depository. In 1989, data were required to be submitted for all employees who were required to be monitored in accordance with DOE Order 5480.11 and for all visitors who had a positive exposure. The data required included the external penetrating whole-body dose equivalent, the shallow dose equivalent, and a summary of internal depositions of radioactive material above specified limits. Data regarding the exposed individuals included the individual's age, sex, and occupational category. This report is a summary of the external penetrating whole-body dose equivalents and shallow dose equivalents reported by DOE and DOE contractors for the calendar year 1989. A total of 90,882 DOE and DOE contractor employees were reported to have been monitored for whole-body ionizing radiation exposure during 1989. This represents 53.6% of all DOE and DOE contractor employees and is an increase (4.3 %) from the number of monitored employees for 1988. In addition to the employees, 12,643 visitors were monitored

  1. Report on external occupational dosimetry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders: Evidence for Gene × Environment × Development interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Hicks, Brian M; Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Gene × Environment interaction contributes to externalizing disorders in childhood and adolescence, but little is known about whether such effects are long lasting or present in adulthood. We examined gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders (antisocial behavior and substance use disorders) at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. The sample included 1,382 same-sex twin pairs participating in the Minnesota Twin Family Study. We detected a Gene × Environment interaction at age 17, such that additive genetic influences on antisocial behavior and substance use disorders were greater in the context of greater antisocial peer affiliation. This Gene × Environment interaction was not present for antisocial behavior symptoms after age 17, but it was for substance use disorder symptoms through age 29 (though effect sizes were largest at age 17). The results suggest adolescence is a critical period for the development of externalizing disorders wherein exposure to greater environmental adversity is associated with a greater expression of genetic risk. This form of Gene × Environment interaction may persist through young adulthood for substance use disorders, but it appears to be limited to adolescence for antisocial behavior.

  3. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders: Evidence for Gene × Environment × Development Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Gene × environment interaction contributes to externalizing disorders in adolescence, but little is known about whether such effects are long-lasting or present in adulthood. We examined gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders (antisocial behavior and substance use disorders) at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. The sample included 1,382 same-sex twin pairs participating in the Minnesota Twin Family Study. We detected a gene × environment interaction at age 17, such that additive genetic influences on antisocial behavior and substance use disorders were greater in the context of greater antisocial peer affiliation. This gene × environment interaction was not present for antisocial behavior symptoms after age 17, but was for substance use disorder symptoms through age 29 (though effect sizes were largest at age 17). Results suggest adolescence is a critical period for the development of externalizing disorders wherein exposure to greater environmental adversity is associated with a greater expression of genetic risk. This form of gene × environment interaction may persist through young adulthood for substance use disorders, but is limited to adolescence for antisocial behavior. PMID:27580681

  4. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  5. Lessons learned from external hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [European Commisison Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Ramos, Manuel Martin [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination; Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

  6. A model for external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.W.; Coleman, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    This model was designed to estimate possible exposures from atmospheric testing. The FORTRAN 77 code follows an individual's living pattern as he or she moves about in a radiation field. The primary input is the time sequence of location changes relative to the individual's exposure. The changes from one shielding situation to another are stored and appropriate exposure modifiers assigned. These input data may be supplied directly, or assigned as generic information. Provision is made for following the individual through a series of changes representative of weekdays, Saturdays and Sundays. These data are also seasonally specific (one set each for spring, summer, fall and winter). The use of free formatting and item counting allows entry of the data on a day-by-day basis of any number of changes up to a given maximum. Exposure modifiers are currently input for five separate locations (bedroom, living room, public building, outdoors and a closed car). The model enters the tabulated data at any given time, selects the exposure modifier, the next change and calculates the free-in-air gamma exposure during the period from an exposure rate versus time function. The code then calculates the expected exposure using the exposure modifier. Accumulated exposures are converted to organ doses. The model estimates skin doses from beta particles as well as gamma radiation by accounting for periods of time out-of-doors and direct skin contamination. This entire program may be run deterministically (all input parameters constant) or stochastically with the various parameters selected from appropriate distributions, or as a combination of the two. Statistical information is derived from multiple executions of the stochastic version of the code. Results of representative executions are presented

  7. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  8. External dosimetry sources and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisto, Washington

