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Sample records for include essay questions

  1. Demise of the essay question.

    OpenAIRE

    Tombleson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Psychometric studies of the essay paper in 1988 showed this instrument to have unacceptably low levels of reliability and generalizability. Furthermore, factor analysis showed that the paper's perceived functions could not be supported statistically. It was decided to discontinue the paper and introduce a replacement which would reflect the line of development envisaged by the College in the 1990s.

  2. Evaluating the assessment of essay type questions in the basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: We examined the merits and demerits of the closed and open systems of assessment of essay type questions and viva voce in professional exams in the Basic Medical Sciences together with the challenges of present day Medical Education. Result: The result showed that the closed system of marking in its ...

  3. Comparison between Two Assessment Methods; Modified Essay Questions and Multiple Choice Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadi S.N.* MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims Using the best assessment methods is an important factor in educational development of health students. Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions are two prevalent methods of assessing the students. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of modified essay questions and multiple choice questions in occupational health engineering and work laws courses. Materials & Methods This semi-experimental study was performed during 2013 to 2014 on occupational health students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The class of occupational health and work laws course in 2013 was considered as group A and the class of 2014 as group B. Each group had 50 students.The group A students were assessed by modified essay questions method and the group B by multiple choice questions method.Data were analyzed in SPSS 16 software by paired T test and odd’s ratio. Findings The mean grade of occupational health and work laws course was 18.68±0.91 in group A (modified essay questions and was 18.78±0.86 in group B (multiple choice questions which was not significantly different (t=-0.41; p=0.684. The mean grade of chemical chapter (p<0.001 in occupational health engineering and harmful work law (p<0.001 and other (p=0.015 chapters in work laws were significantly different between two groups. Conclusion Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions methods have nearly the same student assessing value for the occupational health engineering and work laws course.

  4. Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The usual role of a discussant is to clarify and correct the paper being discussed, but in this case, the author, Howard Wainer, generally agrees with everything David Thissen says in his essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory." This essay expands on David Thissen's statement that there are typically two principal…

  5. Team Dynamics. Essays in the Sociology and Social Psychology of Sport Including Methodological and Epistemological Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Hans

    This document contains nine essays on the sociology and social psychology of team dynamics, including methodological and epistemological issues involved in such study. Essay titles are: (1) Conflict and Achievement in Top Athletic Teams--Sociometric Structures of Racing Eight Oar Crews; (2) Top Performance Despite Internal Conflict--An Antithesis…

  6. Computer-based testing of the modified essay question: the Singapore experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Erle Chuen-Hian; Seet, Raymond Chee-Seong; Oh, Vernon M S; Chia, Boon-Lock; Aw, Marion; Quak, Seng-Hock; Ong, Benjamin K C

    2007-11-01

    The modified essay question (MEQ), featuring an evolving case scenario, tests a candidate's problem-solving and reasoning ability, rather than mere factual recall. Although it is traditionally conducted as a pen-and-paper examination, our university has run the MEQ using computer-based testing (CBT) since 2003. We describe our experience with running the MEQ examination using the IVLE, or integrated virtual learning environment (https://ivle.nus.edu.sg), provide a blueprint for universities intending to conduct computer-based testing of the MEQ, and detail how our MEQ examination has evolved since its inception. An MEQ committee, comprising specialists in key disciplines from the departments of Medicine and Paediatrics, was formed. We utilized the IVLE, developed for our university in 1998, as the online platform on which we ran the MEQ. We calculated the number of man-hours (academic and support staff) required to run the MEQ examination, using either a computer-based or pen-and-paper format. With the support of our university's information technology (IT) specialists, we have successfully run the MEQ examination online, twice a year, since 2003. Initially, we conducted the examination with short-answer questions only, but have since expanded the MEQ examination to include multiple-choice and extended matching questions. A total of 1268 man-hours was spent in preparing for, and running, the MEQ examination using CBT, compared to 236.5 man-hours to run it using a pen-and-paper format. Despite being more labour-intensive, our students and staff prefer CBT to the pen-and-paper format. The MEQ can be conducted using a computer-based testing scenario, which offers several advantages over a pen-and-paper format. We hope to increase the number of questions and incorporate audio and video files, featuring clinical vignettes, to the MEQ examination in the near future.

  7. Teaching Critical Questions about Argumentation through the Revising Process: Effects of Strategy Instruction on College Students' Argumentative Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ferretti, Ralph P.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of self-regulated strategy development revising instruction for college students that targeted the use of argumentation schemes and critical questions were assessed in three conditions. In the first condition, students were taught to revise their essays by asking and answering critical questions about the "argument from consequences"…

  8. Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuping

    2018-05-01

    Professor Yukihiro Ozaki has made great impacts in the spectroscopy communities all over the world. Throughout his career, he has established strong collaborations and communications with scientists from Asian countries, which solidified his grand academic stature in the field of molecular spectroscopy. In the past years, he has been pushing forward the development of spectroscopy in many Asian countries, particularly to China. Since his first trip to China in 1994, he has visited China almost 40 times. Under his continuous efforts during these years, deep and long-term collaborations with several universities and research institutes in China were established. Prof. Ozaki was endowed with honorary professorships in numerous institutes and universities in China including Jilin University and Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He has been a visiting professor of many Chinese universities including Shanghai JiaoTong University, Hunan University, Central South University, Peking University, East China Normal University, and Beijing University of Chemical Technology. Great friendships have been established between him and his Chinese colleagues as a result of mutual respect and common scientific interests. Prof. Ozaki is an expert in various facets of spectroscopy including two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, polymer material science, deep-UV and near infrared spectroscopy, chemometrics, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Over the past decades, Prof. Ozaki has contributed greatly to training the Chinese youth scientists: 11 doctoral students, 16 post-doctoral researchers and 9 guest-professors and 17 visiting scholars from China have been studied/worked in his research group. He is not only a historical witness for the development of molecular spectroscopy in China, but also a creator. He has served on the editorial board of several Chinese journals such as the Journal of Light Scattering, Spectroscopy and Spectral

  9. Should essays and other "open-ended"-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hift, Richard J

    2014-11-28

    Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and a number of variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity. An extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the

  10. A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools.

  11. Review Essay : Virtually Alive or Questionably Dead? The Ambivalence of Modern Korean Identity in Literature and Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Kyu Hyun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Theodore Hughes, Literature and Film in Cold War South Korea: Freedom's Frontier. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. 304 pp. $55 (cloth.Kyung Hyun Kim, Virtual Hallyu: Korean Cinema of the Global Era. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011, pp. 208. $90 (cloth, $25 (paper.The studies by Kyung Hyun Kim and Theodore Hughes discussed in this essay are rich with information and insights but are also challenging, almost subversive, to some prevalent views on Korean cinema and literature. While Kim looks into contemporary, post-1990s Korean films operating in the global market as an important (but perhaps since 2000 not the most influential wing of the hallyu (“Korean Wave” trend, Hughes deals primarily with early postwar literature and visual arts (including cinema from 1945 to roughly the early 1970s. Both authors are concerned with the history and contemporaneity of Korean identity and with the manners in which this localized identity is constituted, specifically in relation to colonial modernity, global late capitalism, and ethnocentric nationalism. They also address the problematic status of cinema in the context of Korean culture and history, sometimes developing arguments in unexpected directions.

  12. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  13. Review Essay : Virtually Alive or Questionably Dead? The Ambivalence of Modern Korean Identity in Literature and Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyu Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Theodore Hughes, Literature and Film in Cold War South Korea: Freedom's Frontier. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. 304 pp. $55 (cloth).Kyung Hyun Kim, Virtual Hallyu: Korean Cinema of the Global Era. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011, pp. 208. $90 (cloth), $25 (paper).The studies by Kyung Hyun Kim and Theodore Hughes discussed in this essay are rich with information and insights but are also challenging, almost subversive, to some prevalent views on Korean cinema and literatur...

  14. Diagnosing the Kaiser: Psychiatry, Wilhelm II and the Question of German War Guilt The William Bynum Prize Essay 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freis, David

    2018-07-01

    After his abdication in November 1918, the German emperor Wilhelm II continued to haunt the minds of his people. With the abolition of the lese-majesty laws in the new republic, many topics that were only discussed privately or obliquely before could now be broached openly. One of these topics was the mental state of the exiled Kaiser. Numerous psychiatrists, physicians and laypeople published their diagnoses of Wilhelm in high-circulation newspaper articles, pamphlets, and books shortly after the end of the war. Whether these diagnoses were accurate and whether the Kaiser really was mentally ill became the issue of a heated debate.This article situates these diagnoses of Wilhelm II in their political context. The authors of these diagnoses - none of whom had met or examined Wilhelm II in person - came from all political camps and they wrote with very different motives in mind. Diagnosing the exiled Kaiser as mentally ill was a kind of exorcism of the Hohenzollern rule, opening the way for either a socialist republic or the hoped-for rule of a new leader. But more importantly, it was a way to discuss and allocate political responsibility and culpability. Psychiatric diagnoses were used to exonerate both the Emperor (for whom the treaty of Versailles provided a tribunal as war criminal) and the German nation. They were also used to blame the Kaiser's entourage and groups that had allegedly manipulated the weak-willed monarch. Medical concepts became a vehicle for a debate on the key political questions in interwar Germany.

  15. A model for firm-specific strategic wisdom : including illustrations and 49 guiding questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Roeland Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis provides an answer to the question ‘How may one think strategically’. It does so by presenting a new prescriptive ‘Model for Firm-Specific Strategic Wisdom’. This Model aims to guide any individual strategist in his or her thinking from a state of firm-specific ‘ignorance’ to a state

  16. PILOTING A VOCATIONAL E-COURSE AT A UK COLLEGE: Developing strategies to support non-native English speaking learners to complete the essay-type questions of their assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula BIBILA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of practice that was conducted during the piloting of a vocational (health care e-course at the Distance Learning department of a College of Further and Higher Education in England. The purpose of the study was to establish a course of action aiming to support non-native English speaking learners to successfully complete the essay-type questions of the e-course assignments. The exploratory nature of the study means that in effect the study comprises of two distinct, yet interrelated parts, with the first one looking into how two (2 non-native English speaking learners (participants used different e-course resources to help them compose their answers. Based on the findings, the second part examines the role of writing frameworks (in the form of email communication between the tutor and the participants in helping the latter to compose answers that met the assessment criteria in terms of a content (subject accuracy, b length and c originality. Discussion of the findings includes implications for providing additional English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL support to distance learners, suggestions for further improvements to the e-course and recommendations for further research.

  17. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  18. Essays in energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malischek, Raimund

    2016-10-25

    This thesis presents four essays in energy economics. The first essay investigates one of the workhorse models of resource economics, the Hotelling model of an inter-temporally optimizing resource extracting firm. The Hotelling model provides a convincing theory of fundamental concepts like resource scarcity, but very few empirical validations of the model have been conducted. This essay attempts to empirically validate the Hotelling model by first expanding it to include exploration activity and market power and then using a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry to test whether a major resource extracting mining firm in the industry is following the theory's predictions. The results show that the theory is rejected in all considered settings. The second and third essays investigate the difference in market outcomes under spot-market based trade as compared to long-term contract based trade in oligopolistic markets with investments. The second essay investigates analytically the difference in market outcomes in an electricity market setting, showing that investments and consumer welfare may be higher under spot-market based trade than under long-term contracts. The third essay proposes techniques to solve large-scale models of this kind, empirically, by exploring the practicability of this approach in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. The final essay investigates the influence of policy uncertainty on investment decisions. With France debating the role of nuclear technology, this essay analyses how policy uncertainty regarding nuclear power in France may feature in the French and European power sector. Applying a stochastic model for the European power system, the analysis shows that the costs of uncertainty in this particular application are rather low compared to the overall costs of a nuclear phase-out.

  19. Essays in energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malischek, Raimund

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents four essays in energy economics. The first essay investigates one of the workhorse models of resource economics, the Hotelling model of an inter-temporally optimizing resource extracting firm. The Hotelling model provides a convincing theory of fundamental concepts like resource scarcity, but very few empirical validations of the model have been conducted. This essay attempts to empirically validate the Hotelling model by first expanding it to include exploration activity and market power and then using a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry to test whether a major resource extracting mining firm in the industry is following the theory's predictions. The results show that the theory is rejected in all considered settings. The second and third essays investigate the difference in market outcomes under spot-market based trade as compared to long-term contract based trade in oligopolistic markets with investments. The second essay investigates analytically the difference in market outcomes in an electricity market setting, showing that investments and consumer welfare may be higher under spot-market based trade than under long-term contracts. The third essay proposes techniques to solve large-scale models of this kind, empirically, by exploring the practicability of this approach in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. The final essay investigates the influence of policy uncertainty on investment decisions. With France debating the role of nuclear technology, this essay analyses how policy uncertainty regarding nuclear power in France may feature in the French and European power sector. Applying a stochastic model for the European power system, the analysis shows that the costs of uncertainty in this particular application are rather low compared to the overall costs of a nuclear phase-out.

  20. Video essay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Camera movement has a profound influence on the way films look and the way films are experienced by spectators. In this visual essay Jakob Isak Nielsen proposes six major functions of camera movement in narrative cinema. Individual camera movements may serve more of these functions at the same time...

  1. Ecosociological essays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillancourt, J.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains a collection of 25 essays, articles and reports of work in the domain of environmental sociology, a new area of sociology which can be labelled ΣecosociologyΣ. This area is situated on the border between sociology and ecology but from the point of view of sociology rather than that of ecology

  2. Sexual Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giles, James

    Through a series of interrelated essays, this book explores fundamental issues concerning gender, sexual and romantic attraction, sexual desire and fantasies, the sexual positions, age dysphoria, and the role of naked skin in human sexuality. It does so by exploring experiential, social, biological...... on sex. It is further argued that sexual desire is an existential need based on the experience of having a gendered body. A case study of age dysphoria is presented showing how the conclusions concerning concerning gender and desire apply in an atypical case. The body's fundamental role in sexuality......, and evolutionary aspects of sexual life. The author criticizes several popular views, rejecting both social constructionist accounts of gender and social constructionist and biological accounts of sexual desire. It is argued instead that gender roles and gender are often confused and that gender itself is based...

  3. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  4. Essays on financial market integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pungulescu, C.

    2009-01-01

    The four essays in this dissertation address these main questions and alternate a general perspective with focused analysis on specific measures of integration and regions, providing several novel answers. First, new relevant proxies are proposed to measure financial market integration. They give

  5. Essays in microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tim

    This dissertation consists of three essays in applied microeconomics. Each essay explores a different issue of economic interest. The essay in Chapter 2 describes an experiment designed to investigate if using assets with an intrinsic value that increases over time leads to persistent undervaluation in laboratory asset trading markets. This question has not previously been investigated by researchers. Results from ten sessions are reported. Three used assets with an intrinsic value that decreased over time. The results from these sessions are consistent with the findings by prior researchers who frequently observed price bubbles in laboratory asset trading experiments. The remaining seven sessions used assets with an intrinsic value that increased over time. In all these sessions trading generally occurred at prices below the asset's intrinsic value. In Chapter 3, in an essay co-authored with Adrian Stoian, we study road running races. Tournaments, where ordinal position determines rewards, are an important component of our economy. By studying sporting tournaments, we hope to shed light on the nature of other economically significant tournaments where data may be less readily available. We separately quantify the sorting and incentive effects of tournament prizes by employing a novel two-part model which we apply to a unique data set of road running race results. We present a counterfactual example of how a hypothetical change in prizes would be predicted to change race participation and speed. In Chapter 4, in an essay co-authored with Jedidiah Brewer and Joseph Cullen, we examine the combined effects of the locations and the brands of retail gasoline outlets in Tucson, Arizona on market prices. We apply an innovative approach to model the impact of competing gas stations that avoids limiting analysis to predetermined nearby locations. We show that increased brand diversity is associated with higher prices and that gas stations affiliated with mass

  6. Plagiarism in residency application essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Scott; Gelfand, Brian J; Hurwitz, Shelley; Berkowitz, Lori; Ashley, Stanley W; Nadel, Eric S; Katz, Joel T

    2010-07-20

    Anecdotal reports suggest that some residency application essays contain plagiarized content. To determine the prevalence of plagiarism in a large cohort of residency application essays. Retrospective cohort study. 4975 application essays submitted to residency programs at a single large academic medical center between 1 September 2005 and 22 March 2007. Specialized software was used to compare residency application essays with a database of Internet pages, published works, and previously submitted essays and the percentage of the submission matching another source was calculated. A match of more than 10% to an existing work was defined as evidence of plagiarism. Evidence of plagiarism was found in 5.2% (95% CI, 4.6% to 5.9%) of essays. The essays of non-U.S. citizens were more likely to demonstrate evidence of plagiarism. Other characteristics associated with the prevalence of plagiarism included medical school location outside the United States and Canada; previous residency or fellowship; lack of research experience, volunteer experience, or publications; a low United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score; and non-membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. The software database is probably incomplete, the 10%-match threshold for defining plagiarism has not been statistically validated, and the study was confined to applicants to 1 institution. Evidence of matching content in an essay cannot be used to infer the applicant's intent and is not sensitive to variations in the cultural context of copying in some societies. Evidence of plagiarism in residency application essays is more common in international applicants but was found in those by applicants to all specialty programs, from all medical school types, and even among applicants with significant academic honors. No external funding.

  7. Summaries of reports of the 30. Conference on low-temperature physics. Pt. 1. Fundamental questions of superconductivity including HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Thesis of reporsts of the 30th Conference on low-temperature physics are presented. Fundamental problems of superconductivity are discussed including HTSC in bulk crystals, in thin films of Josephson junctions, ceramics and heterostructures. Specific features of superconductor structure and magnetic properties and also different mechanisms of superconductivity are analyzed

  8. Essays on Strategic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sharif (Zara)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThree essays on strategic communication are discussed in this dissertation. These essays consider different settings in which a decision maker has to rely on another agent for information. In each essay, we analyze how much information the sender is able to credibly communicate to

  9. Essays in behavioral strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumas, Jean-Malik

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is composed of three quantitative empirical essays. Using social psychology, psychology and economic theory, the first essay explores how fear of death, belief in afterlife, self-esteem and generation influence the way employees project themselves in the future of their working

  10. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  11. A philosophical essay on probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Laplace, Marquis de

    1996-01-01

    A classic of science, this famous essay by ""the Newton of France"" introduces lay readers to the concepts and uses of probability theory. It is of especial interest today as an application of mathematical techniques to problems in social and biological sciences.Generally recognized as the founder of the modern phase of probability theory, Laplace here applies the principles and general results of his theory ""to the most important questions of life, which are, in effect, for the most part, problems in probability."" Thus, without the use of higher mathematics, he demonstrates the application

  12. Essay about nuclear right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.

    1994-01-01

    The present essay treat about all Uruguaian Nuclear Energy legislation. Nuclear energy history, international treaties, agreements, national programs, nuclear government politics, radiation protection regulations, wastes, radioactive materials transport, environment and safeguards has been given in this compilation

  13. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  14. Three essays in risky behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Mafalda

    2012-01-01

    A PhD Dissertation, presented as part of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the NOVA - School of Business and Economics This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between risky behaviors and social environment, including the strategic construction of conversational networks to discuss HIV related issues, the impact of social stigma on risky behaviors, and how subjective expectations from parents can influence childhood obesity. Underst...

  15. Rhombencephalitis: pictorial essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líllian Gonçalves Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract The term rhombencephalitis refers to inflammatory diseases affecting the hindbrain (brainstem and cerebellum. Rhombencephalitis has a wide variety of etiologies, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and paraneoplastic syndromes. Infection with bacteria of the genus Listeria is the most common cause of rhombencephalitis. Primary rhombencephalitis caused by infection with Listeria spp. occurs in healthy young adults. It usually has a biphasic time course with a flu-like syndrome, followed by brainstem dysfunction; 75% of patients have cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and nearly 100% have an abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging scan. However, other possible causes of rhombencephalitis must be borne in mind. In addition to the clinical aspects, the patterns seen in magnetic resonance imaging can be helpful in defining the possible cause. Some of the reported causes of rhombencephalitis are potentially severe and life threatening; therefore, an accurate initial diagnostic approach is important to establishing a proper early treatment regimen. This pictorial essay reviews the various causes of rhombencephalitis and the corresponding magnetic resonance imaging findings, by describing illustrative confirmed cases.

  16. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  17. The Early (Feminist) Essays of Victoria Ocampo

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Meyer

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the essays written by Ocampo between 1920 and 1934, prior to the time when she publicly voiced her adhesion to feminism and the rights of women in Argentine society. In these works from her Testimonios in which Ocampo struggles to find her voice as a female writer, the maleable essay serves her need to engage in discursive dialogues from the margins of the literary culture of her time. Both as a woman and a member of the oligarchy, she questions cultural assumptions and ...

  18. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  19. Essays on electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rud, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The report covers several topics of electricity markets: The first essay, 'Selected Topics on Early Electricity Market Design in Norway' studies market design issues in establishing the market-based Norwegian electricity market. Essays 2-4 focus on issues of network congestion: 'Capacity Charges: A Price Adjustment Process for Managing Congestion in Electricity Transmission Networks' presents the capacity charge approach for managing transmission constraints in electricity networks. 'Understanding the Stochastics of Nodal Prices: Price Processes in a Constrained Network' seeks a further understanding of stochastic nodal prices processes. 'Investment Evaluation in a Constrained Electricity Network with Stochastic Nodal Price Processes' studies how the interaction of the competitive market and the capacitated network affects the evaluation of investments under uncertainty, and points out potential pitfalls of evaluation. In the last essay, 'A Newsboy Model Perspective on the Power Market: The Case of a Wind Power Producer' we discuss aspects of optimal bidding for a wind power producer. (Author)

  20. Einstein's essays in science

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2009-01-01

    His name is synonymous with ""genius,"" but these essays by the renowned physicist and scholar are accessible to any reader. In addition to outlining the core of relativity theory in everyday language, Albert Einstein presents fascinating discussions of other scientific fields to which he made significant contributions. The Nobel Laureate also profiles some of history's most influential physicists, upon whose studies his own work was based.Assembled during Einstein's lifetime from his speeches and essays, this book marks the first presentation to the wider world of the scientist's accomplishme

  1. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  2. Three essays in energy and environmental economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, Michael

    This thesis exploits the boom in U.S. oil and gas production to explore several empirical questions in environmental and energy economics. In the first essay, statistical techniques are employed to evaluate learning-by-doing in the Bakken Shale Play. Furthermore, the essay demonstrates organizational forgetting and knowledge spillovers among firms. The results show rates of learning in an important sector the U.S. economy and may have broader lessons for productivity gains and losses. The second essay investigates interfirm learning economies in oil well drilling in terms of productivity improvements and increases in environmental safety. The empirical results improve our understanding of how interfirm relationships influence productivity as well as the drivers of environmental incidents. Lastly, the third essay analyzes the impacts of stricter environmental regulations on oil production and well drilling in North Dakota. The results have particular relevance for policymakers seeking to understand the trade-offs between resource development and environmental quality. These three essays ultimately expand our knowledge of how learning economies occur and the effects of environmental regulations on economic activity.

  3. Essays in auction theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.

    2012-01-01

    Auction theory is a branch of game theory that considers human behavior in auction markets and the ensuing market outcomes. It is also successfully used as a tool to design real-life auctions. This thesis contains five essays addressing a variety of topics within the realm of auction theory. The

  4. Rethinking the Argumentative Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneer, David

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the construction of the argumentative essay as it is commonly presented in academic writing textbooks and classrooms for English language learners. The author first examines the traditional three-stage structure (thesis-argument-conclusion) and then problematizes it within a genre-based approach to academic writing. He…

  5. CAREM reactor thermohydraulic essays laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horro, R.; Mazzi, R.; Rossini, A.

    1990-01-01

    The main characteristics, essays projected and the present state of the Thermohydraulic Essays Laboratory -under construction at present- prepared to meet the experimental needs resulting from a power reactor design of the CAREM type, are herein described. (Author) [es

  6. Essays in public economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jason Scott

    2002-01-01

    Three essays in the field of public economics are included in this thesis. Chapter 1 begins this work with an introduction to public economics and places the remaining chapters in context. Like all economic agents, the government must manage its cash position. Chapter 2 considers this activity. Short-term financial requirements cause the government to solicit the market for bills not previously scheduled (Cash Management Bills). Using data from the US Treasury's Proprietary Domestic Finance Database, this chapter shows that these bills have higher costs than normal bills, suggesting that both Treasury and financial markets appreciate that demand is more inelastic for these instruments. In addition, this research identifies several factors that increase finance costs for Treasury in meeting short-term financial need. Chapter 3 explores location choices for generation investment in a re-regulated electricity market. Recently, there have been significant changes in the regulation of electricity in the State of California. These changes may affect generation investment behavior within the State, an important consideration for policy makers. This work identifies the impact of public sector regulatory change on private sector investment outcomes, by comparing the location and scope of electricity generation projects before and after two specific regulatory changes in air quality management and transmission tariff charges, while controlling for expected population growth patterns within the State. Significant changes in location preference are identified using factors for the northern and southern transmission zones, NP15 and SP15, the intermediate zone ZP26, and for areas outside of ISO control. Chapter 4 considers Disability Insurance and individual public pension investment accounts. Current debate on the Social Security Administration's long-term finance of benefits includes proposals for independent private investment via individual accounts. The author investigates

  7. Pictorial essay: Orbital tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Mahender K; Chaudhary, Vikas; Baruah, Dhiraj; Kathuria, Manoj; Anand, Rama

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the orbit is rare, even in places where tuberculosis is endemic. The disease may involve soft tissue, the lacrimal gland, or the periosteum or bones of the orbital wall. Intracranial extension, in the form of extradural abscess, and infratemporal fossa extension has been described. This pictorial essay illustrates the imaging findings of nine histopathologically confirmed cases of orbital tuberculosis. All these patients responded to antituberculous treatment

  8. Essays on Expressivism

    OpenAIRE

    Toppinen, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists of five articles plus an introductory essay, the overarching goal being that of defending an expressivist view about normative thought and talk. According to expressivism, the meaning of normative sentences (e.g. 'We ought to cut down on our greenhouse gas emissions,' 'There is more to good life than enjoyment') is to be explained by their expressing broadly practical, 'desire-like,' states of mind, rather than by what they are about, or by their truth-conditions. T...

  9. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  10. Catalogue of answers in radiology in accordance with subject catalogue 2, with 212 original questions and answers, including comments. 5. rev. enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleitz, C.D.; Freihorst, J.

    1983-01-01

    The physical and biological fundamentals of radiology and radiation protection are presented. Methods of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are outlined, and the fundamentals of radiotherapy are discussed. Original examination questions in radiology are presented together with the correct answers. (orig.) [de

  11. Essays on electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rud, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The report covers several topics of electricity markets: The first essay, 'Selected Topics on Early Electricity Market Design in Norway' studies market design issues in establishing the market-based Norwegian electricity market. Essays 2-4 focus on issues of network congestion: 'Capacity Charges: A Price Adjustment Process for Managing Congestion in Electricity Transmission Networks' presents the capacity charge approach for managing transmission constraints in electricity networks. 'Understanding the Stochastics of Nodal Prices: Price Processes in a Constrained Network' seeks a further understanding of stochastic nodal prices processes. 'Investment Evaluation in a Constrained Electricity Network with Stochastic Nodal Price Processes' studies how the interaction of the competitive market and the capacitated network affects the evaluation of investments under uncertainty, and points out potential pitfalls of evaluation. In the last essay, 'A Newsboy Model Perspective on the Power Market: The Case of a Wind Power Producer' we discuss aspects of optimal bidding for a wind power producer. (Author)

  12. E-education Essay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍

    2012-01-01

    This entry is filed under Examples and tagged e-education essay sample,free education essay example,sample education essay.So many things around us have been changed by development of technology of which education can't help being an exception.Some kinds of technology have applied to education and one of produc~ is the E-education which makes us be ableto get education wherever and whenever we want to.This feature of E-education has given us many advantages.However,there is debate between online education and ordinary education due to some of concern such as technology of E-education and students responsibility for learning.Even though some problems have heen found in E-education,it could be one of best way to get good quality education and supplement ordinary education because technology which supports online education keeps developing and there are a lot of good online course which offer good qualityeducation.

  13. An interim report on the MCAT Essay Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, J A; Mitchell, K J

    1988-01-01

    Results from four pilot administrations of the Medical College Admission Test essay question are reported. Analyses focused on (a) the performance characteristics of sample groups differentiated by gender, size of hometown, race/ethnicity, and dominant language; (b) the relationships between essay scores and academic/demographic characteristics; and (c) the reliability of one 45-minute versus two 30-minute essays. No differences were found for examinees grouped by gender and size of home community. Mean differences among the racial/ethnic groups were explained largely by reading level differences. Differences in essay performance by language group were large and unexplained by reading level differences. No relationship was found between the essay score and the academic/demographic characteristics. Reliability estimates for two 30-minute essays were higher than for one 45-minute essay; however, the 30-minute period yielded writing of poorer quality. Test-retest reliabilities for the 45-minute topics will remain the focus of future studies as will performance by examinees for whom English is a second language. The impact of the essay on the selection process will also be assessed.

  14. Three Essays on Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doda, Lider Baran

    This dissertation consists of three independent essays in macroeconomics. The first essay studies the transition to a low carbon economy using an extension of the neoclassical growth model featuring endogenous energy efficiency, exhaustible energy and explicit climate-economy interaction. I derive the properties of the laissez faire equilibrium and compare them to the optimal allocations of a social planner who internalizes the climate change externality. Three main results emerge. First, the exhaustibility of energy generates strong market based incentives to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO 2 emissions without any government intervention. Second, the market and optimal allocations are substantially different suggesting a role for the government. Third, high and persistent taxes are required to implement the optimal allocations as a competitive equilibrium with taxes. The second essay focuses on coal fired power plants (CFPP) - one of the largest sources of CO2 emissions globally - and their generation efficiency using a macroeconomic model with an embedded CFPP sector. A key feature of the model is the endogenous choice of production technologies which differ in their energy efficiency. After establishing four empirical facts about the CFPP sector, I analyze the long run quantitative effects of energy taxes. Using the calibrated model, I find that sector-specific coal taxes have large effects on generation efficiency by inducing the use of more efficient technologies. Moreover, such taxes achieve large CO2 emissions reductions with relatively small effects on consumption and output. The final essay studies the procyclicality of fiscal policy in developing countries, which is a well-documented empirical observation seemingly at odds with Neoclassical and Keynesian policy prescriptions. I examine this issue by solving the optimal fiscal policy problem of a small open economy government when the interest rates on external debt are endogenous. Given an

  15. Essays on Labour Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian

    ), on modelling the arousal and persistence of occupational segregation and labour market inequalities between social subgroups (chapter 4), and respectively on characterizing the link between the firms' health and safety work environment and their financial performance (chapter 5). Each of the essays contributes...... return to seniority", with seniority the position of the worker in the tenure hierarchy of her firm, this concept establishing parsimoniously but effectively the link between the worker's fate in the labour market and her firm's fate in the product market; if network referrals are relevant for job search...... work") raises, but any other specific work health and safety practice indicators do not affect, a firm's productivity....

  16. Essays and Explorations: Studies in Ideas, Language, and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Morton W.

    Seventeen reprinted essays and an unpublished one are contained in this collection and organized under five headings: History of Ideas, Approaches to Medieval Literature, Chaucer and Fourteenth-Century English Literature, Language and Linguistics, and Essay-Reviews. Topics discussed include the origin of the concept of the Seven Cardinal Sins;…

  17. Reliability of Holistic Scoring for the 1985 MCAT Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen J.; Anderson, Judith A.

    A pilot essay was included in the 1985 Spring and Fall administrations of the Medical College Admission Test. A sample of 320 of the essays written by Fall examinees who had expressed an interest in allopathic medicine was used to calculate interrater reliability estimates. Sixteen of 20 readers who had been trained by White's suggestions for…

  18. Essay Genre in Tatar Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigul A. Guseinova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an essay is considered as a journalistic genre in the context of modern Tatar journalism. Using the example of works by contemporary authors in the Tatar-speaking periodicals of Russia, the main genre and the semantic features of this genre are studied. An essay is a publicistic form to reflect on the topical issues of Russian reality. The reproduction of a fact is not so important for an essay. An important role is played by the description of the author's impressions, reflections and emotions. The periodical press has many materials in the Tatar language in which the author's opinion, author's principle and subjective opinion are strongly expressed. In fact, during the last decades of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century there was a surge of essays in modern journalism. Due to some political events in Russia during the early 90s of the twentieth century, it was possible to express their thoughts and speak on the urgent problems in society openly in comparison with the Soviet reality. The object of research is essayism as a kind of journalistic creativity, the subject of the study is the essay genre in Tatar journalism. The empirical basis of the work consisted of the essays from Tatar journalists, publicists and writers. Provided that the personality of an author is one of the effectiveness factors concerning the publications in the genre of essay, the essayization of texts in Tatar journalism will be increased in the future.

  19. Essays on Asset Pricing with Financial Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven

    The first essay focuses on Credit default swap (CDS) premiums of safe sovereigns, that is, the insurance against the default of countries with a low credit risk, like Germany, Japan, or the United States. We motivate the essay by establishing the following two stylized facts. First, we document...... insurance against the default of safe sovereigns? Second, what drives safe-haven CDS premiums if not credit risk?...... between bond yield and risk-free rate, for safe sovereigns. This finding is in opposition to the no-arbitrage theory that CDS premiums and yield spreads should move in lockstep. Motivated by these stylized facts, we investigate the following two questions: First, what are the motives behind purchasing...