    1994-01-01

    A definition of external dosimetry r external sources dosimetry,physical and mathematical treatment of the interaction of gamma radiation with a minimal area in that direction. Concept of attenuation coefficient, cumulated effect by polyenergetic sources, exposition rate, units, cumulated dose,shielding, foton shielding, depth calculation, materials used for shielding.Beta shielding, consideration of range and maximum β energy , low stopping radiation by use of low Z shielding. Tables for β energy of β emitters, I (tau) factor, energy-range curves for β emitters in aqueous media, gamma attenuation factors for U, W and Pb. Y factor for bone tissue,muscle and air, build-up factors

  9. Movement of the external ear in human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. External cephalic version before elective caesarean section for breech presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, F.; Sanusi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology guidelines state that all uncomplicated breech Presentation should be offered external cephalic version and all such women should be briefed about the risks and benefits of external cephalic version and all such women should be briefed about the risks and benefits of external cephalic version before undertaking the procedure. To ascertain the acceptability of external cephalic version before elective caesarean section for breech Presentation by pregnant ladies and see whether they were adequately informed about the risks and benefits. The clinical audit was registered with the audit department at Watford general hospital and written Consent for the access of medical records was obtained. A retrospective view of 86 accessible medical records out of Total 110 elective breech caesarean sections was done over a period of one year. This retrospective study was conducted at the gynaecology and obstetrics department at Watford general hospital, Watford United Kingdom. Written consent for the access of medical records was obtained. All women who under went elective caesarean section due to breech presentation were included in the study. Out of a total of 110 elective breech caesarean sections performed, the data on 86 cases was selected for the final analysis. The information gathered included patient's profile, whether patient was informed of risks and benefits of external cephalic version, recognition of obstetric risk factors, external cephalic version performed and its success. Out of total 86 caesarean sections 46 were suitable for external cephalic version of whom 37 cases were offered external cephalic version. Among 37 patients who were offered external cephalic version only 15 patients accepted (22 declined) the procedure. Moreover, it was found that the documentation of risk/benefit explanation of the procedure was inadequate. External cephalic version was not successful in any of the patient. Causes for

  11. Studies of workers exposed to low doses of external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    Currently, several epidemiologic studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to low levels of radiation are being conducted, and include studies of workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. This paper focuses on studies that evaluate the possible adverse effects resulting from external exposure to radiation. The radiation risk estimates that have been used to establish radiation protection standards for workers and others have been obtained mainly from studies of persons exposed at high doses and dose rates. However, questions remain with regard to the extrapolation process that has been necessary for estimating low-level radiation risks. Occupational studies provide a direct assessment of risk based on data on persons exposed at the actual levels of interest. If current risk estimates are correct, these studies have very little chance of detecting risk, but can still be used to provide useful upper limits on risks. The studies are also adequate to detect serious underestimation of risks. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. External dose rates in coastal urban environments in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Conti, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    A long term activity aiming on assessing the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation is being developed at IRD/CNEN. Several research groups within IRD work in this activity, although mostly as a parallel work associated to main research lines followed by researches of the institution. One main activity is related to the raise of external gamma dose rates throughout the country. The objective of this work is to present results from recent surveys performed as part of the emergency preparedness for radiological emergencies during major public events in Brazil, such as the the World Youth Day, held in Rio de Janeiro in 2013, and the Confederations Cup and the FIFA World Cup soccer games, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In this work, only the recent (2014) coastal urban environments measurements were included. Average kerma rates for Fortaleza is 80 ± 23 nGy/h, for Vitoria is 96 ± 33 nGy/h and for Angra dos Reis is 147 ± 16 nGy/h. These results are then compared to previous results on other coastal urban towns (Rio de Janeiro, Niterói and Salvador), and with the high background coastal area of Guarapari town. (authors)

  13. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western...... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...

  14. PHOSPHORUS SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND EXTERNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Zhang et al., 2005). For instance, in strongly acidic soils with pH<5.5 and high P sorbing soils, application of rock phosphate is more effective and cheaper than using TSP (Bationo et al., 2011). Moreover, it enables determination of the external P.

  15. Hydropower externalities: a meta analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to

  16. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  17. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings o...