  20. Essays on Stock Issuance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas

    Firms which issue new equity subsequently have lower returns than other firms, but does the strength of the issuance effect vary in the cross section of firms? The essay shows, that US firms with characteristics that makes them “hard to value” have returns which are strongly related to their past...... issuance activity, while the return of “easy to value” firms are less related to their past issuance activity. In most cases the difference between “hard to value” and “easy to value” firms are signiffcant. As proxies for “hard to value”, I use three different types of firm characteristics. First, I...... consider firms for which relatively little information is available as “hard to value”. Examples are firms covered by few analysts and small firms. Second, I consider firms with high levels of analyst disagreement on stock price target, next quarter earnings per share and share recommendation as “hard...

  1. Writing a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2010-03-01

    A pictorial essay is a type of educational article that aims to provide both textual and visual portrayals of a topical issue. It usually consists of a short unstructured abstract, brief introduction, subheadings to organise the material and a summary. The number of references is limited to a few key articles, typically, eight to 15, or fewer. The text is usually short, often approximately 1,000 to 2,000 words in length, with much of the message contained in the figure legends. This type of article allows for a large number of figures, typically up to 20 figures or 30 figure parts. The main criteria for publication are currency, educational value and high quality of illustrations.

  2. Essays on Housing Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Claes

    In Denmark and in many countries around the world, housing markets are of considerable importance for households and policy-makers alike. As the boom and bust in the US and Danish housing market so aptly demonstrated, disruptions in the housing market potentially have wide-ranging consequences...... for individual households and for the aggregate economy. Housing is important because we all have to live somewhere, but also because it serves as a considerable source of both wealth and debt. As such, housing market policy can not only create vast benefits for many, but can also have substantial negative...... impacts for all, and should therefore be a topic of major interest for economists and policy makers alike. This Ph.D. thesis, entitled “Essays on Housing Markets”, analyzes the Danish housing market during the 2000s, with a focus on how policy changes affected house prices and how changes in house prices...

  3. Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, David

    2016-01-01

    David Thissen, a professor in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Quantitative Program at the University of North Carolina, has consulted and served on technical advisory committees for assessment programs that use item response theory (IRT) over the past couple decades. He has come to the conclusion that there are usually two purposes…

  4. On Voting, Violence, and Health: Essays on Political Economics and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Gianmarco

    2012-01-01

    The three essays conforming this thesis are representative pieces of my approach to analyzing the causes and consequences of economic underdevelopment. The overaching topic that ties together these essays is role that institutions and culture play in affecting specific behaviors that undermine development. The approach to the questions addressed in each essay is empirical, using data from Per\\'{u} and Sierra Leone, and relies on economic theory to provide a general framework and deepen our un...

  5. Application essays and future performance in medical school: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Kay, Allen; Artino, Anthony R; Gilliland, William R; Waechter, Donna M; Cruess, David; DeZee, Kent J; Durning, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on whether application essays are a valid indicator of medical students' future performance. The goal is to score medical school application essays systematically and examine the correlations between these essay scores and several indicators of student performance during medical school and internship. A journalist created a scoring rubric based on the journalism literature and scored 2 required essays of students admitted to our university in 1 year (N = 145). We picked 7 indicators of medical school and internship performance and correlated these measures with overall essay scores: preclinical medical school grade point average (GPA), clinical medical school GPA, cumulative medical school GPA, U.S. Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and 2 scores, and scores on a program director's evaluation measuring intern professionalism and expertise. We then examined the Pearson and Spearman correlations between essay scores and the outcomes. Essay scores did not vary widely. American Medical College Application Service essay scores ranged from 3.3 to 4.5 (M = 4.11, SD = 0.15), and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences essay scores ranged from 2.9 to 4.5 (M = 4.09, SD = 0.17). None of the medical school or internship performance indicators was significantly correlated with the essay scores. These findings raise questions about the utility of matriculation essays, a resource-intensive admission requirement.

  6. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  7. Essays in applied microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucas William

    2005-11-01

    The first essay measures the impact of an outbreak of pediatric leukemia on local housing values. A model of residential location choice is used to describe conditions under which the gradient of the hedonic price function with respect to health risk is equal to household marginal willingness to pay to avoid pediatric leukemia risk. This equalizing differential is estimated using property-level sales records from a county in Nevada where residents have recently experienced a severe increase in pediatric leukemia. Housing values are compared before and after the increase with a nearby county acting as a control group. The results indicate that housing values decreased 15.6% during the period of maximum risk. Results are similar for alternative measures of risk and across houses of different sizes. With risk estimates derived using a Bayesian learning model the results imply a statistical value of pediatric leukemia of $5.6 million. The results from the paper provide some of the first market-based estimates of the value of health for children. The second essay evaluates the cost-effectiveness of public incentives that encourage households to purchase high-efficiency durable goods. The demand for durable goods and the demand for energy and other inputs are modeled jointly as the solution to a household production problem. The empirical analysis focuses on the case of clothes washers. The production technology and utilization decision are estimated using household-level data from field trials in which participants received front-loading clothes washers free of charge. The estimation strategy exploits this quasi-random replacement of washers to derive robust estimates of the utilization decision. The results indicate a price elasticity, -.06, that is statistically different from zero across specifications. The parameters from the utilization decision are used to estimate the purchase decision using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, 1994-2002. Households

  8. Olivier's 'Essay on Hamlet'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koprivica Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Olivier's Hamlet is more a renaissance character, a melancholic and a daydreamer, than a man of action, unlike his Henry V and Richard III film adaptations. However, it seems that Olivier showed outstanding courage not in his extremely liberal approach to interpreting this Shakespeare's tragedy, but in literal application of Freud's model on his inner problems, seen through the prism of the professor Ernest Johnson. Transposing Shakespeare's original text, starting with its global features, he abstracts numerous and diversified eventful and associative moments which might burden the polyphonic structure of his own - film story. Moreover, Olivier wants to avoid its dramatic deconstruction and focuses the viewer's attention to the climactic moments. However, dramatically the strongest and most effective scenes in his film adaptation of Hamlet are the ones related to the use of camera, that is to say, its movement and analyticity. The intention was to point not only to the ostentatious difference between cinematographic and theatrical stylisation, but, to a certain extent, he defines the viewer's standpoint. In his 'essay on Hamlet', Olivier does not consider chronology, that is to say, the problem of temporal relations. The visual structure of the film and its dynamics are determined a priori by the rhythmic parameters of the Elsinore's labyrinthic space.

  9. Review Essay: Controlled Openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wenninger

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The book reviewed here contains a written form of Niklas LUHMANN’s last lecture, delivered in winter term 1992/1993 at Bielefeld University, where he was professor for sociology from 1968 to 1993. A more comprehensive and systematic publication titled "Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft" was not published until 1997. In comparison to this and to other publications the present one provides an insight into the modality of the theoretical practice of LUHMANN. My review-essay follows up that point and reminds us that LUHMANN worked out his theory of society in view of a sociological problem he had conceived. He accused sociology of accumulating knowledge in a confusing way by empirical social research. His endeavour, in contrast, was to enable research within a consistent theoretical frame that was nevertheless open to expansive explorations. LUHMANN tries to achieve consistency through the reciprocal adjustment of his terms and his theoretical components, which should enable the construction of problems for comparison within global society. This means that his approach stays open for an empirical reality that remains to be explored because the theory of society does not deliver terms to categorize empirical reality. Instead, terms are conceptualized as distinctions with the function to construct problems that instruct observations and make them amenable to theorization. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803237

  10. Essays on the Impact of Social Media: Evidence from the Music Industry and the Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    As both individuals and businesses are starting to embrace social media, understanding the power and influence of social media becomes an important question. This dissertation aims to address this issue and study the impact of social media in different contexts. It consists of two essays. The first essay examines the effectiveness of social media…

  11. Researching Race and Social Justice in Education: Essays in Honour of Barry Troyna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Pat, Ed.; Rizvi, Fazal, Ed.

    The essays in this book comprise a "festschrift", a group of essays, to commemorate Barry Troyna, who made an important contribution to thinking about race, racism, and research on social-justice issues in the school context. Much of his work was directed at showing that it was impossible to research questions of "race"…

  12. ‘Everybody’s Doing It’ : Essays on trust, social norms and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smerdon, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates three topics at the intersection of behavioural and development economics, using a combination of experiments, econometric analysis and mathematical theory. The essays are borne out of topical questions with important policy implications. The first essay seeks to answer why

  13. Essays on medieval computational astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bergón, José Chabás

    2014-01-01

    In Essays on Medieval Computational Astronomy the authors provide examples of original and intelligent approaches and solutions given by medieval astronomers to the problems of their discipline, mostly presented in the form of astronomical tables.

  14. Three essays on economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Errico, Paula Luciana

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to study some of the mechanisms suggested by the economic literature as factors that could prevent individuals from attaining certain domains of well-being. This thesis is divided in three independent essays providing new evidence on three issues within the field of economic development: the effect of social networks on immigrants' labor market outcomes (first essay), the long-lasting impact of income inequality on entrepreneurial success and job cre...

  15. Essays on Pricing of Information Goods and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Atanu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that examine, in three specific contexts, issues related to pricing of information goods and services. As the ability to measure technology resource usage gets easier with increased connectivity, the question whether a technology resource should be priced by the amount of the resource used or by the…

  16. Essays in applied microeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernal Lobato, N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters dealing with important topics for the well-being of individuals: retirement, health and happiness. All together are micro studies that deal with policy relevant research questions. The first chapter focuses on whether a pension reform has effects on income

  17. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Mantilla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of this dissertation studies a different question within the field of Applied Microeconomics. The first chapter examines the mid- and long-term effects of the 1998 Asian Crisis on the educational attainment of Indonesian children ages 6 to 18, at the time of the crisis. The effects are identified as deviations from a linear trend for…

  18. Mathematical statistics essays on history and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Pfanzagl, Johann

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the development of statistical theory. In the mid twentieth century, the development of mathematical statistics underwent an enduring change, due to the advent of more refined mathematical tools. New concepts like sufficiency, superefficiency, adaptivity etc. motivated scholars to reflect upon the interpretation of mathematical concepts in terms of their real-world relevance. Questions concerning the optimality of estimators, for instance, had remained unanswered for decades, because a meaningful concept of optimality (based on the regularity of the estimators, the representation of their limit distribution and assertions about their concentration by means of Anderson’s Theorem) was not yet available. The rapidly developing asymptotic theory provided approximate answers to questions for which non-asymptotic theory had found no satisfying solutions. In four engaging essays, this book presents a detailed description of how the use of mathematical methods stimulated...

  19. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qi

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained applied microeconomics essays on topics related to behavioral economics and industrial organization. Chapter 1 studies how sentiment as a result of sports event outcomes affects consumers' tipping behavior in the presence of social norms. I formulate a model of tipping behavior that captures consumer sentiment following a reference-dependent preference framework and empirically test its relevance using the game outcomes of the NBA and the trip and tipping data on New York City taxicabs. While I find that consumers' tipping behavior responds to unexpected wins and losses of their home team, particularly in close game outcomes, I do not find evidence for loss aversion. Coupled with the findings on default tipping, my empirical results on the asymmetric tipping responses suggest that while social norms may dominate loss aversion, affect and surprises can result in freedom on the upside of tipping. Chapter 2 utilizes a novel data source of airline entry and exit announcements and examines how the incumbent airlines adjust quality provisions as a response to their competitors' announcements and the role of timing in such responses. I find no evidence that the incumbents engage in preemptive actions when facing probable entry and exit threats as signaled by the competitors' announcements in either short term or long term. There is, however, evidence supporting their responses to the competitors' realized entry or exit. My empirical findings underscore the role of timing in determining preemptive actions and suggest that previous studies may have overestimated how the incumbent airlines respond to entry threats. Chapter 3, which is collaborated with Benjamin Ho, investigates the habit formation of consumers' thermostat setting behavior, an often implicitly made decision and yet a key determinant of home energy consumption and expenditures. We utilize a high frequency dataset on household thermostat usage and find that

  20. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter.

  1. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  2. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfeld, W.

    1977-01-01

    This brochure 'nuclear problems' deals with the attitude of the protestant church in the region around the northern Elbe towards further quantitative economic growth, esp. nuclear energy, with the following essays: preaching the Gospel in an environment in danger: the Christian occident and the problems of the third world, facing the problems of exhausted supplies, the role of the prophet, problem of environment - a problem of theology, the political dimension, against ATW, signal Brokdorf, strange effects (defense of the church from unqualified teachings by non-professionals), Christian liberty, church and nuclear energy, violence and robes. (HP) [de

  3. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  4. Essays on Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yun

    market mechanisms; in addition, how to design alternative mechanisms that can more effectively allocate scarce resources with diverse economic and social goals. Chapter 1 studies the impact of affirmative action policies in the context of school choice. It addresses the following two questions: what...... that bidders’ strategic behavior essentially comes from their diverse market positions (i.e., the winning probability and the probability of deciding the market-clearing price). That is, if a bidder has a relatively strong market position, she has less incentive to shade her bid for the second unit in a UPA...

  5. Essays on numbers and figures

    CERN Document Server

    Prasolov, V V

    2000-01-01

    This is the English translation of the book originally published in Russian. It contains 20 essays, each dealing with a separate mathematical topic. The topics range from brilliant mathematical statements with interesting proofs, to simple and effective methods of problem-solving, to interesting properties of polynomials, to exceptional points of the triangle. Many of the topics have a long and interesting history. The author has lectured on them to students worldwide. The essays are independent of one another for the most part, and each presents a vivid mathematical result that led to current

  6. Scrapbook (a visual essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Carson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Working with a range of material (objects, ephemera, texts characteristic of a scrapbook, Carson & Miller will produce a visual essay that investigates the experience of reading such matter in this often underrated and undervalued form. In this context the notion of reading (and, subsequently re-reading and mis-reading will be utilised to explore the construction of narrative and the manner in which such narratives can present misleading, misinterpreted or inaccurate accounts of ‘things’. In doing so, such accounts can produce a multiplicity of new narratives.

                To develop this idea visually Carson & Miller will harness the tradition and format of a scrapbook. Scrapbooks imply the creative use of material which would be valued differently (or indeed undervalued in other contexts; the inclusion of scraps in the scrapbook claims that which is defined as ‘scrap’ as valuable and worthy of possession. In essence a scrapbook brings together disparate material and is often constructed according to its own internal ordering and logic; sometimes things are related by type, sometimes unlikely objects are combined or juxtaposed in fortuitous encounters. Such fortuitous encounters tell their own stories but also produce new narratives through generating new combinations of significance (Allmer iv.

  7. Using the Creative Cognition Approach in Essay Assignments in Leadership Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Tim

    2018-01-01

    This application brief covers, "The Final Question," an alternative essay design that encourages the learner to think creatively in Ph.D. Organization Theory or Leadership courses. "The Final Question" asks, "Do leaders change organizations or do organizations change leaders?" It is a simple question, but only the…

  8. Four essays on market power in energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Petter Vegard

    2008-07-01

    Market power in energy markets is discussed intensively in both academic and public arenas. There has been an intense energy debate on market power at least since the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) exercised its market power and caused the 'oil crisis' of the 1970s, and again following the deregulation of electricity markets at the beginning of the 1990s. However, this debate is not new. In 1911, for example, the US Supreme Court divided Standard Oil into 34 separate companies using antitrust law. With increasing energy prices and the ongoing process of liberalization of electricity markets throughout the world, the topic is still relevant for future markets. The four essays in this dissertation discuss specific aspects of market power in energy markets. The first essay concerns the crude oil market, and the remaining three essays relate to market power in the Nordic and Norwegian electricity markets. In the first essay, a multi-equation dynamic econometric model tests whether the behaviour of OPEC, as a whole or as different subgroups, is consistent with the behaviour of dominant producers in the world crude oil market. The second essay is a theoretical work that introduces uncertainty in inflow to the discussion of market power in hydropower markets by analysing the effects of uncertainty in inflow on market performance under alternative assumptions about market structure. In the third essay, high-frequency data are used to analyse how price signals from the spot market affect end-user demand in the Norwegian and Swedish electricity markets. Finally, in the fourth essay, retailer and household behaviour in the Norwegian electricity market are analysed using detailed information on prices and other market characteristics. In the following section, I provide highlights from a general discussion of market power in order to set the essays included in this dissertation in context. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  9. Essays in Education and Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on education and macroeconomics. The first chapter analyzes whether public education financing systems can account for large differences among developed countries in earnings inequality and intergenerational earnings persistence. I first document facts about public education in the U.S. and Norway, which…

  10. Essays on mergers and acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faelten, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Essays on Mergers and Acquisitions" tackles some of the most prominent business challenges related to M&A activity. The Introduction examines the reasons why deals fail through well-known case studies; Chapter 1 presents a new index measuring countries M&A maturity worldwide; Chapter 2 focus on the

  11. Dance for two selected essays

    CERN Document Server

    Lightman, Alan

    1996-01-01

    The author of Einstein's Dreams now presents a collection of essays, written over the past 20 years, that displays his genius for bringing literary and scientific concerns into ringing harmony. Sometimes provocative, sometimes fanciful, always elegantly conceived and written, these meditations offer readers a fascinating look into the creative compulsions shared by the scientist and the artist. Reading tour.

  12. Essays in Policy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Patrick James Harold

    This dissertation contains three independent papers (chapters). Chapter 1 argues that researchers that use a regression discontinuity design with parametric controls for the assignment variable face significant uncertainty as to the appropriate model. I argue that researchers should incorporate this model uncertainty into their inference through model averaging. I show in a Monte Carlo experiment that Frequentist model averaging, compared to pretesting, leads to more precise estimates and less Type I error. Chapter 2 studies the impact of state-level tax incentives for the film industry, which have exploded since the early 2000s. I study how these incentives affect filming location and the number of jobs and businesses in the film industry. I seek to answer the question: can these incentives create a local film industry? I find that while these incentives have large effects on filming location, they almost never lead to increases in jobs and employment in the film industry. Chapter 3 studies the Prudence Kay Poppink Act, effective 2001, which broadened California's disability discrimination in employment law. This expanded coverage to those with less severe impairments. I study how this expansion affected labor market outcomes for the disabled by comparing the disabled in California before and after the Act to the disabled in other states during the same time period. I augment this difference-in-difference methodology by adding a comparison to the non-disabled as well. I find that this expansion of legal protections increased employment and possibly increased wage and salary rates.

  13. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  14. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  15. Automated essay scoring and the future of educational assessment in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Latifi, Syed; Lai, Hollis; Boulais, André-Philippe; De Champlain, André

    2014-10-01

    Constructed-response tasks, which range from short-answer tests to essay questions, are included in assessments of medical knowledge because they allow educators to measure students' ability to think, reason, solve complex problems, communicate and collaborate through their use of writing. However, constructed-response tasks are also costly to administer and challenging to score because they rely on human raters. One alternative to the manual scoring process is to integrate computer technology with writing assessment. The process of scoring written responses using computer programs is known as 'automated essay scoring' (AES). An AES system uses a computer program that builds a scoring model by extracting linguistic features from a constructed-response prompt that has been pre-scored by human raters and then, using machine learning algorithms, maps the linguistic features to the human scores so that the computer can be used to classify (i.e. score or grade) the responses of a new group of students. The accuracy of the score classification can be evaluated using different measures of agreement. Automated essay scoring provides a method for scoring constructed-response tests that complements the current use of selected-response testing in medical education. The method can serve medical educators by providing the summative scores required for high-stakes testing. It can also serve medical students by providing them with detailed feedback as part of a formative assessment process. Automated essay scoring systems yield scores that consistently agree with those of human raters at a level as high, if not higher, as the level of agreement among human raters themselves. The system offers medical educators many benefits for scoring constructed-response tasks, such as improving the consistency of scoring, reducing the time required for scoring and reporting, minimising the costs of scoring, and providing students with immediate feedback on constructed-response tasks. © 2014

  16. Essays in industrial organization and management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    de Bijl, P.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays in the theory of industrial organization and management strategy. An introduction makes the main ideas accessible to non-specialists by presenting the essays as fictitious cases. The first essay investigates strategic disclosure of verifiable information. The disclosed information concerns a hidden action, and the transmission of information takes place in a noisy environment. The second essay explores how search costs and informational asymmetries influence t...

  17. Essays on Economic Volatility and Financial Frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays in macroeconomics. The first one essay discusses the reasons of Chinese huge foreign reserves holdings. It contributes to the literature of sudden stops, precautionary saving and foreign assets holdings. In the second essay, I study the price volatility of commodities and manufactured goods. I measure the price volatility of each individual goods but not on the aggregated level and therefore the results complete the related study. The third essay exp...

  18. Review: Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Helena

    2000-01-01

    This is a review of a collection of essays entitled Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy, edited by Joseph Dunne, Attracta Ingram and Frank Litton, published in Dublin by the Institute of Public Administration in 2000.

  19. Self-Assessment in Coursework Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Nigel; Norton, Lin S.

    1997-01-01

    Self-assessments of coursework essays were compared with tutor grades for 67 college students. Students could accurately assess their overall essay grades and could give an overall rank for deep processing, but when judging essays on individual criteria they were not so accurate when compared to tutor evaluations. (SLD)

  20. Essays in industrial organization and management strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bijl, P.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays in the theory of industrial organization and management strategy. An introduction makes the main ideas accessible to non-specialists by presenting the essays as fictitious cases. The first essay investigates strategic disclosure of verifiable information. The

  1. Essays on Dynamic Competition and Academic Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huyen T.

    2012-01-01

    My dissertation focuses on dynamic firm competition and academic entrepreneurship. The first essay studies the dynamics and equilibrium outcomes of a duopoly in which firms make decisions about both capacity expansion and cost reduction. The second essay is an extension of the framework used in the first essay to study the strategic roles of…

  2. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severnini, Edson Roberto

    This dissertation consists of three studies analyzing causes and consequences of location decisions by economic agents in the U.S. In Chapter 1, I address the longstanding question of the extent to which the geographic clustering of economic activity may be attributable to agglomeration spillovers as opposed to natural advantages. I present evidence on this question using data on the long-run effects of large scale hydroelectric dams built in the U.S. over the 20th century, obtained through a unique comparison between counties with or without dams but with similar hydropower potential. Until mid-century, the availability of cheap local power from hydroelectric dams conveyed an important advantage that attracted industry and population. By the 1950s, however, these advantages were attenuated by improvements in the efficiency of thermal power generation and the advent of high tension transmission lines. Using a novel combination of synthetic control methods and event-study techniques, I show that, on average, dams built before 1950 had substantial short run effects on local population and employment growth, whereas those built after 1950 had no such effects. Moreover, the impact of pre-1950 dams persisted and continued to grow after the advantages of cheap local hydroelectricity were attenuated, suggesting the presence of important agglomeration spillovers. Over a 50 year horizon, I estimate that at least one half of the long run effect of pre-1950 dams is due to spillovers. The estimated short and long run effects are highly robust to alternative procedures for selecting synthetic controls, to controls for confounding factors such as proximity to transportation networks, and to alternative sample restrictions, such as dropping dams built by the Tennessee Valley Authority or removing control counties with environmental regulations. I also find small local agglomeration effects from smaller dam projects, and small spillovers to nearby locations from large dams. Lastly

  3. The SAT® Essay and College Performance: Understanding What Essay Scores Add to HSGPA and SAT. Research Report 2012-9 (REV: 4-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between students' SAT essay scores and college outcomes, including first-year grade point average (FYGPA) and first-year English course grade average (FY EngGPA), overall and by various demographic and academic performance subgroups. Results showed that the SAT essay score has a positive relationship with both…

  4. The hippocampus - pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whan, A.; Mitchell, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We aim to demonstrate the anatomy and pathology of the hippocampus. It is important that radiologists distinguish normal and abnormal hippocampal hippocampal MR appearances, since hippocampal sclerosis is the commonest cause of surgically treatable temporal lobe epilepsy. The detailed anatomy of the hippocampus is reviewed and correlated with normal MR appearances. Our radiology database was reviewed to determine both common and unusual pathologies affecting the hippocampus. Most scans were performed for our large Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, for investigation of epilepsy of possible seizures. Less frequent indications included memory loss (acute or chronic), stroke, headache, and altered conscious state. Hippocampal sclerosis was the commonest MR abnormality. This was occasionally bilateral or associated with other pathology. Other common findings included mild hippocampal asymmetry, bilateral atrophy, or normal variants such as choroid fissure cysts. Other pathologies included cortical developmental malformations, infarction, posttraumatic gliosis, herpes, simplex encephalitis, paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, vascular malformations, sarcoidosis, benign tumours such as gangliogliomas and dysembyoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNET) and malignant tumours. The hippocampus has a complex anatomy visible on high resolution MRI. In the clinical context of epilepsy, hippocampal sclerosis is an important pathology, but a range of conditions may affect the hippocampus, readily demonstrated by MRI. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-07-01

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power

  6. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power may

  7. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  8. The Wireless Craze, The Unlimited Bandwidth Myth, The Spectrum Auction Faux Pas, and the Punchline to Ronald Coase's 'Big Joke': An Essay on Airwave Allocation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hazlett, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    In 1959 the Federal Communications Commission invited economist Ronald Coase to testify about his proposal for market allocation of radio spectrum rights. The FCC's first question: 'Is this all a big joke'' Today, however, leading policy makers, including the current FCC Chair, decry the 'spectrum drought' produced by administrative allocation and call for the creation of private bandwidth markets. This essay examines marketplace trends driving regulators' change of humor, and considers the p...

  9. Essays on Entrepreneurship and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Queiro, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    These essays investigate the role of entrepreneurial human capital as a driver of innovation and growth. In the first chapter, I estimate the effect of manager education on firm employment growth using administrative panel data on the universe of firms in Portugal between 1995 and 2009. I exploit manager changes and switches between management and other occupations to account for unobserved firm and manager characteristics as well as selection into management. I find that a year of manager sc...

  10. Essays in Empirical Asset Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    This thesis consists of three essays investigating financial and real estate markets and identifying a relationship between them. A 2008 financial crises provides a perfect example of sizeable interactions between US housing market and equity prices, where a negative shock to house prices trigger...... a word-wide recession. Therefore, understanding forces driving investors behaviour and preferences, which in turn affect asset prices in both equity and housing market are of great interest....

  11. Five essays in property valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zan

    2000-01-01

    This doctoral thesis consists of five self-contained essayspresented to the Faculty Board of the Royal Institute ofTechnology. Property valuation is a central issue that forms acommon thread in the analysis in these essays. In the thesisproperty is considered in a mixed asset context in an attemptto build a bridge between valuation, property investment andfinancial theory. The object of the thesis is to value propertyfor finance, sales and purchases and investment. Theinvestigation of the the...

  12. Paper (essay on seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Mladen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed studies of the past of the agrarian thought of the world (evolution of agro-innovation, and within it, the relationship of man and seed, the author has selected key data for Table 1. In addition, more or less known folk sayings, proverbs, curses and allegories in which the seed is the key word have been collected. Then, religious books, folk art and literature works (sayings of prominent individuals and experts and observations of the author himself have been studied. According to the collected opus, it can be concluded that the vast importance of seed meaningfully entwined into all spheres of folk life and cultural heritage. Seed is directly tied to the following eight key (revolutionary milestones in the food and economic life of mankind: 1. the first and for the longest time, the seed used to be the main food of the people and the first food reserve; 2. Neolithic Revolution was simply caused by the sowing of seeds; 3. for the sake of sowing man began to develop more complex processing techniques; 4. everywhere and forever, especially since the late 15th century, the seed has been a carrier of (rescuing plants between Europe and the New World, that is, between continents; 5. seed was the first product that has been chemically treated since the mid-18th century; 6. standard operation procedures and quality are promoted on seed by which it became the first product to have prescribed (compulsory methods, but it also became a good whose quality has to be tested before sale; 7. hybrid seed is a 'perpetrator' of the green revolution in the mid-20th century and at last there is disputable seed of genetically modified organisms that are spreading with certain reactions. The author proposes that the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification includes a special section (division which would classify the seed for sowing, while beyond this Classification terms such as seed, plant seed should be replaced with non

  13. The "Paranormal": African Philosophy Questions Science Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay will address the question of the reality of 'paranormal' events and defend the thesis ..... philosophy and science, guided exclusively by the canons of the logic of binary opposition ..... independent entity (Davies 1990: 72-90). Ifit does ...

  14. Essays on oil and the macroeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melolinna, M.

    2012-07-01

    This dissertation studies the effects of crude oil on the macroeconomy using a vector autoregression (VAR) modelling framework. In particular, the importance of identifying different types of oil shocks is explored for both small and large open economies. A VAR model is also used to study the information content of oil futures contracts. The dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay of the dissertation introduces a methodology for identifying oil supply shocks in a small open economy. Financial market information is used to construct an identification scheme that forces the response to an oil shock of the VAR model to be the same as that implied by futures markets. Due to the identification scheme, the model is only partially identified, and confidence intervals for impulse responses are calculated by using a bootstrapping procedure. The methodology is applied in illustrative examples to two small open economies in a VAR model that includes key domestic and international macroeconomic variables. The results suggest that while oil supply shocks have had an effect on domestic inflation during recent past, the effect on domestic GDP is ambiguous. The second essay of the dissertation studies the existence of risk premiums in crude oil futures prices with simple ordinary least squares regression and Bayesian VAR models. It also studies the importance of three main theoretical risk premium models in explaining and forecasting the risk premiums in practice. Whilst the existence of the premiums and the validity of the models can be established at certain time points, it turns out that the choice of sample period has a considerable effect on the results. Hence, the risk premiums are highly time-varying. The study also establishes a model, based on speculative positions in the futures markets, which has some predictive power for future oil spot prices. The third essay of the dissertation explores oil market and other macroeconomic shocks in a structural VAR

  15. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  16. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  17. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Nida

    In these essays, I examine (i) the empirical methods that are widely used in the literature to measure total factor productivity growth and (ii) the impact of nationalization on productivity in the oil industry. The first chapter, which is an ongoing work with SHI, Wei, investigates two empirical measures, quantity-based (primal) measure and price-based (dual) measure, of total factor productivity growth. My co-author and I analyze how these two measures are affected by output market imperfection or variable capacity utilization. We find that under constant-returns-to-scale production function assumption, existence of the imperfect competition in the output market creates a gap between the measured TFP growth and the true TFP growth, no matter which method is used. However, theoretically, it does not affect the equivalence between the two measures. Under variable capacity utilization, we show that constant-returns-to-scale assumption is almost enough to guarantee the validity of the two methods in correctly capturing the true TFP growth. In the second and third chapters, I analyze the link between nationalization and productivity. The second chapter documents the trends in expropriation acts, and evaluates the impact of expropriations on labor productivity of resource-rich developing countries in the oil industry. In the first part of this chapter, I investigate the trends in the expropriation acts that took place in 102 developing countries during the period 1922-2006. I find that more than half of the acts occurred between 1970 and 1976, there has been an increase in the number of expropriations in recent years, and the extractive sector including petroleum is more likely to be expropriated. Motivated by these facts, in the second part, I examine the oil industry in a period of widespread expropriations, the 1970s. In a sample of major oil-producing countries including OPEC and non-OPEC members, I show that losses in relative labor productivity after

  18. Space, Time, Matter, and Form Essays on Aristotle's Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bostock, David

    2006-01-01

    Space, Time, Matter, and Form collects ten of David Bostock's essays on themes from Aristotle's Physics, four of them published here for the first time. The first five papers look at issues raised in the first two books of the Physics, centred on notions of matter and form, and the idea of substance as what persists through change. They also range over other of Aristotle's scientific works, such as his biology and psychology and the account of change in his De Generatione et Corruptione. The volume's remaining essays examine themes in later books of the Physics, including infinity, place, time

  19. Art and Pornography: Philosophical Essays

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Art and Pornography presents a series of essays\\ud which investigate the artistic status and aesthetic\\ud dimension of pornographic pictures, films, and\\ud literature, and explores the distinction, if there is\\ud any, between pornography and erotic art. Is there\\ud any overlap between art and pornography, or are\\ud the two mutually exclusive? If they are, why is\\ud that? If they are not, how might we characterize\\ud pornographic art or artistic pornography, and how\\ud might pornographic art b...

  20. Essays on mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Faelten, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Essays on Mergers and Acquisitions" tackles some of the most prominent business challenges related to M&A activity. The Introduction examines the reasons why deals fail through well-known case studies; Chapter 1 presents a new index measuring countries M&A maturity worldwide; Chapter 2 focus on the importance of corporate governance when conducting deals in unknown territories; whilst Chapter 3 and 4 conduct research on companies’ decision to tap capital markets and their subsequent M&A acti...

  1. Essays on Customization Applications in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Adiguzel, Feray

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the collection of data and the effectiveness of promotion customization. This thesis contains two essays. In these essays, we search for optimal combinations of components of questionnaires to design split questionnaires and product categories to offer promotions. The first essay deals with how to improve collection of data. We focus on split questionnaires to collect data instead of using the more ty...

  2. Mass Media and the National Experience; Essays in Communications History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Ronald T., Ed.; Stevens, John D., Ed.