  18. Externally studentized normal midrange distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dêivide de Oliveira Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of externally studentized midrange was created based on the original studentization procedures of Student and was inspired in the distribution of the externally studentized range. The large use of the externally studentized range in multiple comparisons was also a motivation for developing this new distribution. This work aimed to derive analytic equations to distribution of the externally studentized midrange, obtaining the cumulative distribution, probability density and quantile functions and generating random values. This is a new distribution that the authors could not find any report in the literature. A second objective was to build an R package for obtaining numerically the probability density, cumulative distribution and quantile functions and make it available to the scientific community. The algorithms were proposed and implemented using Gauss-Legendre quadrature and the Newton-Raphson method in R software, resulting in the SMR package, available for download in the CRAN site. The implemented routines showed high accuracy proved by using Monte Carlo simulations and by comparing results with different number of quadrature points. Regarding to the precision to obtain the quantiles for cases where the degrees of freedom are close to 1 and the percentiles are close to 100%, it is recommended to use more than 64 quadrature points.

  19. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  20. Monitoring and assessment of individual doses of occupationally exposed workers due to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaw, S. T.

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to external radiation occurs in many occupations. Any exposure to ionizing radiation has the tendency to change the biochemical make-up of the human body which may result in biological health effects of ionizing radiation. This study reviews the monitoring and assessment of external radiation doses in industrial radiography using thermoluminescence and direct reading dosimeters. Poor handling procedures such as inadequate engineering control of equipment, safety culture, management, and inadequate assessment and monitoring of doses are the causes of most of the reported cases of exposure to external radiation in industrial radiography. Occupational exposure data in industrial radiography from UNSCEAR report 2008 was discussed and recommendations were made to regulatory authorities, operating organizations and radiographers. (au)

  1. Environmental externalities and alternative energy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will introduce and explain the economic concept of an open-quotes externalityclose quotes and how it applies to environmental issues. The theory was developed by economists more than a half century ago. Much of the current interest in the idea is aimed at its application to environmental issues in the regulated electric and gas utility industries. A good deal of this current interest began with the publication of the Pace University report on the Environmental Costs of Electricity. The report is widely cited but, unfortunately, seriously flawed. Two important examples of this will be shown later in this paper. The widespread interest in the application of the environmental externality concept apparently arose out of the desire of regulators and others to open-quotes level the playing fieldclose quotes for Demand Side Management (DSM) activities and renewables. The rapid growth of DSM over the past 10 to 15 years has occurred without any boost from externalities. By including the complete private and social costs of traditional electric generating technologies, it is thought that DSM and renewables will get an additional boost. Although current activity aims at the application of the environmental externality concept to the regulated utilities sector, it clearly has potential for much wider application. This issue will also be examined. The current status of various regulatory actions at the state level will be reviewed

  2. External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z L; Dosher, B A

    1998-05-01

    We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian random noise) to the visual stimulus and observes the effect on performance of a perceptual task for attended and unattended stimuli. The three mechanisms of attention yield three "signature" patterns of performance. The general framework for characterizing the mechanisms of attention is used here to investigate the attentional mechanisms in a concurrent location-cued orientation discrimination task. Test stimuli--Gabor patches tilted slightly to the right or left--always appeared on both the left and the right of fixation, and varied independently. Observers were cued on each trial to attend to the left, the right, or evenly to both stimuli, and decide the direction of tilt of both test stimuli. For eight levels of added external noise and three attention conditions (attended, unattended, and equal), subjects' contrast threshold levels were determined. At low levels of external noise, attention affected threshold contrast: threshold contrasts for non-attended stimuli were systematically higher than for equal attention stimuli, which were, in turn, higher than for attended stimuli. Specifically, when the rms contrast of the external noise is below 10%, there is a consistent 17% elevation of contrast threshold from attended to unattended condition across all three subjects. For higher levels of external noise, attention conditions did not affect threshold contrast values at all. These strong results are characteristic of a signal enhancement, or equivalently, an internal additive noise reduction mechanism of attention.

  3. How Sensors Might Help Define the External Exposome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Loh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the exposome concept, the advancement of mobile technology, sensors, and the “internet of things” bring exciting opportunities to exposure science. Smartphone apps, wireless devices, the downsizing of monitoring technologies, along with lower costs for such equipment makes it possible for various aspects of exposure to be measured more easily and frequently. We discuss possibilities and lay out several criteria for using smart technologies for external exposome studies. Smart technologies are evolving quickly, and while they provide great promise for advancing exposure science, many are still in developmental stages and their use in epidemiology and risk studies must be carefully considered. The most useable technologies for exposure studies at this time relate to gathering exposure-factor data, such as location and activities. Development of some environmental sensors (e.g., for some air pollutants, noise, UV is moving towards making the use of these more reliable and accessible to research studies. The possibility of accessing such an unprecedented amount of personal data also comes with various limitations and challenges, which are discussed. The advantage of improving the collection of long term exposure factor data is that this can be combined with more “traditional” measurement data to model exposures to numerous environmental factors.

  4. How Sensors Might Help Define the External Exposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Miranda; Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis; Gotti, Alberto; Karakitsios, Spyros; Pronk, Anjoeka; Kuijpers, Eelco; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Baiz, Nour; Madureira, Joana; Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Jerrett, Michael; Cherrie, John W

    2017-04-18

    The advent of the exposome concept, the advancement of mobile technology, sensors, and the "internet of things" bring exciting opportunities to exposure science. Smartphone apps, wireless devices, the downsizing of monitoring technologies, along with lower costs for such equipment makes it possible for various aspects of exposure to be measured more easily and frequently. We discuss possibilities and lay out several criteria for using smart technologies for external exposome studies. Smart technologies are evolving quickly, and while they provide great promise for advancing exposure science, many are still in developmental stages and their use in epidemiology and risk studies must be carefully considered. The most useable technologies for exposure studies at this time relate to gathering exposure-factor data, such as location and activities. Development of some environmental sensors (e.g., for some air pollutants, noise, UV) is moving towards making the use of these more reliable and accessible to research studies. The possibility of accessing such an unprecedented amount of personal data also comes with various limitations and challenges, which are discussed. The advantage of improving the collection of long term exposure factor data is that this can be combined with more "traditional" measurement data to model exposures to numerous environmental factors.

  5. Dosimetry is Key to Good Epidemiology: Workers at Mallinckrodt Chemical Works had Seven Different Source Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Elizabeth D; Boice, John D; Golden, Ashley P; Girardi, David J; Cohen, Sarah S; Mumma, Michael T; Shore, Roy E; Leggett, Richard W; Kerr, George D

    2018-04-01

    Mallinckrodt Chemical Works was the earliest uranium processing facility in the Manhattan Project, beginning in 1942. Even then, concern existed about possible health effects resulting from exposure to radiation and pitchblende dust. This concern was well founded as the facility processed Belgian Congo pitchblende ore that was up to 60% pure uranium with high U content and up to 100 mg of radium per ton. Workers were exposed to external gamma radiation plus internal radiation from inhalation and ingestion of pitchblende dust (uranium, radium, and silica). Multiple sources of exposure were available for organ dose reconstruction to a degree unique for an epidemiologic study. Personal film badge measures available from 1945 captured external exposures. Additional external exposure included 15,518 occupational medical x-rays and 210 radiation exposure records from other facilities outside of Mallinckrodt employment. Organ dose calculations considered organ-specific coefficients that account for photon energy and job-specific orientation of workers to the radiation source during processing. Intakes of uranium and radium were based on 39,451 uranium urine bioassays and 2,341 breath radon measurements, and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 68 biokinetic models were used to estimate organ-specific radiation absorbed dose. Estimates of exposure to airborne radon and its short-lived progeny were based on radon measurements in work areas where radium-containing materials were handled or stored, together with estimated exposure times in these areas based on job titles. Dose estimates for radon and its short-lived progeny were based on models and methods recently recommended in ICRP Publication 137. This comprehensive dosimetric approach follows methods outlined by the National Council on Radiation Protection Scientific Committee 6-9 for the Million Worker Study. Annual doses were calculated for six organs: lung, brain, heart, kidney, colon

  6. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadhel, Ehab

    2015-08-20

    Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow's triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present case shows that external jugular vein thrombosis can also be found in persons without malignancy.

  7. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  8. Radiopeptide internalisation and externalization assays: cell viability and radioligand integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Sosabowski, Jane K; Nagra, Saeed Ahamad; Ishfaq, Malik M; Mather, Stephen J; Matzow, Torkjel

    2011-01-01

    Various aspects of radiopeptide receptor-mediated cell internalisation and externalization assays were assessed, including the integrity of externalized peptides and the effect of varying the pH and incubation time of the acid wash step (to remove surface receptor-bound ligand) on efficacy and cell viability. The observed intact proportion of externalized peptide was 5-10%, and acid wash buffers with pH 2.8 or below were found to be detrimental to cell viability and integrity, particularly following prolonged incubation times. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Introducing external cephalic version in a Malaysian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Stephen P Y