    In 11 different essays, journalism historians reflect on the present state of their art and suggest ways and means of doing the important work that lies ahead. Areas of productive research suggested include freedom of expression, politics and economics, technology regionalism, Black journalism, the journalist as social critic, photographic…

  3. Should God Get Tenure? Essays on Religion and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, David W., Ed.

    Essays on the role of religion in higher education include: "Should God Get Tenure?" (David W. Gill); "On Being a Professor: The Case of Socrates" (Bruce R. Reichenbach); "Academic Excellence: Cliche or Humanizing Vision?" (Merold Westphal); "Religion, Science, and the Humanities in the Liberal Arts Curriculum" (H. Newton Maloney); "Tolstoy and…

  4. Dostoevsky: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellek, Rene, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Wellek, Philip Rahv, Murray Krieger, Irving Howe, Eliseo Vivas, D. H. Lawrence, Sigmund Freud, Dmitri Chizhevsky, V. V. Zenkovsky, Georg Lukacs, and Derek Traversi--all dealing with the biography and literary work of…

  5. Three Essays on Bureaucracy at American Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Gabel

    2017-01-01

    The three essays in this dissertation each examine how aspects of contemporary administrative structure within American research universities affect faculty outcomes. Specific aspects of administrative structure tested in this dissertation include the introduction of new administrative roles, administrative intensity (i.e., relative size of…

  6. Yeats: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterecker, John, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by John Unterecker, W. H. Auden, High Kenner, Giogio Melchiori, Frank Kermode, W. Y. Tindall, T. S. Eliot, R. P. Blackmur, Alex Zwerdling, Curtis Bradford, D. J. Gordon, Ian Fletcher, A. G. Stock, Allen Tate, and Richard…

  7. Homer: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, George, Ed.; Fagles, Robert, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by George Steiner, Leo Tolstoy, Ezra Pound, Erich Auerbach, Edwin Muir, Cedric H. Whitman, Albert B. Lord, W. H. Auden, Ernst Bloch, Georg Lukacs, C. Day Lewis, Gabriel Germain, Franz Kafka, Rachel Bespaloff, Robert…

  8. Hardy: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerard, Albert J., Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Albert Guerard, Donald Davidson, Morton Dauwen Zabel, D. H. Lawrence, John Hollowan, Dorothy Van Ghent, John Paterson, A. Alvarez, Delmore Schwartz, W. H. Auden, David Perkins, and Samuel Hynes--all dealing with the…

  9. Hemingway; A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Robert P., Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Lillian Ross, Malcolm Crowley, E.M. Halliday, Harry Levin, Leslie Fiedler, D.H. Lawrence, Philip Young, Sean O'Faolain, Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren, Carlos Baker, Mark Spilka, Ray B. West, Jr., Nemi D'Agostino,…

  10. Ideals and realities selected essays of Abdus Salam

    CERN Document Server

    Salam, Abdus; Lai, CH

    1989-01-01

    The latest edition of "Ideals and Realities" includes some of the most recent talks given by Professor Abdus Salam. They replace a few essays which were published in the second edition. An attempt has also been made to update some of the figures rendered absolete with the passage of time.

  11. Essays on Customization Applications in Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiguzel, Feray

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the collection of data and the effectiveness of promotion customization. This thesis contains two essays. In these essays, we search for optimal combinations of components of questionnaires to design split

  12. Essays on preference formation and home production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of the evolution of consumer brand preference under incomplete information and the effect of time on consumer purchase behavior. The first essay studies the evolution of consumer brand

  13. Essays on top management and corporate behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.T.

    2010-01-01

    Human behavior is fascinating, and there is no exception to what its influences are on the financial market. This dissertation consists of three essays that examine corporate behavior that is affected by decisions made by the top management. The first essay studies the rationale for leveraged buyout

  14. Audiotape Feedback for Essays in Distance Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.; Brink, H. van den; Meester, M.

    1991-01-01

    Students who were required to write three short essays for a university level course on photochemistry at the Open university of the Netherlands received either audio-cassette or written feedback on their essays. The students receiving the audio feedback described their experience as personal,

  15. Essays on financial structure and macroeconomic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, D.

    2006-01-01

    In addressing the matter, two essays study the effects of the debt vs. equity dimension of the financial structure on international consumption smoothing and macroeconomic volatility (in particular, economic downturns). Another essay evaluates the role of informal financial institution by looking

  16. Essays in financial reporting, tax, and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, W.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation contains three essays on financial reporting, tax, and politics. The first essay explores whether the tax authority is able to generate spillover effects for auditors. The IRS can generate spillover effects for auditors, as a strong IRS increases manager’s incentives to comply with

  17. Essays on Industrial Organization and Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Odilon Roberto VG de a

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on industrial organization and political economy. In the first essay, I show how the attributes of a managerial workforce affect firms' placement decisions and wage offers, and managers' quit decisions. My OLG model features two division managers and a CEO, where each executive may be at a different point in his…

  18. How Reflective Is the Academic Essay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Effie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of reflection in academic essays. Forty essays, all previously deemed to be of merit quality, were analysed in terms of three elements of reflection--how the educational issue is conceptualized; what the issue means for practice; and how practice might be changed to resolve the problematic. Each…

  19. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  20. Essays on regulation, institutions, and industrial organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergara, Mario Esteban

    Essay I develops a comparative institutional analysis of network access price regulation and "light-handed" regulation. While the former is a specific-agency-based arrangement with higher political influence, the latter is a court-based system. Consequently, the main trade-off between both frameworks reflects the merits of having efficient political and judicial institutions. Price regulation is superior when distributional concerns are irrelevant and information asymmetries are lower. Poorly functioning political systems and high welfare costs of raising funds make price regulation less attractive. Light regulation is more attractive when potential rents are smaller, the monopolist is more risk averse, the judicial system is more efficient, and the threat of government intervention is more credible. The possibility of private transfers makes price regulation more advantageous. Higher information asymmetries among firms makes light-handed regulation more attractive. The main results are consistent with a plausible interpretation of the drastic deregulatory process in New Zealand. Essay II studies the preliminary effects of the deregulation of direct access in the New Zealand's electricity market. A slight improvement in quality standards and an overall efficiency increase took place after two years of deregulation. Retailers were able to successfully enter in large demand, dense areas, with a large proportion of industrial and commercial users, where incumbents were not distributing electricity efficiently. Pricing policies appears to be influenced by market forces (associated to economic and demographic characteristics) as expected in a light regulatory framework. Essay III focuses on the possibility of endogenous sunk costs and the introduction of new products. Firms that exert some monopoly power in one market and introduce a new good whose demand is determined by a broader set of consumers might be forced to change their competing strategies. If the new product

  1. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  2. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  3. Getting to 2014 (and beyond): The Choices and Challenges Ahead. A Collection of Essays to Encourage Constructive Dialogue among Policymakers, Educators, and Practitioners Engaged in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Boer, Benjamin; Carey, Kevin; Cohen, Michael; Hassel, Bryan C.; Hassel, Emily Ayscue; Hyslop, Anne; Levin, Douglas A.; Fletcher, Geoffrey; Odden, Allan; Tucker, Bill; Vargas, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Education Sector commissioned an earlier version of this collection of essays in conjunction with a March 2012 event "Getting to 2014: The Choices and Challenges Ahead." This updated version includes new essays and a revised introduction. The aim of these essays is to present ideas, elicit feedback, and encourage productive dialogue…

  4. Three essays on access pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  5. Sokrates og oss: Et essay om Sokrates’ forsvarstale, tekstfortolkning og filosofihistorie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roar Anfinsen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Socrates and Us: An Essay on the Apology of Socrates, Philological Interpretations and History of Philosophy. I start out with a philological problem, the question of how to translate a disputed passage (30b 2–4 in Plato’s Apology. This problem is connected to a philo­sophical question, the Socratic and Platonic opinion on the relation between virtue, material goods and happiness. I then discuss the role of our «pre-understanding» in the interpretation of historical texts. Is a «purely» historical interpretation possible? Is a «purely» historical reading of philosophical texts worthwhile, if it does not concern our modern philosophical problems? In discussing these hermenutical questions I use John Stuart Mill’s reading of Plato as an example. A peculiar problem in the history of philosophy is the question of the historical Socrates and the different roles he has played. I investigate especially Mill’s use of the character of Socrates, but I also include examples from the twentieth century. Furthermore, I analyze Plato’s staging of Socrates in the Apology as a moral hero and the mythological status he is given. Finally, I discuss whether the Socratic philosophy is of any value today. I argue that the Socratic method ought to have an important place in moral and political education, and that this method is not value-neutral. It presupposes certain virtues, virtues taught and incarnated by the historical Socrates.

  6. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  7. Values in global administrative law [essays in honour of Spyridon Flogaitis and Gérard Timsit

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Global administrative law has recently emerged as one of the most important contemporary fields in public law scholarship. Concerned with developing fuller understandings of patterns in global governance, it represents one of the most insightful ways of viewing the multifarious forms of public power that now exist beyond the State. Focusing in particular on the search for accountability and legitimacy, it carries with it: testing questions about democracy in post-Westphalian society; the meaning of ideas of "publicness" and "public good;" and the global relevance of values that include due process, equality, and fundamental rights. These, and other issues, are key to critiquing the form of governance that now envelops the globe. This collection of essays brings together leading public law scholars who are working in the field of global administrative law. Based on papers presented at a workshop held at Sciences-Po in Paris in late 2008, it addresses past and future challenges related to global governance. Eac...

  8. Catalogue of answers in radiology in accordance with subject catalogue 2, with 251 original questions and answers, including comments and an appendix on clinical radiology. 6. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleitz, C.D.; Freihorst, J.

    1985-01-01

    The physical and biological fundamentals of radiology and radiation protection are presented. Methods of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are outlined, and the fundamentals of radiotherapy are discussed. Original examination questions in radiology are presented together with the correct answers. (HP) [de

  9. Calculation of uncertainties in influence quantities in biological essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Morel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the need of showing the reliability of results from biological essays, such as in health and environmental areas, laboratories have been implementing quality systems, particularly ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001, which include as one of the requirements, the calculation of uncertainty in essays results. It is of common knowledge that estimating uncertainty in essays using organisms, such as animal and vegetal species, is difficult, preventing from meeting that requirement in the standard. The paper shows the calculation of uncertainties in influences quantities in these essays as a tool to allow validating the measuring process, by using the essays performed by Rhodia Environmental Impact Analysis Laboratory and IPEN Ecotoxicology Laboratory as examples.Devido à necessidade de demonstrar a confiabilidade dos resultados de ensaios biológicos como, por exemplo, nas áreas de saúde e ambiental, laboratórios vêm implementando sistemas da qualidade, em especial a ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001 que inclui como um dos requisitos o cálculo da incerteza dos resultados dos ensaios. É reconhecidamente difícil de estimar a incerteza de ensaios que utilizam organismos, como com espécies animais e vegetais o que impede, consequentemente, o atendimento deste requisito da norma. O trabalho apresenta o cálculo de incerteza das grandezas de influências nestes ensaios como uma ferramenta que permite validar o processo de medição, utilizando como exemplos aqueles realizados pelos Laboratórios de Análise de Impacto Ambiental da Rhodia e de Ecologia e Ecotoxicologia do IPEN.

  10. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  11. The Gulf War: A Critical Essay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzu, Sun

    1992-01-01

    This essay, written by the famous Chinese military theoretician, Sun Tzu, proposes a thesis that ought to provoke considerable discussion among theoreticians in training at the National War College...

  12. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  13. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    .... The first essay calls for a fundamental restructuring of the Reserve Component in light of the largest mobilization since the Korean War, which has been fraught with problems in terms of combat...

  14. Guidelines for writing an argumentative essay

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Egurnova

    2014-01-01

    The guidelines below are intended for teachers, professors, students, and the public at large who are interested in the issues of English writing culture. They provide a detailed plan for completing the writing task–writing an argumentative essay.

  15. Essays on the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Dedekind, Richard

    1963-01-01

    Two classic essays by great German mathematician: one provides an arithmetic, rigorous foundation for the irrational numbers, the other is an attempt to give the logical basis for transfinite numbers and properties of the natural numbers.

  16. Three essays on utility regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    To induce utilities in the gas distribution market to operate efficiently, US states have deployed consumer choice programs, price caps, and variations of sliding scale plans. My first essay studies the impact of these restructuring and deregulation efforts on consumer rates, using panel data from a custom survey of state commissions and the Department of Energy. I estimate the residential, small commercial and industrial price equations jointly, and use instrumental variables to control for the potentially endogenous demand and status of deregulation. Consumer choice programs lower the prices by 2.2-20.1% compared to the rate of return regulation, benefiting industrial consumers the most and households the least. These effects appear even one to two years prior to the programs' implementation, and become stronger over time. Price caps lower all prices by 0.0-20.0%, with the same ranking. The impacts of sliding scale plans are close to zero, between -2.6% and +4.0% The second paper evaluates health damages caused by air concentrations of SO2 under three alternative environmental policies leading to identical aggregate emissions: emission caps, a nationwide emission tax, and a system of tradable emission allowances such as the one currently used in the US. The numerical model of the industry finds generators' output, participation in energy trade and SO2 abatement effort under each policy. The resulting SO2 concentrations are used to derive the aggregate health damages using estimates in the medical literature. SO2 concentrations vary across policies even when the aggregate emissions are the same. These variations translate into substantially different losses for any individual state, and, nationwide, to hundreds of millions of dollars of difference in aggregate damages. Emission caps are found to lead to the lowest damages, outperforming the currently used system of allowances by 452 million. A uniform emission tax leads to very similar damages as the system of

  17. Five essays on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    2005-03-01

    without price-takers that deals with Cournot-type models of markets in property rights typically feature strategists-acting at a first stage-followed by the move of a non-empty marketclearing competitive fringe. So, which agents can presumably be assigned the price-taking role. When simulating the upcoming medium-sized market for greenhouse gas emissions permits under the Kyoto Protocol, no answer to this question stands out as satisfactory. As an escape, trade is instead construed as a two-stage noncooperative cooperative game in which all agents act on both stages, allowing everyone to be a strategist. 5) Costs saving of a flexible multi-gas climate policy that discusses current climate policies are based on the use of the Global Warming Potential (GWP) index to compare emissions of various greenhouse gases. Yet, from an economic point of view, more efficient methods exist. We examine the potential cost savings from applying an efficient and more flexible metric as compared to using the fixed GWP, given some long-term goal for stabilization of climate. We also calculate the costs when only emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) are targeted. As compared to the case with only CO{sub 2}abatement, our results indicate that mitigation costs may be reduced by about 8% when including non-CO{sub 2}gases in climate policy and using GWPs. When using efficient, flexible weights, costs are reduced by about 10%. The cost savings that stem from including non-CO{sub 2}greenhouse gases in climate policy may be increased by 15-40% if applying efficient weights rather than GWPs.

  18. Five essays on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    2005-03-01

    markets in property rights typically feature strategists-acting at a first stage-followed by the move of a non-empty marketclearing competitive fringe. So, which agents can presumably be assigned the price-taking role. When simulating the upcoming medium-sized market for greenhouse gas emissions permits under the Kyoto Protocol, no answer to this question stands out as satisfactory. As an escape, trade is instead construed as a two-stage noncooperative cooperative game in which all agents act on both stages, allowing everyone to be a strategist. 5) Costs saving of a flexible multi-gas climate policy that discusses current climate policies are based on the use of the Global Warming Potential (GWP) index to compare emissions of various greenhouse gases. Yet, from an economic point of view, more efficient methods exist. We examine the potential cost savings from applying an efficient and more flexible metric as compared to using the fixed GWP, given some long-term goal for stabilization of climate. We also calculate the costs when only emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) are targeted. As compared to the case with only CO{sub 2}abatement, our results indicate that mitigation costs may be reduced by about 8% when including non-CO{sub 2}gases in climate policy and using GWPs. When using efficient, flexible weights, costs are reduced by about 10%. The cost savings that stem from including non-CO{sub 2}greenhouse gases in climate policy may be increased by 15-40% if applying efficient weights rather than GWPs.

  19. A Window to the Past: What an Essay Contest Reveals about Early American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    In 1795 America's premier scholarly association, the American Philosophical Society (APS), posed the following question: [Write] an essay on a system of liberal education, and literary instruction, adapted to the genius of the government, and best calculated to promote the general welfare of the United States; comprehending, also, a plan for…

  20. Validating Automated Essay Scoring: A (Modest) Refinement of the "Gold Standard"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.; Escoffery, David S.; Duchnowski, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    By far, the most frequently used method of validating (the interpretation and use of) automated essay scores has been to compare them with scores awarded by human raters. Although this practice is questionable, human-machine agreement is still often regarded as the "gold standard." Our objective was to refine this model and apply it to…

  1. Unusual lesions that distend the knee joint: pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Luana T. Barros de, E-mail: luanatbl@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (HUPAA/UFAL), Maceio (Brazil). Hospital Universitario; Albuquerque Filho, Eolo Santana de; Batista, Laecio Leitao [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Moraes, Talita Peixoto de [Clinica Derbimagem, Recife, PE (Brazil); Pereira, Bruno Perez Guedes [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    The high number of knee imaging exams at radiology clinics, together with the wide variety of knee disorders, calls for expanding the knowledge about the less common lesions seen in routine diagnostic practice. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to illustrate unusual lesions that distend the knee joint, selected by relevance and evaluated with multiple imaging modalities, including X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature. (author)

  2. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  3. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  4. Review Essay: "Personal Relations" as a Sociological Category?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schützeichel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review essay discusses the question raised by the handbook "Personal Relations": whether and to what extent personal relations can be understood as a fundamental sociological category, one that is uniform and covers social relations such as pair relationships, brother-sister and parent-child relationships, family relations, friendships, neighbourhoods or informal working groups. It examines the different criteria which—according to the publishers—plead for establishing personal relations as a joint structural form. However, it also considers further aspects, such as the ways in which these forms of personal relations differ from other social relations, and raises the question of whether these differences can only be reconstructed through the means of an a-historical, systematic comparison of social relations—as suggested by the handbook. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003187

  5. Two Essays in Financial Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Kyle J.

    The following dissertation contains two distinct empirical essays which contribute to the overall field of Financial Economics. Chapter 1, entitled "The Determinants of Dynamic Dependence: An Analysis of Commodity Futures and Equity Markets," examines the determinants of the dynamic equity-commodity return correlations between five commodity futures sub-sectors (energy, foods and fibers, grains and oilseeds, livestock, and precious metals) and a value-weighted equity market index (S&P 500). The study utilizes the traditional DCC model, as well as three time-varying copulas: (i) the normal copula, (ii) the student's t copula, and (iii) the rotated-gumbel copula as dependence measures. Subsequently, the determinants of these various dependence measures are explored by analyzing several macroeconomic, financial, and speculation variables over different sample periods. Results indicate that the dynamic equity-commodity correlations for the energy, grains and oilseeds, precious metals, and to a lesser extent the foods and fibers, sub-sectors have become increasingly explainable by broad macroeconomic and financial market indicators, particularly after May 2003. Furthermore, these variables exhibit heterogeneous effects in terms of both magnitude and sign on each sub-sectors' equity-commodity correlation structure. Interestingly, the effects of increased financial market speculation are found to be extremely varied among the five sub-sectors. These results have important implications for portfolio selection, price formation, and risk management. Chapter 2, entitled, "US Community Bank Failure: An Empirical Investigation," examines the declining, but still pivotal role, of the US community banking industry. The study utilizes survival analysis to determine which accounting and macroeconomic variables help to predict community bank failure. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Federal Reserve Bank data are utilized to compare 452 community banks which failed between

  6. Empirical essays on energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-06-13

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war

  7. Empirical essays on energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war in 2011 as

  8. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption

  9. Essays on pricing electricity and electricity derivatives in deregulated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Julia

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation is composed of four essays on the behavior of wholesale electricity prices and their derivatives. The first essay provides an empirical model that takes into account the spatial features of a transmission network on the electricity market. The spatial structure of the transmission grid plays a key role in determining electricity prices, but it has not been incorporated into previous empirical models. The econometric model in this essay incorporates a simple representation of the transmission system into a spatial panel data model of electricity prices, and also accounts for the effect of dynamic transmission system constraints on electricity market integration. Empirical results using PJM data confirm the existence of spatial patterns in electricity prices and show that spatial correlation diminishes as transmission lines become more congested. The second essay develops and empirically tests a model of the influence of natural gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium. I link a model of the effect of gas storage constraints on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to a model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. Empirical results using PJM data support the model's predictions that gas storage inventories sharply reduce the electricity forward premium when demand for electricity is high and space-heating demand for gas is low. The third essay examines the efficiency of PJM electricity markets. A market is efficient if prices reflect all relevant information, so that prices follow a random walk. The hypothesis of random walk is examined using empirical tests, including the Portmanteau, Augmented Dickey-Fuller, KPSS, and multiple variance ratio tests. The results are mixed though evidence of some level of market efficiency is found. The last essay investigates the possibility that previous researchers have drawn spurious conclusions based on classical unit root tests incorrectly applied to

  10. Essays on Empirical Asset Pricing : Essays over het empirisch prijzen van financiele producten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.M. Verbeek (Roy)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation consists of three essays on empirical asset pricing. In the first essay, I investigate whether common risk factors are priced across investment horizons. I show that only the market and size factors are priced, but only up to sixteen months. The results highlight the

  11. Open Educational Resources: American Ideals, Global Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Weiland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Educational relations between societies and cultures that begin with benevolent intentions can come to be seen as threats to national autonomy and local preferences. Indeed, side by side with the growth since the first years of this century of Open Educational Resources (OER there has been worry about their impact on global educational development. Evaluation and research have lagged behind the steady expansion of access to online resources, leaving estimates of the value of digital innovation to the enthusiasm of OER providers and technology minded educational reformers. The advent of the “Massive Open Online Course” (or MOOC has exacerbated the problem, with attention moving toward a form of OER reflecting the enthusiasm of leading institutions in industrialized nations. The American led movement on behalf of the MOOC requires new questions about the motives, impact, and future of OER. This essay accounts for the history of OER, culminating in the MOOC, including how the latter in particular is an expression of American pedagogical and institutional interests representing belief in the transformative educational powers of the latest communications technologies. Criticism of OER and MOOCs can reflect organizational, operational, and ideological considerations. But it should recognize what they offer when there are few other opportunities for formal learning, and as research demonstrates their uses and impact.

  12. Tradition as Gelotopoesis: An Essay on the Hermeneutics of Laughter in Martin Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tziovanis Georgakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I argue that laughter stands as the tricky possibility of the question of the meaning of Being, which ridiculously limits and gets limited by tradition beyond limitation. I introduce a hermeneutics of laughter and contend that the event of Ereignis receives its meaning from Gelotopoesis—the poetic act of laughter. Moreover, I claim that the echo of Gelotopoesis becomes the possibility of the transmission of tradition and is attested by a hypertonic boastfulness and a hypotonic irony. These two echoing tonalities question an unquestionable presence, which tradition never questions, in the most excessive manner so that it becomes the proper question of tradition once again.

  13. Essays on Debt and Pensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde Andersen, Henrik

    Money is a scarce resource for most people. For that reason, the decision whether to spend more today and less in the future or vice versa is a recurrent question to many of us. Pension systems provide incentives for saving for future consumption and mortgage markets allow us to increase...... consumption immediately by giving up future spending opportunities accordingly. For this reason, pension and mortgage systems play a key role to individual savings decisions. This dissertation is comprised by three self-contained chapters concerned with how individual savings behavior depends on the design...

  14. Humanizing mathematics and its philosophy essays celebrating the 90th birthday of Reuben Hersh

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This Festschrift contains numerous colorful and eclectic essays from well-known mathematicians, philosophers, logicians, and linguists celebrating the 90th birthday of Reuben Hersh. The essays offer, in part, attempts to answer the following questions set forth by Reuben himself as a focus for this volume: Can practicing mathematicians, as such, contribute anything to the philosophy of math? Can or should philosophers of math, as such, say anything to practicing mathematicians? Twenty or fifty years from now, what will be similar, and what will, or could, or should be altogether different: About the philosophy of math? About math education? About math research institutions? About data processing and scientific computing? The essays also offer glimpses into Reuben’s fertile mind and his lasting influence on the mathematical community, as well as revealing the diverse roots, obstacles and philosophical dispositions that characterize the working lives of mathematicians. With contributions from a veritable “w...

  15. Telling Lives in Science: Essays on Scientific Biography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Peter

    1997-01-01

    This collection of ten essays by historians of science, several of them biographers, is concerned with the role of scientific biography in forming conceptions of science and scientists. The essays include studies of the biographies of individual scientists, assessments of the aims and style of scientific portraits in different historical contexts, examinations of changing biographical interpretations of scientists, and much discussion of the methodological issues involved in the writing of scientific biographies. Many historians consider biography to be an ambiguous genre, its appeal based on nostalgia rather than history, with a focus on personality rather than historical context, but the biographer can reply that scientific biography reveals the practice of science at its most fundamental level. Indeed, scientific biography has provided a powerful medium in which public conceptions of science have been established. Einstein observed that 'the essential being of a man of my type lies in what he thinks and how he thinks', and his Autobiographical Notes suppress personality in favour of physics. But the biographer may see matters differently, and wish to integrate the public and the private life of the scientist. In their substantial introduction the editors discuss these and other problems, and the book is directed to the professional concerns of historians of science. While there is little here on the history of physics, Geoffrey Cantor's essay on public images of Faraday as constructed in popular biographies, a discussion of conflicting portraits of Faraday as romantic genius or hard-working slogger, may interest readers of this journal. (book review)

  16. Astr 101 Students' Attitudes Towards Essays On Transits, Eclipses And Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.

    2012-05-01

    Joliet Junior College, Joliet, IL offers a one semester introductory astronomy course each semester. We teach over 110 primarily non-science major students each semester. We use proven active learning strategies such lecture tutorials, think-pair-share questions and small group discussions to help these students develop and retain a good understanding of astrophysical concepts. Occasionally, we offer projects that allow students to explore course topics beyond the classroom. We hope that such projects will increase students' interest in astronomy. We also hope that these assignments will help students to improve their critical thinking and writing skills. In Spring 12, we are offering three short individual essay assignments in our face-to-face sections. The essays focus on transits, eclipses and occultations to highlight the 2012 transit of Venus. For the first essay, students will find images of transit and occultation events using the Astronomy Picture of the Day website and describe their chosen events. In addition, students will predict how variations in certain physical and orbital parameters would alter their particular events. The second essay involves transits, eclipses and occultations observed by spacecraft. Students will describe their transit event, their spacecraft's mission, orbital path, how the orbital path was achieved, etc. The third essay deals with transiting exoplanets. Students will choose at least two exoplanets from an exoplanet database, one of which has been discovered through the transit method. This essay will enable students to learn about detecting exoplanets and how they compare with our solar system. Details of the essay assignments and students' reactions to them will be presented at the meeting.

  17. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  18. Questions for the Study and Teaching of Shakespeare and Milton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Angela, Ed.; Medine, Peter, Ed.

    The discussion questions and essay prompts in this collection were compiled from contributions made by participants in the 1991 Arizona Shakespeare-Milton Institute. After an introduction which presents some general guidelines for teachers and students, the collection addresses the following works: "As You Like It"; "The…

  19. A Comparison of SSCE Questions Set by the West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) essay questions set by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and the National Examinations Council (NECO) in terms of how much they were distributed across the various levels of the cognitive domain. To this effect, the ...

  20. Essays on market design and strategic behaviour in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The thesis at hand consists of four essays which are divided into two parts. In the first part, consisting of the first two essays, market design issues in electricity markets are discussed. More precisely, it deals with concerns regarding security of supply: First, the concerns regarding the availability of sufficient flexibility to cope with intermittent renewable energy electricity generation. And second, the consequences of insufficient investments signals in energy only markets in interconnected electricity markets. Part two deals with strategic behaviour in spatial natural resource markets. Strategic behaviour and the exertion of market power have always been a matter of concern in energy markets, especially in natural resource markets. The exertion of market power can result in deadweight losses - regulatory bodies try to address this by market regulations aiming for a welfare maximising market outcome. The first problem is to detect collusive behaviour as available data is frequently limited. The second question is how regulatory decisions may influence the market outcome. Both topics are investigated by using the example of the international metallurgical coal market.

  1. Essays on market design and strategic behaviour in energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan

    2017-11-13

    The thesis at hand consists of four essays which are divided into two parts. In the first part, consisting of the first two essays, market design issues in electricity markets are discussed. More precisely, it deals with concerns regarding security of supply: First, the concerns regarding the availability of sufficient flexibility to cope with intermittent renewable energy electricity generation. And second, the consequences of insufficient investments signals in energy only markets in interconnected electricity markets. Part two deals with strategic behaviour in spatial natural resource markets. Strategic behaviour and the exertion of market power have always been a matter of concern in energy markets, especially in natural resource markets. The exertion of market power can result in deadweight losses - regulatory bodies try to address this by market regulations aiming for a welfare maximising market outcome. The first problem is to detect collusive behaviour as available data is frequently limited. The second question is how regulatory decisions may influence the market outcome. Both topics are investigated by using the example of the international metallurgical coal market.

  2. Questions for Bernard Spolsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2016-01-01

    This essay is based on a June 2014 interview with Bernard Spolsky, in which he discussed his life with educational linguistics. A self-described "accidental professor," Spolsky directed the first study of Navajo sociolinguistics, established educational linguistics as a field of study and practice, co-created a national language policy…

  3. Essays in empirical finance and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holle, Frederiek

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays. In the first paper, “Stock-Bond Correlations, Macroeconomic Regimes and Monetary Policy”, we link the evolution of stock-bond correlations for an international sample to both local and global regimes in inflation, the output gap and monetary policy. We

  4. Can Style Be Creative? An Exploratory Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores the nature of creativity of the practicing professional through the examination of the role of personal style in creative work, as well as how personality can affect and sustain creativity. Instructional designers, as practicing creatives, must balance the divergent and novel with the restraints of clients, projects, and…

  5. A Small Essay About a Big Boulevard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the analogies of turning city borders and walls into boulevards and gardens through the examples of Moscow and Irkutsk. The main street of Irkutsk is viewed in a new light, as a boulevard. It is proposed to take into consideration the peculiarities of the four sense-parts of the street when working on design codes.

  6. Essay on legitimacy and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplanova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the paper is to deeply analyze a concept of legitimacy. Based on the classical works of Lipset and Habermas, the paper discusses conditions, efficiency, and presumptions on which a modern democratic political system stands. Method: The paper analyzes a relationship between positivist and normative understanding of legitimacy questioning a democratic political order. By a content analysis of two main theories of legitimacy, the paper examines a sense of democratic legitimacy in modern societies. Results: A legitimacy is a pillar of any democracy. From the structuralist point of view, in societies there are three main types of crises (economic, social, political, which are present constantly and interconnected by nature and implications. Each crisis creates a specific deficit and challenge for democracy. By overcoming, a stability of democracy is strengthened which makes a (crisis of legitimacy inevitable. Society: In a time of post-truth politics and crisis of democracy, there is a lack of research dealing with a legitimacy of the democratic regime. By pointing out classical approaches to a stability of democracy, there should be elaborated a new construct of democratic legitimacy reflecting structural conditions of modern societies. This paper is trying to offer an insight into a normative understanding of this construction. Limitations / further research: A theoretical approach could be verified by an empirical research.

  7. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR REFLECTIVE ESSAY WRITING EXPERIENCE AND TEACHER FEEDBACK COMMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiah Mohd Sharif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection which encompasses critical and analytical capabilities is a critical 21st century skill for students to develop. To ensure students are equipped with this skill, reflective writing has been identified as a possible tool. Teacher feedback on students’ written output therefore plays a role in developing students’ reflective skills. This study asks two questions: How do students perceive their experience writing reflective essays? What is the nature of the teacher’s feedback comments on students’ reflective essays and how do students perceive them? To answer these questions, nineteen ESL students in an entry-level Medical programme completed a questionnaire concerning their experiences writing reflective essays and perceptions of teacher feedback on these essays. Interviews were conducted with two students to follow-up on questionnaire responses. The content analysis showed that the students believed reflective writing played a small contribution to their language learning. Further investigation into the students’ perspectives of their teachers’ feedback comments suggests that even though the teachers’ feedback was positive, the students also referred to the comments as inadequate and ineffective. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  8. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Intelligence Admission Essay Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Gutman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to describe the development and psychometric properties of the Emotional Intelligence Admission Essay scale. The authors developed an admission essay question and rating scale designed to provide information about applicants’ emotional intelligence (EI. Content validity, convergent validity, interrater reliability, and internal consistency were established. The scale was also examined to determine if it could discriminate between students with and without professional behavior problems in the academic and fieldwork settings. Content validity was found to be high by a panel of three experts in EI (content validity index = 1.0. Convergent validity with the Assessing Emotions Scale was moderate (r = .46, p < .02. Interrater reliability between two trained faculty raters was high (ICC = .91, p < .000. Internal consistency of the scale was high with a Cronbach’s alpha of .95. This version of the scale was not able to discriminate between students with and without professional behavior problems. The moderate to strong psychometric properties suggest that the EI Admission Essay Scale has the ability to provide information about applicants’ EI. The wording of the essay question must be modified to better instruct applicants to address interpersonal conflict.