    2007-02-01

    To assess the outcome of external cephalic version for routine management of malpresenting foetuses at term. Prospective observational study. Tertiary teaching hospital, Malaysia. From September 2003 to June 2004, a study involving 41 pregnant women with malpresentation at term was undertaken. An external cephalic version protocol was implemented. Data were collected for identifying characteristics associated with success or failure of external cephalic version. Maternal and foetal outcome measures including success rate of external cephalic version, maternal and foetal complications, and characteristics associated with success or failure; engagement of presenting part, placental location, direction of version, attempts at version, use of intravenous tocolytic agent, eventual mode of delivery, Apgar scores, birth weights, and maternal satisfaction with the procedure. Data were available for 38 women. External cephalic version was successful in 63% of patients; the majority (75%) of whom achieved a vaginal delivery. Multiparity (odds ratio=34.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-1730) and high amniotic fluid index (4.9; 1.3-18.2) were associated with successful external cephalic version. Engagement of presenting part (odds ratio=0.0001; 95% confidence interval, 0.00001-0.001) and a need to resort to backward somersault (0.02; 0.00001-0.916) were associated with poor success rates. Emergency caesarean section rate for foetal distress directly resulting from external cephalic version was 8%, but there was no perinatal or maternal adverse outcome. The majority (74%) of women were satisfied with external cephalic version. External cephalic version has acceptable success rates. Multiparity, liquor volume, engagement of presenting part, and the need for backward somersault were strong predictors of outcome. External cephalic version is relatively safe, simple to learn and perform, and associated with maternal satisfaction. Modern obstetric units should routinely offer the

  10. Evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1980-05-01

    The evaluation of health effects in populations occupationally exposed to low-level ionizing radiation is a matter of considerable current controversy. The analysis of data on such exposures presents a variety of problems resulting from the time dependent nature of the exposure data, certain selective biases found in working populations, and particularly limits imposed by the size of the populations, and the magnitudes of exposures received. In this paper, several methods of analysis are presented and evaluated using data from the Hanford plant for illustration. Questions of interest include whether or not to utilize an external control, and how to handle the highly skewed exposure data most effectively. Expressions for the power of various procedures are used not only to compare methods but also to evaluate the potential for detecting effects in occupationally exposed populations

  11. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, Rosanne; Logsdon, Joe E.

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail

  12. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, Rosanne [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Logsdon, Joe E [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail.

  13. Integration of external and internal dosimetry in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, D.; Wernli, C.; Baechler, S.; Fischer, G.; Jossen, H.; Leupin, A.; Lortscher, Y.; Mini, R.; Otto, T.; Schuh, R.; Weidmann, U.

    2007-01-01

    Individual monitoring regulations in Switzerland are based on the ICRP60 recommendations. The annual limit of 20 mSv for the effective dose applies to the sum of external and internal radiation. External radiation is monitored monthly or quarterly with TLD, DIS or CR-39 dosemeters by 10 approved external dosimetry services and reported as H p (10) and H p (0.07). Internal monitoring is done in two steps. At the workplace, simple screening measurements are done frequently in order to recognise a possible incorporation. If a nuclide dependent activity threshold is exceeded then one of the seven approved dosimetry services for internal radiation does an incorporation measurement to assess the committed effective dose E 50 . The dosimetry services report all the measured or assessed dose values to the employer and to the National Dose Registry. The employer records the annually accumulated dose values into the individual dose certificate of the occupationally exposed person, both the external dose H p (10) and the internal dose E 50 as well as the total effective dose E = H p (10) + E 50 . Based on the national dose registry an annual report on the dosimetry in Switzerland is published which contains the statistics for the total effective dose, as well as separate statistics for external and internal exposure. (authors)

  14. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences

  15. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  16. The genetic consequences of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izhewskij, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    The results of the study of genetic consequences of external gamma-irradiation of man and animals to 1 Sv are given. The investigation was performed in 3 groups under different conditions of exposure of the population: (i) among the people of Russia and Belorussia exposed due to the Chernobyl accident, (ii) among the people living on the Tetscha river basing in the South Urals; (iii) among the occupational contingent of 'Mayak' and the members of their families; The experimental estimation of genetic consequences was made on the offsprings of the white male rats. The male rats were irradiated daily for 10-15 days with external gamma- radiation of different dose power. The range of the doses received by the animals was approximated to the conditions of the exposure of man to the interval from 4 to 79 cSv for a year. (author)

  17. Counterfeiting as corporate externality: intellectual property crime and global insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Corporate negative externalities occur when corporations place some of the costs of their profit-seeking activity onto society. This paper suggests that the current global problem of intellectual property crime is such an externality, and that it has not been recognised as such because corporations present product counterfeiting and piracy as crimes which reduce their revenue, rather than as predictable side effects of corporate production and merchandising, including bran...