  9. The Interlanguage Interference on the Difficulties of Building Question Sentences by the Second Year Students of MA As Soorkaty Salatiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Famularsih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to elaborate the interlanguage interference of the difficulties which are faced by 40 second year students of MA As Soorkaty Salatiga in academic year of 2004-2005 in building question sentences and the sources of difficulties. The research is conducted by such kind of test. The total number of test are 20 items, consist of 5 yes-no questions, 5 W-H questions, and 10 tag questions which is done in a written essay form. Based on the analysis, the result shows some conclusions. Firstly, the researcher finds the types of difficulties problems are faced by the students in building question mastery, such as: (1 building yes-no question sentences in translation the word “apakah”, that is related with the use of to be. (2 Building interrogative word question sentences in translation the words “apa”, “kapan”, “milik siapa”, etc. That are related with the use of “what”, “when”, “whose”, etc. (3 Completing the tag question sentences with the proper auxiliary based on tense of the sentences. The most difficulties in building question sentences are especially in yes-no question form by using the word “apakah”. In the term of interlanguage, the students’ errors are mostly included in expressing meaning by the words and grammar of the first language. The source of difficulties which have been analyzed are mostly caused by inter lingual and intra lingual transfer.

  10. Short Essay on Managing Multicultural Students Groups within Diversity Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Ploae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present essay focuses on summarizing the key elements that should be considered wheneducators are in a position to manage and interact with a group of students from different culturesor social environments. In this respect, we consider that the challenge educators’ face inconnecting with students of diverse backgrounds is to develop a critical consciousness of the waysin which these larger discourses operate in their classrooms and to care enough to question them,to challenge them and to advocate for their students. To care for students who come fromhistorically marginalized populations educators need to remember that schooling can serve eithera liberating or marginalizing function. They can empower students to identify structures in societythat have contributed to marginalizing their perspective and seek to maintain inequitable structuresin society or even narrow communities.

  11. Aristotle, De Memoria et Reminiscentia. Text, Translation and Interpretive Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The dissertation analyses Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. It contains an introduction, a critical edition accompanied by an English translation, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on the Aristotelian tradition.......The dissertation analyses Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. It contains an introduction, a critical edition accompanied by an English translation, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on the Aristotelian tradition....

  12. Essaying the essay: nursing scholarship and the hegemony of the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Lyn; Rolfe, Gary

    2013-01-01

    It might appear odd or even perverse to be arguing for the essay as a vehicle for academic thought and writing, particularly given the current emphasis on scientific research and evidence-based practice. In fact, the scholarly essay has virtually ceased to exist as an academic form in practice disciplines such as nursing, excluded by what we will identify and refer to as the hegemony of the laboratory. In a practical as well as an intellectual attempt to reinstate it, this paper is structured in the form of two consecutive short essays. In the first, we identify the character, features and purpose of the scholarly essay and examine its demise as an academic form. In the second, we explore some possible reasons why the essay never became fully accepted as an academic form in nursing. We suggest that the essay is thematically eclectic and stylistically promiscuous, drawing from a broad range of cultural, disciplinary and academic reference points. As such, it presents a challenge to the dominant technical rational approach to academic nursing in both its form and its content, particularly in its disregard for the rigidly imposed genres and structures increasingly demanded by academic nursing journals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Three essays in pension finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the three major participants in pension finance, namely, pension funds, individuals, and sponsoring companies. In the light of the fragile financial market performance, prudential regulatory rules, including Value-at-Risk (VaR) constraints, are imposed widely all over the

  14. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  15. Intertextual Trips: Teaching the Essay in the Composition Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Nancy

    1989-01-01

    Cites essays by Joan Didion, John Berryman, and Martin Luther King in arguing that the essay, no matter how serious, can be considered as a fiction and a playful, exploratory and deeply interesting rhetorical game. Describes how these works were used to teach students that the essay is a living document calling for interaction. (SG)

  16. Essays on Social Media Fundraising and E-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xue

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation has two components: social media fundraising and e-commerce. The first component of social media fundraising discusses social media users' charitable content generation in essay 1 and charitable giving in essay 2. In essay 1, we examine how reciprocity of followees affects social influence on users' charitable content generation.…

  17. Giving Personal Examples and Telling Stories in Academic Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Eli

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the extensive use of personal examples and stories in the academic essays of students who are nonnative speakers of English. Draws on a large database of college examination essays to compare the use of personal examples in essays written by native and nonnative speakers. Finds nonnative students not only use examples more often than…

  18. [Suicide -- an essay trying to reveal the theme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, M A; Boemer, M R

    2000-12-01

    This essay proposes to reveal facets of the suicide through the discourse of different authors treating this theme as well as through contacts that I was able to have in my nursing training, through my academic trajectory. This trajectory includes an incursion by phenomenological ideas, mainly by the ideas of Heidegger and his existential analysis of the man as being-there. In this way, the understanding of a person who decides to finalize his/her existence, can be, by the existential analysis perspective, a way to reconstruct and redimension his/her existential perspectives.

  19. Ten mathematical essays on approximation in analysis and topology

    CERN Document Server

    López-Gómez, J; Ruiz del Portal, F R

    2005-01-01

    This book collects 10 mathematical essays on approximation in Analysis and Topology by some of the most influent mathematicians of the last third of the 20th Century. Besides the papers contain the very ultimate results in each of their respective fields, many of them also include a series of historical remarks about the state of mathematics at the time they found their most celebrated results, as well as some of their personal circumstances originating them, which makes particularly attractive the book for all scientist interested in these fields, from beginners to experts. These gem pieces

  20. Questions of economics. [solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeff, P

    1976-05-01

    The essay deals with questions of profitability in connection with the use of solar energy to heat buildings or to prepare hot water. The total problem is approached from 3 points of view: 1. General national economy point of view: Judgment by politicians determines the possibilities of support by the government. 2. The business economy aspect: Here the most important matter is to construct the plants with dimensions permitting to obtain the highest profits possible. 3. The financing model: possible incentives must be taken into consideration as well as technical aspects, e.g. the service life of the plants.

  1. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  2. Basic relativity. An introductory essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrasko, Peter [Pecs Univ. (Hungary)

    2011-07-01

    This Brief presents a new way of introducing relativity theory, in which perplexing relativistic effects such as time dilation and Lorentz contraction are explained prior to the discussion of Lorentz-transformation. The notion of relativistic mass is shown to contradict the spirit of relativity theory and the true significance of the mass-energy relation is contrasted with the popular view of it. The author discusses the twin paradox from the point of view of both siblings. Last but not least, the fundamentals of general relativity are described, including the recent Gravity Probe B experiment. (orig.)

  3. Basic relativity. An introductory essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasko, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This Brief presents a new way of introducing relativity theory, in which perplexing relativistic effects such as time dilation and Lorentz contraction are explained prior to the discussion of Lorentz-transformation. The notion of relativistic mass is shown to contradict the spirit of relativity theory and the true significance of the mass-energy relation is contrasted with the popular view of it. The author discusses the twin paradox from the point of view of both siblings. Last but not least, the fundamentals of general relativity are described, including the recent Gravity Probe B experiment. (orig.)

  4. Basic Relativity An Introductory Essay

    CERN Document Server

    Hraskó, Péter

    2011-01-01

    This Brief presents a new way of introducing relativity theory, in which perplexing relativistic effects such as time dilation and Lorentz contraction are explained prior to the discussion of Lorentz-transformation. The notion of relativistic mass is shown to contradict the spirit of relativity theory and the true significance of the mass-energy relation is contrasted with the popular view of it. The author discusses the twin paradox from the point of view of both siblings. Last but not least, the fundamentals of general relativity are described, including the recent Gravity Probe B experiment.

  5. Answer This Simple Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Elspeth S.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, the author discusses her journey from her first year of the PhD program at USC, and the work she is doing now for a company that builds infrastructure in Afghanistan. She explores the ways in which studies for her 1985 PhD in Rhetoric, Linguistics and Literature did and did not prepare her for the work she does now. Her memoir…

  6. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  7. På kant med Kant : Et bekjennende essay

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Per

    2013-01-01

    Kant can’t always be right. There are some aspects of Kant’s philosophy that make him unsuitable for the understanding of a musical experience. His contribution to aesthetic theory is developed in the Critique of Judgement (1790), where he investigates the possibility and logical status of “judgements of taste”. In this essay, I argue that his exploration of the inherent limits of our knowledge through philosophical reasoning seems to impede an understanding of the musical expe...

  8. Essays on investor behavior and trading activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kyröläinen, P. (Petri)

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This thesis investigates a set of equity market phenomena associated with investors' trading activity, using a comprehensive Finnish Central Securities Depository (FCSD) database that records practically all trades by Finnish investors. This database enables us to classify a large number of heterogeneous investors using both economic and institutional characteristics. The first essay classifies investors by trading activity. It analyzes trading styles of active and passive inv...

  9. Three essays in control, entrepreneurship and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas, F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key emphases of these three essays is to provide practical managerial insight. However, good practical insight, can only be created by grounding it firmly on theoretical and empirical research. Practical experience-based understanding without theoretical grounding remains tacit and cannot be easily disseminated. Theoretical understanding without links to real life remains sterile. My studies aim to increase the understanding of how radical innovation could be generated at large est...

  10. Essays on Learning, Uncertainty, and Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, Mira Anna Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents three independent essays in microeconomic theory. Motivated by the rise of social media, Chapter 1 (co-authored with Yuhta Ishii) builds a model studying the effect of an economy's potential for social learning on the adoption of innovations of uncertain quality. Provided consumers are forward-looking (i.e. recognize the value of waiting for information), equilibrium dynamics depend non-trivially on qualitative and quantitative features of the informational envir...

  11. Conference Essay: The Relationship between Gender Studies and Discourse Studies: Synergies, Frictions, and Pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Bettina; Dinsleder, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    The interdisciplinary conference "Gender Studies Meets Discourse Studies Meets Gender Studies: Entanglements, Affinities, Tensions, and Open Questions" focused on the relationship between gender studies and discourse studies. On the one hand this essay provides insights into the conference debates, and on the other it critically discusses the contributions. The following three key aspects provide guidelines for reconstructing and developing the arguments: 1. theoretical perspectives on the re...

  12. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  13. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  14. Essays on globalization. Policies in trade, development, resources and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkelae, L.

    2009-07-01

    This research study on globalization consists of an introduction on the methodology applied, a summary and four independent essays focussing on applied policy research in international trade. The study follows the CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) research tradition. The simulation environment is the publicly available GTAP model. The essays examine the specific topics of trade and aid policies, price liberalization of the Russian energy markets, trade preferences in the sugar sector of the EU and the role of carbon sinks in mitigating climate change. The first essay examines trade and aid policies in Mozambique. The essay analyses the impact of alternative options like trade agreements, aid and trade facilitation. The results suggest that Mozambique has very little to gain from trade agreements or the Doha Round, although some agreements with the EU do yield some benefit. Trade facilitation and aid-for-trade programs on the other hand have the potential for larger benefits. The second essay examines the impact of liberalising RussiaAEs energy sector. The analysis is based on the implicit subsidies in regulated prices of electricity and gas and focuses on the effect of the different taxes and subsidies with respect to welfare and GDP in Russia and abroad. Increases in the price of electricity and gas improve efficiency and shift output from domestic markets to exports. The third essay investigates the impact of liberalising the EUAEs sugar sector by taking into account the complex structure of the EU sugar market and preferences in imports for developing countries. The fourth essay focuses on the effects of including carbon sinks into the analysis of the impacts of the Kyoto agreement. (orig.)

  15. Telling Lives in Science: Essays on Scientific Biography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Peter

    1997-09-01

    This collection of ten essays by historians of science, several of them biographers, is concerned with the role of scientific biography in forming conceptions of science and scientists. The essays include studies of the biographies of individual scientists, assessments of the aims and style of scientific portraits in different historical contexts, examinations of changing biographical interpretations of scientists, and much discussion of the methodological issues involved in the writing of scientific biographies. Many historians consider biography to be an ambiguous genre, its appeal based on nostalgia rather than history, with a focus on personality rather than historical context, but the biographer can reply that scientific biography reveals the practice of science at its most fundamental level. Indeed, scientific biography has provided a powerful medium in which public conceptions of science have been established. Einstein observed that 'the essential being of a man of my type lies in what he thinks and how he thinks', and his Autobiographical Notes suppress personality in favour of physics. But the biographer may see matters differently, and wish to integrate the public and the private life of the scientist. In their substantial introduction the editors discuss these and other problems, and the book is directed to the professional concerns of historians of science. While there is little here on the history of physics, Geoffrey Cantor's essay on public images of Faraday as constructed in popular biographies, a discussion of conflicting portraits of Faraday as romantic genius or hard-working slogger, may interest readers of this journal. (book review)

  16. Essays on environmental policies, corruption, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Soham

    This thesis consists of four essays. The first essay looks at pollution taxation under capital mobility, and analyzes the role of pre-commitment by countries to their pollution tax rate. A polluting firm sells its product in two countries, and can locate and produce in a single country or in both countries. Due to the discrete-choice nature of the firm's location problem, the countries' welfare functions are discontinuous in their pollution tax rate. We show that when the countries cannot pre-commit to their pollution tax, the firm can still engender tax competition between them by strategically locating in both the countries. Moreover, pre-commitment pollution taxation may not be welfare improving for the countries, although it always makes the firm better off. The second essay studies the effect of liberalization on corruption. Corruptible inspectors enforce an environmental regulation on firms, and are monitored by an honest regulator. Liberalization not only increases the variety of goods and the marginal utility of accepting a bribe, but also puts pressure on the regulator to curb corruption. The interaction of these two effects can cause corruption to initially increase with liberalization, and then decrease beyond a threshold. Moreover, equilibrium corruption is lower when the regulator is able to pre-commit to her monitoring frequency. The third essay analyzes optimal labeling (information revelation) procedures for hidden attributes of credence goods. Consumers are heterogeneous in their preference for the hidden attribute, and producers can either self-label their products, or have them certified by a third party. The government can impose self or third-party labeling requirements on either the "green" or the "brown" producers. When corrupt producers can affix spurious labels, the government needs to monitor them. A mandatory self-labeling policy is shown to generally dominate mandatory third-party labeling. The fourth essay develops formulas for

  17. Discriminant analysis of essay, mathematics/science type of essay, college scholastic ability test, and grade point average as predictors of acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Geum-Hee

    2008-01-01

    A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of early admission data revealed significant F values for the mathematics/science type of essay (51.64; Pgrade point average (10.66; P=0.0014). The analysis of regular admission data revealed the following F values: 28.81 (Pgrade point average, 27.47 (P<0.0001) for college scholastic ability test, 10.67 (P=0.0012) for the essay, and 216.74 (P<0.0001) for the mathematics/science type of essay. Since the mathematics/science type of essay had a strong effect on acceptance, an emphasis on this requirement and exclusion of other kinds of essays would be effective in subsequent entrance examinations for this premed course.

  18. Decision-Making and the Law in Higher Education--Emphasis on Student Rights: Essay and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Terrence N.

    The essay and bibliography presented here are designed for general use among those concerned with questions of campus rights and responsibilities and with the application of legal principles in campus decision-making. The primary focus is on student rights issues. The discussion falls into three parts: (1) "Law and Morality in the Open Society" is…

  19. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  20. Metadiscourse in persuasive essays by elementary students in South Korea and the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Il-Hee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated metadiscourse in the persuasive essays of fourth graders from both urban and rural communities: 224 students in South Korea and 188 in the US. Each student was asked to write a persuasive essay in his or her native Korean or English in response to a story not previously read or discussed. Analysis with a taxonomy developed by Hyland (2004 indicated significant differences in the metadiscourse by country. In terms of interactive metadiscourse, South Korean students used more sentence-level transitions than U.S. students, who used more frame markers and endophoric markers. With regard to interactional metadiscourse, U.S. students used more hedges, boosters, engagement markers, and self-mentions in their essays. This study also compared the students′ essays by the type of community in which the writers lived. In the US the essays of students in rural communities contained more hedges, whereas those of students in urban areas included significantly more self-mentions. In South Korea, no significant difference was detected in the metadiscourse of students living in rural and urban areas.

  1. HGSA DNA day essay contest winner 60 years on: still coding for cutting-edge science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    MESSAGE FROM THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE: In 2013, the Education Committee of the Human Genetics Society of Australasia (HGSA) established the DNA Day Essay Contest in Australia and New Zealand. The contest was first established by the American Society of Human Genetics in 2005 and the HGSA DNA Day Essay Contest is adapted from this contest via a collaborative partnership. The aim of the contest is to engage high school students with important concepts in genetics through literature research and reflection. As 2013 marks the 60th anniversary of the discovery of the double helix of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick and the 10th anniversary of the first sequencing of the human genome, the essay topic was to choose either of these breakthroughs and explain its broader impact on biotechnology, human health and disease, or our understanding of basic genetics, such as genetic variation or gene expression. The contest attracted 87 entrants in 2013, with the winning essay authored by Patrick Yates, a Year 12 student from Melbourne High School. Further details about the contest including the names and schools of the other finalists can be found at http://www.hgsa-essay.net.au/. The Education Committee would like to thank all the 2013 applicants and encourage students to enter in 2014.

  2. Discriminant Analysis of Essay, Mathematics/Science Type of Essay, College Scholastic Ability Test, and Grade Point Average as Predictors of Acceptance to a Pre-med Course at a Korean Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Geum-Hee Jeong

    2008-01-01

    A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of ea...

  3. The theory of relativity and other essays

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2011-01-01

    E=mc2: It may be Einstein's most well-known contribution to modern science, but how many people understand the thought process or physics behind this famous equation?In this collection of his seven most important essays on physics, Einstein guides his reader step-by-step through the many layers of scientific theory that formed a starting point for his discoveries. By both supporting and refuting the theories and scientific efforts of his predecessors, Einstein reveals in a clear voice the origins and meaning of such significant topics as physics and reality, the fundamentals of theoretical ph

  4. Three essays on human resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Avgoustaki, Argyro

    2012-01-01

    This thesis comprises three essays on human resource management. The first one studies the effect of on-the-job training on firm productivity using a micro-dataset of a large firm in Greece for the period 2005 to 2006. The data consist of daily observations on the productivity of the same workers tracked before, during, and after the receipt of training. Overall, the empirical findings show that after the implementation of on-the-job training, productivity improves by almost 6.5 percent. Resu...

  5. Essays in real-time forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Liebermann, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays in the field of real-time econometrics, and more particularlyforecasting.The issue of using data as available in real-time to forecasters, policymakers or financialmarkets is an important one which has only recently been taken on board in the empiricalliterature. Data available and used in real-time are preliminary and differ from ex-postrevised data, and given that data revisions may be quite substantial, the use of latestavailable instead of real-time can s...

  6. Archives and societal provenance Australian essays

    CERN Document Server

    Piggott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Records and archival arrangements in Australia are globally relevant because Australia's indigenous people represent the oldest living culture in the world, and because modern Australia is an ex-colonial society now heavily multicultural in outlook. Archives and Societal Provenance explores this distinctiveness using the theoretical concept of societal provenance as propounded by Canadian archival scholars led by Dr Tom Nesmith. The book's seventeen essays blend new writing and re-workings of earlier work, comprising the fi rst text to apply a societal provenance perspective to a national sett

  7. Cholestatic jaundice by malignant lesions: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Anna, Tatiana Kelly Brasileiro de; Santana, Alex Menezes; Rizzuto, Mauricio Soares; Chagas, Alessandro Rosa Rodrigues; Zuppani, Aguinaldo Cunha; Rezende, Marcelo Bruno; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo

    2009-01-01

    Malignant obstructive jaundice is most commonly caused by cancer of pancreatic head, papilla tumor, cholangiocarcinoma and biliary obstruction induced by secondary lesions of the liver or lymph nodes. Patients usually present with weight loss, abdominal pain, jaundice and progressive increase of direct bilirubin, being essential the evaluation by imaging methods for the proper diagnosis, staging and therapeutic planning. This essay illustrates the imaging aspects of ultrasound and computed tomography - and in specific situations magnetic resonance cholangiography - of the major malignancies that lead to cholestatic jaundice. (author)

  8. Questioning the Question: How can a husband rape his wife? : A Discussion in an International Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Nicole Walquist

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I assume that upon reading this you already have some reaction or answer. I have one, too. The interesting part is that they can be very different. Some people think along the lines of “Yes, I can't imagine how a husband can rape his wife because that is so cruel.” Other people may think something like “Yes, how is this even possible, that a husband having sex with his wife could be considered rape.” These views are quite different, and it is this difference that interests me.In this essay, I will reflect upon the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I will discuss my personal background, and describe the situation and experience in which this question was brought up. Next, I will discuss various reflections I have had about this difference. I will then reflect on how this idea, or even the definitions of the terms, may be based on a person’s culture, gender, and/or opinions. After that, I will look at how this topic may affect social workers, service users and social work as a profession. Lastly, I will also explain how this has helped me gain a better understanding of this issue.

  9. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  10. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  11. Splenic Anomalies of Shape, Size, and Location: Pictorial Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalet Elcin Yildiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spleen can have a wide range of anomalies including its shape, location, number, and size. Although most of these anomalies are congenital, there are also acquired types. Congenital anomalies affecting the shape of spleen are lobulations, notches, and clefts; the fusion and location anomalies of spleen are accessory spleen, splenopancreatic fusion, and wandering spleen; polysplenia can be associated with a syndrome. Splenosis and small spleen are acquired anomalies which are caused by trauma and sickle cell disease, respectively. These anomalies can be detected easily by using different imaging modalities including ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and also Tc-99m scintigraphy. In this pictorial essay, we review the imaging findings of these anomalies which can cause diagnostic pitfalls and be interpreted as pathologic processes.

  12. Common findings and pseudolesions at computed tomography colonography: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von; Tiferes, Dario Ariel; Matsumoto, Carlos Alberto; Nunes, Thiago Franchi; Maia, Marcos Vinicius Alvim Soares; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography is a minimally invasive method for screening for polyps and colorectal cancer, with extremely unusual complications, increasingly used in the clinical practice. In the last decade, developments in bowel preparation, imaging, and in the training of investigators have determined a significant increase in the method sensitivity. Images interpretation is accomplished through a combined analysis of two-dimensional source images and several types of three-dimensional renderings, with sensitivity around 96% in the detection of lesions with dimensions equal or greater than 10 mm in size, when analyzed by experienced radiologists. The present pictorial essay includes examples of diseases and pseudolesions most frequently observed in this type of imaging study. The authors present examples of flat and polypoid lesions, benign and malignant lesions, diverticular disease of the colon, among other conditions, as well as pseudolesions, including those related to inappropriate bowel preparation and misinterpretation. (author)

  13. Hierarchical decision modeling essays in honor of Dundar F. Kocaoglu

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume, developed in honor of Dr. Dundar F. Kocaoglu, aims to demonstrate the applications of the Hierarchical Decision Model (HDM) in different sectors and its capacity in decision analysis. It is comprised of essays from noted scholars, academics and researchers of engineering and technology management around the world. This book is organized into four parts: Technology Assessment, Strategic Planning, National Technology Planning and Decision Making Tools. Dr. Dundar F. Kocaoglu is one of the pioneers of multiple decision models using hierarchies, and creator of the HDM in decision analysis. HDM is a mission-oriented method for evaluation and/or selection among alternatives. A wide range of alternatives can be considered, including but not limited to, different technologies, projects, markets, jobs, products, cities to live in, houses to buy, apartments to rent, and schools to attend. Dr. Kocaoglu’s approach has been adopted for decision problems in many industrial sectors, including electronics rese...

  14. Discrete thoughts essays on mathematics, science, and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Kac, Mark; Schwartz, Jacob T

    1992-01-01

    This is a volume of essays and reviews that delightfully explore mathematics in all its moods — from the light and the witty, and humorous to serious, rational, and cerebral. Topics include: logic, combinatorics, statistics, economics, artificial intelligence, computer science, and applications of mathematics broadly. You will also find history and philosophy covered, including discussion of the work of Ulam, Kant, Heidegger among others. "...these papers reflect on mathematics and its influence on human society. They can help the specialist to notice what is going on around him, and they may lead educated people from other domains to a better understanding of mathematics. Many of these papers can advise educators how to form a modern mathematics education, which develops approved ideas and institutions...I admire the stimulating perspectives of the authors."---American Mathematical Society "‘Mathematicians, like Proust and everyone else, are at their best when writing about their first love’ … They a...

  15. Common findings and pseudolesions at computed tomography colonography: pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von [Clinical Radiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tiferes, Dario Ariel; Matsumoto, Carlos Alberto; Nunes, Thiago Franchi; Maia, Marcos Vinicius Alvim Soares [Abdominal Imaging Section, Department of Imaging Diagnosis - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Computed tomography colonography is a minimally invasive method for screening for polyps and colorectal cancer, with extremely unusual complications, increasingly used in the clinical practice. In the last decade, developments in bowel preparation, imaging, and in the training of investigators have determined a significant increase in the method sensitivity. Images interpretation is accomplished through a combined analysis of two-dimensional source images and several types of three-dimensional renderings, with sensitivity around 96% in the detection of lesions with dimensions equal or greater than 10 mm in size, when analyzed by experienced radiologists. The present pictorial essay includes examples of diseases and pseudolesions most frequently observed in this type of imaging study. The authors present examples of flat and polypoid lesions, benign and malignant lesions, diverticular disease of the colon, among other conditions, as well as pseudolesions, including those related to inappropriate bowel preparation and misinterpretation. (author)

  16. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  17. Automated Essay Grading using Machine Learning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, V. V.; Pandian, A.; Chetry, Prateek; Nigam, Himanshu

    2018-04-01

    Essays are paramount for of assessing the academic excellence along with linking the different ideas with the ability to recall but are notably time consuming when they are assessed manually. Manual grading takes significant amount of evaluator’s time and hence it is an expensive process. Automated grading if proven effective will not only reduce the time for assessment but comparing it with human scores will also make the score realistic. The project aims to develop an automated essay assessment system by use of machine learning techniques by classifying a corpus of textual entities into small number of discrete categories, corresponding to possible grades. Linear regression technique will be utilized for training the model along with making the use of various other classifications and clustering techniques. We intend to train classifiers on the training set, make it go through the downloaded dataset, and then measure performance our dataset by comparing the obtained values with the dataset values. We have implemented our model using java.

  18. Jane Austen: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Ian, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Virginia Woolf, C. S. Lewis, Edmund Wilson, Ian Watt, Alan D. McKillop, Reuben A. Brower, Marvin Mudrick, Mark Schorer, Arnold Kettle, Lionel Trilling, Kingsley Amis, Andrew H. Wright, Donald J. Greene, and D. W.…

  19. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  20. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part IV--Property, Plant, & Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This fourth article in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course is dedicated to the topic of property, plant, and equipment (PP&E), including both the accounting treatment and its related conceptual connections. The paper also addresses the measurement dilemmas, scandalous accounting…

  1. The Apprentice Researcher: Using Undergraduate Researchers' Personal Essays to Shape Instruction and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jennifer L.; Cordell, Sigrid Anderson; Cordell, Jeffrey; Duque, Gabriel J.; MacKintosh, Pamela J.; Peters, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intellectual journey of advanced undergraduates engaged in the research process. Moreover, few studies of this population of library users include students' personal essays as a point of analysis in their scholarly pursuits. To gain insights into the research trajectory of apprentice researchers at the University of…

  2. Mark Twain: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Henry Nash, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Henry Nash Smith, Van Wyck Brooks, Maurice Le Breton, Kenneth Lynn, Leo Marx, Walter Blair, Daniel G. Hoffman, W. H. Auden, James M. Cox, Leslie Fiedler, Bernard DeVoto, and Tony Tanner--all dealing with the biography and…

  3. Christ, the Spirit and the Community of God: Essays on the Acts of the Apostles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiep, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    This volume collects text-critical, exegetical and biblical-theological essays on the Acts of the Apostles, dealing primarily with the opening chapters of Acts in the wider context of first-century Christianity and its Umwelt. The articles include treatments of the ascension and exaltation of Jesus

  4. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    Motivated by global climate change, enhancing innovation systems for energy technologies is seen as one of the largest public policy challenges of the near future. The role of policy in enhancing energy innovation systems takes several forms: public provision of research and develop funding, facilitating the private sector's capability to develop new technologies, and creating incentives for private actors to adopt innovative and appropriate technologies. This dissertation explores research questions that span this range of policies to develop insights in how energy technology innovation policy can be reformed in the face of climate change. The first chapter of this dissertation explores how decision making to allocate public research and development funding could be improved through the integration of expert technology forecasts. I present a framework to evaluate and optimize the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development portfolio of applied energy projects, accounting for spillovers from technical complimentary and competition for the same market share. This project integrates one of the largest and most comprehensive sets of expert elicitations on energy technologies (Anadon et al., 2014b) in a benefit evaluation framework. This work entailed developing a new method for probability distribution sampling that accommodates the information that can be provided by expert elicitations. The results of this project show that public research and development in energy storage and solar photovoltaic technologies has the greatest marginal returns to economic surplus, but the methodology developed in this chapter is broadly applicable to other public and private R&D-sponsoring organizations. The second chapter of this dissertation explores how policies to transfer technologies from federally funded research laboratories to commercialization partners, largely private firms, create knowledge spillovers that lead to further innovation. In this chapter, I study the U

  5. EDITORIAL: George W Series Memorial Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    I would like to recall my experiences when I joined George Series when on study leave from the University of Otago in 1959. Like George, we had decided, some years previously, to pursue the line of research opened up by the double-resonance experiment of Brossel and Bitter. Up to that time both groups had been applying the new technique to traditional spectroscopic problems, those of measuring the fine structure, hyperhe structure, g-factors and nuclear moments. But here, in Oxford, was something new and exciting - experiments that studied the nature of light itself, questioning some long-held views. George had come to the view that, in a double-resonance experiment, one could demonstrate the inner coherence that could exist between superposition states of an atom. He, and his students Wilf Fox and Mike Taylor, had already obtained promising evidence; but he needed more definite results if he was going to allay the doubts and suspicions of some others in the Clarendon. At the time, people generally thought that light, being a superposition of radiations from many atoms with no obvious phase relation to each other, was an incoherent wave phenomenon. One could observe small scale coherence (for example, in the Young interference experiment) but it would be largely concealed by the incoherent nature of the radiation from many atoms in a source. In the experiments that had been performed the coherence was introduced between a pair of excited states (Zeeman sub-states) by the application of an oscillating magnetic field - was it not likely, according to the doubters, that the modulation observed in the fluorescence was due to "pick-up" in the amplifiers from the source of oscillations? George had to prove that this was not the cause. I well remember him saying at the time "I have a hunch that I am correct". That typified his approach to physics. The work of 1959 demonstrated beyond all doubt that substantial coherence, manifested as strong beats in the intensity of the

  6. Scientific collaboration and collective knowledge new essays

    CERN Document Server

    Mayo-Wilson, Conor; Weisberg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Descartes once argued that, with sufficient effort and skill, a single scientist could uncover fundamental truths about our world. Contemporary science proves the limits of this claim. From synthesizing the human genome to predicting the effects of climate change, some current scientific research requires the collaboration of hundreds (if not thousands) of scientists with various specializations. Additionally, the majority of published scientific research is now co-authored, including more than 80% of articles in the natural sciences, meaning small collaborative teams have become the norm in science. This volume is the first to address critical philosophical questions regarding how collective scientific research could be organized differently and how it should be organized. For example, should scientists be required to share knowledge with competing research teams? How can universities and grant-giving institutions promote successful collaborations? When hundreds of researchers contribute to a discovery, how ...

  7. Essay on Option Pricing, Hedging and Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel

    Quantitative finance is concerned about applying mathematics to financial markets.This thesis is a collection of essays that study different problems in this field: How efficient are option price approximations to calibrate a stochastic volatilitymodel? (Chapter 2) How different is the discretely...... of dynamics? (Chapter 5) How can we formulate a simple free-arbitrage model to price correlationswaps? (Chapter 6) A summary of the work presented in this thesis: Approximation Behooves Calibration In this paper we show that calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston...... stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005 to 2009. Discretely Sampled Variance Options: A Stochastic Approximation Approach In this paper, we expand Drimus and Farkas (2012) framework to price variance options on discretely sampled...

  8. Review essay: empires, ancient and modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John A

    2011-09-01

    This essay drews attention to two books on empires by historians which deserve the attention of sociologists. Bang's model of the workings of the Roman economy powerfully demonstrates the tributary nature of per-industrial tributary empires. Darwin's analysis concentrates on modern overseas empires, wholly different in character as they involved the transportation of consumption items for the many rather than luxury goods for the few. Darwin is especially good at describing the conditions of existence of late nineteenth century empires, noting that their demise was caused most of all by the failure of balance of power politics in Europe. Concluding thoughts are offered about the USA. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  9. Essays in Education, Crime, and Job Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick

    , Crime, and Job Displacement”, analyzes the determinants and social implications of these three factors. While independent, each essay within this thesis examines the impact of factors such as education, in terms of reduced crime, job loss, in terms of increased crime, and discrimination, in terms of its......With a limited budget and resources, governments must decide how to allocate funds across a variety of factors which benefit society such as education, crime deterrence, and public safety. Each increase in spending on one area comes with the knowledge that this money cannot be spent on social...... problems in another area. As such, externalities and unexpected spillover effects impact the costs and benefits of public spending to society and may have large and meaningful implications on how to most effectively allocate resources across a multitude of outcomes. For example, an increase in education...

  10. Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alorainy, Ibrahim A; Barlas, Nauman B; Al-Boukai, Amer A

    2010-01-01

    About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes

  11. Essays on Arbitrage and Market Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomio, Davide

    The first essay investigates how credit risk, the risk that a bond issuer will default, affects bond market liquidity. Specifically, we depart from the current literature in that we analyze the direct and indirect channels through which credit risk affects market liquidity, rather than determining...... whether both are priced in the bond. We focus on the Italian sovereign bond market, which allows us to determine how central bank interventions affect the sensitivity of the liquidity provision by market makers to default risk. We motivate our empirical analysis with a simple model of a risk averse market...... maker, holding an inventory of a risky asset and setting her optimal marginal quotes (and, therefore, the optimal bid-ask spread), in the presence of margin constraints and borrowing costs. The margins, set by a clearing house, depend on the risk of the asset, as measured by the CDS spread...

  12. Jeremy Bentham's essay on "Paederasty". Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, L

    1978-01-01

    This is Part 2 of a transcription of Bentham's manuscript essay on "Paederasty" (1785), Part 1 of which appeared in Vol. 3, No. 4. In Part 1 Bentham argued for the decriminalization of sodomy and opposed the theories of Montesquieu and Voltaire as to its social dangers. In Part 2 Bentham speculates on its causes and alleges that the real reason such behavior is so severely punished is an irrational "antipathy" to pleasure generally and to sexual pleasure in particular. He discusses the danger of blackmail and false accusations and the punishment of lesbian acts, bestiality, and masturbation. Some miscellaneous related notes by Bentham are appended: these deal with religious fears based on the destruction of Sodom, the threat to population, the harshness of English naval law, and other topics.

  13. Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alorainy Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes

  14. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  15. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  16. Essays on empirical industrial organization : Entry and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Machado, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation contains three essays on empirical industrial organization devoted to studying firms' strategic interaction in different settings. The first essay develops an entry model to address an important matter in the area of urban economics: the development of cities. In particular, it

  17. Cooperation, networks and emotions: Three essays in behavioral economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays that study how people behave in a social context. The first two essays are on cooperation and networks. Chapter 2 investigates a mechanism to facilitate public good provision in networks. It relies on the idea that people compete for attractive network positions (or

  18. Empirical essays on behavioral economics and lifecycle decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillingh, Rik

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four empirical essays that study decisions on insurance, consumption and the accumulation and decumulation of wealth. The studies pay due attention to behavioral factors that may limit rationality, such as complexity and intertemporal choice. The first essay looks at

  19. A Crosscultural Analysis of Argumentative Strategies in Student Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    A study of essays on a single topic (capital punishment) written by 22 American high school students and 30 second-year Japanese college students investigated: cultural differences in organizational patterns in argumentative essays; comparative use of rational and affective appeals; differences in content of rational and affective appeals;…

  20. Writing anxiety: an affective filter for essay writing instruction among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study which adopted the descriptive research design investigated the relationship between writing anxiety and students' achievement in essay writing. SS2 Students from six schools in Ibadan Metropolis were used for the study. The instruments used were Essay Writing Achievement Test(r=0.81) and Writing Anxiety ...

  1. The future-essay as a design tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Kappel, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present scenarios, photo-essays and future-essays as tools in communication, and as tools for clarifying the use of products in the future and the aesthetic qualities in the programme. In the design process, the programme is a description of the function, the condition...

  2. The Doctorate in Chemistry. Carnegie Essays on the Doctorate: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Ronald

    The Carnegie Foundation commissioned a collection of essays as part of the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID). Essays and essayists represent six disciplines that are part of the CID: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience. Intended to engender conversation about the conceptual foundation of doctoral…

  3. Essays in game theory and natural resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Do, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis presents a collection of essays in game theory with applications to environmental resource problems and their management. A major focus of these essays is related to coalitional games in which several classes of games, their properties and solution concepts are studied. Game theory is

  4. Scaffolding for Second Language Writers: Producing an Academic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterall, Sara; Cohen, Robin

    2003-01-01

    Describes how a group of intermediate learners of English were guided through the process of producing their first academic essays in English. The approach applied the concept of scaffolding to the academic writing process by proving flexible support for the learners throughout the writing of their essays. (Author/VWL)

  5. Metaphor of society (a sociological essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Vasil’evich Osipov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay by Academician G.V. Osipov, who is the patriarch of Russian sociology, is dedicated to one of the most cognitive topics of modern sociology – identification of sociological metaphor as such and its application in research projects. This topic is avant-garde for the world sociological thought, and in Russia such kind of research is making its first steps. However, its future importance is difficult to overestimate. Sociological metaphor, if a methodology for its application is developed, can provide scientists with qualitatively new synthetic research tools. It can also bring together scientific structures and artifacts on the space of interdisciplinary and inter-subject borderland and give them qualitatively new intellectual and sensuous (system and mental technological capabilities for learning the surrounding world. The advantage of the following essay can be found in the fact that it is based on the objective analysis of the real embodiment of social metaphor in the work of art – a pictorial triptych “The Mystery of the 21st Century”. This is the first such experience in domestic sociological and artistic-painting practice. The authors of the final product are a scientist of great scientific and life experience and a young artist, who received in-depth sociological training and defended his Ph.D. in Sociology dissertation. But the main result of their collaboration is a product that combines scientific (sociological knowledge and insight and intuitive-creative artistic perception in a qualitatively new perception of the world and world outlook

  6. Reading and Theorizing James Baldwin: A Bibliographic Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conseula Francis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Readers and critics alike, for the past sixty years, generally agree that Baldwin is a major African-American writer. What they do not agree on is why. Because of his artistic and intellectual complexity, Baldwin’s work resists easy categorization and Baldwin scholarship, consequently, spans the critical horizon. This essay provides an overview of the three major periods of Baldwin scholarship. 1963–73 is a period that begins with the publication of The Fire Next Time and sees Baldwin grace the cover of Time magazine. This period ends with Time declaring Baldwin too passé to publish an interview with him and with critics questioning his relevance. The second period, 1974–87, finds critics attempting to rehabilitate Baldwin’s reputation and work, especially as scholars begin to codify the African-American literary canon in anthologies and American universities. Finally, scholarship in the period after Baldwin’s death takes the opportunity to challenge common assumptions and silences surrounding Baldwin’s work. Armed with the methodologies of cultural studies and the critical insights of queer theory, critics set the stage for the current Baldwin renaissance.

  7. Fertility in the Age of Demographic Maturity: An Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatole Romaniuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As humanity is moving into a new age of its demographic evolution, I call it demographic maturity, the emerging demographic configurations – generational sub-replacement fertility, advanced aging and potential population implosion – call for new ways of thinking about population and new policy approaches. While we live longer and healthier, we also reproduce less and less. We are stuck in a culture of low fertility. The strong motivations for foregoing motherhood are financial: a two-salary wage is better than one even for the higher middle class. No less important is the woman’s financial independence in a societal environment where marriage as an institution is under considerable stress. Motherhood is to be rewarded adequately for its highly important social role and it has to be sufficient to reassure potential mothers of their financial concerns. What is required is a more balanced resource allocation between production and reproduction. The old welfare type hand-outs like child bonuses do not work. Societies, particularly the rich, ought to realize that to raise fertility, even to generational replacement level, not only is a much greater financial effort called for but some of the tenants of the liberal economy need to be put into question to make room for social concerns such a renewal of generations, if they want to survive as national entities. This essay advocates a stationary population as the best response to challenges such as ecological health, national identity and cohesion, and possibly world peace.

  8. Fertility in the Age of Demographic Maturity: An Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatole Romaniuk

    2010-12-01

    wage is better than one even for the higher middle class. No less important is the woman’s financial independence in a societal environment where marriage as an institution is under considerable stress. Motherhood is to be rewarded adequately for its highly important social role and it has to be sufficient to reassure potential mothers of their financial concerns. What is required is a more balanced resource allocation between production and reproduction. The old welfare type hand-outs like child bonuses do not work. Societies, particularly the rich, ought to realize that to raise fertility, even to generational replacement level, not only is a much greater financial effort called for but some of the tenants of the liberal economy need to be put into question to make room for social concerns such a renewal of generations, if they want to survive as national entities. This essay advocates a stationary population as the best response to challenges such as ecological health, national identity and cohesion, and possibly world peace.

  9. The future of the city. Essays; De toekomst van de stad. Essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uitermark, J.; Schinkel, W. [Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam EUR, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Engelen, E. [Universiteit van Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Raspe, O.; Hamers, D. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Janssen, J.; Beunen, R. [Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Schutten, I. [Studio Iris Schutten, Den Haag (Netherlands); Mommaas, H. [Universiteit Tilburg, Telos, Brabants Centrum voor Duurzame Ontwikkeling, Tilburg (Netherlands); Tillie, N. [Landschapsarchitect en adviseur duurzaamheid, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands); Verheijen, M. [Hogeschool Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Schuilenburg, M. [Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Jong, J.D. [Rebond onderzoek en advies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Steekelenburg, M. [Spatialplanning.com, Provinciehuis Zuid-Holland, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vermeulen, P. [Dienst Ruimtelijke Ordening Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Waal, M. [The Public Matters, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, B. [Mandorla Consultancy, Bussum (Netherlands); Soeterbroek, F. [De Ruimtemaker, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wijma, J. [Programmabureau Regio Groningen-Assen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    The essays discuss nine tasks for the city. Each problem will be approached from two angles. The focus is on the relationship between governments and the self-resolving power in the city, the capacity of individuals, groups and organizations to change. Where In what cases does the self-resolving power of the city hamper? When is government intervention required? What is the role of connections between tasks, policies and groups? [Dutch] De essays gaan in op negen opgaven voor de stad. Elke opgave wordt vanuit twee invalshoeken belicht. Centraal staat de verhouding tussen overheden en zelfoplossend vermogen in de stad, de 'veranderkracht' van individuen, groepen en organisaties. Waar hapert het zelfoplossend vermogen van de stad? Wanneer is overheidsinterventie gewenst? Welke rol spelen verbindingen tussen opgaven, beleidssectoren en groepen daarbij?.

  10. The future of the city. Essays; De toekomst van de stad. Essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uitermark, J.; Schinkel, W. [Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam EUR, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Engelen, E. [Universiteit van Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Raspe, O.; Hamers, D. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Janssen, J.; Beunen, R. [Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Schutten, I. [Studio Iris Schutten, Den Haag (Netherlands); Mommaas, H. [Universiteit Tilburg, Telos, Brabants Centrum voor Duurzame Ontwikkeling, Tilburg (Netherlands); Tillie, N. [Landschapsarchitect en adviseur duurzaamheid, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands); Verheijen, M. [Hogeschool Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Schuilenburg, M. [Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Jong, J. D. [Rebond onderzoek en advies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Steekelenburg, M. [Spatialplanning.com, Provinciehuis Zuid-Holland, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vermeulen, P. [Dienst Ruimtelijke Ordening Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Waal, M. [The Public Matters, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, B. [Mandorla Consultancy, Bussum (Netherlands); Soeterbroek, F. [De Ruimtemaker, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wijma, J. [Programmabureau Regio Groningen-Assen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    The essays discuss nine tasks for the city. Each problem will be approached from two angles. The focus is on the relationship between governments and the self-resolving power in the city, the capacity of individuals, groups and organizations to change. Where In what cases does the self-resolving power of the city hamper? When is government intervention required? What is the role of connections between tasks, policies and groups? [Dutch] De essays gaan in op negen opgaven voor de stad. Elke opgave wordt vanuit twee invalshoeken belicht. Centraal staat de verhouding tussen overheden en zelfoplossend vermogen in de stad, de 'veranderkracht' van individuen, groepen en organisaties. Waar hapert het zelfoplossend vermogen van de stad? Wanneer is overheidsinterventie gewenst? Welke rol spelen verbindingen tussen opgaven, beleidssectoren en groepen daarbij?.

  11. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  12. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  13. essay writing for undergraduate and postgraduate medical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    question. • Time management: the fact that you have to answer the questions in a limited time (e.g. ... year. Discuss your management. 2. Describe the management of a woman with infertility and ... extensively about the past obstetric history in ...

  14. Three Essays In and Tests of Theoretical Urban Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihua

    This dissertation consists of three essays on urban economics. The three essays are related to urban spatial structure change, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and housing redevelopment. Chapter 1 answers the question: Does the classic Standard Urban Model still describe the growth of cities? Chapter 2 derives the implications of telework on urban spatial structure, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. Chapter 3 investigates the long run effects of minimum lot size zoning on neighborhood redevelopment. Chapter 1 identifies a new implication of the classic Standard Urban Model, the "unitary elasticity property (UEP)", which is the sum of the elasticity of central density and the elasticity of land area with respect to population change is approximately equal to unity. When this implication of the SUM is tested, it fits US cities fairly well. Further analysis demonstrates that topographic barriers and age of housing stock are the key factors explaining deviation from the UEP. Chapter 2 develops a numerical urban simulation model with households that are able to telework to investigate the urban form, congestion, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission implications of telework. Simulation results suggest that by reducing transportation costs, telework causes sprawl, with associated longer commutes and consumption of larger homes, both of which increase energy consumption. Overall effects depend on who captures the gains from telework (workers versus firms), urban land use regulation such as height limits or greenbelts, and the fraction of workers participating in telework. The net effects of telework on energy use and GHG emissions are generally negligible. Chapter 3 applies dynamic programming to investigate the long run effects of minimum lot size zoning on neighborhood redevelopment. With numerical simulation, comparative dynamic results show that minimum lot size zoning can delay initial land conversion and slow down demolition and

  15. Intracranial involvement in plasmacytomas and multiple myeloma: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerase, Alfonso; Gennari, Paola; Monti, Lucia; Venturi, Carlo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Unit of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, and InterDepartmental Center of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Policlinico ' Santa Maria alle Scotte' , Siena (Italy); Tarantino, Annachiara; Muccio, Carmine Franco [Azienda Ospedaliera ' G. Rummo' , Unit of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurosciences, Benevento (Italy); Gozzetti, Alessandro [University of Siena, Unit of Hematology and Transplants, Policlinico ' Santa Maria alle Scotte' , Siena (Italy); Di Blasi, Arturo [Azienda Ospedaliera ' G. Rummo' , Unit of Pathology, Department of Oncology, Benevento (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    The purpose of this pictorial essay is to increase awareness of the clinical presentation, neuroradiological findings, treatment options, and neuroradiological follow-up of plasmacytomas and multiple myeloma with intracranial growth. This pictorial essay reviews the clinical features and neuroradiological findings in seven patients (four women, three men; age range at diagnosis 62-82 years) followed in two institutions. Six patients, one with IgG-{kappa} plasmacytoma, and five with IgG-{kappa}(n=3), IgG-{lambda}(n=1), and nonsecretory (n=1) multiple myeloma, had been seen over a period of 9 years in one institution, and the other patient with IgG-{kappa} plasmacytoma had been seen over a period of 3.5 years in the other. Intracranial involvement is rare, most frequently resulting from osseous lesions in the cranial vault, skull base, nose, or paranasal sinuses. Primary dural or leptomeningeal involvement is rarer. Some typical findings of a dural and/or osseous plasmacytoma include iso- to hyperdensity on CT scan, T1 equal to high signal intensity and T2 markedly hypointense signal on MRI, and high vascularity possibly documented on intraarterial digital subtraction angiography. However, the neuroradiological findings generally lack specificity, since they are generally no different from those of meningioma, metastasis, lymphoma, dural sarcoma, plasma cell granuloma, infectious meningitis, and leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. The spectrum of clinical and neuroradiological evaluation shows that intracranial involvement from plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of cranial osseous and meningeal disease. (orig.)

  16. Prognosis Essay Scoring and Article Relevancy Using Multi-Text Features and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for essay scoring and article relevancy. Essay scoring is a costly process when we consider the time spent by an evaluator. It may lead to inequalities of the effort by various evaluators to apply the same evaluation criteria. Bibliometric research uses the evaluation criteria to find relevancy of articles instead. Researchers mostly face relevancy issues while searching articles. Therefore, they classify the articles manually. However, manual classification is burdensome due to time needed for evaluation. The proposed model performs automatic essay evaluation using multi-text features and ensemble machine learning. The proposed method is implemented in two data sets: a Kaggle short answer data set for essay scoring that includes four ranges of disciplines (Science, Biology, English, and English language Arts, and a bibliometric data set having IoT (Internet of Things and non-IoT classes. The efficacy of the model is measured against the Tandalla and AutoP approach using Cohen’s kappa. The model achieves kappa values of 0.80 and 0.83 for the first and second data sets, respectively. Kappa values show that the proposed model has better performance than those of earlier approaches.

  17. Essays on variational approximation techniques for stochastic optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deride Silva, Julio A.

    This dissertation presents five essays on approximation and modeling techniques, based on variational analysis, applied to stochastic optimization problems. It is divided into two parts, where the first is devoted to equilibrium problems and maxinf optimization, and the second corresponds to two essays in statistics and uncertainty modeling. Stochastic optimization lies at the core of this research as we were interested in relevant equilibrium applications that contain an uncertain component, and the design of a solution strategy. In addition, every stochastic optimization problem relies heavily on the underlying probability distribution that models the uncertainty. We studied these distributions, in particular, their design process and theoretical properties such as their convergence. Finally, the last aspect of stochastic optimization that we covered is the scenario creation problem, in which we described a procedure based on a probabilistic model to create scenarios for the applied problem of power estimation of renewable energies. In the first part, Equilibrium problems and maxinf optimization, we considered three Walrasian equilibrium problems: from economics, we studied a stochastic general equilibrium problem in a pure exchange economy, described in Chapter 3, and a stochastic general equilibrium with financial contracts, in Chapter 4; finally from engineering, we studied an infrastructure planning problem in Chapter 5. We stated these problems as belonging to the maxinf optimization class and, in each instance, we provided an approximation scheme based on the notion of lopsided convergence and non-concave duality. This strategy is the foundation of the augmented Walrasian algorithm, whose convergence is guaranteed by lopsided convergence, that was implemented computationally, obtaining numerical results for relevant examples. The second part, Essays about statistics and uncertainty modeling, contains two essays covering a convergence problem for a sequence

  18. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  19. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  20. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  1. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  2. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  3. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  4. Essays on employment and unemployment transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagore Garcia, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses relevant questions related to labour market transitions in Spain. Using administrative records data from Spanish Social Security and applying correlated competing risks models, the impact of the current recession on unemployment and employment transitions and gender differences

  5. Essays on energy derivatives pricing and financial risk management =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaleno, Mara Teresa da Silva

    This thesis consists of an introductory chapter (essay I) and five more empirical essays on electricity markets and CO2 spot price behaviour, derivatives pricing analysis and hedging. Essay I presents the structure of the thesis and electricity markets functioning and characteristics, as well as the type of products traded, to be analyzed on the following essays. In the second essay we conduct an empirical study on co-movements in electricity markets resorting to wavelet analysis, discussing long-term dynamics and markets integration. Essay three is about hedging performance and multiscale relationships in the German electricity spot and futures markets, also using wavelet analysis. We concentrate the investigation on the relationship between coherence evolution and hedge ratio analysis, on a time-frequency-scale approach, between spot and futures which conditions the effectiveness of the hedging strategy. Essays four, five and six are interrelated between them and with the other two previous essays given the nature of the commodity analyzed, CO2 emission allowances, traded in electricity markets. Relationships between electricity prices, primary energy fuel prices and carbon dioxide permits are analyzed on essay four. The efficiency of the European market for allowances is examined taking into account markets heterogeneity. Essay five analyzes stylized statistical properties of the recent traded asset CO2 emission allowances, for spot and futures returns, examining also the relation linking convenience yield and risk premium, for the German European Energy Exchange (EEX) between October 2005 and October 2009. The study was conducted through empirical estimations of CO2 allowances risk premium, convenience yield, and their relation. Future prices from an ex-post perspective are examined to show evidence for significant negative risk premium, or else a positive forward premium. Finally, essay six analyzes emission allowances futures hedging effectiveness, providing

  6. Back to the future: eugenics--a bibliographic essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, David

    2007-01-01

    The following essay is a review of the literature about the American eugenics movement produced by scholars over the last fifty years. The essay provides an explanation for today's renewed interest in the subject and for why the science of eugenics remains relevant to contemporary society. The essay examines the catalyst to re-examine the eugenics movement, the influence of Darwinian thought upon its development, the political and institutional support for its growth, the relationship between eugenics, sterilization, and sex, and how the twentieth-century promises of the science of better breeding was a precursor to the twenty-first-century promise of genetic engineering.

  7. Writing an academic essay: a practical guide for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Y

    Writing academic essays can be a major hurdle and source of anxiety for many students. Fears and misconceptions relating to this kind of writing can be dispelled if the task is approached in a logical and systematic manner. This article outlines the key steps involved in successfully completing an essay and provides some practical tips to facilitate critical and analytical writing. These steps are: analysing the task; exploring the subject; planning the essay; writing the account; and revising the drafts. Although this process is challenging, academic writing is a means of developing both personally and professionally.

  8. "ESSAY ON CI" BY LI QINGZHAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dashchenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first Russian translation of "Essay on Ci" with detailed comments. It was written by the outstanding Chinese poetess Li Qingzhao and considered to be the first theoretical treatise dedicated to genre ci. The article revealed that the poetess used three strategies to make a genre demarcation: to legitimise, dichotomise and historicise. To legitimise means to justify that ci is a genre of poetry by identifying the same traits with official poetry shi (e.g. using the classical quotations and allusions. To dichotomise is to determine a core element of genre and oppose it to the other element identifying the similar genre (e.g. music separates ci from shi. To historicise is to develop or discover the unique historical past (e.g. the source of ci is in antiquity. The article also examined the strategy to invent classics: Li Qingzhao wrote the apophatic history of genre ci pointing not to the merits but weaknesses of her predecessors.

  9. The Test of Practice–An Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Løvlie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay starts in medias res, in the puzzling reappearance of the classical metaphor of Bildung as the transformation of man’s “first” animal nature into the “second” cultivated one. I call it the two-natures metaphor. I think it misrepresents children by prescribing form rather than asking what actually takes form in the child’s mind—in his/her relationship with adults. It made me wonder whether this mistake also lingers on in the current discourse on education. I then turn to aspects of John Dewey’s subtle and revolutionary critique of the classical theory of formation, but also to make the controversial point that he, too, seems to miss the importance of the child’s internal point of view. The importance of the subjective life of the child is suggested first by reinscribing Rousseau and Kant into the intersubjective theories of Hegel and Dewey; second, by reference to recent studies in developmental psychology that offer detailed and in-depth descriptions of our relationship with children. My basic point of departure is the existential encounters between children and adults, for example, as part of classroom practices. The title has a double connotation. It means that theory must be taken as the measure of practice. It means, too, that practice must work as the measure of theory. I will, in the main, try and pursue the last course.

  10. Questioning the foundations of physics which of our fundamental assumptions are wrong?

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Brendan; Merali, Zeeya

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book look at way in which the fundaments of physics might need to be changed in order to make progress towards a unified theory. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition “Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?”, which drew over 270 entries. As Nobel Laureate physicist Philip W. Anderson realized, the key to understanding nature’s reality is not anything “magical”, but the right attitude, “the focus on asking the right questions, the willingness to try (and to discard) unconventional answers, the sensitive ear for phoniness, self-deception, bombast, and conventional but unproven assumptions.” The authors of the eighteen prize-winning essays have, where necessary, adapted their essays for the present volume so as to (a) incorporate the community feedback generated in the online discussion of the essays, (b) add new material that has come to light since their completion and (c) to ensure accessibility to a broad audience of re...

  11. Rhetorical, Metacognitive, and Cognitive Strategies in Teacher Candidates’ Essay Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Díaz Larenas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study about the rhetoric, metacognitive, and cognitive strategies pre-service teachers use before and after a process-based writing intervention when completing an argumentative essay. The data were collected through two think-aloud protocols while 21 Chilean English as a foreign language pre-service teachers completed an essay task. The findings show that strategies such as summarizing, reaffirming, and selecting ideas were only evidenced during the post intervention essay, without the use of communication and socio-affective strategies in either of the two essays. All in all, a process-based writing intervention does not only influence the number of times a strategy is used, but also the number of students who employs strategies when writing an essay—two key considerations for the devising of any writing program.

  12. Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Eight essays on government documents examine a variety of subjects--the publication "Policy and Supporting Positions," Supreme Court and separation of powers rulings, private legislation, environmental information, publications of the Department of Education, physical fitness, and national cemeteries. (EM)

  13. Biotechnology essay competition: biotechnology and sustainable food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Judy; Schoeb, Helena; Lee, Gina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnology Journal announces our second biotechnology essay competition with the theme "biotechnology and sustainable food practices", open to all undergraduate students. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Technology and Military Doctrine. Essays on a Challenging Relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holley, I

    2004-01-01

    .... In these essays, Holley primarily addresses the need for the Air Force to adapt its doctrine and the processes of formulating and disseminating that guidance as the technology of air and space warfare improves. Dr...

  15. Librarianship and literature essays in honour of Jack Pafford

    CERN Document Server

    Milne, A T

    2014-01-01

    These essays are produced in honour of the seventieth birthday of Dr J. H. Pafford, Goldsmith's Librarian of the University of London from 1945 to 1967, and reflect his interests in librarianship, textual editing and local history.

  16. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  17. Essays on the Determinants of Prosocial Behavior in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has sought to explain why people engage in prosocial behavior and undertake activities that are costly to themselves and mostly benefit others, such as volunteering and donating. My dissertation comprises three essays that collectively explore the determinants of prosocial behavior and leverages insights from behavioral economics to design interventions to nudge people to behave more prosocially. The first essay is an observational study that examines how rapid demographic c...

  18. Essays on oil: project evaluation and investment impact

    OpenAIRE

    Bagh, Dima

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This thesis contains three essays related to fixed investment and crude oil. The first essay examines the implications of building a cross-border oil infrastructure project within the context of the bargaining problem (the Nash bargaining solution, and the alternating offer bargain of Rubinstein). We examine the viability of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline project, which is empl...

  19. Essays in Industrial Organization: Intermediation, Marketing, and Strategic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Wismer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation deals with certain business strategies that have become particularly relevant with the spread and development of new information technologies. The introduction explains the motivation, discusses different ways of defining the term "two-sided market", and briefly summarizes the subsequent essays. The first essay examines the effects of product information on the pricing and advertising decision of a seller who offers an experience good whose quality is unknown to cons...

  20. Essays on incentives and pro-environmental behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    De Martino, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of four self-contained essays at the nexus of applied microeconomics, behavioural economics, and environmental economics. In the essays of the thesis, I use field experiments and econometric tools to examine the impact of monetary and non monetary incentives for behavioural change during resource scarcity. I use methods of eliciting intrinsic motivations and then empirically test theories on the interaction of intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives. Specifically I ...

  1. Energy resources and the environment. [6 essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, J; Fletcher, W W [eds.

    1975-01-01

    Exploitation of energy has some impact on the environment. Six essays are presented to examine the variety of problems: (1) Sir Samuel Curran, in Energy and the Needs of Man, concludes that techniques to produce new energy sources will be found, bur conservation and the population explosion must be seriously examined; (2) Dr. Earl Cook, in Flow of Energy Through Technological Society, shows where energy comes from, how it is used and how it returns to the environment; he emphasizes the inefficiency of many energy conversion processes in consequence of the Second law of Thermodynamics; (3) Dr. Andrew Parteous, in Economical Use of Energy and Materials, explains energy not only used in heating, lighting, and transport, but in industry; his accounting of energy shows waste, and he stresses recycling and recovering the energy in domestic waste; (4) Sir Frank McFadzean, in Energy--the International Scene, examines the interplay of economics, technology, and politics in the oil industry; he suggests that more mature international leadership is needed to overcome the current difficulties facing producers and consumers; (5) J. D. Dunster, in The Atom and the Environment, examines the environmental impact of nuclear energy where the safety standards are more strenuous, but are feared more; he is a proponent of nuclear energy, but says an overall energy policy, balancing environmental factors against economic and political considerations, is needed; Dr. B. J. Brinkworth, in Direct Use of Solar Energy, reminds us that the Sun is the ultimate source of energy, and says solar energy can be exploited globally without damaging the environment. (MCW)

  2. Essays on U.S. energy markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, David A.

    2008-04-01

    This dissertation examines three facets of U.S. energy use and policy. First, I examine the Gulf Coast petroleum refining industry to determine the structure of the industry. Using the duality between cost-minimization and production functions, I estimate the demand for labor to determine the underlying production function. The results indicate that refineries have become more capital intensive due to the relative price increase of labor. The industry has consolidated in response to higher labor costs and costs of environmental compliance. Next, I examine oil production in the United States. An empirical model based on the theoretical framework of Pindyck is used to estimate production. This model differs from previous research by using state level data rather than national level data. The results indicate that the production elasticity with respect to reserves and the price elasticity of supply are both inelastic in the long run. The implication of these findings is that policies designed to increase domestic production through subsidies, tax breaks, or royalty reductions will likely provide little additional oil. We simulate production under three scenarios. In the most extreme scenario, prices double between 2005 and 2030 while reserves increase by 50%. Under this scenario, oil production in 2030 is approximately the same as the 2005 level. The third essay estimates demand for fossil fuels in the U.S. and uses these estimates to forecast CO2 emissions. The results indicate that there is almost no substitution from one fossil fuel to another and that all three fossil fuels are inelastic in the long run. Additionally, all three fuels respond differently to changes in GDP. The result of the differing elasticities with respect to GDP is that the energy mix has changed over time. The implication for forecasting CO2 emissions is that models that cannot distinguish changes in the energy mix are not effective in forecasting CO2 emissions.

  3. The Question in Educational Leadership: For Whom and for What Are We Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Jacques Derrida wrote about democratic leadership in educational institutions throughout his later work, but in this article the author notes the importance of Derrida's essays published as "Eyes of the University" (2004). Derrida begins by returning to questions raised by Immanuel Kant two centuries earlier with regard to the founding of the…

  4. Murder, He Wrote: Introducing Christian Ethics through One Question in the "Summa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William P.

    2008-01-01

    The topic of murder fascinates and haunts undergraduates just as it does our culture. But even as murder violently closes doors on a human life, as a topic of discussion it can also open minds, provoking, extending, and refining students' questions about the moral life, theologically and religiously understood. The aim of this essay is to explain…

  5. Physical theory and its interpretation essays in honor of Jeffrey Bub

    CERN Document Server

    Pitowsky, Itamar; Pitowsky, Itamar

    2006-01-01

    The essays in this volume were written by leading researchers on classical mechanics, statistical mechanics, quantum theory and relativity. The papers cover a number of central topics in the foundations of physics, including the role of symmetry principles in classical and quantum physics (papers by Butterfield and by Healey), Einstein's hole argument in general relativity (Korte), quantum mechanics and special relativity (Hemmo and Berkovitz, Brown and Timpson), quantum correlations (Glymour, Redei), quantum logic (Demopoulos, Isham, Stairs), and quantum probability and information (Gudder, P

  6. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  7. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  8. Essays on banking and asset pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscovan, V.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation contains three studies on banking and asset pricing. It analyzes questions related to informational content of bank loan announcements and trading activity. The first two chapters examine theoretically and empirically how stock and bond holders react to bank loan announcements as a

  9. Essays on Technology and Forecasting in Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jon Devin

    2012-01-01

    The three chapters in this dissertation use disaggregated models and data to provide new insights on well-established questions in macroeconomics. In the first chapter, to analyze how productivity impacts the business cycle, I model aggregate production with a production possibility frontier that accommodates sector-and factor-biased productivity.…

  10. Essays on health and labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, P.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with a range of topics in health and labor economics. The first part examines the validity of a method that aims at improving the interpersonal comparability of self-reports in surveys. The second part is concerned with the question how the demand for medical care is related to

  11. Comprehensive Essays for World History Finals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Martha J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a novel approach to comprehensive questions in world history examinations. Recommends using current events as illustrative reference points for complex subjects such as nationalism, liberalism, and international trade. Students receive information packets on the events for several weeks and must relate the subjects to these events. (MJP)

  12. Essay and Ekphrasis (Herbert - Bieńkowska - Bieńczyk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Sendyka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Michel Riffaterre in article L'lllusion d'ekphrasis put forward an idea of "critical ekphrasis" (1994 what may become an invitation to ask if other sub-genres/modes of ekphrasis may be described. The text Essay and Ekphrasis develops this question in the field of essayistic traditions. Evoking the tendency of writing on art in that genre (from Montaigne, Diderot, Ruskin, Pater to art historians, critics and artists the article analyses three examples of ekphrases (by Zbigniew Herbert, Ewa Bieńkowska and Marek Bieńczyk to voice a hypothesis that ekphrasis in an essay may be a useful proof for those who question (ostensive representational powers of that textual tool. Essayistic ekphrasis seems to have a foremost referential character, pointing towards an object of art only to use it in order to describe cognitive procedures of the subject who in such a way (performatively and not overtly pictures himself mirroring his inner self in dispersed fragments of cultural object, dismantling the temporal and spatial difference between the viewer and the object in an illusion of an immediate presence.

  13. Essays on the Determinants of Energy Related CO2 Emissions =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor Manuel Ferreira

    Overall, amongst the most mentioned factors for Greenhouse Gases (GHG) growth are the economic growth and the energy demand growth. To assess the determinants GHG emissions, this thesis proposed and developed a new analysis which links the emissions intensity to its main driving factors. In the first essay, we used the 'complete decomposition' technique to examine CO2 emissions intensity and its components, considering 36 economic sectors and the 1996-2009 periods in Portugal. The industry (in particular 5 industrial sectors) is contributing largely to the effects of variation of CO2 emissions intensity. We concluded, among others, the emissions intensity reacts more significantly to shocks in the weight of fossil fuels in total energy consumption compared to shocks in other variables. In the second essay, we conducted an analysis for 16 industrial sectors (Group A) and for the group of the 5 most polluting manufacturing sectors (Group B) based on the convergence examination for emissions intensity and its main drivers, as well as on an econometric analysis. We concluded that there is sigma convergence for all the effects with exception to the fossil fuel intensity, while gamma convergence was verified for all the effects, with exception of CO2 emissions by fossil fuel and fossil fuel intensity in Group B. From the econometric approach we concluded that the considered variables have a significant importance in explaining CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions intensity. In the third essay, the Tourism Industry in Portugal over 1996-2009 period was examined, specifically two groups of subsectors that affect the impacts on CO2 emissions intensity. The generalized variance decomposition and the impulse response functions pointed to sectors that affect tourism more directly, i. e. a bidirectional causality between the intensity of emissions and energy intensity. The effect of intensity of emissions is positive on energy intensity, and the effect of energy intensity on

  14. Essays on information disclosure and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Koshy

    The essays in this dissertation study information disclosure and environmental policy. The first chapter challenges the longstanding result that firms will, in general, voluntarily disclose information about product quality, in light of the unrealism of the assumption, common to much of the literature, that consumers are identical. When this assumption is relaxed, an efficiency-enhancing role may emerge for disclosure regulation, insofar as it can improve information provision and thus help protect consumers with "moderately atypical" preferences. The paper also endogenizes firms's choice of quality and suggests that disclosure regulation may also raise welfare indirectly, by inducing firms to improve product quality. The second chapter explores the significance of policy-induced technological change (ITC) for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The paper considers both R&D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, examining each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. We show analytically that the presence of ITC generally implies a lower profile of optimal carbon taxes, a shifting of abatement effort into the future (in the R&D scenarios), and an increase in the scale of abatement (in the benefit-cost scenarios). Numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC on abatement timing is very slight, but the effects on costs, optimal carbon taxes, and cumulative abatement can be large. The third chapter uses a World Bank dataset on Chinese state-owned enterprises to estimate price elasticities of industrial coal demand. A simple coal-demand equation is estimated in many forms, and significant price sensitivity is almost always found: the own-price elasticity is estimated to be roughly -0.5. A cost-function/share-equation system is also estimated, and although the function is frequently ill-behaved, indicating that firms may not be minimizing costs, the elasticity estimates again are large and

  15. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  16. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  17. A Corpus-based Study of EFL Learners’ Errors in IELTS Essay Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Divsar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed different types of errors in the EFL learners’ IELTS essays. In order to determine the major types of errors, a corpus of 70 IELTS examinees’ writings were collected, and their errors were extracted and categorized qualitatively. Errors were categorized based on a researcher-developed error-coding scheme into 13 aspects. Based on the descriptive statistical analyses, the frequency of each error type was calculated and the commonest errors committed by the EFL learners in IELTS essays were identified. The results indicated that the two most frequent errors that IELTS candidates committed were related to word choice and verb forms. Based on the research results, pedagogical implications highlight analyzing EFL learners’ writing errors as a useful basis for instructional purposes including creating pedagogical teaching materials that are in line with learners’ linguistic strengths and weaknesses.

  18. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  19. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  20. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  1. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  2. Essays on portfolio choice with Bayesian methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kebabci, Deniz

    2007-01-01

    How investors should allocate assets to their portfolios in the presence of predictable components in asset returns is a question of great importance in finance. While early studies took the return generating process as given, recent studies have addressed issues such as parameter estimation and model uncertainty. My dissertation develops Bayesian methods for portfolio choice - and industry allocation in particular - under parameter and model uncertainty. The first chapter of my dissertation,...

  3. The mythical man-month essays on software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Frederick Phillips

    1995-01-01

    Few books on software project management have been as influential and timeless as The Mythical Man-Month. With a blend of software engineering facts and thought-provoking opinions, Fred Brooks offers insight for anyone managing complex projects. These essays draw from his experience as project manager for the IBM System/360 computer family and then for OS/360, its massive software system. Now, 20 years after the initial publication of his book, Brooks has revisited his original ideas and added new thoughts and advice, both for readers already familiar with his work and for readers discovering it for the first time. The added chapters contain (1) a crisp condensation of all the propositions asserted in the original book, including Brooks' central argument in The Mythical Man-Month: that large programming projects suffer management problems different from small ones due to the division of labor; that the conceptual integrity of the product is therefore critical; and that it is difficult but possible to achi...

  4. PROBLEMS FACED BY INDONESIAN EFL LEARNERS IN WRITING ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Rahmatunisa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out problems in writing argumentative essay faced by Indonesian EFL learners. It is carried out in a qualitative research design as it attempted to describe the problems and their ways out. The data were taken from university students’ writing task and interview. The participants are the second year of university Indonesia students who enrol their study in English Department. Results of the data indicated that Indonesian EFL learners faced the problems in three categories, those are linguistics problems, cognitive problems, and psychological problems. Mostly, students faced problems in linguistics related to the grammatical structure (23.2%, formatting words (30.2%, words classes (16.3%, error in using words (9.3%, and the use of article (21%. Second, cognitive problems are related to organizing paragraph, difficulties in remaining word classes, getting lost the generic structure, making a conclusion, and putting punctuation. Last, psychological problems which included laziness, egoism, bad mood, and difficulties to start writing also faced by Indonesian EFL learners. Data analysis also indicated the problem solving which hopefully will be beneficial for EFL teachers in writing class. It is strongly recommended that the EFL class should strengthen all the language skills in general and writing in particular, motivate the students to use English with the teachers, introduce pair work, peer-correction, and use dictionaries frequently etc.

  5. Pictorial essay: Vascular interventions in extra cranial head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyash S Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicine is an ever changing field and interventional radiology (IR procedures are becoming increasingly popular because of high efficacy and its minimally invasive nature of the procedure. Management of disease processes in the extra cranial head and neck (ECHN has always been a challenge due to the complex anatomy of the region. Cross sectional imaging of the ECHN has grown and evolved tremendously and occupies a pivotal and integral position in the clinical management of variety of head and neck pathologies. Advances in angiographic technologies including flat panel detector systems, biplane, and 3-dimensional rotational angiography have consolidated and expanded the role of IR in the management of various ECHN pathologies. The ECHN is at cross roads between the origins of great vessels and the cerebral vasculature. Thorough knowledge of functional and technical aspects of neuroangiography is essential before embarking on head and neck vascular interventions. The vessels of the head and neck can be involved by infectious and inflammatory conditions, get irradiated during radiotherapy and injured due to trauma or iatrogenic cause. The ECHN is also a common site for various hypervascular neoplasms and vascular malformations, which can be treated with endovascular and percutaneous embolization. This pictorial essay provides a review of variety of ECHN pathologies which were managed by various IR procedures using different approaches.

  6. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  7. Essays on Environmental Policy in Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Judson Paul

    Producing and consuming energy involves costly environmental externalities, which are addressed through a wide range of public policy interventions. This dissertation examines three economic questions that are important to environmental regulation in energy. The first chapter measures the effect of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. The second chapter measures additionality in an appliance replacement rebate program. Finally, the third chapter focuses on the environmental impacts of subsidizing electricity production from forest-derived biomass fuels. The first chapter measures the incentive effect of limited liability. When liability is limited by bankruptcy, theory says that firms will take excessive environmental and public health risks. In the long run, this "judgment-proof problem'' may increase the share of small producers, even when there are economies of scale. I use quasi-experimental variation in liability exposure to measure the effects of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. Using firm-level data on the universe of Texas oil and gas producers, I examine the introduction of an insurance mandate that reduced firms' ability to avoid liability through bankruptcy. The policy was introduced via a quasi-randomized rollout, which allows me to cleanly identify its effects on industry structure. The insurance requirement pushed about 6% of producers out of the market immediately. The exiting firms were primarily small and were more likely to have poor environmental records. Among firms that remained in business, the bond requirement reduced oil production among the smallest 80% of firms by about 4% on average, which is consistent with increased internalization of environmental costs. Production by the largest 20% of firms, which account for the majority of total production, was unaffected. Finally, environmental outcomes, including those

  8. Econometric models of road use, accidents, and road investment decisions. Volume 1 : introductory overview, the barely revealed preference behind road investment priorities (essay 1), measuring the contribution of randomness, exposure, weather, and daylig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This volume contains the forst part of the author's PhD dissertation, and includes an introductory overview as well as two essays. The first essay entitled "The barely revealed preference behind road investment priorities," co-authored by Rune Elvik,...

  9. Five essays on fiscal policy, intergenerational welfare and petroleum wealth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoegersen, Oe

    1994-12-01

    Motivated by current macro economic problems facing the Norwegian economy, this thesis deals with fiscal policy and the management of petroleum wealth in a small open resource economy. The thesis highlights the fact that considerable parts of the petroleum revenues are collected by the government and studies in particular the interaction between fiscal policy, uncertain petroleum revenues and welfare between generations. Essay 1 is a paper on the calculation of the Norwegian petroleum wealth and surveys economic effects of the development of the petroleum sector and the spending of the petroleum revenues. Essay 2 deals with the effects of uncertain government petroleum revenues on fiscal policy, wealth accumulation and inter generational welfare. In Essay 3 a discussion is given of the effects of oil price risk on international risk sharing. Petroleum importing and exporting countries are considered within OECD-Europe. A possible wealth consumption policy is found to have serious and long-lasting negative effects on the welfare of coming generations, as described in Essay 4. Finally, Essay 5 considers a dynamic dependent economy model extended to incorporate finite horizons of the households and structural adjustment costs in production. 121 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    , and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly......Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function...

  11. LEARNER AUTONOMY ON ESSAY WRITING ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hafidz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Learner autonomy on writing is independently teaching and learning that keeps students’ control to explore their knowledge and experiences in written language, find out and evaluate their errors based on the conceptual courses to make accurately simple essay. The aim was to know the effectiveness of the learner autonomy on writing accuracy. This quantitative research conducted in one group pretest and posttest design. The number of samples was 21 students in Bangkalan. The instrument were tests to gain students’ writing score before and after treatment. Researcher statistically analyzed the data using SPSS 23 version by running a Paired Samples Test. The result shown the means of pretes score was 66,83 and posttest score was 74,57, Paired Samples Correlations was 0,614 (strong correlation. Significance was 0,005, it means that  a (0,05 is higher than r value (0,005 with high variance of mean value (14,091. As a result, the hypothesis (H1­ was received that learner autonomy contributed effectively to learners’ in organizing own ideas (Ene, 2006 such as making a topic  map becomes some explanable sub-topics, writing down main and supporting idea, clustering some objects, editing next and learners  absolutely accumulate some selected vocabularies inappropriate topics  (Chengping W, 2008. Keyword: Learner Autonomy, Learning process, outcomes Absrak: Pembelajaran otonomi  adalah pembelajaran mandiri yang mengontrol mahasiswa untuk menyampaikan gagasan dan pengalamannya, mencatat dan mengevaluasi kesalahan yang terjadi dalam penulisan esai sederhana berdasarkan pembelajaran yang tersetruktur. Tujuan adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas pembelajaran otonomi terhadap akurasi tulisan secara statistik. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan desain tes awal dan akhir. Jumlah sampel terdiri dari 21 siswa di Bangkalan. Isntrumen yang digunakan adalah tes untuk mengetahui hasil nilai mahasiswa sebelum dan sesudah melakukan

  12. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  13. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  14. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  15. Accounting for the income of non-renewable resources - Four essays on new theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Taoyuan

    2009-01-15

    Non-renewable resources are widely extracted and used in today's global economy. On the one hand, the use of these resources generates huge cash flows that can be used for current consumption. On the other hand, the extraction of these resources implies less wealth of these natural resources in the future. To compensate for this wealth decrease, we have to accumulate other kinds of real wealth, like man-made capital, human capital, and renewable resources. The wealth accumulation can be achieved by activities of investments. Reasonable financial support for the investments should come from cash flows related to non-renewable resources. Hence, cash flows related to non-renewable resources should be divided for two basic purposes: current consumption and savings to support activities of investments. The trade-off between current consumption and savings invokes a fundamental question: how much of the cash flows can we use for current consumption without impoverishing the future? Following the literature line from Hicks (1946, Chapter 14) via Samuelson (1961) to Sefton and Weale (2006), in the first essay of this dissertation, Geir Asheim and I develop a theory of sectoral income. The theory can be applied to estimate income at a sectoral level. By this notion of sectoral income, we can answer the fundamental question concerning the division of the cash flows generated by non-renewable resources into consumption and savings. In particular, by applying the new theory in this dissertation, I provide a new method for estimating real income generated by non-renewable resources. The new method has at least two advantages when compared with the wealth-based method, which is a commonly applied method in practical resource accounting. By the wealth-based method, sectoral income is associated with the interest on the sector's wealth, where the wealth is estimated as the present value of cash flows generated from the sector (see, e.g., Aslaksen et al., 1990, and Brekke

  16. Quantum theory from questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  17. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  18. Model Essay as a Feedback Tool in Task 2 of the IELTS Writing Exam Instruction for Slovene Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bostič Bishop

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses using a model essay as a feedback tool when teaching EFL writing to Slovene EFL students in the context of Task 2 of the IELTS Writing exam. In the present study, four IELTS students of two different levels were asked to write a response to a Task 2 IELTS Writing Exam question and compare it to a native speaker or a native speaker-like model essay by means of note-taking. The notes were then analyzed, and the findings offer an insight into what aspects of the English language Slovene students noticed and how frequently they noticed individual language items. An analysis of the differences and similarities in the quality and quantity of noticing depending on the students’ level is also provided. A comparison with a Japanese study made by Abe in 2008 has been done. Finally, recommendations for future research are made.

  19. An analysis of medical students’ reflective essays in problem-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Si

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study aimed to explore students’ learning experience in problem-based learning (PBL particularly in terms of what they learned and how they learned in one Korean medical school by analyzing their reflective essays with qualitative research methods. Methods This study included 44 first-year medical students. They took three consecutive PBL courses and wrote reflective essays 3 times anonymously on the last day of each course. Their reflective essays were analyzed using an inductive content analysis method. Results The coding process yielded 16 sub-categories and these categories were grouped into six categories according to the distinctive characteristics of PBL learning experience: integrated knowledge base, clinical problem solving, collaboration, intrinsic motivation, self-directed learning, and professional attitude. Among these categories, integrated knowledge base (34.68% and professional attitude (2.31% were the categories mentioned most and least frequently. Conclusion The findings of this study provide an overall understanding of the learning experience of Korean medical students during PBL in terms of what they learned and how they learned with rich descriptive commentaries from their perspectives as well as several thoughtful insights to help develop instructional strategies to enhance the effectiveness of PBL.

  20. Essays on the frontiers of modern astrophysics and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    This book is a collection of engaging and intriguing essays that describe an intellectual journey from the beginning to the end of universe. It is the product of an ongoing effort to know our place in the universe and share with readers the underpinnings of the magnificent cosmos where we are given a chance to exist only very briefly. The essays incorporate a group of challenging ideas that modern physics and cosmology are struggling to understand, in a unique way that incorporates mythological, religious, and philosophical perspectives. The author relies on a simple and powerful philosophy that we are part of the universe and the universe is part of us.   This wonderful collection of essays provides a journey through the current frontiers of modern astrophysics and cosmology. Its depiction of the most important unsolved mysteries about our place in the Universe is peppered with original insights and philosophical perspectives, making it an intellectual treat. – Avi Loeb, Professor, Harvard University Chai...

  1. Essays on the economics of decarbonization and renewable energy support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The thesis consists of five essays investigating various aspects associated with the decarbonization of Europe's power sector and the politically incentivized expansion of renewable energy generation. The first essay analyzes the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways and policy instruments for Europe's power sector up to 2050 and illustrates the importance of ensuring competition between all low-carbon technologies in order to limit the costs of decarbonization. The second essay analyzes the economic inefficiency associated with the concept of grid parity for the case of photovoltaic (PV). In order to both enhance overall welfare and avoid redistributional effects, the indirect financial incentive for in-house PV electricity consumption should be abolished. The third essay discusses the system price effect of wind and solar power generation and illustrates that the decrease in the marginal value of wind and solar power (as a consequence of increased penetration) is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany. The fourth essay adds to the ongoing debate surrounding the cost-efficient achievement of politically implemented renewable energy targets. Renewable energy support schemes that fail to incentivize investors to account for differences in the marginal value of wind and solar power generation are associated with excess costs as they prevent the equalization of net marginal costs across technologies and regions. The fifth essay analyzes the economic value of storage as a function of the overall generation mix and illustrates the economic inefficiency arising from feed-in tariff systems for the special case of thermal energy storage units in concentrating solar power plants.

  2. Essays on the economics of decarbonization and renewable energy support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegemann, Cosima Claudia

    2014-06-05

    The thesis consists of five essays investigating various aspects associated with the decarbonization of Europe's power sector and the politically incentivized expansion of renewable energy generation. The first essay analyzes the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways and policy instruments for Europe's power sector up to 2050 and illustrates the importance of ensuring competition between all low-carbon technologies in order to limit the costs of decarbonization. The second essay analyzes the economic inefficiency associated with the concept of grid parity for the case of photovoltaic (PV). In order to both enhance overall welfare and avoid redistributional effects, the indirect financial incentive for in-house PV electricity consumption should be abolished. The third essay discusses the system price effect of wind and solar power generation and illustrates that the decrease in the marginal value of wind and solar power (as a consequence of increased penetration) is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany. The fourth essay adds to the ongoing debate surrounding the cost-efficient achievement of politically implemented renewable energy targets. Renewable energy support schemes that fail to incentivize investors to account for differences in the marginal value of wind and solar power generation are associated with excess costs as they prevent the equalization of net marginal costs across technologies and regions. The fifth essay analyzes the economic value of storage as a function of the overall generation mix and illustrates the economic inefficiency arising from feed-in tariff systems for the special case of thermal energy storage units in concentrating solar power plants.

  3. Essays in financial transmission rights pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry

    transmission paths in the Delmarva Peninsula were examined. The maximum-likelihood two-way Tobit model developed in Chapter One consistently predicts the expected responses to the independent variables that have employed, but the model as defined here does a poor job of predicting prices. This is likely due to the inability to include system outages (i.e., short-term changes in the structure of the transmission grid) as variables in the estimation model. The second chapter addresses the behavior of firms in the monthly auctions for FTRs. FTRs are a claim to congestion rent revenues along a certain path within the PJM grid, and are awarded in a uniform-price divisible-goods auction. Firms typically submit a schedule of bids for different amounts of FTR at different prices, akin to a demand curve. A firm bidding too high a price may cause the clearing price of the FTR to be higher than the realized value of the FTR, creating a loss from ownership of the FTR. A firm bidding too low means that it wins no FTRs, depriving itself of the ability to profit from ownership or to hedge against congestion. Several questions concerning firm behavior are addressed in this study. It is found that firms adjust their bids in response to new information that is obtained from past auctions: they raise or lower bids in accordance with changes in recent FTR prices and payoffs. Firms consistently bid below the value of the FTR (i.e., shade their bids). This adds empirical evidence to the theoretically-posited notion that uniform-price auctions are not truth-telling, unlike the second-price auction for a non-divisible good. Firms employ greater bid-shading in response to increases in the volatility of both FTR clearing prices and realized FTR values. This validates the notion that firms are risk-averse. It is discovered that better-informed "insider" firms employ structurally different bidding strategies, but these differences do not lead to greater profits. However, profits do increase as firms gain

  4. Cosmopolitanism and peace in Kant's essay on 'Perpetual Peace'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Immanuel Kant's essay on Perpetual Peace (1795/96) contains a rejection of the idea of a world government (earlier advocated by Kant himself). In connexion with a substantial argument for cosmopolitan rights based on the human body and its need for a space on the surface of the Earth, Kant presents...... the most rigorous philosophical formulation ever given of the limitations of the cosmopolitan law. In this contribution, Kant's essay is analysed and the reasons he gives for these restrictions discussed in relation to his main focus: to project a realistic path to perpetual peace....

  5. Proposing a Wiki-Based Technique for Collaborative Essay Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Ortiz Navarrete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at proposing a technique for students learning English as a foreign language when they collaboratively write an argumentative essay in a wiki environment. A wiki environment and collaborative work play an important role within the academic writing task. Nevertheless, an appropriate and systematic work assignment is required in order to make use of both. In this paper the proposed technique when writing a collaborative essay mainly attempts to provide the most effective way to enhance equal participation among group members by taking as a base computer mediated collaboration. Within this context, the students’ role is clearly defined and individual and collaborative tasks are explained.

  6. Essays in general relativity a Festschrift for Abraham Taub

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, Frank J

    1981-01-01

    Essays in General Relativity: A Festschrift for Abraham Taub is collection of essays to honor Professor Abraham H. Taub on the occasion of his retirement from the mathematics faculty of the University of California at Berkeley. Relativistic hydrodynamics has always been a subject dear to Taub's heart. In fact, many basic results on special relativistic fluid flows are due to him, and he has been a major contributor to the study of fluid flows near shocks. The book contains 16 chapters and begins with a discussion of a geometrical approach to general relativity. This is followed by separate cha

  7. Essays on forecasting stationary and nonstationary economic time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmeier, Lance Joseph

    This dissertation consists of three essays. Chapter II considers the question of whether M2 growth can be used to forecast inflation at horizons of up to ten years. A vector error correction (VEC) model serves as our benchmark model. We find that M2 growth does have marginal predictive content for inflation at horizons of more than two years, but only when allowing for cointegration and when the cointegrating rank and vector are specified a priori. When estimating the cointegration vector or failing to impose cointegration, there is no longer evidence of causality running from M2 growth to inflation at any forecast horizon. Finally, we present evidence that M2 needs to be redefined, as forecasts of the VEC model using data on M2 observed after 1993 are worse than the forecasts of an autoregressive model of inflation. Chapter III reconsiders the evidence for a "rockets and feathers" effect in gasoline markets. We estimate an error correction model of gasoline prices using daily data for the period 1985--1998 and fail to find any evidence of asymmetry. We show that previous work suffered from two problems. First, nonstationarity in some of the regressors was ignored, leading to invalid inference. Second, the weekly data used in previous work leads to a temporal aggregation problem, and thus biased estimates of impulse response functions. Chapter IV tests for a forecasting relationship between the volume of litigation and macroeconomic variables. We analyze annual data for the period 1960--2000 on the number of cases filed, real GDP, real consumption expenditures, inflation, unemployment, and interest rates. Bivariate Granger causality tests show that several of the macroeconomic variables can be used to forecast the volume of litigation, but show no evidence that the volume of litigation can be used to forecast any of the macroeconomic variables. The analysis is then extended to bivariate and multivariate regression models, and we find similar evidence to that of the

  8. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  9. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  11. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  12. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  13. Environmental Ethics: Questions for Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of questions through which adult educators can explore controversial questions of environmental values and moral behavior in their programs. The subjects include geography, local history, natural history, economics, politics, business, labor education, world affairs, literature, women's studies, psychology, and courses for the…

  14. Review Essay: The Personal Past - Two Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobie Meyer-Fong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Esherick, Ancestral Leaves: A Family Journey through Chinese History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2011. 392 pp. $28 (paper.Gail Hershatter, The Gender of Memory: Rural Women and China's Collective Past. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2011. 472 pp. $55 (cloth.What do we learn when we reconsider m­odern Chinese history from the vantage point of those who lived through it? Does our understanding of the grand narrative of key events change fundamentally when we think not in terms of the revolution or the state but in terms of life experience and memory? What happens when an empathic historian literally engages his or her sources in conversation? The authors of the two books under review offer radically different answers to these questions, even as they cover some of the same temporal ground. In The Gender of Memory: Rural Women and China’s Collective Past, Gail Hershatter uses oral interviews with rural women to call into question the inevitability of “campaign time” as an organizing principle. In Ancestral Leaves: A Family Journey through Chinese History, Joseph Esherick revisits the iconic events of modern Chinese history through the life experiences of several generations of elite men from his wife’s family, shedding new light on the familiar timeline while reiterating that chronology’s organizing power. Hershatter offers a breathtaking interrogation of her sources and methods, rendering elegantly transparent the thought processes behind her book’s production. Esherick integrates sources and storytelling, providing a confident and seamless narrative in which politics and personal lives are inextricably intertwined.

  15. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  16. General And Specific Features In Realizing An Essay In English Language – A Case Study Of Essay On Economic Themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daliana Ecaterina TASCOVICI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper wants to be a systematic and not only a theoretical approach on essays. This type of writing knows several points of view connecting its form, content, specific features and types, rules to be observed in its writing, structures or styles. As we know, it implies freedom of composition, originality, associations of surprising images and propensity for aphorism. We try to frame all its specifications within the economic essay, as economics is a field of exact utterance, where the speaker cannot play with the words and their meaning.

  17. Essay: In Memory of Robert Siemann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

    2011-11-14

    Bob Siemann came to SLAC from Cornell in 1991. With the support from Burton Richter, then Director of SLAC, he took on a leadership role to formulate an academic program in accelerator physics at SLAC and the development of its accelerator faculty. Throughout his career he championed accelerator physics as an independent academic discipline, a vision that he fought so hard for and never retreated from. He convinced Stanford University and SLAC to create a line of tenured accelerator physics faculty and over the years he also regularly taught classes at Stanford and the U.S. Particle Accelerator School. After the shutdown of the SSC Laboratory, I returned to SLAC in 1993 to join the accelerator faculty he was forming. He had always visualized a need to have a professional academic journal for the accelerator field, and played a pivotal role in creating the journal Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, now the community standard for accelerator physics after nine years of his editorship. Today, Bob's legacy of accelerator physics as an independent academic discipline continues at SLAC as well as in the community, from which we all benefit. Bob was a great experimentalist. He specialized in experimental techniques and instrumentation, but what he wanted to learn is physics. If he had to learn theory - heaven forbid - to reach that goal, he would not hesitate one second to do so. In fact, he had written several theoretical papers as results of these efforts. Now this is what I call a true experimentalist! Ultimately, however, I think it was experimental instruments that he loved most. His eyes widened when he talked about his instruments. Prompted by a question, he would proceed to a nearby blackboard, with a satisfying grin, and draw his experimental device in a careful thinking manner, then describe his experiment and educate the questioner with some insightful physics. These moments were most enjoyable, to him and the questioner alike. When I

  18. Essay: In Memory of Robert Siemann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Alexander W.

    2008-01-01

    Bob Siemann came to SLAC from Cornell in 1991. With the support from Burton Richter, then Director of SLAC, he took on a leadership role to formulate an academic program in accelerator physics at SLAC and the development of its accelerator faculty. Throughout his career he championed accelerator physics as an independent academic discipline, a vision that he fought so hard for and never retreated from. He convinced Stanford University and SLAC to create a line of tenured accelerator physics faculty and over the years he also regularly taught classes at Stanford and the U.S. Particle Accelerator School. After the shutdown of the SSC Laboratory, I returned to SLAC in 1993 to join the accelerator faculty he was forming. He had always visualized a need to have a professional academic journal for the accelerator field, and played a pivotal role in creating the journal Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, now the community standard for accelerator physics after nine years of his editorship. Today, Bob's legacy of accelerator physics as an independent academic discipline continues at SLAC as well as in the community, from which we all benefit. Bob was a great experimentalist. He specialized in experimental techniques and instrumentation, but what he wanted to learn is physics. If he had to learn theory - heaven forbid - to reach that goal, he would not hesitate one second to do so. In fact, he had written several theoretical papers as results of these efforts. Now this is what I call a true experimentalist. Ultimately, however, I think it was experimental instruments that he loved most. His eyes widened when he talked about his instruments. Prompted by a question, he would proceed to a nearby blackboard, with a satisfying grin, and draw his experimental device in a careful thinking manner, then describe his experiment and educate the questioner with some insightful physics. These moments were most enjoyable, to him and the questioner alike. When I

  19. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  20. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  1. Classification of Swedish Learner Essays by CEFR Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodina, Elena; Pilán, Ildikó; Alfter, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes initial efforts on creating a system for the automatic assessment of Swedish second language (L2) learner essays from two points of view: holistic evaluation of the reached level according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), and the lexical analysis of texts for receptive and productive vocabulary per CEFR…

  2. Essays on the economics of British Columbian timber policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niquidet, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the process of institutional change in British Columbia’s timber sector. It is composed of a series of essays which highlight the underlying political and economic factors that have shaped past and current reforms. Taking center stage in the analysis, are the resource rents

  3. Cosmopolitanism and Peace in Kant's Essay on "Perpetual Peace"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggler, Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    Immanuel Kant's essay on Perpetual Peace (1795/96) contains a rejection of the idea of a world government (earlier advocated by Kant himself). In connexion with a substantial argument for cosmopolitan rights based on the human body and its need for a space on the surface of the Earth, Kant presents the most rigorous philosophical formulation ever…

  4. Entrepreneurship and innovation. Essays in honour of Wim During

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijde, Peter; Ridder, Annemarie; Groen, Arend J.

    2004-01-01

    Wim During started his work at the University of Twente in 1973. During his academic career, he elaborated two main themes: (high tech) entrepreneurship and high-tech small firms. The essays in this book -published on the occasion of his retirement as professor of Innovative Entrepreneurship at the

  5. Sources of Social Control in School: A Speculative Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Burke, William I.

    1980-01-01

    This essay attempts to demonstrate that age segregation and subject matter specialization are two important supports of the authority of teachers and the school's ability to control students. Therefore, efforts to change these organizational patterns without considering alternative means of establishing control are doomed to failure. (Author/SJL)

  6. Rhetorical, Metacognitive, and Cognitive Strategies in Teacher Candidates' Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio; Ramos Leiva, Lucía; Ortiz Navarrete, Mabel

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a study about the rhetoric, metacognitive, and cognitive strategies pre-service teachers use before and after a process-based writing intervention when completing an argumentative essay. The data were collected through two think-aloud protocols while 21 Chilean English as a foreign language pre-service teachers completed an…

  7. Certainty Judgements and the Status of Propositions in Undergraduate Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew Mei, Wu

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the expression of certainty in a set of high- and low-rated Geography argumentative essays. Using one aspect of Hunston's (1989, 2000) concept of the evaluation of status, the paper compares the statement types used to construe the writer's expression of certainty in the construction of arguments. Drawing on the framework,…

  8. Improving Undergraduates' Argumentative Group Essay Writing through Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Yong Mei; Mei, Hooi Chee

    2015-01-01

    When writing an argumentative essay, writers develop and evaluate arguments to embody, initiate, or simulate various kinds of interpersonal and textual interaction for reader consideration (Wu & Allison, 2003). This is quite challenging for English as a second language (ESL) learners. To improve the quality of their writing, students need to…

  9. "Argument!" Helping Students Understand What Essay Writing Is About

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Argumentation is a key requirement of the essay, which is the most common genre that students have to write. However, how argumentation is realised in disciplinary writing is often poorly understood by academic tutors, and therefore not adequately taught to students. This paper presents research into undergraduate students' concepts of argument…

  10. Gaia and the Daysies' Revolution: an Essay about Lovelockian Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Betancourt Morales

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to stand, from an explanatory and argumentative point of view, some aspects of the James Lovelock's Gaia's theory, such as its main ideas and influence, having in count the difficulties it had to be accepted and the consequences for the Biology's development of Gaia's theory in general and of the Daysyworld model in particular.

  11. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part V--Intangible Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article represents the fifth in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course and investigates the accounting treatment and related conceptual connections for intangibles. In addition, intangibles present unique accounting issues, conceptual challenges, and measurement dilemmas not found…

  12. The Sensible and Insensible Body: A Visual Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bourke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating pain into tangible images brings it into the public consciousness, raising the spectre of bodily suffering as virtually intrinsic to the human condition. Beginning with Descartes, who famously advanced mind-body theories in the late seventeenth century, this essay explores the effects of his influence together with shifting attitudes towards pain and its role over the long nineteenth century.

  13. The Psychology of Reading Instruction (A Collection of Essays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Focusing on various areas of concern to classroom teachers, this collection contains the following essays: (1) "Herbart versus Froebel on Teaching Pupils"; (2) "The Integrated Reading Curriculum"; (3) "Motivation and the Learner in Reading"; (4) "Issues in the Reading Curriculum"; (5) "Inservice Education and the Curriculum"; (6) "Textbooks and…

  14. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast: iconographic essay with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nunes Medina Coeli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present essay is aimed at describing the most characteristic imaging findings of mucinous carcinoma of the breast, with emphasis on the patterns related to better prognosis. The authors selected cases of mucinous carcinoma of the breast whose images were available, highlighting the imaging findings suggestive of this subtype of breast cancer, either at mammography, ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Towards a Realist Sociology of Education: A Polyphonic Review Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Michael; Hood, Susan; Barrett, Brian D.; Schubert, Dan

    2017-01-01

    This review essay evaluates Karl Maton's "Knowledge and Knowers: Towards a Realist Sociology of Education" as a recent examination of the sociological causes and effects of education in the tradition of the French social theorist Pierre Bourdieu and the British educational sociologist Basil Bernstein. Maton's book synthesizes the…

  16. The Education of a Teacher. Essays on American Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Howard

    Written in the immediacy of the Vietnam period and its aftermath, these essays record, from the perspective of a college professor, the dramatic shifts of students from the active, even violent, style of protests for social justice of the sixties to the self-interested "protest of style" of the seventies, to the insecurity and career orientation…

  17. MDCT imaging of post interventional liver: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stefania; Tortora, Giovanni; Scaglione, Mariano; Lassandro, Francesco; Guidi, Guido; Grassi, Roberto; Romano, Luigia

    2005-01-01

    In this pictorial essay, we consider the post operative MDCT findings after liver resection, transplantation, surgical managed major trauma and radiofrequency ablation of focal lesions. Common complications such as fluid collections, hemorrhage, biloma, vascular disease, hematoma, abscesses will be also considered

  18. Admitted or Denied: Multilingual Writers Negotiate Admissions Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Shauna

    2017-01-01

    This article presents data from a collection of yearlong case studies on resident multilingual writers' college admissions essays. The focal student in this piece revealed the challenges that such writers face in presenting themselves to college admissions officers. Exploring these cultural and linguistic conflicts, this analysis uses Goffman's…

  19. Effectiveness of Student Admission Essays in Identifying Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Judith

    2003-01-01

    From a longitudinal sample of nursing students, 193 completers and 43 noncompleters were compared, revealing significant differences in the groups' mean scores on admission essays but not admission grade point averages. Content analysis revealed how completers had internalized the role of nurse. (Contains 12 references.) (SK)

  20. Imaging evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Moreira, Wanderval; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: fauassis@hotmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a relevant and relatively common disease that may have severe consequences. In the present pictorial essay, the authors have selected illustrative examples of multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging depicting the main presentations of cholesteatomas, and describing their characteristics, locations, and major complications. (author)

  1. Profiling Learners' Achievement Goals when Completing Academic Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence

    2009-01-01

    This study explored adult learners' goal profiles in relation to the completion of a compulsory academic essay. Based on learners' scores on items assessing mastery, performance-approach, and work-avoidance goals, cluster analyses produced three distinct categories of learners: performance-focused, work-avoidant, and multiple-goal learners. These…

  2. Source-Based Tasks in Writing Independent and Integrated Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Gholami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated writing tasks have gained considerable attention in ESL and EFL writing assessment and are frequently needed and used in academic settings and daily life. However, they are very rarely practiced and promoted in writing classes. This paper explored the effects of source-based writing practice on EFL learners’ composing abilities and investigated the probable differences between those tasks and independent writing ones in improving Iranian EFL learners’ essay writing abilities. To this end, a quasi-experimental design was implemented to gauge EFL learners’ writing improvements using a pretest-posttest layout. Twenty female learners taking a TOEFL iBT preparation course were randomly divided into an only-writing group with just independent writing instruction and essay practice, and a hybrid-writing-approach group receiving instruction and practice on independent writing plus source-based essay writing for ten sessions. Based on the findings, the participants with hybrid writing practice outperformed their counterparts in integrated essay tests. Their superior performance was not observed in the case of traditional independent writing tasks. The present study calls for incorporating more source-based writing tasks in writing courses.

  3. Essays in competition with product differentiation and bargaining in markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    The fourth essay uses bargaining theory and compares the outcome of a negotiation in two differently organized markets. In the first market, sellers simultaneously offer their good or service for sale. In the second market, sellers queue and offer their good or service sequentially for sale.

  4. Essays on Port, Container, and Bulk Chemical Logistics Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asperen (Eelco)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe essays in this thesis are concerned with two main themes in port logistics. The first theme is the coordination of transport arrivals with the distribution processes and the use of storage facilities. We study this for both containerized and bulk chemical transport. The second theme

  5. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi; de Leeuw, Peter A. J.; Malagelada, Francesc; Manzanares, M. Cristina; Götzens, Víctor; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the

  6. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi; de Leeuw, Peter A. J.; Malagelada, Francesc; Manzanares, M. Cristina; Götzens, Víctor; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the

  7. Three Epiphanic Fragments: Education and the Essay in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, David

    2014-01-01

    Pádraig Hogan has argued for a powerful conception of education as epiphany that is illuminated by the work of Heidegger and Joyce. But what are we to make of Stephen Dedalus' intention (pretension?) to "Remember your epiphanies"? Developing the phenomenological Erinnerungsversuch or "essay in memory" of David Farrell…

  8. Antropologie tussen wetenschap en kunst : Essays over Clifford Geertz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Yme; Bakker, Jan Willem; Miedema, Jelle

    1987-01-01

    Clifford Geertz (*1926) is one of the most influential anthropologists of his generation. His most famous monographs and collection of essays are The Religion of Java, Agricultural Involution, Islam Observed, The Interpretation of Cultures, Local Knowledge, Negara: The Balinese Theatre State in

  9. Review Essay: Recent Scholarship from the Buryat Mongols of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Montgomery

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Review essay on the edited volume Etnicheskaia istoriia i kul’turno-bytovye traditsii narodov baikal’skogo regiona. [The Ethnic History and the Traditions of Culture and Daily Life of the Peoples of the Baikal Region] Ed. M. N. Baldano, O. V. Buraeva and D. D. Nimaev (Ulan-Ude, 2010

  10. Automated Guidance for Thermodynamics Essays: Critiquing versus Revisiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Dermot F.; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school students struggle to explain thermodynamics concepts. In this study, to help students succeed, we use a natural language processing program to analyze their essays explaining the aspects of thermodynamics and provide guidance based on the automated score. The 346 sixth-grade students were assigned to either the critique condition…

  11. Investor Outlook: The Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2017-06-01

    The year 2016 was an exciting one for the field, with several notable successes outweighing a few setbacks. As the number of patients treated successfully (and safely) with gene therapy grows, the totality of evidence points to a robust platform with utility in orphan/ultra-orphan diseases as well as broader indications, and with hopefully increasing predictability of results. This year promises to feature more patients treated, more clinical data, and more gene therapy products in registration-enabling studies. For the field to continue to advance and mature into the next great drug delivery platform, a few unsolved and remaining questions need to be addressed, including the business model for cures, a broader safety/efficacy profile once more patients are treated, optimization of delivery (including next-generation approaches), and greater understanding of the impact of competitive dynamics. In this report, we detail the success and setbacks of 2016 and highlight the unanswered questions-and how the answers may shape the field in the years ahead.

  12. Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    IDRC response: We are looking for applicants to include 3 references with their submission, whether ... potential projects that would have a good chance of being funded? ... interested in people applying in their personal/individual capacity?”.

  13. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Leading questions about nuclear power are posed. These include questions about how much extra radioactivity in the environments is due to the nuclear industry, the risk of a nuclear accident, radioactive wastes, nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect, alternative energy sources, and the economics of nuclear power. The answers are presented from the view point of the authors, members of Greenpeace. A glossary, notes and references are included. (UK)

  14. Essays on land and labor in urbanizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation I address emerging land and labor issues associated with the rapid urbanization in China over the past decades, including the negative effects of the real estate booms on manufacturing development, land conflicts, and gender inequality among migrants. The thesis consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 offers an introductory discussion on the overarching objective and specific questions of the whole research. Chapter 2 focuses on the effects of housing price appreciation on fi...

  15. Evaluating the Validity and Applicability of Automated Essay Scoring in Two Massive Open Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Dawna Reilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of massive open online courses (MOOCs to expand students’ access to higher education has raised questions regarding the extent to which this course model can provide and assess authentic, higher level student learning. In response to this need, MOOC platforms have begun utilizing automated essay scoring (AES systems that allow students to engage in critical writing and free-response activities. However, there is a lack of research investigating the validity of such systems in MOOCs. This research examined the effectiveness of an AES tool to score writing assignments in two MOOCs. Results indicated that some significant differences existed between Instructor grading, AES-Holistic scores, and AES-Rubric Total scores within two MOOC courses. However, use of the AES system may still be useful given instructors’ assessment needs and intent. Findings from this research have implications for instructional technology administrators, educational designers, and instructors implementing AES learning activities in MOOC courses.

  16. Essays on the role of accounting in acquisition decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Puhakka, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of accounting in acquisition decision-making via three essays. First essay examines the influence of accounting on trust development during the acquisition negotiation process. Essay 2 explores the interplay of formal and informal pre-decision control mechanisms and seeks to provide new insights on the interplay of various pre-decision control mechanisms at different stages of the acquisition decision-making process. Third essay seeks to specify how acc...

  17. Optimising the road to a low carbon competitive energy sector in Europe. An essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dril, A.W.N.

    2011-10-01

    In the strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy the European Commission stressed the urgency of far-reaching changes in energy production, use, and supply. The stated priorities are energy efficiency, integrated markets, energy security, innovation and external actions. In March 2011, an energy efficiency plan was proposed with measures leading to 20% efficiency improvement in 2020. The Commission also launched the Roadmap for a Low Carbon Economy in 2050. In December 2011, the European Commission launched its Energy Roadmap 2050. This paper will evaluate their optimality for the three basic goals: competitive, sustainable and secure. The key question addressed in this essay is: Do current and envisaged EU energy and climate policies allow for optimal introduction of new energy technologies towards a globally competitive, sustainable and secure energy system? The key findings are: (1) To ensure an affordable future energy supply and combat climate change, a global transition of the energy sector is needed. Europe has to make its choices in that global context. This process will take several decades and will be surrounded with many uncertainties; (2) Reinforcing and expanding the European emission trading scheme (ETS) to include other sectors and regions in coming decades is the preferred element in a robust regulatory framework. Stable and higher carbon prices are an essential condition for low carbon investment planning and many other Member State policies. When prices are high and stable the market will seek the most cost efficient mix; (3) Renewables and energy efficiency are important solutions for the long run. Assuming the ETS will be significantly strengthened overall EU targets and policies for renewable and efficiency beyond 2020 have to fit within the ETS framework; (4) If renewable energy and energy efficiency targets for separate MS and sectors are set, they need to be flexible in order to avoid suboptimal economic outcomes. After 2020 a

  18. Three essays on the effect of wind generation on power system planning and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Clay Duane

    While the benefits of wind generation are well known, some drawbacks are still being understood as wind power is integrated into the power grid at increasing levels. The primary difference between wind generation and other forms of generation is the intermittent, and somewhat unpredictable, aspect of this resource. The somewhat uncontrollable aspect of wind generation makes it important to consider the relationship between this resource and load, and also how the operation of other non-wind generation resources may be affected. The three essays that comprise this dissertation focus on these and other important issues related to wind generation; leading to an improved understanding of how to better plan for and utilize this resource. The first essay addresses the cost of increased levels of installed wind capacity from both a capacity planning and economic dispatch perspective to arrive at the total system cost of installing a unit of wind capacity. This total includes not only the cost of the wind turbine and associated infrastructure, but also the cost impact an additional unit of wind capacity has on the optimal mix and operation of other generating units in the electricity supply portfolio. The results of the model showed that for all wind expansion scenarios, wind capacity is not cost-effective regardless of the level of the wind production tax credit and carbon prices that were considered. Larger levels of installed wind capacity result in reduced variable cost, but this reduction is not able to offset increases in capital cost, as a unit of installed wind capacity does not result in an equal reduction in other non-wind capacity needs. The second essay develops a methodology to better handle unexpected short term fluctuations in wind generation within the existing power system. The methodology developed in this essay leads to lower expected costs by anticipating and planning for fluctuations in wind generation by focusing on key constraints in the system. The

  19. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  20. Essays in financial economics and econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spada, Gabriele

    Chapter 1 (my job market paper) asks the following question: Do asset managers reach for yield because of competitive pressures in a low rate environment? I propose a tournament model of money market funds (MMFs) to study this issue. I show that funds with different costs of default respond differently to changes in interest rates, and that it is important to distinguish the role of risk-free rates from that of risk premia. An increase in the risk premium leads funds with lower default costs to increase risk-taking, while funds with higher default costs reduce risk-taking. Without changes in the premium, low risk-free rates reduce risk-taking. My empirical analysis shows that these predictions are consistent with the risk-taking of MMFs during the 2006--2008 period. Chapter 2, co-authored with Fabrizio Lillo and published in Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics (2014), studies the effect of round-off error (or discretization) on stationary Gaussian long-memory process. For large lags, the autocovariance is rescaled by a factor smaller than one, and we compute this factor exactly. Hence, the discretized process has the same Hurst exponent as the underlying one. We show that in presence of round-off error, two common estimators of the Hurst exponent, the local Whittle (LW) estimator and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), are severely negatively biased in finite samples. We derive conditions for consistency and asymptotic normality of the LW estimator applied to discretized processes and compute the asymptotic properties of the DFA for generic long-memory processes that encompass discretized processes. Chapter 3, co-authored with Fabrizio Lillo, studies the effect of round-off error on integrated Gaussian processes with possibly correlated increments. We derive the variance and kurtosis of the realized increment process in the limit of both "small" and "large" round-off errors, and its autocovariance for large lags. We propose novel estimators for the

  1. Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rise. In 2011, an estimated 31% of pneumococcal bacteria were resistant to one or more antibiotics. How common drug resis- tance is depends on ... conjugate vaccine includes purified capsular polysaccharides from the bacteria that ... able to produce an immune response in infants and antibody booster ...

  2. Triglycerides : Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sweet rolls and cinnamon toast. High fructose corn-syrup is 55% fructose, and 45% glucose - not 100% fructose. 9. Why are you singling ... on labels include: • Brown sugar • Corn sweetener • Corn ... fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose, sucrose) • High-fructose corn syrup • Fruit ...

  3. Consciousness, Psychology, and Education: A Speculative Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980

    This monograph explores implications of the psychology of consciousness for education. The psychology of consciousness encompasses the relationships among behavior, experience, and states of consciousness. It is interpreted to include different states of consciousness, paranormal phenomena, mystical experiences, dreams, psychic healing, and other…

  4. Science Fiction: A Collection of Critical Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mark, Ed.

    The articles collected in this volume focus on the literary genre science fiction. Part one, "Backgrounds," includes "Starting Points" (Kingsley Amis), "Science Fiction and Literature" (Robert Conquest), and "The Roots of Science Fiction" (Robert Scholes). Part two, "Theory," contains "On the Poetics of the Science Fiction Genre" (Darko Suvin),…

  5. Discourse Connector Usage in Argumentative Essays by American and Thai University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangarun, Kamolphan; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in the use of discourse connectors (DCs) in argumentative essays of American undergraduate students (AMs), Thai with high-English exposure (THHs) and Thai with low-English exposure (THLs). The data of these three groups were collected from 60 essays; 20 essays were from the corpus of…

  6. Rethinking the Ph.D. in English. Carnegie Essays on the Doctorate: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Andrea Abernethy

    The Carnegie Foundation commissioned a series of essays as part of the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID). The essays and essayists represent six disciplines that are part of the CID: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience. The essay explores the Ph.D. in English and suggests changes the author would make in…

  7. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  8. After sympathy, a question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line

    2018-01-01

    Within a discussion of fieldwork, friendship and ethics Dalsgård describes how a piece of fictional writing worked as a sympathetic experiment and both changed her understanding of a young woman's situation and deepened her relationship to her. She employs Adam Smith’s concept of sympathy as the ...... of research and shows us that fiction can be real (including the fiction of anthropological field research identified by Clifford Geertz) because it has real consequences....

  9. The legacy of Albert Einstein a collection of essays in celebration of the Year of Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This indispensable volume contains a compendium of articles covering a vast range of topics in physics which were begun or influenced by the works of Albert Einstein: special relativity, quantum theory, statistical physics, condensed matter physics, general relativity, geometry, cosmology and unified field theory. An essay on the societal role of Einstein is included. These articles, written by some of the renowned experts, offer an insider's view of the exciting world of fundamental science. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Einstein and the Search for Unification (625 KB). Contents: Einstein and

  10. Radiographic, CT and MRI spectrum of hydatid disease of the chest: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von [Dept. of Radiology MBC28, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1993-01-01

    Thirty patients with thoracic hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus) were studied. The hydatid cysts were located in the lung parenchyma (70%), mediastinum (6.7%), inside the heart (10%), the pleurae (10%) and the chest wall (3.3%). Complications of thoracic hydatid cysts, such as rupture, infection, pleural involvement, spread and calcifications are presented. Computed tomography (CT) without and/or with contrast enhancement was performed in all patients (30). Findings from conventional chest radiographs were compared with CT and confirmed by pathology (30). In 10 cases (33.3%), magnetic resonance imaging was also performed. The diagnostic spectrum of hydatid cysts, including variations and developmental stages, is presented in this pictorial essay. (orig.)

  11. Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Ji Sang; Lee, Heon [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules.

  12. Pictorial essay: Ultrasonography in 'tennis leg'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jeshil R; Shah, Bipin R; Shah, Ankit B

    2010-11-01

    Tennis leg is caused by a rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle, usually at its distal musculotendinous junction region. However, tears in this muscle and its tendon are also included under the term 'tennis leg'. It is seen regularly in practice and is an important cause of a painful calf. The common USG findings include: disruption of the pinnate pattern of the distal medial gastrocnemius, usually near the junction of the triceps surae (which is the echogenic line between the gastrocnemius, the soleus, and the plantaris muscles), fluid tracking along the fascia, adjacent hematoma, and intramuscular tears as well as hematomas. USG is useful for confirming the diagnosis, excluding other causes of a painful calf, for assessing the severity of the disease, and in follow-up.

  13. Essays on Transportation Safety, Economics, and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl, Patricia Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The rational allocation of transportation resources involves both the evaluation of the effectiveness of programs designed to improve transportation systems, as well as the formulation of policies representing a balance of competing public interests in those systems. Such interests often include: curbing automobile emissions, expanding highway infrastructure, providing affordable transit services for inner-city residents, and extending commuter rail services to sprawling suburban areas. Desig...

  14. Friend to Develop an Argumentative Essay

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Writing is a process that helps the students develop their ideas and logical thinking. Principally, to write means to try to produce a written message. Because of these facts, it is necessary for teachers and students to master it well as writing plays a very important role in many processes including teaching and learning proc-esses. However, in the real teaching and learning process, junior high students who have been accustomed to LKS (Student Worksheet) consider writing a boring activi...

  15. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  16. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  17. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  18. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  19. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  20. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  1. Green dynamics as the motor for sustainable welfare. An essay on economic control with regard to the process of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, J.; Warmenhoven, H.

    2011-03-01

    The core question in this essay is how, in these times of economic turbulence in which ecological awareness is crumbling, we can change the course of our ecological development into a sustainable direction. Chapter 2 - in the light of the economic theory - characterizes sustainability issues as a new type of scarcity. In chapter 3, the analysis broadens towards the new generation of environmental problems that dominate the 21st century. Chapter 4 explores points of action for 'green dynamics': a strategic perspective in which countries and businesses with sustainable ambitions expand their action opportunities to bring the targeted scenario closer. The focus in the final chapter is on the Netherlands in 2011. [nl

  2. PSD Increment Consumption Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  4. Radioactive isotopes in biochemistry (historical essay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanko, M.A.; Shamin, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A large volume of facts, including little-known biobibliographic data on the the first reserchers who applied the method, are used in the study. The main attention is paid to the use of the method of labelled atoms, when considering intermediate exchange of substances and creating metabolic ways maps (the end of 30-ies - beginning of 50-ies). Using as an example the history of creation of the labelled atom method and its introduction into biochemistry, the problem of the research methods transfer from one branch of science to another is considered

  5. Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer Ni; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jim S

    2014-01-01

    Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety

  6. The burning question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, Ruth.

    1987-01-01

    The beginnings and development of the nuclear arms race from 1945 to 1987 is recounted. Alongside the arms race, the campaign to abolish nuclear weapons was born and has grown. The key moments and events in its development are considered and certain themes followed. These include the growing awareness of scientists of the part they play in modern warfare and their reactions to this, the different methods used by politicians and military leaders to diffuse unwelcome comment and the discrepancy between words and action. The peace movement has developed all over the world but this book deals mostly with its activities in the Western democracies. Political and religious aspects and public opinion about the peace movement are considered. (U.K.)

  7. Radiology of the nasopharynx: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    The nasopharynx, located just below the central skull base, is a difficult area to evaluate clinically. Endoscopic examination provides useful information but cannot delineate submucosal disease. Benign lesions of the nasopharynx are relatively uncommon. They include Thornwaldt cyst, juvenile angiofibroma, haemangioma, haemangiopericytoma, Kimura's disease, branchial cleft cyst, oncocytoma, amyloidoma, and non-ossifying fibromyxoid tumours. The most common malignant lesions are carcinomas and lymphomas. Other malignant neoplasms such as adenocystic carcinomas are rarely seen. The purpose of the present pictorial review is to highlight the salient normal anatomy of the nasopharynx and the spectrum of pathological anatomy. Small or superficial lesions are best assessed endoscopically, coupled with biopsy when deemed necessary. It is demonstrated that both computerized tomography and MRI play a central role in the evaluation of lesions involving deeper structures of the nasopharynx, especially when skull base involvement or intracranial extension is suspected. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Photo Essay: Pictures for Our “Honorable American Friends”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Hideo Yamashita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An American minister’s outrage over a celebration of the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan led to a generous gift of school supplies for students at a primary school in Hiroshima City. In gratitude, students at this school sent dozens of drawings and paintings to the minister’s church. This exchange was inspired by the minister’s Unitarian faith and moral decency and realized through the generosity of his parishioners. But the Japanese children’s artwork can be read in several other ways that greatly complicate the story and implicate Cold War narratives of victory and defeat as well as powerful memories of the destruction, death, and suffering caused by the war. This essay accompanies the “Hiroshima Children’s Drawings” photo essay featured in the March 2013 issue of Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review...

  9. Tourism in a World of Risks (Essay Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. KORSTANJE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Though tourism combines curiosity with security, over the recent decades, we are facing an inflation of risks that caused big problems for policy makers and officials interested in promoting tourism in their respective nations. As a result of this, one might speculate that the future of industry is uncertain. This essay review explores the already existent literature in risk perception applied on tourism fields as well as introduces the theory of attachment to explain how the world is constructed.

  10. Essays on inheritance, small businesses and energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Essay 1: People’s planning to evade the inheritance tax curtails its merits. However, the extent of planning remains a matter of argument. According to popular belief, it is widespread, but few estimates have been presented. This study estimates the extent of estate size under-reporting, a form of inheritance tax planning, using the repeal of the Swedish tax on spousal bequests, in 2004, and a regression discontinuity design. The results show that, on average, estate sizes were 17 percent low...

  11. Three Essays on Economic Agents' Incentives and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dongryul

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on theoretical analysis of economic agents' decision making and incentives. Chapter 1 gives an outline of the subjects to be examined in the subsequent chapters and shows their conclusions in brief. Chapter 2 explores the decision problem of a superordinate (a principal) regarding whether to delegate its authority or right to make a decision to a subordinate (an agent) in an organization. We first study the optimal contracting problem of the su...

  12. Three essays in labour economics and the economics of education

    OpenAIRE

    Javdani Haji, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of three empirical essays. The first chapter is focused on the economics of gender, and the other two chapters are focused on the economics of education. A common theme in all these three chapters is studying the outcomes of disadvantaged groups in society, with an eye to policy interventions that could improve these outcomes. The first chapter examines whether women face a glass ceiling in the labour market, which would imply that they are under-represented in high wag...

  13. Essays on the behavior of the oil market and OPEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algudhea, Salim

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay is mainly concerned with investigating the risk-responsive behavior of OPEC members. Economic theory suggests that producers respond to the risk of volatile price by lowering production level. In the case of OPEC, the risk of the volatility in the price of crude oil does not seem to be a key determinant in the production decision-making process. Engineering constraints, data frequency, and political consideration may be the main causes of such a result. In the second essay, we tested the presence of the asymmetric adjustment in the cheating behavior as a result of crude oil price shocks. We utilize a set of cointegration and error correction methods that do not assume a linear adjustment to test whether cheaters within OPEC respond more to positive or negative crude oil price shocks. We conclude that cheaters respond more to negative shocks than positive shocks in oil price. The inelastic nature of demand for oil seems to play a crucial role in such asymmetric behavior. When there is a negative price shock, OPEC producers compensate for the loss in revenue by overproducing (i.e. cheat). Yet, if there is a positive shock in the price of crude oil, OPEC producers have less incentive to overproduce because of the inelastic demand for oil. The third essay is concerned with testing for the asymmetric adjustment in gasoline prices in the U.S. We consider a Momentum Threshold Autoregressive (MTAR) process to test for the asymmetric adjustment in all of the possible stages that a gallon of gasoline goes through in order to find the source of asymmetry. Then, we examine the dynamics of gasoline prices using asymmetric error correction models based on the MTAR specifications. We find the asymmetric adjustment present in all stages. The asymmetry in the retail stage seems to be the result of insufficient demand faced by retailers.

  14. Essays on the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Over half of the US states have adopted "medical marijuana" laws (MMLs), and 58% of Americans now favor marijuana legalization. Despite public support, federal law continues to prohibit the use and sale of marijuana due to public health concerns of increased dependence and abuse, youth access, and drugged driving. These essays contribute toward understanding the likely health consequences of marijuana liberalization using evidence from MMLs.Chapter 1 -- Growing Like Weed: Explaining Variation...

  15. Essays on Online and Multi-Channel Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Firms increasingly adopt online and multi-channel marketing strategies to reach and persuade consumers. Therefore, designing an effective marketing mix is critical to their success. The aim of my dissertation is to understand the strategy behind firms’ channel choices and assess marketing effectiveness. It consists of three large-scale empirical studies examining several important aspects of online and multi-channel marketing. My first essay focuses on the business-to-business (B2B) inte...

  16. Virtual Reality: A Definition History - A Personal Essay

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This essay, written in 1998 by an active participant in both virtual reality development and the virtual reality definition debate, discusses the definition of the phrase "Virtual Reality" (VR). I start with history from a personal perspective, concentrating on the debate between the "Virtual Reality" and "Virtual Environment" labels in the late 1980's and early 1990's. Definitions of VR based on specific technologies are shown to be unsatisfactory. I propose the following definition of VR, b...

  17. The Organizational Approach of Capability Theory: A Review Essay

    OpenAIRE

    Garzarelli, Giampaolo

    2006-01-01

    Richard Langlois, Tony Yu & Paul Robertson have assembled a collection of previously published papers that move beyond textbook production theory. This essay discusses work by Frank Knight and Hendrik Houthakker not reproduced in LYR in relation to the capability theory of economic organization. Knight identified the problem of organization as the search for and the coordination of different dispersed capabilities. Houthakker helps us to see more clearly that the benefits of specialization ar...

  18. Pulp fictions of medieval England: Essays in popular romance

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Middle English popular romance is the most audacious and compendious testimony to the imaginary world of the English Middle Ages. Yet, with few exceptions, it remains under read and under studied. Pulp fictions of medieval England demonstrates that popular romance merits and rewards serious critical attention and that it is crucial to our understanding of the complex and conflicted world of medieval England. Pulp fictions of medieval England comprises ten essays on individual romances that, w...

  19. Essay on Methods in Futures Studies and a Selective Bibliography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Futures studies is often conflated with science fiction or pop-futurism. Consequently there is a need for demarcation of what is futures studies and what is not. From the same reason the essay stresses the need for quality control to focus on futures research and its methods: Publications in futu...... programme are (only) partly reduced by applying Causal Layered Analysis as an internal quality control. The following selective bibliography is focussed on these methodological issues...

  20. Essays on Currency Competition, Institutional Restrictions and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Arghya

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on currency competition, institutional restrictions and exchange rates. When faced with currency competition, a country's government has two tools at its disposal: reduce the level of inflation or place institutional barriers to the use of foreign currency. In the first chapter, I propose a two-country, two-currency New Monetarist model to study currency competition. I model institutional barriers as a `tax' on the real value of foreign currency hol...

  1. Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenzhuo

    The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

  2. Essays on Incentives and Measurement of Online Marketing Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Ron

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation contains three essays that examine different aspects of online marketing activities, the ability of marketers to measure the effectiveness of such activities, and the design of experiments to aid in this measurement.Chapter 2 examines the impact of search engine optimization (SEO) on the competition between advertisers for organic and sponsored search results. The results show that a positive level of search engine optimization may improve the search engine's ranking quality...

  3. Energy - a vital question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkenbuell, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The DAG has become involved with the topics and problems of energy policy very early and has already pointed on the necessity of an overall plan for energy policy for the Federal Republic of Germany in the sixties. The claim directed to the legislative bodies in the F. R. of Germany had sprung from the conclusion that endangering energy supply in the medium or long term would lead to a serious disorder within economic and thus social life. In order to meet the risks for industry and society which are related to an endangering of energy supply at an early stage and with regard to the future the DAG think it indispensable to further update the existing political energy programme of the Federal Government. The DAG hope that the political claims which are included in this brochure and which were worked out at the 8th Energiepolitische Bundestagung of the DAG might influence the German programme for energy policy. At the same time this brochure is meant to provide a factual contribution to the present energy discussion which, in general, is still based on emotional arguments. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Essays on taxation, efficiency, and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakonsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis comprises five chapters: (1) On the second order conditions for optimal taxation. Some experience from numerical models, (2) An investigation into alternative representations of the marginal cost of public funds, (3) On green tax reforms and double dividends, (4) Negative externalities, dead weight losses, and the cost of public funds, and (5) CO{sub 2} stabilisation may be a no-regrets policy. A general equilibrium analysis of the Norwegian economy. The chapters emphasises the effects of alternative tax policies on environmental quality and economic efficiency. The analysis in the CO{sub 2} chapter is based not on a stylised theoretical model, but on a detailed computable general equilibrium model of the Norwegian economy. The discussion in the CO{sub 2} chapter was in part motivated by the fact that several earlier articles on the economic consequences of CO{sub 2} reductions adopted a framework without distortionary tax rates in the benchmark equilibrium. In such a setting, a tax on CO{sub 2} emissions violates the conditions for Pareto optimality. This is not the case with the model here described. Rather, increased taxation of CO{sub 2} becomes a tax reform, where one tax is increased while one of several other taxes can be reduced accordingly in order to maintain tax revenue neutrality. The model also includes emissions of CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. All give rise to negative externalities. 86 refs., 37 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Review Essay: Does Qualitative Network Analysis Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis was formed and established in the 1970s as a way of analyzing systems of social relations. In this review the theoretical-methodological standpoint of social network analysis ("structural analysis" is introduced and the different forms of social network analysis are presented. Structural analysis argues that social actors and social relations are embedded in social networks, meaning that action and perception of actors as well as the performance of social relations are influenced by the network structure. Since the 1990s structural analysis has integrated concepts such as agency, discourse and symbolic orientation and in this way structural analysis has opened itself. Since then there has been increasing use of qualitative methods in network analysis. They are used to include the perspective of the analyzed actors, to explore networks, and to understand network dynamics. In the reviewed book, edited by Betina HOLLSTEIN and Florian STRAUS, the twenty predominantly empirically orientated contributions demonstrate the possibilities of combining quantitative and qualitative methods in network analyses in different research fields. In this review we examine how the contributions succeed in applying and developing the structural analysis perspective, and the self-positioning of "qualitative network analysis" is evaluated. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701287

  6. Three essays on the exploration for non-renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, P.A.

    1990-06-01

    A new additional motive for exploration activity is proposed in the first essay. When exploration occurs before the resource is extracted, there is an incentive to use exploration activity as a strategic instrument to capture market share and inflict capital losses on rivals. This provides an incentive for governments to use strategic taxation to capture greater rents from the imperfectly competitive world output markets. Analytic expressions for the optimal domestic extraction tax and exploration subsidy are presented. In the second essay, Canadian data are used to estimate a multiple-output translog exploration cost function. A new definition of depletion is introduced and its estimated coefficient is found to be statistically significant. Monte Carlo integration techniques were applied to ensure the estimated cost function satisfies concavity and monotonicity. The fitted cost function parameters are then used to estimate the marginal cost of oil and gas exploration. These estimates are used, along with estimates of exploration rents, to measure resource scarcity. In the third essay, Canadian data are used to estimate a stochastic and dynamic model of oil exploration and extraction in Alberta. The main determinants of current period extraction are one period lagged extraction and one period expected extraction. The main determinants of current period exploration are one period lagged cumulative exploration and a relative price variable. 150 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs

  7. Assessing the use of multiple sources in student essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Peter; Hughes, Simon; Magliano, Joseph P; Goldman, Susan R; Lawless, Kimberly

    2012-09-01

    The present study explored different approaches for automatically scoring student essays that were written on the basis of multiple texts. Specifically, these approaches were developed to classify whether or not important elements of the texts were present in the essays. The first was a simple pattern-matching approach called "multi-word" that allowed for flexible matching of words and phrases in the sentences. The second technique was latent semantic analysis (LSA), which was used to compare student sentences to original source sentences using its high-dimensional vector-based representation. Finally, the third was a machine-learning technique, support vector machines, which learned a classification scheme from the corpus. The results of the study suggested that the LSA-based system was superior for detecting the presence of explicit content from the texts, but the multi-word pattern-matching approach was better for detecting inferences outside or across texts. These results suggest that the best approach for analyzing essays of this nature should draw upon multiple natural language processing approaches.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF TEACHING CRITICAL THINKING ON STUDENTS’ ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A’am Rifaldi Khunaifi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is directed to find out whether teaching critical thinking affects the writing ability of argumentative essay. This research employed quasi experimental design as it was intended to measure the effects of the strategy on the students’ ability in writing argumentative essay. The samples of the study were the students of class A and B enrolled in the seventh semester of the English Education Department of State Islamic College of Palangka Raya. To collect the data needed, it was used test as the instrument; it was Academic Writing for IELTS Test. The data were processed and analyzed by using SPSS 19.0 statistic technique of independent t-test and paired-sample t-test, and the analized data were concluded. From the result of the test, the independent t-test calculation in posttest scores in both groups shows that the significance value is higher than level of significance (0.194 > 0.05. It indicates that there is no significant difference between experimental and control groups. Moreover, the paired t-test calculation shows the result of paired sample test (0.000 < 0.05 in which there is a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores in experimental group after having treatments. Keywords: critical thinking, writing ability, argumentative essay

  9. Re-Theorizing the Role of Creative Writing in Composition Studies: Cautionary Notes towards Re-Thinking the Essay in the Teaching of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julier, Laura

    An essay, often called a personal essay, familiar essay, lyric essay, the disjunctive or spiral essay, is a piece of writing which takes its form in the shifts and turns of a particular mind at work. The essay is a piece of writing which pays attention to and sometimes plays with form; often uses images and figures that are familiar with poetry;…

  10. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  11. Essays on competition in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Salvagno, Ricardo Javier

    The first chapter shows how technology decisions affect entry in commodity markets with oligopolistic competition, like the electricity market. I demonstrate an entry deterrence effect that works through cost uncertainty. Technology's cost uncertainty affects spot market expected profits through forward market trades. Therefore, incentives to engage in forward trading shape firms' decisions on production technologies. I show that high-cost but low-risk technologies are adopted by risk-averse incumbents to deter entry. Strategic technology adoption can end in a equilibrium where high-cost technologies prevail over low-cost but riskier ones. In the case of incumbents who are less risk-averse than entrants, entry deterrence is achieved by choosing riskier technologies. The main results do not depend on who chooses their technology first. Chapter two examines the Chilean experience on auctions for long-term supply contracts in electricity markets from 2006 to 2011. Using a divisible-good auction model, I provide a theoretical framework that explains bidding behavior in terms of expected spot prices and contracting positions. The model is extended to include potential strategic behavior on contracting decisions. Empirical estimations confirm the main determinants of bidding behavior and show heterogeneity in the marginal cost of over-contracting depending on size and incumbency. Chapter three analyzes the lag in capacity expansion in the Chilean electricity market from 2000 to 2004. Regarded as a result of regulatory uncertainty, the role of delays in the construction of a large hydro-power plant has been overlooked by the literature. We argue that those delays postponed projected investment and gave small windows of opportunity that only incumbents could take advantage of. We are able to retrace the history of investments through real-time information from the regulator's reports and a simple model enables us to explain the effect of those delays on suggested and under

  12. An essay on sunspots and solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1984-01-01

    The presently prevailing theories of sunspots and solar flares rely on the hypothetical presence of magnetic flux tubes beneath the photosphere and the two subsequent hypotheses, their emergence above the photosphere and explosive magnetic reconnection, converting magnetic energy carried by the flux tubes for solar flare energy. In this paper, attention is paid to the fact that there are large-scale magnetic fields which divide the photosphere into positive and negative (line-of-sight) polarity regions and that they are likely to be more fundamental than sunspot fields, as emphasized most recently by McIntosh. A new phenomenological model of the sunspot pair formation is then constructed by considering an amplification process of these large-scale fields near their boundaries by shear flows, including localized vortex motions. The amplification results from a dynamo process associated with such vortex flows and the associated convergence flow in the large-scale fields. This dynamo process generates also some of the familiar ''force-free'' fields or the ''sheared'' magnetic fields in which the magnetic field-aligned currents are essential. Upward field-aligned currents generated by the dynamo process are carried by downward streaming electrons which are expected to be accelerated by an electric potential structure; a similar structure is responsible for accelerating auroral electrons in the magnetosphere. Depending on the magnetic field configuration and the shear flows, the current-carrying electrons precipitate into different geometrical patterns, causing circular flares, umbral flares, two-ribbon flares, etc. Thus, it is suggested that ''low temperature flares'' are directly driven by the photospheric dynamo process. (author)

  13. A qualitative thematic content analysis of medical students' essays on professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Youn; Shon, Changwoo; Kwon, Oh Young; Yoon, Tai Young; Kwon, Ivo

    2017-05-03

    Physicians in both Western and Eastern countries are being confronted by changes in health care delivery systems and medical professionalism values. The traditional concept of "In-Sul" (benevolent art) and the modern history of South Korea have led to cultural differences between South Korea and other countries in conceptualizing medical professionalism; thus, we studied medical students' perceptions of professionalism as described in essays written on this topic. In 2014, we asked 109 first-year medical students who were enrolled in a compulsory ethics course to anonymously write a description of an instance of medical professionalism that they had witnessed, as well as reflecting on their own professional context. We then processed 105 valid essays using thematic content analysis with computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. Thematic analysis of the students' essays revealed two core aspects of professionalism in South Korea, one focused on respect for patients and the other on physicians' accountability. The most common theme regarding physician-patient relationships was trust. By contrast, distributive justice was thought to be a non-essential aspect of professionalism. In Western countries, physicians tend to promote justice in the health care system, including fair distribution of medical resources; however, we found that medical students in South Korea were more inclined to emphasize doctors' relationships with patients. Medical educators should develop curricular interventions regarding medical professionalism to meet the legitimate needs of patients in their own culture. Because professionalism is a dynamic construct of culture, medical educators should reaffirm cultural context-specific definitions of professionalism for development of associated curricula.

  14. Three Essays in Energy and Environmental Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Paul A.

    Chapter 1: We exploit a federal oil lease lottery to examine how markets correct for initial misallocation. Lottery participants included oil companies, as well as individuals without the capital or expertise to drill for oil. In the absence of reallocation, we expect less drilling on leases won by individuals. We find that leases won by firms and individuals have similar short- and long-term outcomes, suggesting that secondary markets rapidly and efficiently correct for misallocation to individuals. However, the small subset of parcels with nearby oil production have 50% less drilling when they are won by firms. We develop a simple model to demonstrate how information asymmetry adversely affects firms to a greater degree. Because individuals have larger gains from trade, they are less likely to have their decision to trade affected by asymmetric information and are more likely to trade with a nearby producing firm. Chapter 2: Between 2007 and 2013 the natural gas price dramatically declined, in large part due to hydraulic fracturing. Lower natural gas prices induced switching from coal generation to natural gas generation; I find 2013 carbon emissions fell by 14,700 tons/hour as a result. Lower prices also incentivized new investment in natural gas capacity. The more efficient capital stock led to an additional decrease of 2,100 tons/hour in 2013. I estimate 65-85% of this new capacity was constructed because of lower gas prices. Using a social cost of carbon of 35/ton, I value the total decrease at roughly 5.1 billion. Chapter 3: We examine the relationship between airfares and oil prices in the Australian airline industry. We find pass-through rates in excess of 100% that vary depending on the amount of competition on a route. We also find evidence that different types of products can have heterogeneous pass-through structures--pass-through rates on non-stop routes are more responsive to competition than on one-stop routes. Our results have important

  15. Research Essay for the Goldwater Scholarship Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, Jacob August

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen is found in many natural and human-made structures and materials, including water, concrete, or any oxide. The severe lack of data on the cross section of "1"6O(n,α), a reaction that can be found in any material containing oxygen, is detrimental to a complete understanding of the natural or induced behavior of these materials [HYL16]. Additionally, study of this particular reaction and other neutron-induced reactions involving oxygen are useful in the design of naval light water reactors and applications in radio-biology [HYL16]. A detailed understanding of the "1"6O(n,α) reaction is vital to the safe and efficient study, design, and development of applications such as these. My consequent work at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the supervision of my mentor, Dr. Hye Young Lee, concerned an experiment to measure the reaction rate of "1"6O(n,α) with unprecedented precision, using a method of experimentation known as the ''forward propagating approach''. What separates this method from traditional experimentation is in the use of computer simulations; in essence, this method entails the development of a computer-simulated experimental environment that behaves similarly to a corresponding physical experimental environment (the word ''similar'' is used here to convey an equivalence in properties of materials, like geometry or density, and characteristics of certain nuclear processes between the simulated and physical environments). The simulated environment receives inputs, like detector resolution and efficiency, beam resolution, or theoretical calculations of cross sections, that are determined from physically measured results, and then output data that - provided the simulation was prepared and executed properly - closely resemble the results expected from physical execution of the experiment. By comparing data from the simulated experiment and the physical experiment, the relevant results can be constrained to achieve a high precision

  16. Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeberese, Ama Baafra

    identify this impact by studying an electricity rationing program that took place in Ghana in 1998, which placed significant constraints on the electricity available to firms. Using data on Ghanaian manufacturing firms, I find a significant decline in investment in plant and machinery during the electricity rationing period. The decline in investment is more pronounced for firms in electricity-intensive sectors. I explore alternative explanations for the reduction in investment during the electricity rationing period, including a contraction in firm credit access and economy-wide shocks unrelated to electricity constraints, and find no evidence in support of either explanation. The results, therefore, suggest that the reduction in investment during the electricity rationing period was due to the constraints on the availability of electricity. These findings highlight the potentially negative impact of the inadequate provision of electricity that frequently plagues developing countries. These electricity constraints can hinder growth in these countries by curbing investment by firms. In Chapter 3, I turn to the investigation of the effect of a trade-related constraint. Until recently, most of the literature on firms engaged in international trade had largely focused on exporting, with little work on the role of imports in the behavior and performance of firms. Using data on Indonesian manufacturing firms, Chapter 3 analyzes the effect of a reduction in tariffs on imported inputs on the exporting activity of firms. I argue that a tariff reduction program in Indonesia, which generated exogenous variation in the tariffs imposed on imports of goods used by firms, had a positive effect on the exported share of output of firms. I explore the mechanisms underlying this positive effect and find that an increase in the use of imported inputs, facilitated by the reduction in input tariffs, generated an increase in the exported share of output of firms. I also find that this positive

  17. Three essays on the incentive structure of energy conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwelum, Edson Ogochukwu

    This dissertation is comprised of three related essays examining the potential effectiveness of government energy efficiency programs from both the producer and consumer perspectives. The first chapter is based on a paper I coauthored with Corey Lang. In this manuscript, I address the question of whether strategic behavior by consumers could result in the erosion of energy savings in a demand response program. Understanding how the strategic behavior of consumers affects the net benefits from a demand response program has policy implications because of the increasing importance that demand response has come to play in utility load and reliability management during peak times. Using data from a large field experiment in California in 2007, we test the hypothesis that under a technology program, consumers' strategic behavior results in outcomes that are opposite what is obtainable under a program with price incentive or based of behavior. Chapter II is also an empirical study which explores how the preferences of consumers for large and heavy vehicles imposes costs on society in the form of external costs of accident. This chapter looks at how fleet changes in weight distribution due to corporate average fuel economy and consumer demand for heavier vehicles results in fatalities. It is important to understand how consumer behavior affects the accident rates so that one can obtain unbiased estimates of accident costs that go into benefit-cost analysis of the impact of regulations in automobiles. Chapter three addresses how unobserved heterogeneity and sorting affect the estimates of the consumer willingness to pay for reduction in future gasoline costs. This tradeoff is important to policy makers and manufactures because it could help explain why manufacturers fail to adopt technologies for which the fuel savings far outweigh the costs. The remainder of the abstract provides a more detailed outlines of the three essays. Chapter 1 explores strategic behavior by

  18. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  19. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  20. Asking Bigger Questions: An Invitation to Further Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bloch-Schulman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the editors and contributors to this special section on SoTL in the Arts and Humanities argue that given the current climate and context, debates within SoTL about appropriate methodology both lead scholars from their disciplines to reject SoTL and also, more importantly, distract us from more significant questions and challenges. If, instead, SoTL would embrace not only its diversity but also its political potential, then we, as a scholarly community, would be in a position to do more than merely improve students’ learning in our own classrooms. We could help to transform higher education. To achieve that, we need a broader conversation and a wider range of studies. We also need to be mindful of and engaged with the political, economic, and ideological forces that are shaping our institutions, our work, and our students’ expectations.

  1. Enhancing Content Knowledge in Essay Writing Classes: A Multimedia Package for Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Tahmouresi Majelan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate empirically if promoting a multimedia package enhances content knowledge in essay writing of 80 junior English translation students at a University in Karaj, Iran; plus, whether the learners’ writing content improve due to the presence of the multimedia package or not. The multimedia was considered to be a CD, containing recordings both in first language (L1=Farsi and in second language (L2=English along with manipulative and task-based activities. A homogenizing test, the pre-posttests, and the material in a form of a CD (treatment including forty of the most common TOEFL essays both in L1 and L2 plus manipulative tasks to fulfill provided by the researcher, were the instruments in the study.  After 14 weeks, both the experimental and control groups sat for the posttest with exactly the same characteristics of pretest except for the topics. When the collected data was analyzed, a mean difference of t-test along with a paired t-test showed a significant difference between the performance of the control and the experimental groups, regarding the content. Consequently, the statistics proved that enhancing content knowledge by means of a multimedia package containing recordings plus manipulative and task-based activities would improve students’ writing ability while the control group in which a current traditional rhetoric approach was used, the placebo, did not show any statistically significant improvement regarding content.

  2. eGrader, A Software Application that Automatically Scores Student Essays: with a Postscript on Ethical Complexities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Byrne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Online and traditional teachers face several instructional challenges with regard to assessing student learning. This paper focuses on a software application that automatically scores student essay. The first part gives a brief overview of three commercial automated essay scoring systems. Then it describes the technical aspects of the machine grader developed by the authors, including an assessment of its performance. Although the statistical results were significant in finding a strong correlation between human and machine scorers and the other measures, follow-up non-quantitative evaluations led the researchers to discontinue using the eGrader. They concluded that while the eGrader's ability to measure objective evaluation criteria was successful, measuring subjective ideas proved to more complex and problematic.

  3. Essays in Energy Policy: The Interplay Between Risks and Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan-Perret, Rebecca Jane Bishop

    My dissertation considers examples of how social, economic, and political incentives associated with energy production, distribution, and consumption increase the risk of harm to society and the environment. In the first essay, "Why America should move toward dry cask consolidated interim storage of used nuclear fuel," my co-authors and I discuss how the confluence of the U.S. Government and electricity utilities' political and economic incentives created a gridlock preventing a long-term nuclear waste disposal solution. We find that our current policies undermine the safety and security of the nuclear waste, and so, suggest a temporary, consolidated storage solution. In the second essay, "Import-Adjusted Fatality Rates for Individual OECD Countries Caused by Accidents in the Oil Energy Chain," my co-authors and I adopt a technique from the greenhouse gas accounting literature and assign CO2 emissions to the final consumer (rather than the producer) by allocating the risk - measured in fatalities - associated with oil production to the final consumer. The new assignments show that normal methods of tracking oil production impacts only capture part of the actual costs. In the third essay, "Insurgent Attacks on Energy Infrastructure and Electoral Institutions in Colombia," my co-authors and I consider the economic and political incentives that an energy resource create in a conflict environment. Our research shows that insurgents in Colombia, Las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) and Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN), strategically time attacks on critical energy infrastructure during elections. These results are the first to quantify insurgent tactics to target critical energy infrastructure, which potentially undermine state capacity and democratic processes.

  4. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  5. Essays on the future in honor of Nick Metropolis

    CERN Document Server

    Rota, Gian-Carlo

    2000-01-01

    This collection represents a unique undertaking in scientific publishing to honor Nick Metropolis. Nick was the last survivor of the World War II Manhattan Project in Los Alamos, and was an important member of the Los Alamos national Laboratory until his death in October, 1999. In this volume, some of the leading scientists and humanists of our time have contributed essays related to their respective disciplines, exploring various aspects of future developments in science and society, philosophy, national security, nuclear power, pure and applied mathematics, physics and biology, particle physics, computing, and information science.

  6. Imaging Findings of Scrotal Tumors in Children: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hee [Kang-Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Eun [Gachon University, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Sungkyunkwan University, Samsung Medical Center, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dal Mo [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The diagnosis of scrotal tumors in children can be challenging because of the rarity, vague symptoms, and varied imaging features of the tumors. The pathology and frequency of scrotal tumors that occur in children are different from tumors that arise in adults. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate the imaging findings of scrotal tumors in children with pathological correlations. In addition, we present the clinical manifestations that are valuable for a differential diagnosis. Familiarity with the imaging findings and clinical manifestations of pediatric scrotal tumors may be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and providing proper patient management

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in lower urinary tract endometriosis: iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Claudio Marcio Amaral de Oliveira; Coutinho, Elisa Pompeu Dias; Ribeiro, Erica Barreiros; Domingues, Marisa Nassar Aidar; Junqueira, Flavia Pegado; Coutinho Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity and myometrium. Although this is a frequent disease with multifactorial causes, involvement of the lower urinary tract is rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of endometriosis in the lower urinary tract, especially for allowing the identification of lesions obscured by adhesions or with subperitoneal extension. The present iconographic essay presents the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lower urinary tract involvement by endometriosis. (author)

  8. Essays in theoretical physics in honour of Dirk Ter Haar

    CERN Document Server

    Parry, W E

    2013-01-01

    Essays in Theoretical Physics: In Honour of Dirk ter Haar is devoted to Dirk ter Haar, detailing the breadth of Dirk's interest in physics. The book contains 15 chapters, with some chapters elucidating stellar dynamics with non-classical integrals; a mean-field treatment of charge density waves in a strong magnetic field; electrodynamics of two-dimensional (surface) superconductors; and the Bethe Ansatz and exact solutions of the Kondo and related magnetic impurity models. Other chapters focus on probing the interiors of neutron stars; macroscopic quantum tunneling; unitary transformation meth

  9. Blazing the trail essays by leading women in science

    CERN Document Server

    Ideal, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Name a famous scientist. Got one? Now name a famous physicist. Ok, now name a famous female physicist. Ok, now name a famous living female physicist. Stumped? In Blazing the Trail: Essays by Leading Women in Science, 35 highly successful physicists, engineers, and chemists share their personal histories, their passion for discovery, and their secrets for success with the next generation. Essayists candidly recount their experiences – both positive and negative – with an uplifting tone, focusing on lessons learned along the way. The combination of personal stories and advice sends a powerful message to all young women considering scientific careers: I did it, so can you. Here’s how.

  10. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  11. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Questioning care at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruopp, Patricia; Good, Mary-Jo Delvecchio; Lakoma, Matthew; Gadmer, Nina M; Arnold, Robert M; Block, Susan D

    2005-06-01

    The goal of the larger study was to explore physicians' emotional responses to the death of their patients; this study analyzed a subset of physician transcripts to elucidate the construct of questioning care, which emerged from the larger study. To analyzes how physicians question care-expressing concern, unease, or uncertainty about treatment decisions and practices, errors, or adverse events-as they attend dying patients. Retrospective interview study of physicians caring for randomly selected deaths on the medical service of a major academic teaching hospital, using qualitative and quantitative measures. SETTING, SUBJECTS: 188 attendings, residents, and interns on the internal medical services of two academic medical centers were part of the larger study. A subsample of 75 physician narratives was selected for qualitative data analysis for this study. Qualitative measures included open-ended questions eliciting physicians' stories of the most recent and a most emotionally powerful patient death they have experienced. Grounded theory was used to analyze physician narratives. Quantitative instruments measured physician attitudes toward end-of-life care and responses to the most recent and most emotional patient death. Physicians question care more frequently in most emotional deaths (42%) than in most recent deaths (34%). Physicians question communication with patients and families and within medical teams, medical judgment and technique, standards of practice, and high-risk treatments, often assigning responsibility for medical management they perceive as inappropriate, futile, overly aggressive, or mistakes in judgment and technique. Responsibility ranges from the distal (the culture of medicine) to the proximal (personal). Frustration, guilt, and anger are more frequently expressed in these narratives when care is questioned. A typology of questioning care emerged from these physicians' narratives that parallels and reflects recent and classic research on

  13. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  14. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  15. Exploring undergraduates' understanding of photosynthesis using diagnostic question clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M; Anderson, Charles W; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific principles: conservation of matter, conservation of energy, and the hierarchical nature of biological systems. Data on students' responses to the cluster items and uses of some of the questions in multiple-choice, multiple-true/false, and essay formats are compared. A cross-over study indicates that the multiple-true/false format shows promise as a machine-gradable format that identifies students who have a mixture of accurate and inaccurate ideas. In addition, interviews with students about their choices on three multiple-choice questions reveal the fragility of students' understanding. Collectively, the data show that many undergraduates lack both a basic understanding of the role of photosynthesis in plant metabolism and the ability to reason with scientific principles when learning new content. Implications for instruction are discussed.

  16. A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR A Collection of Scientific Essays

    CERN Document Server

    Salomonovich, A; Samanian, V; Shklovskii, I; Sorochenko, R; Troitskii, V; Kellermann, K; Dubinskii, B; Kaidanovskii, N; Kardashev, N; Kobrin, M; Kuzmin, A; Molchanov, A; Pariiskii, Yu; Rzhiga, O

    2012-01-01

    This translation from Russian makes the history of radio astronomy in the USSR available in the English language for the first time. The book includes descriptions of the antennas and instrumentation used in the USSR, the astronomical discoveries, as well as interesting personal backgrounds of many of the early key players in Soviet radio astronomy. A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR is a collection of memoirs recounting an interesting but largely still dark era of Soviet astronomy. The arrangement of the essays is determined primarily by the time when radio astronomy studies began at the institutions involved. These include the Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Gorkii State University and the affiliated Physical-Technical Institute (GIFTI), Moscow State University Sternberg Astronomical institute (GAISH) and Space Research Institute (IKI), the Department of Radio Astronomy of the Main Astronomical Observatory in Pulkovo (GAO), Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), Byurakan Astrophysical Obse...

  17. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  18. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  19. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  20. RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adam Graham

    In April of 2005, Governance, Equity and Health (GEH) held an all-partners' ... data collected – six respondents left a blank response for the question addressing level of ... Meeting participants were organized into five thematic working groups:.

  1. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  2. Some Questions for the Information Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Though frequently forecasted and referred to, the so-called information society is likely but not necessarily inevitable. Questions are raised about such a society, including its impact on work, commerce, health, education, entertainment, politics, intergroup relations, families, and the impact of anticipated changes on the quality of life.…

  3. Topical questions in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, E.R.; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines a number of practical questions concerning magnetic resonance imaging. These include the choice of operating magnetic field strength, the problem of siting and screening, a procedure for securing precise slice selection and the use of paramagnetic contrast agents. (author). 5 refs

  4. An essay on the importance of being nonlinear

    CERN Document Server

    West, Bruce J

    1985-01-01

    One of my favorite quotes is from a letter of Charles Darwin (1887): "I have long discovered that geologists never read each other's works, and that the only object in writing a book is proof of earnestness, and that you do not form your opinions without undergoing labour of some kind. " It is not clear if this private opinion of Darwin was one that he held to be absolutely true, or was one of those opinions that, as with most of us, coincides with our "bad days," but is replaced with a more optimistic view on our "good days. " I hold the sense of the statement to be true in general, but not with regard to scientists never reading each other's work. Even if that were true however, the present essay. would still have been written as a proof of earnestness. This essay outlines my personal view of how nonlinear mathematics may be of value in formulating models outside the physical sciences. This perspective has developed over a number of years during which time I have repeatedly been amazed at how an "accepted" ...

  5. Improving Undergraduates’ Argumentative Group Essay Writing through Self-assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Mei Fung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When writing an argumentative essay, writers develop and evaluate arguments to embody, initiate, or simulate various kinds of interpersonal and textual interaction for reader consideration (Wu & Allison, 2003. This is quite challenging for English as a second language (ESL learners. To improve the quality of their writing, students need to review their draft throughout the writing process. This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-assessment in group writing and how group work improves students’ writing ability. An intact class comprising 22 first-year undergraduates participated in the study.  Data were collected from pre- and post-treatment writing tests, semi-structured interview and reflection entries. The results revealed that self-assessment has a significant effect on students’ writing performance. Group work also enhanced social and cognitive development of the students. This study provides insights into the use of self-assessment in writing class to develop learner autonomy and improve writing ability. Keywords: Argumentative essay, Self-assessment, Learner autonomy, Group writing, ESL learners

  6. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  7. Comfortable Fictions and the Struggle for Turf: An Essay Review of "The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies," Edited by James A. Clifton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Clifton's collection of essays attacks recent pro-Indian "fictions" (including Native spirituality and the relationship between the Iroquois League and the U.S. Constitution) as politically motivated romanticism and nonsense. The authors are struggling to maintain white intellectual authority over definitions of Indian identity and interpretations…

  8. Planning and Revising Written Arguments: The Effects of Two Text Structure-Based Interventions on Persuasiveness of 8th-Grade Students' Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgette, Ekaterina; Haria, Priti

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of two comprehensive argumentative writing interventions--Text Structure Instruction (TSI) and Text Structure Revision Instruction (TSRI)--on the eighth-grade students' ability to compose convincing essays that include structural elements of argumentative discourse. Both treatment groups…

  9. Filipino Identity: The Haunting Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Mulder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With their national origins in Spanish and US imperialism, and in the subsequent wake of intense waves of cultural colonisation, educated Filipinos are often at a loss about what their roots are. In order to bring much needed clarity to the ongoing debate about what it means to be Filipino, this essay will relate the past to the present by tracing the evolution of, and the continuities in, the essence of Filipino social organisation and worldview, drawing frequent comparisons with Indonesian and Thai data. The core approach taken – wherein these issues are examined through the lens of culture – is complemented with (i reflections on common Southeast Asian principles of social construction and (ii with the pinpointing of the systemic divides that prevent Filipinos from identifying with the collective whole and from growing into a nation of committed citizens. The paper is of relevance both to scholarly researchers and to others with practical interests in the region, as it will enable them to better know the people that they are or will be dealing with.

  10. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  11. Essays on carbon policy and enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin R.

    The growing concerns about climate change have led policy makers to consider various regulatory schemes designed to reduce the stock and growth of atmospheric CO2 concentrations while at the same time improving energy security. The most prominent proposals are the so called "cap-and-trade" frameworks which set aggregate emission levels for a jurisdiction and then issue or sell a corresponding number of allowances to emitters. Typically, these policy measures will also encourage the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in geological formations and mature oil fields through subsidies or other incentives. The ability to store CO 2 in mature oil fields through the deployment of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2--EOR) is particularly attractive as it can simultaneously improve oil recovery at those fields, and serve as a possible financial bridge to the development of CO2 transportation infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to explore the impact that a tandem subsidy-tax policy regime may have on bargaining between emitters and sequestration providers, and also to identify oil units in Wyoming that can profitably undertake CO 2--EOR as a starting point for the build-out of CO2 pipelines. In the first essay an economics lab experiment is designed to simulate private bargaining between carbon emitters (such as power plants) and carbon sequestration sites when the emitter faces carbon taxes, sequestration subsidies or both. In a tax-subsidy policy regime the carbon tax (or purchased allowances) can be avoided by sequestering the carbon, and in some cases the emitter can also earn a subsidy to help pay for the sequestration. The main policy implications of the experiment results are that the sequestration market might be inefficient, and sequestration providers seem to have bargaining power sufficient to command high prices. This may lead to the integration of CO2 sources and sequestration sites, and reduced prices for the injectable CO2 purchased by oil

  12. Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.

    2013-07-15

    How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

  13. Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.

    2013-07-15

    How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

  14. Neurological eponyms--who gets the credit? Essay review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Michael S

    2003-03-01

    The recent publication of Neurological Eponyms by Peter Koehler and colleagues has revived the interest in neurological eponyms and raised important questions about their use. Many investigators have contributed to the body of knowledge that defines the specialty of neurology. We honor them by associating their names with neurological diseases. The history of neurological eponyms provides us with an opportunity to reexamine the important question of who gets the credit. Additional issues have surfaced including why certain eponyms tend to stick in the literature and others disappear, as well as the important realization that lengthy modern descriptions may require name eponyms for simplification. Eponyms can be confusing as to whether they refer to a disease or a syndrome and this confusion can impact the diagnosis and treatment of patients. There is an inevitable evolution of certain eponyms as our understanding of entities expands. This paper provides an overview of neurological eponyms with the explanation of the potential reasons why names were associated with neurological diseases. These included first case reports, relating isolated cases, years of observation, defining neuroanatomy, physician sufferer, new physical examination maneuvers, academic climate, the advent of a new procedure, fame, and competition amongst investigators. Important issues have surfaced regarding sharing credit amongst investigators, name priority, crediting the wrong investigator, and lack of a defined system to award credit. Since eponym use is based on a peer dependent system, each neurologist must make a more critical appraisal of who gets the credit and understand the differences between diseases and syndromes in order to better preserve neurological history.

  15. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele

    2016-01-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Towards a sustainable agriculture in 2030. An essay on transition; Naar een duurzame landbouw in 2030. Een essay over transitie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hees, E.M.; Van der Weijden, W.J.; Hin, C.J.A.

    2002-05-01

    Sustainable development of the agricultural sector in the Netherlands is high on the list of priorities in the environmental policy of the Netherlands. In this report special attention is paid to sustainability indicators which can be used in the transition of a Dutch National Environmental Balance towards a Dutch National Sustainability Balance. The report consists of three parts: (1) an essay in the form of an imaginary review from the year 2030 back to the transition process of the agricultural sector from the year 2000 onwards; (2) 14 texts on proposals for economical, socio-cultural and ecological indicators; and (3) four maps which present chances for offering 'green' services in Dutch agricultural areas. [Dutch] Een van de sectoren waar duurzame ontwikkeling hard nodig is, is de landbouw. Het 4e Nationaal Miliebeleidsplan (NMP4) noernt de landbouw naast de energiesector en biodiversiteit als een prioritaire sector. In dit rapport is een visie neergelegdeen met speciale aandacht voor duurzaamheidindicatoren. Die indicatoren zouden bouwstenen kunnen zijn voor de voorgenomen overgang van een Nationale Milieubalans naar een Nationale Duurzaamheidsbalans. Dit rapport bestaat uit drie uiteenlopende delen: een essay in de vorm van een denkbeeldige terugblik vanuit het jaar 2030 naar het transitieproces dat de landbouw vanaf 2000 heeft doorgemaakt; een 14-tal tekstuele bijIagen, met onder meer voorstellen voor te hanteren economische, sociaal-culturele en ecologische indicatoren; en een viertal kaart-bijlagen waarop staat aangegeven waar in het Nederlandse landbouwareaal kansen liggen voor groene diensten.

  18. Essays on environmental, energy, and natural resource economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan

    My dissertation focuses on examining the interrelationship among the environment, energy and economic development. In the first essay, I explore the effects of increased uncertainty over future output prices, input costs and productivity levels on intertemporal emission permits trading. In a dynamic programming setting, a permit price is a convex function of each of these three sources of uncertainty. Increased uncertainty about future market conditions increases the expected permit price and causes risk-neutral firms to reduce ex ante emissions to smooth marginal abatement costs over time. Empirical analysis shows that increased price volatility induced by electricity market restructuring could explain 8-11% of the allowances banked during Phase I of the U.S. sulfur dioxide trading program. Numerical simulation suggests that high uncertainty may generate substantial initial compliance costs, thereby deterring new entrants and reducing efficiency; sharp emission spikes are also more likely to occur under industry-wide uncertainty shocks. In the second essay, I examine whether electricity restructuring improves the efficiency of U.S. nuclear power generation. Based on the full sample of 73 investor-owned nuclear plants in the United States from 1992 to 1998, I estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal efficiency changes associated with restructuring, at the plant level. Various modeling strategies are presented to deal with the policy endogeneity bias that high cost plants are more likely to be restructured. Overall, I find a strikingly positive relationship between the multiple steps of restructuring and plant operating efficiency. In the third essay, I estimate the economic impact of China's national land conversion program on local farm-dependent economies. The impact of the program on 14 industrial sectors in Gansu provinces are investigated using an input-output model. Due to regulatory restrictions, the agricultural sector cannot automatically expand or shrink

  19. Ecological economics of the Swedish Baltic empire: An essay on energy and power, 1560-1720

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, U.

    1992-01-01

    Sweden rose from relative obscurity to become the most powerful nation in Northern Europe during the period 1560-1720 based on its prosperous metal industry: silver, copper, and steel. This essay addresses this period of history from an energy perspective and suggests, as others have, that the surplus energy of a nation is its basis for power. Sweden's energy came mainly from its forests which supplied its mines with wood and its metal-works with charcoal. This energy system, including hydropower, animal and man power, is analyzed using one of the thousands of charcoal-burners as a model for the main energy input: charcoal. The principles of sustainable use of Swedish forests are also addressed in a historical perspective. 6 figs., 9 tabs., 1 app., 40 refs

  20. DSA volumetric 3D reconstructions of intracranial aneurysms: A pictorial essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieściński, Jakub; Serafin, Zbigniew; Strześniewski, Piotr; Lasek, Władysław; Beuth, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Summary A gold standard of cerebral vessel imaging remains the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) performed in three projections. However, in specific clinical cases, many additional projections are required, or a complete visualization of a lesion may even be impossible with 2D angiography. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of rotational angiography were reported to improve the performance of DSA significantly. In this pictorial essay, specific applications of this technique are presented in the management of intracranial aneurysms, including: preoperative aneurysm evaluation, intraoperative imaging, and follow-up. Volumetric reconstructions of 3D DSA are a valuable tool for cerebral vessels imaging. They play a vital role in the assessment of intracranial aneurysms, especially in evaluation of the aneurysm neck and the aneurysm recanalization. PMID:22844309