  18. Occupational exposure and mortality in the German uranium miner cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnelzer, M.; Dufey, F.; Grosche, B.; Sogl, M.; Tschense, A.; Walsh, L.; Kreuzer, M.

    2014-01-01

    The German uranium miners cohort study comprises 58,982 men employed in the GDR by the Wismut company for at least six months between 1946 and 1989. Particularly in the early years, miners were exposed to high levels of radon, silica and other harmful substances. The aim of the cohort study is to investigate the health effects of occupational exposures. The cohort was established in 1998 with mortality follow-ups every five years, i.e. vital status and cause of death are ascertained. Annual exposures to radon progeny, external gamma-radiation, long-lived radionuclides, fine dust, silica and arsenic dust were individually assessed by means of a comprehensive job-exposure matrix. For data analyses Poisson regression models were used. By end of 2008, 25,438 (43 %) cohort members were deceased with known cause of death in 94 %. In total 7,780 cancer mortalities were observed, including 3,500 from lung cancer. Lung cancer mortality is twice as high as in the general population largely due to occupational radon progeny and silica exposure. Also 975 silicosis deaths were observed and there is some evidence for a relationship between radon progeny exposure and cancers of the extra-thoracic airways. Circulatory diseases and non-malignant diseases of the airways were also investigated, but no relationship to occupational exposure was found. Up to now health effects of uranium mining in the Wismut cohort primarily manifest themselves as increases in lung cancer and silicosis mortality due to high radon progeny and silica exposure. With increasing duration of follow-up, further findings regarding more rare causes of death and levels of exposure relevant today are expected.

  19. Manganese Exposure from Drinking Water and Children’s Classroom Behavior in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khalid; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Wasserman, Gail A.; Liu, Xinhua; Ahmed, Ershad; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence of neurological, cognitive, and neuropsychological effects of manganese (Mn) exposure from drinking water (WMn) in children has generated widespread public health concern. At elevated exposures, Mn has been associated with increased levels of externalizing behaviors, including irritability, aggression, and impulsivity. Little is known about potential effects at lower exposures, especially in children. Moreover, little is known regarding potential interactions between exposure to Mn and other metals, especially arsenic (As). Objectives: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 201 children to investigate associations of Mn and As in tube well water with classroom behavior among elementary school children, 8–11 years of age, in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Methods: Data on exposures and behavioral outcomes were collected from the participants at the baseline of an ongoing longitudinal study of child intelligence. Study children were rated by their school teachers on externalizing and internalizing items of classroom behavior using the standardized Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher’s Report Form (CBCL-TRF). Results: Log-transformed WMn was positively and significantly associated with TRF internalizing [estimated β = 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.08–1.56; p = 0.03], TRF externalizing (estimated β = 2.59; 95% CI, 0.81–4.37; p =0.004), and TRF total scores (estimated β = 3.35; 95% CI, 0.86–5.83; p = 0.008) in models that adjusted for log-transformed water arsenic (WAs) and sociodemographic covariates. We also observed a positive monotonic dose–response relationship between WMn and TRF externalizing and TRF total scores among the participants of the study. We did not find any significant associations between WAs and various scales of TRF scores. Conclusion: These observations reinforce the growing concern regarding the neurotoxicologic effects of WMn in children. PMID:21493178

  20. External dose reconstruction in tooth enamel of Techa riverside residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Volchkova, A.Yu.; Krivoschapov, V.A.; Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Timofeev, Y.S.; Zalyapin, V.I. [Southern Urals State University, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Fattibene, P.; Della Monaca, S.; De Coste, V. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita e Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany); Ivanov, D.V. [M.N. Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L.R. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This study summarizes the 20-year efforts for dose reconstruction in tooth enamel of the Techa riverside residents exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of radionuclide releases into the river in 1949-1956. It represents the first combined analysis of all the data available on EPR dosimetry with teeth of permanent residents of the Techa riverside territory. Results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of 302 teeth donated by 173 individuals living permanently in Techa riverside settlements over the period of 1950-1952 were analyzed. These people were residents of villages located at the free-flowing river stream or at the banks of stagnant reservoirs such as ponds or blind river forks. Cumulative absorbed doses measured using EPR are from several sources of exposure, viz., background radiation, internal exposure due to bone-seeking radionuclides ({sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y), internal exposure due to {sup 137}Cs/{sup 137m}Ba incorporated in soft tissues, and anthropogenic external exposure. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of different sources of enamel exposure and to deduce external doses to be used for validation of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS). Since various EPR methods were used, harmonization of these methods was critical. Overall, the mean cumulative background dose was found to be 63 ± 47 mGy; cumulative internal doses due to {sup 89}Sr and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y were within the range of 10-110 mGy; cumulative internal doses due to {sup 137}Cs/{sup 137m}Ba depend on the distance from the site of releases and varied from 1 mGy up to 90 mGy; mean external doses were maximum for settlements located at the banks of stagnant reservoirs (∝500 mGy); in contrast, external doses for settlements located along the free-flowing river stream did not exceed 160 mGy and decreased downstream with increasing distance from the site of release. External enamel doses calculated using the TRDS code and

  1. External costs of energy - do the answers match the questions? Looking back at 10 years of ExternE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, W.

    2002-01-01

    While the claim for 'getting prices right' is quite popular in conceptual policy papers, the implementation of appropriate internalisation strategies is still hampered by a lack of reliable external cost data. Great expectations were set into the ExternE project, a major research programme launched by the European Commission at the beginning of the 1990s to provide a scientific basis for the quantification of energy related externalities and to give guidance supporting the design of internalisation measures. After more than a decade of research, the ExternE label became a well recognised standard source for external cost data. Looking back into the ExternE history, the paper pursues how emerging new scientific insights and changing background assumptions affected external cost estimates and related recommendations to policy over time. Based on ExternE results, the usefulness and inherent limitations of external cost estimates for impact categories like climate change or nuclear waste disposal is discussed. The paper also gives examples on how external costs in spite of remaining uncertainties are successfully used to support environmental policy. (Author)

  2. External momentum expansion in NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mei; Zhao Weiqin; Zhuang Pengfei

    1999-01-01

    In the large N c expansion beyond mean-field approximation, the authors develop a general scheme of SU(2) NJL model including current quark mass explicitly. In the scheme, the constituent quark's propagator is expanded in pions external momentum k, and all the Feynman diagrams are naturally expanded to k 2 term in a unified way. The numerical results show that in the mean field approximation, the effect of current quark mass is invisible, however, the effect of current quark mass can be seen explicitly beyond mean-field approximation for reasonable choices of the parameters in NJL model

  3. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs

  4. Freshwater exposure pathways in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1984-06-01

    The report relates to a subproject under a Nordic project called ''Large reactor accidents - consequences and mitigating actions''. The report summarizes information available, primarily in the Nordic countries, on freshwater exposure pathways. Experimental and theoretical data concerning the deposition and run-off of the nuclides *sp90*Sr and*Sp137*Cs is presented. Internal exposure via drinking water and freshwater fish is dealt with, as well as external exposure due to swimming, boating, contact with fishing utensils and use of beach areas. In addition is exposure via irrigated agricultural products considered. (RF)

  5. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin......The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  6. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  7. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    , it suggests a four-phase model in which a linear process—(1) obtaining, (2) integrating, and (3) commercializing external innovations—is combined with (4) interaction between the firm and its collaborators. This model is used to classify papers taken from the top 25 innovation journals, complemented by highly...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  8. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  9. Consequences of unforeseen cesium 137 exposure. O posledstviyakh nepredvidennogo oblucheniya za schet tseziya-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V I

    1991-01-01

    Published data on radition accidents associated with environmental contamination and {sup 137}Cs man irradiation including Chernobyl NPP accident and {sup 137}Cs source accident at gamma-therapeutic facility in Goyaniya (Brazil, 1987) are considered. Process scheme of dose accumulation attributed to external and internal exposure from radioactive fission products causing enviromental contamination are presented according to UNSCEAR data, 1975. {sup 137}Cs input in total dose of external exposure from all radionuclides (2% in the first year after the accident up to 90% after 50 years), as well as bone marrow doses, caused by radionuclide fall-out resulting from Chernobyl NPP accident (1.19-1.64 rem at the Ukrainian territory and 1.63-2.78 rem in the RSFSR) are calculated on the basis of literature data. Attention is paid to consideration of radiation injuries to accident victims in Goyaniya.

  10. Evolution of external genitalia: insights from reptilian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredler, Marissa L; Larkins, Christine E; Leal, Francisca; Lewis, A Kelsey; Herrera, Ana M; Perriton, Claire L; Sanger, Thomas J; Cohn, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    External genitalia are found in each of the major clades of amniotes. The phallus is an intromittent organ that functions to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract for internal fertilization. The cellular and molecular genetic mechanisms of external genital development have begun to be elucidated from studies of the mouse genital tubercle, an embryonic appendage adjacent to the cloaca that is the precursor of the penis and clitoris. Progress in this area has improved our understanding of genitourinary malformations, which are among the most common birth defects in humans, and created new opportunities for comparative studies of other taxa. External genitalia evolve rapidly, which has led to a striking diversity of anatomical forms. Within the past year, studies of external genital development in non-mammalian amniotes, including birds, lizards, snakes, alligators, and turtles, have begun to shed light on the molecular and morphogenetic mechanisms underlying the diversification of phallus morphology. Here, we review recent progress in the comparative developmental biology of external genitalia and discuss the implications of this work for understanding external genital evolution. We address the question of the deep homology (shared common ancestry) of genital structures and of developmental mechanisms, and identify new areas of investigation that can be pursued by taking a comparative approach to studying development of the external genitalia. We propose an evolutionary interpretation of hypospadias, a congenital malformation of the urethra, and discuss how investigations of non-mammalian species can provide novel perspectives on human pathologies.

  11. External fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-10-10

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with "intertrochanteric" fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation.The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country.The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years) with "intertrochanteric" fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported.Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients.This study demonstrated that external fixation of "intertrochantric" fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  12. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dussort, P; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O'Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario's and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.

  13. Intravenous nitroglycerin for external cephalic version: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Jennifer; Allan, Bruce; Swaby, Cheryl; Wahba, Raouf; Wah, Raouf; Jarrell, John; Wood, Stephen; Ross, Sue; Tran, Quynh

    2009-09-01

    To estimate whether treatment with intravenous nitroglycerin for uterine relaxation increases the chance of successful external cephalic version. Two double-blind, randomized clinical trials were undertaken: one in nulliparous women and a second in multiparous women. Women presenting for external cephalic version at term were eligible to participate. The primary outcome was immediate success of external cephalic version. Other outcomes were presentation at delivery, cesarean delivery rate, and side effects and complications. Sample size calculations were based on a 100% increase in success of external cephalic version with a one-sided analysis and alpha=0.05 (80% power). In total, 126 women were recruited-82 in the nulliparous trial and 44 in the multiparous trial. Seven patients did not have external cephalic version before delivery but were included in the analysis of success of external cephalic version. One patient was lost to follow-up. The external cephalic version success rate for nulliparous patients was 24% (10 of 42) in patients who received nitroglycerin compared with 8% (3 of 40) in those who receive placebo (P=.04, one-sided Fisher exact test, odds ratio 3.85, lower bound 1.22). In multiparous patients, the external cephalic version success rate did not differ significantly between groups: 44% (10 of 23) in the nitroglycerin group compared with 43% (9 of 21) in the placebo group (P=.60). Treatment with intravenous nitroglycerin increased the rate of successful external cephalic version in nulliparous, but not in multiparous, women. Treatment with intravenous nitroglycerin appeared to be safe, but our numbers were too small to rule out rare serious adverse effects. I.

  14. Environmental external radiation at some Bulgarian localities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Gelev, M.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the environmental radiation background are important from several points of view. First, they permit to estimate the exposure of humans to natural radiation background as a function of different geographical and geophysical parameters. Second, such studies can give also relevant information concerning the consequences of human activities on the presence of ionizing radiation and its sources in the environment. Our both institutions have started since 2000 year common studies in the field of environmental radiation background and its variation with the locality considered. First we have decided to compare the measuring methods used. They were compared on the territory of the Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE BAS), particularly in the surroundings of IRT 2000 research reactor. Further, they were compared also at the monitoring station on the territory of INRNE BAS. Finally, the studies were enlarged to the Moussala Observatory of the Institute at Rila Mountains. Several measuring instruments were used to characterize external environmental radiation exposure: Environmental radiation dose rate meter NB 3201 developed in the Czech Republic with a plastic scintillator with small NaI-TL crystal used to compensate the energy dependence to low energy photons; MDU-Liulin semiconductor spectrometer with Si-diode as the sensitive element able to characterize the radiation with both low and high LET; Thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) CaSO 4 :Dy, powder of this TLD material was filled to an Al dose. Results obtained are presented, analysed and discussed. A good agreement of the results obtained was observed, also when compared to the results of other experimental groups. (authors)

  15. The Estimation of Externalities Resulting from the Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae;