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Sample records for include environmental chemistry

  1. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  2. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  3. Environmental analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental analytical chemistry has a big relation with the stochastic methods. The environmetry is an interdisciplinary science that is formed by the computer science, statistics science and environmental science. Today we must apply the logic of the laboratory and with the environmetry we can apply better the chemical analysis into the environmental control and pollutants control

  4. Elements of environmental chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hites, R. A; Raff, Jonathan D

    2012-01-01

    ... more. Extensively revised, updated, and expanded, this second edition includes new chapters on atmospheric chemistry, climate change, and polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, and brominated flame retardants...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosystems as well as their role in unplanned human exposure. The relationship between personal actions and the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment is clear-cut and comprehensible to the public. In this overview, we attempt to examine the separations aspect of the analytical approach to the vast array of potential analytes among this class of compounds. We also highlight the relationship between these compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and between PPCPs and EDCs and the more traditional environmental analytes such as the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Although the spectrum of chemical behavior extends from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the current focus has shifted to moderately and highly polar analytes. Thus, emphasis on HPLC and LC/MS has grown and MS/MS has become a detection technique of choice with either electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. This contrasts markedly with the bench mark approach of capillary GC, GC/MS and electron ionization in traditional environmental analysis. The expansion of the analyte list has fostered new vigor in the development of environmental analytical chemistry, modernized the range of tools appli

  6. Environmental Chemistry Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    111 pg, leading to a body fat concentration of about 40 ppt (12). Lithium Battery AdvancesRechargeable Power SourceRecent advances in lithium ion battery technology may allow these devices to become the rechargeable power source of choice in electric cars of the future. Due to their high voltage, they can store a large amount of energy per given mass or volume of battery. In the past, however, such batteries have been somewhat impractical because they had to be hermetically sealed and required nonaqueous electrolytes due to lithium's violent reaction with water. In the newly developed battery, the electrolyte is water that already contains a high concentration of Li+ ions; elemental lithium (present as LiMn2O4 in one electrode) is unreactive in this medium unless an external connection to the other electrode is made (13). Air-Pollution Control for Power PlantsA process called SNOX, which removes both NOx and SO2 from the flue gases produced by coal-fired power plants, has been developed and demonstrated. The nitrogen oxides are first reduced to N2. The resulting gas is then heated and catalytically oxidized to sulfur trioxide, which is then hydrated to sulfuric acid. More than 90% of the NOx and SO2 were removed from the flue gases in the demonstration held at an Ohio Edison plant (14). Literature Cited Williams, D. Nature 1994, 371, 556. Emsley, J. New Scientist 1994, (Oct 1), 14. McMichael, A. J. American Journal of Epidemiology 1994, 140, 489-499. Chemical and Engineering News 1994, (Oct 10), 5. Santee, M. L. Science 1995, 267, 849-852. Chemical and Engineering News 1994, (Nov 14). Solomon, S. Journal of Geophysical Research 1994, 99, 20491-20499. Wennberg, P. O. Science 1994, 266, 398-404. Viggiano, A. A. Science 1995, 267, 82-84. Summary in Chemistry and Engineering News 1995, (Jan 9), 23. Schottler, S. P.; Eisenreich, S. J. Environmental Science and Technology 1994, 28, 2228-2232. Lang, L. Environmental Health Perspectives 1993, 101, 578-583. Chemical and

  7. Actinide environmental chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.J.; Nitsche, H.; Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V.

    1995-01-01

    In order to predict release and transport rates, as well as design cleanup and containment methods, it is essential to understand the chemical reactions and forms of the actinides under aqueous environmental conditions. Four important processes that can occur with the actinide cations are: precipitation, complexation, sorption and colloid formation. Precipitation of a solid phase will limit the amount of actinide in solution near the solid phase and have a retarding effect on release and transport rates. Complexation increases the amount of actinide in solution and tends to increase release and migration rates. Actinides can sorb on to mineral or rock surfaces which tends to retard migration. Actinide ions can form or become associated with colloidal sized particles which can, depending on the nature of the colloid and the solution conditions, enhance or retard migration of the actinide. The degree to which these four processes progress is strongly dependent on the oxidation state of the actinide and tends to be similar for actinides in the same oxidation state. In order to obtain information on the speciation of actinides in solution, i.e., oxidation state, complexation form, dissolved or colloidal forms, the use of absorption spectroscopy has become a method of choice. The advent of the ultrasensitive, laser induced photothermal and fluorescence spectroscopies has made possible the detection and study of actinide ions at the parts per billion level. With the availability of third generation synchrotrons and the development of new fluorescence detectors, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is becoming a powerful technique to study the speciation of actinides in the environment, particularly for reactions at the solid/solution interfaces. (orig.)

  8. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY CAREERS IN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careers in chemistry and chemistry related fields can be very rewarding and enriching. Being an environmental chemist for a government agency requires a broad background in the field of chemistry. A knowledge of the operation of several analytical and preparatory instruments is...

  10. Role of analytical chemistry in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayasth, S.; Swain, K.

    2004-01-01

    Basic aspects of pollution and the role of analytical chemistry in environmental monitoring are highlighted and exemplified, with emphasis on trace elements. Sources and pathways of natural and especially man-made polluting substances as well as physico-chemical characteristics are given. Attention is paid to adequate sampling in various compartments of the environment comprising both lithosphere and biosphere. Trace analysis is dealt with using a variety of analytical techniques, including criteria for choice of suited techniques, as well as aspects of analytical quality assurance and control. Finally, some data on trace elements levels in soil and water samples from India are presented. (author)

  11. Quality assurance for health and environmental chemistry: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, M.A.; Gladney, E.S.; Moss, W.D.; Phillips, M.B.; O'Malley, B.T.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the continuing quality assurance efforts of the Health and Environmental Chemistry Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The philosophy, methodology, and computing resources used by the quality assurance program to encompass the diversity of analytical chemistry practiced in the group are described. Included in the report are all quality assurance reference materials used, along with their certified or consensus concentrations, and all analytical chemistry quality assurance measurements made by HSE-9 during 1986. 27 refs., 3 figs

  12. 2nd European Meeting on Environmental Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Elbisser, Brigitte

    2001-01-01

    International audience; ORAL SESSIONS: AIR POLLUTION - ORGANIC POLLUTANTS, WATER AND FOOD POLLUTION - ORGANIC POLLUTANTS, SOIL POLLUTION - TOXIC METALS, ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, GREEN CHEMISTRY, ECOTOXICOLOGY, STABLE ISOTOPES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, WATER POLLUTION - TOXIC METALS, ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, SOIL POLLUTION - ORGANIC POLLUTANTSPOSTER SESSIONS: AIR POLLUTION - TOXIC METALS, AIR POLLUTION - ORGANIC POLLUTANTS, WATER POLLUTION - TOXIC MET...

  13. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with M as the first character.

  14. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with A as the first character.

  15. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  16. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  17. Quality assurance for health and environmental chemistry: 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, M.A.; Gladney, E.S.; Koski, N.L.; Jones, E.A.; Phillips, M.B.; O'Malley, B.T.

    1990-12-01

    This report documents the continuing quality assurance efforts of the Health and Environmental Chemistry Group (HSE-9) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The philosophy, methodology, computing resources, and laboratory information management system used by the quality assurance program to encompass the diversity of analytical chemistry practiced in the group are described. Included in the report are all quality assurance reference materials used, along with their certified or consensus concentrations, and all analytical chemistry quality assurance measurements made by HSE-9 during 1989. 38 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Environmental Chemistry Division annual report, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, L.

    1990-01-01

    The research activities making up the programs in the Environmental Chemistry Division of the Department of Applied Science are presented. Some of the more significant accomplishments during 1989 are described and plans for 1990 are discussed briefly. Publications for the period are listed and abstracts are provided. Research objectives and principal investigators are given for each of the active programs. A list of personnel and collaborators during the past year is presented. The support distribution of FY 1989 is approximately 85% from the Department of Energy (65% Office of Health and Environmental Research), and 15% other agencies (principally from the Electric Power Research Institute).

  19. Environmental Chemistry Division annual report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.

    1990-01-01

    The research activities making up the programs in the Environmental Chemistry Division of the Department of Applied Science are presented. Some of the more significant accomplishments during 1989 are described and plans for 1990 are discussed briefly. Publications for the period are listed and abstracts are provided. Research objectives and principal investigators are given for each of the active programs. A list of personnel and collaborators during the past year is presented. The support distribution of FY 1989 is approximately 85% from the Department of Energy (65% Office of Health and Environmental Research), and 15% other agencies (principally from the Electric Power Research Institute)

  20. Environmental chemistry and toxicology of mercury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2012-01-01

    ... employed in recent studies. The coverage discusses the environmental behavior and toxicological effects of mercury on organisms, including humans, and provides case studies at the end of each chapter...

  1. Quality assurance for environmental analytical chemistry: 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.; Goode, W.E.; Perrin, D.R.; Burns, C.E.

    1981-09-01

    The continuing quality assurance effort by the Environmental Surveillance Group is presented. Included are all standard materials now in use, their consensus or certified concentrations, quality control charts, and all quality assurance measurements made by H-8 during 1980

  2. Quality assurance for environmental analytical chemistry: 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladney, E.S.; Goode, W.E.; Perrin, D.R.; Burns, C.E.

    1981-09-01

    The continuing quality assurance effort by the Environmental Surveillance Group is presented. Included are all standard materials now in use, their consensus or certified concentrations, quality control charts, and all quality assurance measurements made by H-8 during 1980.

  3. The rise of environmental analytical chemistry as an interdisciplinary activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Modern scientific endeavour is increasingly delivered within an interdisciplinary framework. Analytical environmental chemistry is a long-standing example of an interdisciplinary approach to scientific research where value is added by the close cooperation of different disciplines. This editorial piece discusses the rise of environmental analytical chemistry as an interdisciplinary activity and outlines the scope of the Analytical Chemistry and the Environmental Chemistry domains of TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (TSWJ), and the appropriateness of TSWJ's domain format in covering interdisciplinary research. All contributions of new data, methods, case studies, and instrumentation, or new interpretations and developments of existing data, case studies, methods, and instrumentation, relating to analytical and/or environmental chemistry, to the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry domains, are welcome and will be considered equally.

  4. Turkish Chemistry Teachers' Views about Secondary School Chemistry Curriculum: A Perspective from Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icoz, Omer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' views about environmental education (EE) have been regarded as one of the most important concerns in education for sustainability. In secondary school chemistry curriculum, there are several subjects about EE embedded in the chemistry subjects in Turkey. This study explores three chemistry teachers' views about to what extent the…

  5. Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology: in greater demand than ever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheringer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology have been losing support, resources, and recognition at universities for many years. What are the possible causes of this process? A first problem may be that the need for research and teaching in environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology is no longer seen because chemical pollution problems are considered as largely solved. Second, environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology may be seen as fields dominated by routine work and where there are not many interesting research questions left. A third part of the problem may be that other environmental impacts such as climate change are given higher priority than chemical pollution problems. Here, several cases are presented that illustrate the great demand for innovative research and teaching in environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology. It is crucial that environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology are rooted in academic science and are provided with sufficient equipment, resources, and prospects for development.

  6. Including environmental concerns in energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, Michel

    2014-05-01

    In this article, the author comments the different impacts on the environment and risks related to energy, provided that all energies have an impact on the environment (renewable energies are generally cleaner than fossil energies) and these impacts can be on human health, ecosystems, buildings, crops, landscapes, and climate change. He comments the efforts made in the search for a higher energetic efficiency, and proposes an overview of the various available tools implemented by environmental policies in the energy sector: regulatory instruments, economic instruments, negotiated agreements, and informational instruments. He comments the implementation of an energetic taxing aimed at developing a greater respect of the environment

  7. 35th International Symposium on Environmental Analytical Chemistry - ISEAC 35. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiestnik, J.; Gdaniec-Pietryka, M.; Klimaszewska, K.; Gorecka, A.; Sagajdakow, A.; Jakubowska, N.

    2008-01-01

    The ISEAC 35 is organized by the International Association of Environmental Analytical Chemistry (IAEAC), the Committee on Analytical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Science (PAS), and the Chemical Faculty of Gdansk University of Technology (GUT). The Symposium includes a number of invited lectures treating frontier topics of environmental analytical chemistry, such as: (a) miniaturized spectroscopic tools for environmental survey analysis, (b) remote sensing in marine research, (c) xenobiotics in natural waters, (d) sampling and sample handling for environmental analysis. Book of Abstracts contains abstracts of 9 invited lectures, 62 oral presentations and 250 posters.

  8. Advances in solid-phase extraction disks for environmental chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Snavely, K.

    2000-01-01

    The development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for environmental chemistry has progressed significantly over the last decade to include a number of new sorbents and new approaches to SPE. One SPE approach in particular, the SPE disk, has greatly reduced or eliminated the use of chlorinated solvents for the analysis of trace organic compounds. This article discusses the use and applicability of various SPE disks, including micro-sized disks, prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of trace organic compounds in water. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. American Chemical Society, 75 years of progress, Division of Environmental Chemistry, preprints of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The 196th ACS meeting was held in the Los Angeles September 25-30, 1988. The Division of Environmental Chemistry presented symposia on the following topics: data analysis procedures for trace constituents and toxic compounds, photochemical oxidants and their precursors, ionizing radiation in drinking water, environmental chemistry of dyes, biogeochemistry of CO 2 and the greenhouse effect, and biological markers of environmental contaminants. Abstracts are included for 151 papers

  10. Environmental Green Chemistry Applications of Nanoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J.; Garcia, A; Poon, P

    2010-01-01

    Influence of surface properties of nanoporous carbons on activity and selectivity during the photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol on UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} was performed. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy confirm the presence of a contact interface between both solids and suggest the coordination of some functional organic groups of the carbon surface, mainly ethers and carboxylic acids, to metallic centre Ti{sup +4} in TiO{sub 2}. Changes in surface pH of carbons from basic to neutral or acid remarkably increase the production of 4-chlorocathecol by a factor of 22 on TiO{sub 2}-Carbon in comparison of TiO{sub 2} alone. A scheme of interaction between TiO{sub 2} and carbon is proposed to the increased photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} and a reaction mechanism for the different intermediate products detected is also proposed. Results showed that TiO{sub 2}-Carbon can be used as an alternative photocatalyst for environmental green chemistry and selective organic synthesis applications.

  11. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, J.-M.; Duchamp, C.; Karkmaz, M.; Hoai, Bui Thu; Lachheb, H.; Puzenat, E.; Guillard, C.

    2007-01-01

    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5 wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of 'green chemistry', such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H 2 S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO 2 . The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH· radicals by neutralization of OH - surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the 'Plataforma Solar de Almeria' (Spain)

  12. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, J-M; Duchamp, C; Karkmaz, M; Hoai, Bui Thu; Lachheb, H; Puzenat, E; Guillard, C

    2007-07-31

    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of "green chemistry", such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H(2)S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO(2). The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH radicals by neutralization of OH(-) surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the "Plataforma Solar de Almeria" (Spain).

  13. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J.-M. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)]. E-mail: jean-marie.herrmann@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr; Duchamp, C. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Karkmaz, M. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, UMR 5256, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Hoai, Bui Thu [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Lachheb, H. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Puzenat, E. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Guillard, C. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2007-07-31

    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5 wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of 'green chemistry', such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H{sub 2}S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO{sub 2}. The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH{center_dot} radicals by neutralization of OH{sup -} surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the 'Plataforma Solar de Almeria' (Spain)

  14. Kinetics of Carbaryl Hydrolysis: An Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Darryl

    2015-01-01

    Kinetics is an important part of undergraduate environmental chemistry curricula and relevant laboratory exercises are helpful in assisting students to grasp concepts. Such exercises are also useful in general chemistry courses because students can see relevance to real-world issues. The laboratory exercise described here involves determination of…

  15. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes the Use of Informatics Tools, GIS and SAS Software Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning…

  16. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry at EPA's Western Ecology Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    The facility for the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Western Ecology Division (WED) has been involved in environmental toxicology and chemistry research since its inception in 1961 when it was the Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory. Currently, WED is one of four ecolog...

  17. The CompTox Chemistry Dashboard: a community data resource for environmental chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Antony J; Grulke, Christopher M; Edwards, Jeff; McEachran, Andrew D; Mansouri, Kamel; Baker, Nancy C; Patlewicz, Grace; Shah, Imran; Wambaugh, John F; Judson, Richard S; Richard, Ann M

    2017-11-28

    Despite an abundance of online databases providing access to chemical data, there is increasing demand for high-quality, structure-curated, open data to meet the various needs of the environmental sciences and computational toxicology communities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) web-based CompTox Chemistry Dashboard is addressing these needs by integrating diverse types of relevant domain data through a cheminformatics layer, built upon a database of curated substances linked to chemical structures. These data include physicochemical, environmental fate and transport, exposure, usage, in vivo toxicity, and in vitro bioassay data, surfaced through an integration hub with link-outs to additional EPA data and public domain online resources. Batch searching allows for direct chemical identifier (ID) mapping and downloading of multiple data streams in several different formats. This facilitates fast access to available structure, property, toxicity, and bioassay data for collections of chemicals (hundreds to thousands at a time). Advanced search capabilities are available to support, for example, non-targeted analysis and identification of chemicals using mass spectrometry. The contents of the chemistry database, presently containing ~ 760,000 substances, are available as public domain data for download. The chemistry content underpinning the Dashboard has been aggregated over the past 15 years by both manual and auto-curation techniques within EPA's DSSTox project. DSSTox chemical content is subject to strict quality controls to enforce consistency among chemical substance-structure identifiers, as well as list curation review to ensure accurate linkages of DSSTox substances to chemical lists and associated data. The Dashboard, publicly launched in April 2016, has expanded considerably in content and user traffic over the past year. It is continuously evolving with the growth of DSSTox into high-interest or data-rich domains of interest to EPA, such

  18. The environmental chemistry of radiocaesium and other nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.

    1989-02-01

    This thesis reports studies on the environmental chemistry of radiocaesium, and is related particularly to upland ecosystems and grazing animals. The underlying philosophy of this thesis is that fallout radiocaesium will act as a tracer for naturally occuring stable caesium. Therefore, investigations into radiocaesium distribution and mobility within environmental and biological systems are complemented by studies of the stable caesium concentrations and transfer mechanisms within that ecosystem. (author)

  19. Environmental pollution in Owerri municipal-chemistry education to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work focuses on the application of the knowledge of chemistry education to the solution of environmental pollution in Owerri Municipal council area of Imo State. Four - itemed structured opinionnaire and six - itemed structured interview questions were used to collect data from the five hundred and eighty four workers of ...

  20. Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1. Annual operation report: January-December 1977 (including environmental report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Net electrical energy generated in 1977 was 2,922,683.7 MWH with the generator on line 6,959.8 hours. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, occupational personnel radiation exposures, and primary coolant chemistry. Data on radioactive effluent releases, meteorology, environmental monitoring, and potential radiation doses to individuals for July 7, 1977 to December 31, 1977 are also included

  1. Application of radiation chemistry in materials modification and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    thermoshrinkable tubes and types possessing '' memory effect ''. Through radiation, grafting metal adsorbents and ion exchange membranes can be developed. Radiation is early applied tool in the area of nanomaterials engineering; arrangement of atoms and ions has been performed using ion or electron beams for many years. New trends concern surface curing and development of ion track membranes and controlled release drug-delivery systems. Finally, radiation processing concerns gem stones colorization, development of high temperature resistant fibers (SiC) and semiconductor modification. Over the past few years, radiation processing technologies aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment have been developed. It has been demonstrated that radiation processing based technologies for flue gas treatment (SO X and NO X removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Electron beam technology is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. This is a dry-scrubbing process of simultaneous SO 2 and NO x removal, where no waste except the fertilizer by-product are generated.The other possibility is application of the process for VOC removal. Tests at the pilot plant constructed at a coal-fired power station were performed with the purpose of estimating the influence of electron beam on VOCs present in flue gas, during SO 2 and NO x removal. The removal efficiencies have been ranged from 40% up to 98%. The chlorocarbons including dioxins may be removed with high efficiency as well [57, 58]. During the radiolysis of water reactive radicals of strong oxidizing or reducing properties are formed that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. A large number of substances such as hard surfactants, lignin, pesticides cannot be degraded by conventional biochemical methods and thus escape from decomposition in biological treatment. Research and

  2. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  3. Island Explorations: Discovering Effects of Environmental Research-Based Lab Activities on Analytical Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; LeCaptain, Dale; Murphy, Sarah; Martin, Mary; Knight, Rachel M.; Harke, Maureen A.; Burke, Ryan; Beck, Kara; Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David

    2014-01-01

    Motivating students in analytical chemistry can be challenging, in part because of the complexity and breadth of topics involved. Some methods that help encourage students and convey real-world relevancy of the material include incorporating environmental issues, research-based lab experiments, and service learning projects. In this paper, we…

  4. Aqueous chemistry of chlorine: chemistry, analysis, and environmental fate of reactive oxidant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Carpenter, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews (1) the chemistry of chlorine relative to its reactions in fresh, estuarine, and marine waters and the formation of reactive oxidant species; (2) the current status of chemical analysis of reactive chlorine species and chlorine-produced oxidant species relative to analysis of low concentrations (microgram-per-liter range) and determination of accuracy and precision of methods; and (3) the environmental fate of chlorine and chlorine-produced oxidant species.

  5. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  6. Bioassays as one of the Green Chemistry tools for assessing environmental quality: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczerzak, M; Namieśnik, J; Kudłak, B

    2016-09-01

    For centuries, mankind has contributed to irreversible environmental changes, but due to the modern science of recent decades, scientists are able to assess the scale of this impact. The introduction of laws and standards to ensure environmental cleanliness requires comprehensive environmental monitoring, which should also meet the requirements of Green Chemistry. The broad spectrum of Green Chemistry principle applications should also include all of the techniques and methods of pollutant analysis and environmental monitoring. The classical methods of chemical analyses do not always match the twelve principles of Green Chemistry, and they are often expensive and employ toxic and environmentally unfriendly solvents in large quantities. These solvents can generate hazardous and toxic waste while consuming large volumes of resources. Therefore, there is a need to develop reliable techniques that would not only meet the requirements of Green Analytical Chemistry, but they could also complement and sometimes provide an alternative to conventional classical analytical methods. These alternatives may be found in bioassays. Commercially available certified bioassays often come in the form of ready-to-use toxkits, and they are easy to use and relatively inexpensive in comparison with certain conventional analytical methods. The aim of this study is to provide evidence that bioassays can be a complementary alternative to classical methods of analysis and can fulfil Green Analytical Chemistry criteria. The test organisms discussed in this work include single-celled organisms, such as cell lines, fungi (yeast), and bacteria, and multicellular organisms, such as invertebrate and vertebrate animals and plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of ion chemistry to environmental trace gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Werner Lindingers laboratory we have developed a mass spectrometric technique, named proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS), which utilizes positive ion chemistry to measure trace neutral concentrations in air. During the last few years PTR-MS has been used in food research, in medical applications, and in environmental applications to gain gas phase information of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at parts per trillion (pptv) levels. The real time method relies on proton transfer reactions between H 3 O + primary ions and organic trace gases (VOCs) which have a higher proton affinity than water molecules. Organic trace gases such as hydrocarbons, carbonyls, alcohols, acetonitrile, and others can be monitored on-line. In this lecture we will discuss the mass spectrometric method and present recent results gained in the field of environmental trace gas analysis. (author)

  8. Drainage from coal mines: Chemistry and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildeman, T.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the research on coal-mine drainage chemistry was conducted a decade ago, and now increased environmental awareness has brought about renewed interest in the findings. Consideration of the trace minerals and elements in coal points to the possible generation of acidic waters upon weathering, especially when pyrite is present. When pyrite weathers, it produces H + and Fe 3+ which catalyze the incongruent weathering of other carbonates and sulfides. In this weathering mechanism, catalysis by bacteria is important. Of the environmental problems in coal mine drainage, the mineral acidity of the water is the most serious. This is caused not only by the H + , but also by Mn 4+ , Fe 3+ , and Al 3+ that are found or generated within the drainage. Case studies in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Colorado show that the abundance and form of pyrite in the deposit and in the overburden determines the level of acidity and the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the drainage. Recent trends in environmental enforcement that emphasize integrated stream water standards and biotoxicity assays point to the possibility that the concentrations of heavy metals in coal mine drainages may cause environmental concern

  9. Water Chemistry and Clad Corrosion/Deposition Including Fuel Failures. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion is a principal life limiting degradation mechanism in nuclear steam supply systems, particularly taking into account the trends in increasing fuel burnup, thermal ratings and cycle length. Further, many plants have been operating with varying water chemistry regimes for many years, and issues of crud (deposition of corrosion products on other surfaces in the primary coolant circuit) are of significant concern for operators. At the meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology (TWGFPT) in 2007, it was recommended that a technical meeting be held on the subject of water chemistry and clad corrosion and deposition, including the potential consequences for fuel failures. This proposal was supported by both the Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (TWG-LWR) and the Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Heavy Water Reactors (TWG-HWR), with a recommendation to hold the meeting at the National Nuclear Energy Generating Company ENERGOATOM, Ukraine. This technical meeting was part of the IAEA activities on water chemistry, which have included a series of coordinated research projects, the most recent of which, Optimisation of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plant (FUWAC) (IAEATECDOC-1666), concluded in 2010. Previous technical meetings were held in Cadarache, France (1985), Portland, Oregon, USA (1989), Rez, Czech Republic (1993), and Hluboka nad Vltavou, Czech Republic (1998). This meeting focused on issues associated with the corrosion of fuel cladding and the deposition of corrosion products from the primary circuit onto the fuel assembly, which can cause overheating and cladding failure or lead to unplanned power shifts due to boron deposition in the clad deposits. Crud deposition on other surfaces increases radiation fields and operator dose and the meeting considered ways to minimize the generation of crud to avoid

  10. Proceedings of the 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society; 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    These 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society and 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry present several subjects of different interests for the participants, including sections about inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; environmental chemistry; technological chemistry; electrochemistry; physical chemistry; photochemistry; chemical education; natural products; analytical chemistry and biological chemistry. (C.G.C.)

  11. Ozone layer depletion simulation in an Environmental Chemistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, G. S.; Gavilán, I. C.; Garcia-Reynoso, J. A.; Santos, E.; Mendoza, A.; Perea, B.

    2015-12-01

    The reactions taking place between the ozone (O3) and various compounds present in the stratosphere has been studied extensively. When the balance between these reactions breakdown, destruction of ozone is favored. Here we create an experiment for and Environmental Chemistry laboratory course where students evaluate the ozone behavior by comparing its reactivity to various physical and chemical conditions; and observe the destruction of ozone by the action of halogenated compounds by means of volumetric technic. The conditions used are: (1) Ozone vs. Time; (2) Ozone + UV vs. Time; (3) Ozone + halogenated compound vs. Time; and (4) Ozone + UV + halogenated compound vs. Time. The results show that the O3 breaks down rapidly within about 25 min (Fig). They also explain the chemical reactions that occur in the destruction and generation of the ozone layer and demonstrate ozone depletion through the presence of halogenated compounds. The aim of this work is to bring the knowledge gained from theory into practice and thus the possibility of developing a critical attitude towards various environmental problems that arise today.

  12. Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  13. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  14. Thematic report: Macroeconomic models including specifically social and environmental aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kratena, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    WWWforEurope Deliverable No. 8, 30 pages A significant reduction of the global environmental consequences of European consumption and production activities are the main objective of the policy simulations carried out in this paper. For this purpose three different modelling approaches have been chosen. Two macroeconomic models following the philosophy of consistent stock-flow accounting for the main institutional sectors (households, firms, banks, central bank and government) are used for...

  15. Evaluation of fatigue data including reactor water environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Nickell, R.E.; Van Der Sluys, W.A.; Yukawa, S.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory data have been gathered in the past decade indicating a significant reduction in component fatigue life when reactor water environmental effects are experimentally simulated. However, these laboratory data have not been supported by nuclear power plant component operating experience. The laboratory data under simulated operating conditions are being used to support arguments for revising the design-basis fatigue curves in the ASME Code Section III, Division 1, for Class 1 components. A thorough review of available laboratory fatigue data and their applicability to actual component operating conditions was performed. The evaluation divided the assembly, review and assessment of existing laboratory fatigue data and its applicability to plant operating conditions into four principal tasks: (1) review of available laboratory data relative to thresholds for environmental parameters, such as temperature, reactor water oxidation potential, strain rate, strain amplitude, reactor water flow rate, and component metal sulfur content; (2) determination of the relevance of the laboratory data to actual plant operating conditions; (3) review of laboratory S-N data curve-fitting models; and (4) assessment of existing ASME Code Section III Class 1 margins This paper summarizes the results of the data review. In addition, recommendations are made for additional laboratory testing intended to improve the applicability of laboratory test results under simulated reactor water environmental conditions. (authors)

  16. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF 6 that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE's current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997

  17. Impact of environmental chemistry on mycogenic Mn oxide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, C. M.; Farfan, G. A.; Post, A.; Post, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial environments and their presence can have broad environmental consequences. In particular, Mn oxides scavenge nutrients and metals, degrade complex organics, and oxidize a variety of inorganic contaminants. The "reactivity" of Mn oxides, however, is highly dependent upon crystallite size, composition, and structure, which are largely determined by environmental factors such as solution chemistry. It is has been suggested that most Mn oxides in terrestrial and aquatic environments are formed by microbial activity; indeed, a diversity of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria and fungi have been isolated and their mineral byproducts are consistent with those observed in natural systems. Previous studies showed that Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi produce highly-disordered, nanocrystalline Mn oxides that are structurally similar to synthetic δ-MnO2 or natural vernadite. Unlike related studies with Mn-oxidizing bacteria, Mn oxides produced by these fungi did not "age" or transform to more crystalline mineral phases with time. We hypothesize that fungal growth conditions, in particular the low concentration of cations, are inhibiting secondary mineral formation. The overall goal of this research is to examine the structure and speciation of fungally-precipitated Mn oxides with respect to fungal species, time, and concentration of soluble Mn(II), Na, and Ca - three environmentally relevant cations that promote the transformation of δ-MnO2 to more crystalline mineral phases such as feitknechtite, birnessite, or ranciéite. For this study, we examined the Mn oxides formed by different species of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi (Pyrenochaeta sp., Stagonospora sp., Plectosphaerella cucumerina., and Acremonium strictum). Isolates were grown for 8 or 16 days in a nutrient lean media consisting of yeast extract, trace elements and 0.2 mM MnCl2 supplemented with varying concentrations of Na, Ca, or Mn(II) compounds. The

  18. Degradation of Environmental Contaminants with Water-Soluble Cobalt Catalysts: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra L.; Messersmith, Reid E.; Green, David B.; Fritsch, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an integrative laboratory investigation incorporating skills from inorganic chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and physical chemistry applied to a laboratory-scale model of the environmental problem of chlorinated ethylenes in groundwater. Perchloroethylene (C[subscript 2]Cl[subscript 4], PCE) a common dry cleaning solvent,…

  19. A New Project-Based Lab for Undergraduate Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Gianpiero

    2006-01-01

    A new project-based lab was developed for third year undergraduate chemistry students based on real world applications. The experience suggests that the total analytical procedure (TAP) project offers a stimulating alternative for delivering science skills and developing a greater interest for analytical chemistry and environmental sciences and…

  20. The EPA CompTox Chemistry Dashboard - an online resource for environmental chemists (ACS Spring Meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Computational Toxicology Program integrates advances in biology, chemistry, and computer science to help prioritize chemicals for further research based on potential human health risks. This work involves computational and data drive...

  1. Environmental Chemistry and Chemical Ecology of "Green Tide" Seaweed Blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Nelson, Timothy A; Ridgway, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Green tides are large growths or accumulations of green seaweeds that have been increasing in magnitude and frequency around the world. Because green tides consist of vast biomasses of algae in a limited area and are often seasonal or episodic, they go through periods of rapid growth in which they take up large amounts of nutrients and dissolved gases and generate bioactive natural products that may be stored in the plants, released into the environment, or broken down during decomposition. As a result of the use and production of inorganic and organic compounds, the algae in these blooms can have detrimental impacts on other organisms. Here, we review some of the effects that green tides have on the chemistry of seawater and the effects of the natural products that they produce. As blooms are developing and expanding, algae in green tides take up inorganic nutrients, such as nitrate and ortho-phosphate, which can limit their availability to other photosynthetic organisms. Their uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon for use in photosynthesis can cause localized spikes in the pH of seawater during the day with concomitant drops in the pH at night when the algae are respiring. Many of the algae that form green-tide blooms produce allelopathic compounds, which are metabolites that affect other species. The best documented allelopathic compounds include dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), dopamine, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their breakdown products. DMSP and dopamine are involved in defenses against herbivores. Dopamine and ROS are released into seawater where they can be allelopathic or toxic to other organisms. Thus, these macroalgal blooms can have harmful effects on nearby organisms by altering concentrations of nutrients and dissolved gas in seawater and by producing and releasing allelopathic or toxic compounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved

  2. Effects of '"Environmental Chemistry" Elective Course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry Model on Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Artun, Hüseyin; Küçük, Zeynel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of "environmental chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and technological pedagogical content knowledge…

  3. Feasibility study for automating the analytical laboratories of the Chemistry Branch, National Enforcement Investigation Center, Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.F.; Fisher, E.R.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of automating the analytical laboratories of the Chemistry Branch of the National Enforcement Investigation Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, Colorado, is explored. The goals of the chemistry laboratory are defined, and instrumental methods and other tasks to be automated are described. Five optional automation systems are proposed to meet these goals and the options are evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness and other specified criteria. The instruments to be automated include (1) a Perkin-Elmer AA spectrophotometer 403, (2) Perkin-Elmer AA spectrophotometer 306, (3) Technicon AutoAnalyzer II, (4) Mettler electronic balance, and a (5) Jarrell-Ash ICP emission spectrometer

  4. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  5. Remembering the ultimate goal of environmental protection: including protection of impoverished citizens in China's environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Zhu, Qingke

    2010-01-01

    The life of impoverished people can be damaged by adverse environmental conditions, but these people can also be harmed by environmental conservation programs, particularly when the guiding policy ignores their needs. To improve the social and economic effectiveness of environmental protection, governments must understand that the ultimate goal of environmental protection is to improve human livelihoods, not just restore vegetation. The elimination of poverty by the development of sustainable, long-term enterprises is a precondition for successful ecological restoration.

  6. Environmental literacy with green chemistry oriented in 21st century learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarlis, Ibnu, Suhadi; Rahayu, Sri; Sutrisno

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the design of chemistry subject with green chemistry oriented to improve students' environmental literacy as one of the important requirements of 21st century learning. This research used R&D design which consisted of four stages, i.e. preliminary study, the study of literature, development of materials, and expert and empirical validation. This article presents the results of preliminary study and the study of literature. It can be concluded from the results of an analysis that environmental literacy is one of the important components of learning outcomes which should be pursued in 21st century teaching. Philosophy of green chemistry plays an important role to reduce and prevent pollution of environment. Principles of green chemistry can be integrated into learning environment as learning outcomes or nurturant effects of learning.

  7. Fostering Pre-service Teachers' Self-Determined Environmental Motivation Through Green Chemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-10-01

    The global environmental crisis intensifies particularly in developing nations. Environmental educators have begun to understand that changing the environmental impact requires not only changes in pro-environmental knowledge and attitudes but also in associated, self-determined motivation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a green chemistry curriculum changes Malaysian pre-service teachers' environmental motivation. Two comparable groups of pre-service teachers participated in this study. The students in the experimental group ( N = 140) did green chemistry experiments whereas the control group ( N = 123) did equivalent experiments in a traditional manner. Posttest results indicate that there is significant difference between both the groups for intrinsic motivation, integration, identification, and introjections scales and no differences for external regulation and amotivation scales. The qualitative analysis of interview data suggests that the changes are predominantly due to the personal satisfaction that participants derived from engaging in pro-environmental behavior.

  8. Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffle, J.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This book aims to provide the scientific community with a novel and valuable approach based on fractal geometry concepts on the important properties and processes of diverse environmental systems. The interpretation of complex environmental systems using modern fractal approaches is compared and

  9. The CompTox Chemistry Dashboard - A Community Data Resource for Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite an abundance of online databases providing access to chemical data, there is increasing demand for high-quality, structure-curated, open data to meet the various needs of the environmental sciences and computational toxicology communities. The U.S. Environmental Protectio...

  10. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez G, H.

    1989-01-01

    A brief description about the development and activities executed in chemistry, in the Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares, during the last years is presented. The plans and feasibility of nuclear techniques in Colombia are also described

  11. Instrumental Analysis in Environmental Chemistry - Gas Phase Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Donald H.; Meyers, Philip A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses advances made in chemical analysis instrumentation used in environmental monitoring. This first of two articles is concerned with analytical instrumentation in which detection and dispersion depend ultimately on the properties of gaseous molecules. (JR)

  12. porewater chemistry experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory. Reactive transport modelling including bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Wersin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for

  13. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 48 papers in these conference proceedings. The topics covered include: analytical chemistry and the environment; environmental radiochemistry; automated instrumentation; advances in analytical mass spectrometry; Fourier transform spectroscopy; analytical chemistry of plutonium; nuclear analytical chemistry; chemometrics; and nuclear fuel technology

  14. Analysis of Insertion of Environmental Issues in two Degree Course Chemistry of a Public University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago do Nascimento Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work consists in a research on the inclusion of environmental matters in two degree courses of Chemistry in a public university. We started from the idea that discussing environmental issues in the academic context, in particular in the context of the Degree in Chemistry, is being very necessary nowadays, due to what society is going through, which is what we call "environmental crisis". Our main objective was to identify how the formation of the Chemistry teacher in these two courses has contemplated the inclusion of environmental issues as defined in the guidelines of official documents which they are subjected to. To structure all our discussion, we had as the theoretical background the production cycle of the curriculum policies developed by Ball and Bowe (1992, establishing this research in three main contexts presented by them (context influence, text production context and practice context. Therefore, a documental research in the national curriculum guidelines that drive the training of teachers / Chemistry teachers and educational projects of each course was conducted as well as interviews with coordinators and teachers of these courses, trying to understand the inclusion of discussions and questions that lead to an environmentally oriented education.

  15. 8. Latin American Symposium on Environmental and Sanitary Analytical Chemistry: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The rapid changes and development of world economy, incidental to continued growth in consumption of industrial goods, continue presenting biological and biochemical interactions unsuspected or underestimated. This has imposed increasing challenges in the study of the effects on human health and environmental, vital issues that affect all citizens of the planet and the biota in general, but have not yet been sufficiently studied or well understood. Stringent criteria are needed to determine the impacts on health, long-term, of technical and chemical inventions today. This movement has received support from consumers and politicians, in the case of the European Union, the largest common market in the world. Large employers already know that it is necessary to develop the new green technology and its controls, if they are to survive in the global economy of a future that is next. The countries of the great region of Latin America have presented a specific weight very noticeable on the world community and have not been independent of the process generalized and they also correspond to scientifically scrutinize the environmental interactive phenomena to deal with possible negative consequences, give solutions and options satisfactory to their leaders and its population. The scientific program included new techniques, qualitative and quantitative, applied to the determination of substances and microorganisms in organisms and ecosystems. The evaluation of the effects of pollution on the environment has been focused so, as the development of standards for pollution control and various activities related to the study and solution of environmental problems facing the area. Abstracts of oral presentations and posters that were presented at the 8th Latin American Symposium on Environmental Analytical Chemistry and Health were included in this compendium. (author) [es

  16. Using GIS to understand the environmental chemistry of manganese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron on the other hand is very low in the mine working area and is high on the northern part of the study area. Suggestions are advanced for the Mn interplay in the soils and environment around the Kgwakgwe abandoned Mn oxides ore mine. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol 9(2) 2005: 37- ...

  17. Dendroecological applications in air pollution and environmental chemistry: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel B. McLaughlin; Walter C. Shortle; Kevin T. Smith

    2002-01-01

    During the past two decades, dendrochronology has evolved in new dimensions that have helped address both the extent and causes of impacts of regional scale environmental pollution on the productivity and function of forest ecosystems. Initial focus on the magnitude and timing of alterations of baseline growth levels of individual forest trees has now broadened to...

  18. 20170821 - Comptox Chemistry Dashboard: Web-Based Data Integration Hub for Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Data (ACS Fall meeting 4 of 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Computational Toxicology Program integrate advances in biology, chemistry, exposure and computer science to help prioritize chemicals for further research based on potential human health risks. This work involves computational and da...

  19. Comptox Chemistry Dashboard: Web-Based Data Integration Hub for Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Data (ACS Fall meeting 4 of 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Computational Toxicology Program integrate advances in biology, chemistry, exposure and computer science to help prioritize chemicals for further research based on potential human health risks. This work involves computational and da...

  20. 47 CFR 1.1311 - Environmental information to be included in the environmental assessment (EA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a residential area, the EA must also address the impact of this lighting upon the residents. (2) A... concerning the proposal's environmental impact, if any. The EA shall deal specifically with any feature of... land utilized (e.g., deforestation, water diversion, wetland fill, or other extensive change of surface...

  1. Third Chemistry Conference on Recent Trends in Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.M.; Wheed, S.

    2011-01-01

    The third chemistry conference 2011 on recent trends in chemistry was held from October 17-19, 2001 at Islamabad, Pakistan. More than 65 papers and oral presentation. The scope of the conference was wide open and provides and opportunity for participation of broad spectrum of chemists. This forum provided a platform for the dissemination of the latest research followed by discussion pertaining to new trends in chemistry. This con fence covered different aspects of subjects including analytical chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, industrial chemistry, biochemistry and nano chemistry etc. (A.B.)

  2. Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Book review of "Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The editors are N. Senesi and K.J. Wilkinson, and the book is published in 2008 by John Wiley and Sons, with 323 pages. This book is part of the IUPAC series on “Analytical and physical chemistry of environmental systems.” Nineteen generally well-known fractal scientists have contributed to this vol...

  4. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  5. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  6. Environmental chemistry, ecotoxicity, and fate of lambda-cyhalothrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Ming; Troiano, John; Wang, Albert; Goh, Kean

    2008-01-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin is a pyrethroid insecticide used for controlling pest insects in agriculture, public health, and in construction and households. Lambda-cyhalothrin is characterized by low vapor pressure and a low Henry's law constant but by a high octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) and high water-solid-organic carbon partition coefficient (K(oc)) values. Lambda-cyhalothrin is quite stable in water at pH 3 wk, its photolysis process is fast under UV irradiation, with a half-life solids (mineral and organic particulates) and aquatic organisms (algae, macrophytes, or aquatic animals). Lambda-cyhalothrin residues dissolved in water decrease rapidly if suspended solids and/or aquatic organisms are present because lambda-cyhalothrin molecules are strongly adsorbed by particulates and plants. Adsorbed lambda-cyhalothrin molecules show decreased degradation rates because they are less accessible to breakdown than free molecules in the water column. On the other hand, lambda-cyhalothrin adsorbed to suspended solids or bottom sediments may provide a mechanism to mitigate its acute toxicity to aquatic organisms by reducing their short-term bioavailability in the water column. The widespread use of lambda-cyhalothrin has resulted in residues in sediment, which have been found to be toxic to aquatic organisms including fish and amphipods. Mitigation measures have been used to reduce the adverse impact of lambda-cyhalothrin contributed from agricultural or urban runoff. Mitigation may be achieved by reducing the quantity of runoff and suspended solid content in runoff through wetlands, detention ponds, or vegetated ditches.

  7. Integrating indicators in a national accounting matrix including environmental accounts (NAMEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Haan, M.; Keuning, S.J.; Bosch, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Five environmental indicators are conceptually and numerically integrated into a National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts (NAMEA) for 1989. As a consequence, these estimates are directly comparable with outcomes of major macro-economic aggregates in the conventional accounts. In the NAMEA, emissions of all kinds of polluting agents are recorded by industry and by consumption purpose. Subsequently, these agents are grouped into five environmental themes: greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication and waste accumulation. The contributions of agents to certain themes are expressed in theme-related environmental stress equivalents. Per theme, these stress equivalents are confronted with policy norms set by the Netherlands government for the year 2000. This results in a statistical framework at a meso-level from which integrated economic and environmental indicators are derived. The NAMEA may also serve as a data base and analytical device for modelling interactions between the national economy and changes in the environment. 13 tabs., 2 app., 32 refs

  8. Water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation of silver nanoparticles in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongguang; Yang, Xiaoya; Zhou, Xiaoxia; Wang, Weidong; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable release of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into aquatic environments has drawn great concerns about its environmental toxicity and safety. Although aggregation and transformation play crucial roles in the transport and toxicity of AgNPs, how the water chemistry of environmental waters influences the aggregation and transformation of engineered AgNPs is still not well understood. In this study, the aggregation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs was investigated in eight typical environmental water samples (with different ionic strengths, hardness, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations) by using UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Raman spectroscopy was applied to probe the interaction of DOM with the surface of AgNPs. Further, the photo-transformation and morphology changes of AgNPs in environmental waters were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggested that both electrolytes (especially Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and DOM in the surface waters are key parameters for AgNP aggregation, and sunlight could accelerate the morphology change, aggregation, and further sedimentation of AgNPs. This water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation should have significant environmental impacts on the transport and toxicity of AgNPs in the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. In situ visualization of newly synthesized proteins in environmental microbes using amino acid tagging and click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Scheller, Silvan; Tavormina, Patricia L; Babin, Brett M; Tirrell, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the application of a new click chemistry method for fluorescent tracking of protein synthesis in individual microorganisms within environmental samples. This technique, termed bioorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT), is based on the in vivo incorporation of the non-canonical amino acid L-azidohomoalanine (AHA), a surrogate for l-methionine, followed by fluorescent labelling of AHA-containing cellular proteins by azide-alkyne click chemistry. BONCAT was evaluated with a range of phylogenetically and physiologically diverse archaeal and bacterial pure cultures and enrichments, and used to visualize translationally active cells within complex environmental samples including an oral biofilm, freshwater and anoxic sediment. We also developed combined assays that couple BONCAT with ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), enabling a direct link between taxonomic identity and translational activity. Using a methanotrophic enrichment culture incubated under different conditions, we demonstrate the potential of BONCAT-FISH to study microbial physiology in situ. A direct comparison of anabolic activity using BONCAT and stable isotope labelling by nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (15NH3 assimilation) for individual cells within a sediment-sourced enrichment culture showed concordance between AHA-positive cells and 15N enrichment. BONCAT-FISH offers a fast, inexpensive and straightforward fluorescence microscopy method for studying the in situ activity of environmental microbes on a single-cell level. PMID:24571640

  10. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  11. The Role of Chemistry in the AgroEnvironmental Engineering Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, M. Carmen; Tarquis, A. M.; Arce, Augusto

    2010-05-01

    The basic sciences in general and chemistry in particular play an important role in the training of students in the new degree of Agro-Environmental Engineering. A redefinition of the objectives at higher education, which is the process of European Convergence, implies a profound change in the approach to the traditional teaching. The schema change: teaching content, matter is the centre and technical training to teach to learn, the student is the centre and to comprehensive training, assumes that students should acquire not only the specific knowledge of its specialty, but also numerous capabilities and skills. This work is a study of the various subjects based in chemistry, their contents, teaching methodologies, specific and transversal competences that provide and interrelationships with other subjects of this degree.

  12. Pedagogical Contend Knowledge about green chemistry: for university professors of chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Lineth Parga Lozano

    2015-01-01

    The search area of interesting to researcher in Science education is the green curricula of teaching of teacher. Therefor, the next consideration take into account the university teacher of chemistry teacher in relation to knowledge that they have to teach the sustainable chemistry, environmental chemistry and the green chemistry, like levels of green chemistry when teach to chemistry teacher. The methodology included a documental study, in the national congress in Brazil about of...

  13. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  14. Implementation of an Environmental Focus in an Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum by the Addition of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterholt, Cynthia; Butcher, David J.; Bacon, J. Roger; Kwochka, William R.; Woosley, Royce

    2000-12-01

    The Department Chemistry and Physics at Western Carolina University has added an environmental focus to its curriculum, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was identified as an essential tool in environmental analysis. GC-MS is used in undergraduate chemistry courses in: (i) the identification of synthesized compounds and natural products, (ii) monitoring compounds and their degradation in the environment, and (iii) analytical method development. In Organic Chemistry, the GC-MS is used to characterize natural products and the products of an environmentally benign chemical synthesis. In Environmental Chemistry, the GC-MS is used to identify compounds of environmental interest, such as pesticides in soil samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, and hydrocarbons in gasoline samples. In Instrumental Analysis I, students characterize numerous compounds in cigarette smoke using GC-MS. In Instrumental Analysis II, students are presented with an analytical chemistry problem for which they research protocols, collect samples, and perform the analyses. The GC-MS has been used to identify volatile compounds in a number of complex mixtures. Also, research in chemistry is a significant part of our curriculum, and numerous undergraduate students have used the GC-MS in their research. The addition of GC-MS has enhanced many of our undergraduate laboratory courses and student-led research projects.

  15. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  16. Ab Initio Determinations of Photoelectron Spectra Including Vibronic Features: An Upper-Level Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Richard L.; Davis, Lisa; Millam, Evan L.; Brown, Eric; Offerman, Chad; Wray, Paul; Green, Susan M. E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a first-principles determination of the photoelectron spectra of water and hypochlorous acid as a laboratory exercise accessible to students in an undergraduate physical chemistry course. This paper demonstrates the robustness and user-friendliness of software developed for the Franck-Condon factor calculation. While the calculator is…

  17. The slow birth of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, I.

    1993-03-12

    Mainstream chemistry is beginning to look at environmental chemistry as an important solution to environmental problems. This can include research into developing cleaner-burning liquid fuels, cleaning up oil spills, or developing better process methods which engender less pollution, as opposed to previous practices of detecting pollutants without preventing their release to begin with. This article discusses the progress of this chemistry discipline, describes some of the ongoing research, and describes the future for environmental chemistry. An impetus for future growth will be generational change, as young scientists in training are beginning to push faculities into creating programs for environmental chemistry.

  18. Learning Quality Assurance/Quality Control Using U.S. EPA Techniques. An Undergraduate Course for Environmental Chemistry Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libes, Susan M.

    1999-12-01

    Chemical analyses should always be accompanied by activities that ensure and document quality control (QC). An undergraduate course in environmental analysis is a practical point at which to teach this, as the U.S. EPA has developed a standard set of QC activities. Such a course should be a requirement for all environmental chemistry programs because the collection of reliable and defensible data is central to regulatory monitoring work as well as modeling efforts and risk assessment. In the environmental realm, QC includes activities associated with sampling, sample preservation and storage, method validation, and analysis involving solids, liquids, and gases. Students should be led to discover the need for QC by first performing analyses with little guidance. This is followed by a class discussion in which they critique their data. Once convinced of the value of QC, students learn specific techniques by performing an Initial Demonstration of Capability for a relatively simple analysis in which they perform an instrumental calibration, determine method detection limits, and demonstrate adequate precision and accuracy. Particular focus is put on the use of spreadsheets for generating forms, producing control charts, and performing statistical tests. A variety of analytical methods are covered, including atomic and molecular spectrometry, ion selective electrodes, and gas chromatography.

  19. Technological Criteria Technology-Environmental under a Systemic Approach: Chemistry Technology Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán-García Martín Enrique

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently the transfer of chemical technology is a process that contributes to the technology policy of a country, an industry or an organization in general chemistry. This process requires the application of clear criteria for the proper development of the complex interrelations in the transfer of chemical technology. A group of criteria that are present, are those related to environmental technology which intrinsically define the technology and its impact to the environment. Therefore, the transfer of chemical technology requires technological-environmental criteria defining, in conjunction with other criteria, an adequate process for the selection, acquisition and incorporation of technology in a holistic perspective, so it provides feasible solutions the chemical industry in pursuit of their goals. Then the criterion becomes a benchmark for assessing an appropriate technology transfer process. We performed a theoretical analysis of the technological and environmental criteria, proposing thirty-six (36 technological-environmental criteria interrelated under a systemic approach in the process of transfer of chemical technology, focused on a methodological cycle first run, based primarily on the research-action method. Future research is expected to make a refinement of the criteria from the formulation and validation of metrics so that necessary adjustments are made to optimize the process of transfer of chemical technology.

  20. Addressing the complexity of water chemistry in environmental fate modeling for engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani-Kast, Nicole; Scheringer, Martin; Slomberg, Danielle; Labille, Jérôme; Praetorius, Antonia; Ollivier, Patrick; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticle (ENP) fate models developed to date - aimed at predicting ENP concentration in the aqueous environment - have limited applicability because they employ constant environmental conditions along the modeled system or a highly specific environmental representation; both approaches do not show the effects of spatial and/or temporal variability. To address this conceptual gap, we developed a novel modeling strategy that: 1) incorporates spatial variability in environmental conditions in an existing ENP fate model; and 2) analyzes the effect of a wide range of randomly sampled environmental conditions (representing variations in water chemistry). This approach was employed to investigate the transport of nano-TiO2 in the Lower Rhône River (France) under numerous sets of environmental conditions. The predicted spatial concentration profiles of nano-TiO2 were then grouped according to their similarity by using cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in a small number of clusters representing groups of spatial concentration profiles. All clusters show nano-TiO2 accumulation in the sediment layer, supporting results from previous studies. Analysis of the characteristic features of each cluster demonstrated a strong association between the water conditions in regions close to the ENP emission source and the cluster membership of the corresponding spatial concentration profiles. In particular, water compositions favoring heteroaggregation between the ENPs and suspended particulate matter resulted in clusters of low variability. These conditions are, therefore, reliable predictors of the eventual fate of the modeled ENPs. The conclusions from this study are also valid for ENP fate in other large river systems. Our results, therefore, shift the focus of future modeling and experimental research of ENP environmental fate to the water characteristic in regions near the expected ENP emission sources. Under conditions favoring heteroaggregation in these

  1. Improvement on a science curriculum including experimental demonstration of environmental radioactivity for secondary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsubara, Shizuo; Aiba, Yoshio; Eriguchi, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Saburo; Takeyama, Tetsuji.

    1988-01-01

    A science curriculum previously prepared for teaching environmental radioactivity was modified on the basis of the results of trial instructions in secondary schools. The main subject of the revised curriculum is an understanding of the natural radioactivity through the experimental demonstration about air-borne β and γ ray emitters. The other subjects included are the radioactive decay, the biological effects of radiation, the concept of risk-benefit balance (acceptable level) and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radiation. The work sheets and reference data prepared as learning materials are in two levels corresponding to the ability of students for this curriculum. (author)

  2. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  3. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Wet Chemistry Experiment on the Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannan, S. M.; Meloy, T. P.; Hecht, H.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M.; Frant, M.; Kounaves, S. P.; Manatt, K. S.; Pike, W. T.; Schubert, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) is an instrument suite that will fly on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander Spacecraft. MECA is sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program and will evaluate potential hazards that the dust and soil of Mars might present to astronauts and their equipment on a future human mission to Mars. Four elements constitute the integrated MECA payload: a microscopy station, patch plates, an electrometer, and the wet chemistry experiment (WCE). The WCE is the first application of electrochemical sensors to study soil chemistry on another planetary body, in addition to being the first measurement of soil/water solution properties on Mars. The chemical composition and properties of the watersoluble materials present in the Martian soil are of considerable interest to the planetary science community because characteristic salts are formed by the water-based weathering of rocks, the action of volcanic gases, and biological activity. Thus the characterization of water-soluble soil materials on Mars can provide information on the geochemical history of the planet surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Green Chemistry in the Organic Teaching Laboratory: An Environmentally Benign Synthesis of Adipic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Scott M.; Hutchison, James E.

    2000-12-01

    Environmentally benign ("green") chemical techniques are growing in importance in academic and industrial research laboratories. Such chemistry has been slow to appear in teaching laboratories, owing in part to a lack of published material on this subject. Recent developments in green synthesis provide opportunities to introduce this material in teaching laboratories. We present a synthesis of adipic acid that utilizes green reagents (hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant), solvents (water), and methods (phase-transfer catalysis, catalyst recycling). The synthesis works well and provides an excellent forum for emphasizing green chemical concepts while teaching laboratory skills. It demonstrates reuse of a product, synthesis using a nonhazardous solvent, elimination of deleterious by-products, and use of a recyclable catalyst. It can be carried out on either the macroscale or microscale and generates little waste if the catalyst solution is recycled. This experiment fits well in a sophomore organic sequence; it covers the topics of oxidation, phase-transfer catalysis, and the technique of recrystallization, reinforces lecture topics such as alkene synthesis and reactivity, and provides an opportunity to introduce polymer chemistry.

  5. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  6. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Riley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. Methods We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. Results We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA. We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Conclusion Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health

  7. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  8. Environmental Education for Sustainable Development. An analysis made from the subject of Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gonzalo Suarez Ledesma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an up-to-dated topic in the contemporary world; therefore, it is important to talk about it. The University student who not only studies the development of humanity, but also shows interests for our civilization, realizes that the advance of civilization runs at the same time in parallel lines to chemical technology. Taking into account this point, getting to know about the environment is not a privilege of wise men but has turned into a global concern. That is why it is vital to include it as a topic in Chemistry as a subject matter.

  9. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-01-01

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

  10. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman-James, K.; Wilson, G.; Moyer, B. A.

    2004-01-01

    This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance, including emphasis on high level and low activity waste. Target anions have included primarily oxoanions and a study of the basic concepts behind selective binding of target anions. A primary target has been sulfate because of its deleterious influence on the vitrification of tank wastes

  11. Infusing the Chemistry Curriculum with Green Chemistry Using Real-World Examples, Web Modules, and Atom Economy in Organic Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Michael C.; Dickneider, Trudy A.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry is the awareness of the damaging environmental effects due to chemical research and inventions. There is emphasis on a need to include green chemistry in synthesis with atom economy in organic chemistry curriculum to ensure an environmentally conscious future generation of chemists, policy makers, health professionals and business…

  12. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  13. A regression model using sediment chemistry for the evaluation of marine environmental impacts associated with salmon aquaculture cage wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.L.; Haya, K.; Paon, L.A.; Moffatt, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop an approach for modelling changes of sediment chemistry related to the accumulation of aquaculture waste. Metal composition of sediment Al, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, and Zn; organic carbon and 2 =0.945 compared to R 2 =0.653 for the regression model using unadjusted EMP for assessing the environmental conditions

  14. Life-Cycle Thinking in Inquiry-Based Sustainability Education--Effects on Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry and Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Marianne; Aksela, Maija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to improve the quality of students' environmental literacy and sustainability education in chemistry teaching by combining the socio-scientific issue of life-cycle thinking with inquiry-based learning approaches. This case study presents results from an inquiry-based life-cycle thinking project: an interdisciplinary…

  15. Tracing footprints of environmental events in tree ring chemistry using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Dagistan

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental effects on tree-ring chemistry. It is known that industrial pollution, volcanic eruptions, dust storms, acid rain and similar events can cause substantial changes in soil chemistry. Establishing whether a particular group of trees is sensitive to these changes in soil environment and registers them in the elemental chemistry of contemporary growth rings is the over-riding goal of any Dendrochemistry research. In this study, elemental concentrations were measured in tree-ring samples of absolutely dated eleven modern forest trees, grown in the Mediterranean region, Turkey, collected and dated by the Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology laboratory at Cornell University. Correlations between measured elemental concentrations in the tree-ring samples were analyzed using statistical tests to answer two questions. Does the current concentration of a particular element depend on any other element within the tree? And, are there any elements showing correlated abnormal concentration changes across the majority of the trees? Based on the detailed analysis results, the low mobility of sodium and bromine, positive correlations between calcium, zinc and manganese, positive correlations between trace elements lanthanum, samarium, antimony, and gold within tree-rings were recognized. Moreover, zinc, lanthanum, samarium and bromine showed strong, positive correlations among the trees and were identified as possible environmental signature elements. New Dendrochemistry information found in this study would be also useful in explaining tree physiology and elemental chemistry in Pinus nigra species grown in Turkey. Elemental concentrations in tree-ring samples were measured using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC). Through this study, advanced methodologies for methodological, computational and

  16. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  17. Modification of ASTM Standard E1681 on Environmental Cracking to Include Bolt-Load Specimen Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Underwood, Jean D. M

    1997-01-01

    Benet Laboratories experience with environmental cracking of cannon components has been combined with the technical expertise of various participants at ASTM technical meetings and symposia to develop...

  18. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  19. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1990, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.; Minahan, M.

    1991-06-01

    This report describes some of the major research and development programs of the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division during FY 1990. The report includes articles on weapons chemistry, environmental chemistry, actinide and transition metal chemistry, geochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, biochemistry and nuclear medicine, materials chemistry, and INC Division facilities and laboratories

  20. Environmental carbonate chemistry selects for phenotype of recently isolated strains of Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Hermoso, Michaël; Lee, Renee B. Y.; Rae, Benjamin D.; Heureux, Ana M. C.; Balestreri, Cecilia; Chakravarti, Leela; Schroeder, Declan C.; Brownlee, Colin

    2016-05-01

    Coccolithophorid algae, particularly Emiliania huxleyi, are prolific biomineralisers that, under many conditions, dominate communities of marine eukaryotic plankton. Their ability to photosynthesise and form calcified scales (coccoliths) has placed them in a unique position in the global carbon cycle. Contrasting reports have been made with regards to the response of E. huxleyi to ocean acidification. Therefore, there is a pressing need to further determine the fate of this key organism in a rising CO2 world. In this paper, we investigate the phenotype of newly isolated, genetically diverse, strains of E. huxleyi from UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme (UKOA) cruises around the British Isles, the Arctic, and the Southern Ocean. We find a continuum of diversity amongst the physiological and photosynthetic parameters of different strains of E. huxleyi morphotype A under uniform, ambient conditions imposed in the laboratory. This physiology is best explained by adaptation to carbonate chemistry in the former habitat rather than being prescribed by genetic fingerprints such as the coccolithophore morphology motif (CMM). To a first order, the photosynthetic capacity of each strain is a function of both aqueous CO2 availability, and calcification rate, suggestive of a link between carbon concentrating ability and calcification. The calcification rate of each strain is related linearly to the natural environmental [CO32-] at the site of isolation, but a few exceptional strains display low calcification rates at the highest [CO32-] when calcification is limited by low CO2 availability and/or a lack of a carbon concentrating mechanism. We present O2-electrode measurements alongside coccolith oxygen isotopic composition and the uronic acid content (UAC) of the coccolith associated polysaccharide (CAP), that act as indirect tools to show the differing carbon concentrating ability of the strains. The environmental selection revealed amongst our recently isolated strain

  1. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to detect the presence or release of a hazardous substance; (ii) The chemical and physical hazards... its compliance with the Environmental Management Plan and applicable federal and state hazardous waste... hazardous waste receive appropriate training. (iii) The Environmental Management Plan is reviewed at least...

  2. Contributions of pesticide residue chemistry to improving food and environmental safety: past and present accomplishments and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen A

    2011-07-27

    The principles of modern pesticide residue chemistry were articulated in the 1950s. Early authors pointed out the advantages of systematizing and standardizing analytical methods for pesticides so that they could be widely practiced and the results could be reproduced from one laboratory to the next. The availability of improved methods has led to a much more complete understanding of pesticide behavior and fate in foods and the environment. Using methods based largely upon gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled increasingly with mass spectrometry (MS) and MS(n) as the detection tool, residues can be measured at parts per billion levels and below in a variety of food and environmental matrices. Development of efficient extraction and cleanup methods, techniques such as ELISA, efficient sample preparation techniques such as QuEChERS, and automated laboratory and field instrumentation has also contributed to the tools available for use in modern pesticide residue analysis. As a result, great strides have been made in improving food and worker safety and in understanding environmental behavior and fate of pesticides. There are many challenges remaining in the field of pesticide residue chemistry that will continue to stimulate analytical chemists. New chemistries are emerging, often patterned on complex natural products. Analyzing for the parent chemicals and potentially multiple breakdown products will require analytical ingenuity. The development of more sensitive bioassays and knowledge of unintended side effects will challenge residue chemistry as well, as in the case of following the fate of environmental endocrine disruptors associated with some pesticides as well as nonpesticide contaminants from packaging materials and other familiar articles. Continued funding and other resources to ensure better training, international cooperation, and accelerated research and development activities will be a constant need in

  3. Proceedings of 26. annual academic conference of China Chemical Society--modern nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    26. annual academic conference of China Chemical Society was held in Tianjing, 13-16 July, 2008. This proceedings is about modern nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry, the contents include: new elements and new nuclides; advanced nuclear chemistry; radiochemistry and national security; new radiopharmaceutical chemistry; modern radiological analytical chemistry and large scientific facilities; radiological environmental chemistry and nuclear radioactive waste; actinide chemistry and transactinide chemistry; radiochemistry and cross discipline, etc.

  4. The Protagonism of Biocatalysis in Green Chemistry and Its Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Santana Ferreira-Leitão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a bioeconomy era requires not only a change of production pattern, but also a deep modernization of the production processes through the implementation of novel methodologies in current industrial units, where waste materials and byproducts can be utilized as starting materials in the production of commodities such as biofuels and other high added value chemicals. The utilization of renewable raw resources and residues from the agro-industries, and their exploitation through various uses and applications through technologies, particularly solid-state fermentation (SSF, are the main focus of this review. The advocacy for biocatalysis in green chemistry and the environmental benefits of bioproduction are very clear, although this kind of industrial process is still an exception and not the rule. Potential and industrial products, such as biocatalysts, animal feed, fermentation medium, biofuels (biodiesel, lignocelulose ethanol, CH4, and H2, pharmaceuticals and chemicals are dealt with in this paper. The focus is the utilization of renewable resources and the important role of enzymatic process to support a sustainable green chemical industry.

  5. The Use and Abuse of Limits of Detection in Environmental Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The limit of detection (LoD) serves as an important method performance measure that is useful for the comparison of measurement techniques and the assessment of likely signal to noise performance, especially in environmental analytical chemistry. However, the LoD is only truly related to the precision characteristics of the analytical instrument employed for the analysis and the content of analyte in the blank sample. This article discusses how other criteria, such as sampling volume, can serve to distort the quoted LoD artificially and make comparison between various analytical methods inequitable. In order to compare LoDs between methods properly, it is necessary to state clearly all of the input parameters relating to the measurements that have been used in the calculation of the LoD. Additionally, the article discusses that the use of LoDs in contexts other than the comparison of the attributes of analytical methods, in particular when reporting analytical results, may be confusing, less informative than quoting the actual result with an accompanying statement of uncertainty, and may act to bias descriptive statistics. PMID:18690384

  6. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  7. An Overview of Seabed Mining Including the Current State of Development, Environmental Impacts, and Knowledge Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Miller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demand for minerals and metals, including for use in the technology sector, has led to a resurgence of interest in exploration of mineral resources located on the seabed. Such resources, whether seafloor massive (polymetallic sulfides around hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich crusts (CRCs on the flanks of seamounts or fields of manganese (polymetallic nodules on the abyssal plains, cannot be considered in isolation of the distinctive, in some cases unique, assemblages of marine species associated with the same habitats and structures. In addition to mineral deposits, there is interest in extracting methane from gas hydrates on continental slopes and rises. Many of the regions identified for future seabed mining are already recognized as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs. Since its inception in 1982, the International Seabed Authority (ISA, charged with regulating human activities on the deep-sea floor beyond the continental shelf, has issued 27 contracts for mineral exploration, encompassing a combined area of more than 1.4 million km2, and continues to develop rules for commercial mining. At the same time, some seabed mining operations are already taking place within continental shelf areas of nation states, generally at relatively shallow depths, and with others at advanced stages of planning. The first commercial enterprise, expected to target mineral-rich sulfides in deeper waters, at depths between 1,500 and 2,000 m on the continental shelf of Papua New Guinea, is scheduled to begin early in 2019. In this review, we explore three broad aspects relating to the exploration and exploitation of seabed mineral resources: (1 the current state of development of such activities in areas both within and beyond national jurisdictions, (2 possible environmental impacts both close to and more distant from mining activities and (3 the uncertainties and gaps in scientific knowledge and understanding which render baseline and impact assessments

  8. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  9. Specialists meeting on properties of primary circuit structural materials including environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Properties of Primary Circuit Structural Materials of LMFBRs covered the following topics: overview of materials program in different countries; mechanical properties of materials in air; fracture mechanics studies - component related activities; impact of environmental influences on mechanical properties; relationship of material properties and design methods. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on structural materials behaviour in primary circuit of fast breeder reactors. Special emphasis was placed on environmental effects such as influence of sodium and irradiation on mechanical properties of reactor materials

  10. Selected Contributions of the 4th European Meeting on Solar Chemistry and Photocatalysis. Environmental Applications (SPEA 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malato Rodriguez, S.; Gernjak, W.; Pereze Pena, J.; Dona Rodriguez, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    session discussions completed the program. The results and discussion sessions provided a very good approximation of the current state-of-the-art of photocatalytic and solar photocatalytic environmental applications. The focus was on photochemical and photocatalytic air, soil and water pollution treatments, and related topics were classified in eleven areas: (1) water treatment and disinfection; (2) air treatment; (3) soil remediation; (4) green synthesis by solar-chemistry, photochemistry and photocatalysis; (5) development of new materials for photochemistry and photocatalysis; (6) developments and perspectives in environmental photochemistry; (7) commercial applications; (8) environmental management; (9) experimental standardization; (10) models for photochemistry and photocatalysis; (11) general questions. The 33 papers included in this Special Issue represent a good overview of the state of the art of photocatalysis, covering a variety of aspects, and involving institutions from all over the world

  11. Calculations of environmental benefits from using geothermal energy must include the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    and energy production patterns are simulated using data from countries with similar environmental conditions but do not use geothermal or hydropower to the same extent as Iceland. Because of the rapid shift towards renewable energy and exclusion of external energy provision, the country is considered...

  12. Model of spur processes in aqueous radiation chemistry including spur overlap and a novel initial hydrated electron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from computer calculations based upon an improved diffusion-kinetic model of the spur which includes a novel initial distribution for the hydrated electron and an approximate mathematical treatment of the overlap of spurs in three dimensions. Experimental data for the decay of the hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical before one in electron-pulse-irradated, solute-free and air-free water are fit wihtin experimental uncertainty by adjustment of the initial spatial distributions of spur intermediates and the average energy deposited in the spur. Using the same values of these parameters, the hydrated electron decay is computed for times from 1 ps 10 μs after the radiatio pulse. The results of such calcuations for various conditions of pulse dose and concentrations of scavengers of individual primary chemical species in the spur are compared with corresponding experimental data obtained predominantly from water and aqueous solutions irradiated with 10 to 15 MeV electron pulses. Very good agreement between calculated and experimental hydrated electron decay in pure water is observed for the entire time range studied when a pulse dose of approximately 7900 rads is modeled, but the calcuated and experimental curves are observed to deviate for times greater than 10 ns nanoseconds when low pulse doses and low scavenger concentrations are considered. It is shown that this deviation is experimental and calculated hydrated electron decay cannot be explained by assuming the presence of a hydrated electron scavenging impurity nor by employing a distribution of nearest neighbor interspur distances to refine the overlap approximation

  13. Transport and retention of biochar nanoparticles in a paddy soil under environmentally-relevant solution chemistry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Dengjun; Yang, Fan; Xu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Nan; Cao, Xinde

    2017-11-01

    Land application of biochar has been increasingly recommended as a powerful strategy for carbon sequestration and soil remediation. However, the biochar particles, especially those in the nanoscale range, may migrate or carry the inherent contaminants along the soil profile, posing a potential risk to the groundwater. This study investigated the transport and retention of wood chip-derived biochar nanoparticles (NPs) in water-saturated columns packed with a paddy soil. The environmentally-relevant soil solution chemistry including ionic strength (0.10-50 mM), electrolyte type (NaCl and CaCl 2 ), and natural organic matter (0-10 mg L -1 humic acid) were tested to elucidate their effects on the biochar NPs transport. Higher mobility of biochar NPs was observed in the soil at lower ionic strengths, with CaCl 2 electrolyte being more effective than NaCl in decreasing biochar NPs transport. The retained biochar NPs in NaCl was re-entrained (∼57.7%) upon lowering transient pore-water ionic strength, indicating that biochar NPs were reversibly retained in the secondary minimum. In contrast, negligible re-entrainment of biochar NPs occurred in CaCl 2 due to the primary minimum and/or particle aggregation. Humic acid increased the mobility of biochar NPs, likely due to enhanced electrosteric repulsive interactions. The transport behaviors of biochar NPs can be well interpreted by a two-site kinetic retention model that assumes reversible retention for one site, and irreversible retention for the other site. Our findings indicated that the transport of wood chip biochar NPs is significant in the paddy soil, highlighting the importance of understanding the mobility of biochar NPs in natural soils for accurately assessing their environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selected Contributions of the 6th European Meeting on Solar Chemistry and Photocatalysis: Environmental Applications (SPEA 6), 13th to 16th June 2010 Introduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoň, Petr; Krýsa, J.; Malato, S.; Oller, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 2-2 ISSN 0920-5861 Grant - others: SMS (ES) CTQ2009-13459-C05-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solar light * environmental chemistry * photochemistry Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  15. The influence of global climate change on the scientific foundations and applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Introduction to a SETAC international workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Ralph G.; Hooper, Michael J.; Balbus, John M.; Clements, William; Fritz, Alyce; Gouin, Todd; Helm, Roger; Hickey, Christopher; Landis, Wayne; Moe, S. Jannicke

    2013-01-01

    This is the first of seven papers resulting from a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) international workshop titled “The Influence of Global Climate Change on the Scientific Foundations and Applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.” The workshop involved 36 scientists from 11 countries and was designed to answer the following question: How will global climate change influence the environmental impacts of chemicals and other stressors and the way we assess and manage them in the environment? While more detail is found in the complete series of articles, some key consensus points are as follows: (1) human actions (including mitigation of and adaptation to impacts of global climate change [GCC]) may have as much influence on the fate and distribution of chemical contaminants as does GCC, and modeled predictions should be interpreted cautiously; (2) climate change can affect the toxicity of chemicals, but chemicals can also affect how organisms acclimate to climate change; (3) effects of GCC may be slow, variable, and difficult to detect, though some populations and communities of high vulnerability may exhibit responses sooner and more dramatically than others; (4) future approaches to human and ecological risk assessments will need to incorporate multiple stressors and cumulative risks considering the wide spectrum of potential impacts stemming from GCC; and (5) baseline/reference conditions for estimating resource injury and restoration/rehabilitation will continually shift due to GCC and represent significant challenges to practitioners.

  16. The influence of global climate change on the scientific foundations and applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: introduction to a SETAC international workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Ralph G; Hooper, Michael J; Balbus, John M; Clements, William; Fritz, Alyce; Gouin, Todd; Helm, Roger; Hickey, Christopher; Landis, Wayne; Moe, S Jannicke

    2013-01-01

    This is the first of seven papers resulting from a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) international workshop titled "The Influence of Global Climate Change on the Scientific Foundations and Applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry." The workshop involved 36 scientists from 11 countries and was designed to answer the following question: How will global climate change influence the environmental impacts of chemicals and other stressors and the way we assess and manage them in the environment? While more detail is found in the complete series of articles, some key consensus points are as follows: (1) human actions (including mitigation of and adaptation to impacts of global climate change [GCC]) may have as much influence on the fate and distribution of chemical contaminants as does GCC, and modeled predictions should be interpreted cautiously; (2) climate change can affect the toxicity of chemicals, but chemicals can also affect how organisms acclimate to climate change; (3) effects of GCC may be slow, variable, and difficult to detect, though some populations and communities of high vulnerability may exhibit responses sooner and more dramatically than others; (4) future approaches to human and ecological risk assessments will need to incorporate multiple stressors and cumulative risks considering the wide spectrum of potential impacts stemming from GCC; and (5) baseline/reference conditions for estimating resource injury and restoration/rehabilitation will continually shift due to GCC and represent significant challenges to practitioners. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  17. Toward a New U.S. Chemicals Policy: Rebuilding the Foundation to Advance New Science, Green Chemistry, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P.; Schwarzman, Megan R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We describe fundamental weaknesses in U.S. chemicals policy, present principles of chemicals policy reform, and articulate interdisciplinary research questions that should be addressed. With global chemical production projected to double over the next 24 years, federal policies that shape the priorities of the U.S. chemical enterprise will be a cornerstone of sustainability. To date, these policies have largely failed to adequately protect public health or the environment or motivate investment in or scientific exploration of cleaner chemical technologies, known collectively as green chemistry. On this trajectory, the United States will face growing health, environmental, and economic problems related to chemical exposures and pollution. Conclusions Existing policies have produced a U.S. chemicals market in which the safety of chemicals for human health and the environment is undervalued relative to chemical function, price, and performance. This market barrier to green chemistry is primarily a consequence of weaknesses in the Toxic Substances Control Act. These weaknesses have produced a chemical data gap, because producers are not required to investigate and disclose sufficient information on chemicals’ hazard traits to government, businesses that use chemicals, or the public; a safety gap, because government lacks the legal tools it needs to efficiently identify, prioritize, and take action to mitigate the potential health and environmental effects of hazardous chemicals; and a technology gap, because industry and government have invested only marginally in green chemistry research, development, and education. Policy reforms that close the three gaps—creating transparency and accountability in the market—are crucial for improving public and environmental health and reducing the barriers to green chemistry. The European Union’s REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) regulation has opened an opportunity for

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Designing Greener Chemicals and Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Newlight Technologies, developed a net carbon negative plastic made from methane-based GHG. It is cheaper than petroleum-based plastic; used to make cell phone cases, furniture, and other products.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2015 Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2015 award winner, Algenol, blue-green algae to produce ethanol and other fuels, uses CO2 from air or industrial emitters, reduces the carbon footprint, costs and water usage, no reliance on food crops

  20. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1979-September 1980: fundamental molecular physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Research is reported on the physics and chemistry of atoms, ions, and molecules, especially their interactions with external agents such as photons and electrons. Individual items from the report were prepared separately for the data base

  1. Means to form key competencies by teaching „Chemistry and environmental protection” in grade 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, Stefan; Dimitrova, Velichka; Gushterova, Pavlina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: A comparison was made of expected results set in grade 8 „Chemistry and environment preservation” curriculum and requirements to form one of eight key competencies „Mathematical literacy and basic knowledge in science and technologies”. The results obtained allow to make some recommendations towards improvement of teaching through a more effective use of science content to form key competencies. Keywords: teaching, science, chemistry, key competencies, curriculum

  2. Environmental Contaminants, Metabolites, Cells, Organ Tissues, and Water: All in a Day’s Work at the EPA Analytical Chemistry Research Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    The talk will highlight key aspects and results of analytical methods the EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) Analytical Chemistry Research Core (ACRC) develops and uses to provide data on disposition, metabolism, and effects of environmenta...

  3. Preface: Special Issue of the 5th International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Chemistry of DMS(P) and Related Compounds, Goa, India, 19–22 October 2010

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stefels, J.; Shenoy, D.M.; Simo, R.; Malin, G.; Levasseur, M.; Belviso, S.; DileepKumar, M.

    This Special Issue of Biogeochemistry contains a selection of papers presented at the 5th International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Chemistry of DMS(P) and Related Compounds, organized at the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO...

  4. Research Priorities in Environmental Risk Assessment. Workshop on Research Needs in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Held in Breckenridge, Colorado on August 16-21, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    management and computerized information-processing capabilities needed for risk assessment is also essential. Aquatic Toxicology In order to quantify and...ASSESSM ENT M ETHODOLOGY ............................................. 21 5.2 AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY .............. ..... .......... ........................ 21...including risk assess- ment methodology, aquatic toxicology , terrestrial toxicology, and chemistry, fate, and modeling. Risk assessment methodology primarily

  5. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, P.

    2006-01-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  6. Environmental mobility of cobalt-Influence of solid phase characteristics and groundwater chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, T.E.; Itakura, T.; Comarmond, M.J.; Harrison, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of cobalt on samples from a potential waste repository site in an arid region was investigated in batch experiments, as a function of various solution phase parameters including the pH and ionic strength. The samples were characterized using a range of techniques, including BET surface area measurements, total clay content and quantitative X-ray diffraction. The statistical relationships between the measured cobalt distribution coefficients (K d values) and the solid and liquid phase characteristics were assessed. The sorption of cobalt increased with the pH of the aqueous phase. In experiments with a fixed pH value, the measured K d values were strongly correlated to the BET surface area, but not to the amount of individual clay minerals (illite, kaolinite or smectite). A further set of sorption experiments was undertaken with two samples of distinctive mineralogy and surface area, and consequently different sorption properties. A simple surface complexation model (SCM) that conceptualized the surface sites as having equivalent sorption properties to amorphous Fe-oxide was moderately successful in explaining the pH dependence of the sorption data on these samples. Two different methods of quantifying the input parameters for the SCM were assessed. While a full SCM for cobalt sorption on these complex environmental substrates is not yet possible, the basic applicability and predictive capability of this type of modeling is demonstrated. A principal requirement to further develop the modeling approach is adequate models for cobalt sorption on component mineral phases of complex environmental sorbents.

  7. Chemistry and preliminary environmental effects of mixtures of triisopropyl phosphite, Bis-(2-ethylexyl)-phosphonate, and sulfur. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Harvey, S.D.; McVeety, B.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Van Noris, P.

    1991-12-01

    The present studies were performed to evaluate the reaction chemistry and preliminary biotic impacts of BIS, TIP, and TIPS. Reaction chemistry studies were designed to simulate in-flight mixing characteristics. The binary mixture undergoes rapid and nearly complete reaction. The final products released to the environment are TIPS and excess elemental sulfur. There is an apparent species sensitivity difference in algae for the simulants BIS, TIP, and TIPS, with Chlorella being more sensitive than Selenastrum based on cell number studies. However, the extent of adverse effects was not excessive for either algal species. There was no apparent effect of TIP or TIPS on the electron transport systems of isolated chloroplasts at the concentration tested (10 ppm). In general, it is unlikely that environmental release of these products would have significant or lasting effects, based on the preliminary algal tests and electron transport studies.

  8. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  9. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  10. Fostering Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Determined Environmental Motivation through Green Chemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    The global environmental crisis intensifies particularly in developing nations. Environmental educators have begun to understand that changing the environmental impact requires not only changes in pro-environmental knowledge and attitudes but also in associated, self-determined motivation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a…

  11. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Chen, Q.J.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Holm, E.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90, cesium-137 and cesium-134 were determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes), and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1988 and 1989. 99 Tc data on marine samples, in particular sea water from the Greenland Sea, are reported. (au) (91 taps., 51 ills., 7 refs.)

  12. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  13. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hallstadius, L.; Hansen, H.; Holm, E.

    1985-12-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1984. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and along the Norwegian and Greenland west coasts are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90 Sr some of these samples have also been anlysed for tritium, polonium, plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed samples collected in the North Atlantic region since the beginning of the sixties are presented. (author)

  14. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Hallstadius, L.; Rioseco, J.; Holm, E.

    1987-06-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr a 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1985. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the English Channel, the Fram Strait and along the Norwegian and Greenland coast are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90 Sr some of these samples have also been analysed for tritium, plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed and sea water samples collected in the North Atlantic region are presented. 14 refs. (author)

  15. Environmental Binorganic Chemistry 2008 Gordon Research Conference (June 18-20, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne O. Summers

    2009-08-28

    This highly interdisciplinary conference is known for rigorous and wide-ranging consideration of the roles of elements traditionally called 'inorganic' in living systems at scales from the molecular to the global. EBIC brings together those studying the biotic-inorganic interface across the Periodic Table, mingling chemists, ecologists, geneticists, oceanographers, and computational biologists, among others. Topics range from transport, enzymology, and homeostasis in individual cells and organisms to the environmental processes they experience and influence, as well as the latest techniques enabling observation of these phenomena. This conference is distinct from other metallobiology meetings in having a substantial environmental theme and a broader view of the Periodic Table, regularly including radionuclides, metalloids, the halides, silicon, and non-metal essential nutrients. When possible we mix speakers working at the nanometer-nanosecond scale in the same session with those working at the kilometer-megayear scale, a practice demanding high quality introductory material from each speaker and discussion leader. EBIC provides a forum for leading scientists (many of whom will never have met before) with expertise in the inorganic dimensions of life to identify fundamental cross-cutting themes and unrecognized anomalies and share the latest on acquiring, analyzing, and applying bioinorganic chemical concepts to real world issues from public health to climate change.

  16. Selecting parameters for the environmental interpretation of peat molecular chemistry - A pyrolysis-GC-MS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, J.F.P.; Buurman, P.; Pontevedra Pombal, X.

    2009-01-01

    A number of samples from a deep peat bog in Tierra del Fuego were analyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) in order to extract parameters that might be used to interpret the peat chemistry in terms of vegetation change, anaerobic and aerobic decomposition, and fire

  17. "Holes" in Student Understanding: Addressing Prevalent Misconceptions regarding Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a misconception among undergraduate students that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer. In this study, we evaluated the presence of this and other misconceptions surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole in students' conceptual frameworks. We…

  18. Environmental performance of gasified willow from different lands including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Pilegaard, Kim

    2017-01-01

    additional agricultural expansion, in areas with historical deforestation) and occupation (as delayed relaxation, DR, in areas with historical land abandonment) impacts. A biophysical approach was followed to determine the iLUCfeed emissions factor from marginal grassland. Land transformation impacts were...... derived from latest world deforestation statistics, while a commercial feed mix of equivalent nutritive value was assumed to substitute the displaced grass as fodder. Intensification effects were included in both iLUC factors as additional N-fertilizer consumption. Finally, DR impacts were considered...... for abandoned farmland, as a relative C stock loss compared to natural regeneration. ILUC results show that area related GHG emissions are dominant (93% of iLUCfood and 80% of iLUCfeed), transformation being more important (82% of iLUCfood) than occupation (11%) impacts. LCA results show that CHP from willow...

  19. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...... in fire. Finally a definition is suggested for a nature preservation willingness index, which by an invariance postulate leads to a rational format for allocating means to avoid pollution accidents....

  20. Active control of environmental noise, VIII: increasing the response to primary source changes including unpredictable noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S. E.; Atmoko, H.; Vuksanovic, B.

    2004-07-01

    Conventional adaptive cancellation systems using traditional transverse finite impulse response (FIR) filters, together with least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithms, well known in active noise control, are slow to adapt to primary source changes. This makes them inappropriate for cancelling rapidly changing noise, including unpredictable noise such as speech and music. Secondly, the cancelling structures require considerable computational processing effort to adapt to primary source and plant changes, particularly for multi-channel systems. This paper describes methods to increase the adaptive speed to primary source changes in large enclosed spaces and outdoor environments. A method is described that increases the response to time varying periodic noise using traditional transverse FIR filters. Here a multi-passband filter, with individual variable adaptive step sizes for each passband is automatically adjusted according to the signal level in each band. This creates a similar adaptive response for all frequencies within the total pass-band, irrespective of amplitude, minimizing the signal distortion and increasing the combined adaptive speed. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the adaptive speed using the above method as classical transverse FIR filters have a finite adaptive speed given by the stability band zero bandwidth. For rapidly changing periodic noise and unpredictable non-stationary noise, a rapid to instantaneous response is required. In this case the on-line adaptive FIR filters are dispensed with and replaced by a time domain solution that gives virtually instantaneous cancellation response (infinite adaptive speed) to primary source changes, and is computationally efficient.

  1. Teaching chemistry with sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia G. Rojas-Fernández

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased awareness on a critical association between the natural environment and human development gave rise multiple projects, aiming to protect the natural environment and to preserve it for future generations. Chemists must be acquainted with the principles of green chemistry and the need to practice experimental chemistry with cleaner chemical reactions and sustainability. This is a major concern for all the educators forming new professionals within the Chemistry, Pharmacology and Biology curricula in the Faculty for Higher Studies Zaragoza from the National Autonomous University of Mexico. With this in mind, we start our teachings explaining from the very beginning, how important it is to perform microscale techniques and to follow the principles of green chemistry in the Basic Science Laboratory. Furthermore, we have modified, designed and evaluated working procedures related with chemical synthesis, kinetics and calorimetry. By doing this, we managed to greatly reduce the amount of reagents required and residues generated. Some laboratory reagents have been substituted with renewable substances. We have also included in our programme a regular treatment of residues generated during everyday laboratory work. Our goal is to emphasize the importance of minimizing the environmental impact of chemistry and to prepare environmentally concerned professionals who keep sustainability as main priority and perform chemistry procedures with good laboratory practice routines.

  2. Towards Bildung-Oriented Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-07-01

    This paper concerns Bildung-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. Bildung-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also knowledge about chemistry, both about the nature of chemistry and about its role in society. In 2004 Mahaffy suggested a tetrahedron model based on Johnstone's chemical triangle. The latter represents the formal aspects of chemistry teaching (macro, submicro, and symbolic) and the top of the tetrahedron represents a human element. In the present paper the following subdivision of the top is suggested (starting from the bottom): (1) applied chemistry, (2) socio-cultural context, and (3) critical-philosophic approach. The professional identity of the Bildung-oriented chemistry teacher differs from that of the chemist and is informed by research fields such as Philosophy of Chemistry, Science and Technology Studies, and Environmental Education. He/she takes a socio-critical approach to chemistry, emphasising both the benefits and risks of chemistry and its applications.

  3. Annual report 1984 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry , environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  4. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All particles and reports published and lectures given in 1985 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  5. ESI GIS Data and PDF Maps: Environmental Sensitivity Index including GIS Data and Maps (for the U.S. Shorelines, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  6. Chemistry of Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    Since the late 1970's the coordination chemistry of technetium has been developed remarkably. The background of the development is obviously related to the use of technetium radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis in nuclear medicine. Much attention has also been denoted to the chemical behavior of environmental 99 Tc released from reprocessing plants. This review covers the several aspects of technetium chemistry, including production of radioisotopes, analytical chemistry and coordination chemistry. In the analytical chemistry, separation of technetium, emphasizing chromatography and solvent extraction, is described together with spectrophotometric determination of technetium. In the coordination chemistry of technetium, a characteristic feature of the chemistry of Tc(V) complexes is referred from the view point of the formation of a wide variety of highly stable complexes containing the Tc=O or Tc≡N bond. Kinetic studies of the preparation of Tc(III) complexes using hexakis (thiourea) technetium(III) ion as a starting material are summarized, together with the base hydrolysis reactions of Tc(III), Tc(IV) and Tc(V) complexes. (author)

  7. HOW AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY CAN CONTRIBUTE TO DEALING WITH PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Emanuele Gessa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a complex heterogeneous system whose physical, chemical and biological properties regulate interactions with the chemical species which reach its surface. Soil chemistry is an essential tool for understanding and predicting these interactions. Soil is able to immobilize and transform organic and inorganic molecules by different mechanisms, such as complexing and redox reactions. This behaviour gives soil detoxifying capacities towards pollutants which accumulate in the environment. Pollution by heavy metals is regulated by their solubility in soil solution which in turn depends on soil pH and redox properties and metal speciation. Organic and inorganic colloidal soil fractions can promote the immobilisation, degradation, and diffusion of organic molecules such as agrochemicals, solvents, hydrocarbons and other chemicals which reach the soil by anthropic activities. Predicting the fate of xenobiotics in soil, water, air, and plant ecosystems, the recycling of biomass and the decontamination of polluted soils are of major concern to soil chemistry.

  8. Chemistry of Small Organic Molecules on Snow Grains: The Applicability of Artificial Snow for Environmental Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurková, R.; Ray, D.; Nachtigallová, Dana; Klán, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 8 (2011), s. 3430-3436 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : water-ice * photochemical decomposition * dibenzyl- ketones Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2011

  9. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 3. Chemistry of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrey, M S

    1976-05-01

    The report is a synoptic review of data collected over the past twenty years on the chemistry of Lake Michigan. Changes in water quality and sediment chemistry, attributable to cultural and natural influences, are considered in relation to interacting processes and factors controlling the distribution and concentration of chemical substances within the Lake. Temperature, light, and mixing processes are among the important natural influences that affect nutrient cycling, dispersal of pollutants, and fate of materials entering the Lake. Characterization of inshore-offshore and longitudinal differences in chemical concentrations and sediment chemistry for the main body of the Lake is supplemented by discussion of specific areas such as Green Bay and Grand Traverse Bay. Residues, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major and trace nutrients, and contaminants are described in the following context: biological essentiality and/or toxicity, sources to the Lake, concentrations in the water column and sediments, chemical forms, seasonal variations and variation with depth. A summary of existing water quality standards, statutes, and criteria applicable to Lake Michigan is appended.

  10. Physical Chemistry '98: Fourth International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry - Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribnikar, S.; Anic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings has following chapters: Plenary lectures; Chemical Thermodynamics; Spectroscopy, Molecular Structures, Physical Chemistry of Plasma; Kinetics, Catalysis, Nonlinear Dynamics; Electrochemistry; Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry; Solid State Physical Chemistry, Material Science; Macromolecular Physical Chemistry; Environmental Protection; Phase Boundaries; Complex Compounds; General Physical Chemistry. A separated abstract was prepared for each of the 20 papers selected from the three chapters: Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry. and Environmental Protection. Refs and figs

  11. Frontiers in nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Pujari, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    This book contains articles on the landmarks in nuclear and radiochemistry which takes through scientific history spanning over five decades from the times of Roentgen to the middle of this century. Articles on nuclear fission and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle give an insight into the current status of this subject. Reviews on frontier areas like lanthanides, actinides, muonium chemistry, accelerator based nuclear chemistry, fast radiochemical separations and nuclear medicine bring out the multidisciplinary nature of nuclear sciences. This book also includes an article on environmental radiochemistry and safety. Chapters relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  13. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  14. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry

  15. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry.

  16. Transfer of the epoxidation of soybean oil from batch to flow chemistry guided by cost and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralisch, Dana; Streckmann, Ina; Ott, Denise; Krtschil, Ulich; Santacesaria, Elio; Di Serio, Martino; Russo, Vincenzo; De Carlo, Lucrezia; Linhart, Walter; Christian, Engelbert; Cortese, Bruno; de Croon, Mart H J M; Hessel, Volker

    2012-02-13

    The simple transfer of established chemical production processes from batch to flow chemistry does not automatically result in more sustainable ones. Detailed process understanding and the motivation to scrutinize known process conditions are necessary factors for success. Although the focus is usually "only" on intensifying transport phenomena to operate under intrinsic kinetics, there is also a large intensification potential in chemistry under harsh conditions and in the specific design of flow processes. Such an understanding and proposed processes are required at an early stage of process design because decisions on the best-suited tools and parameters required to convert green engineering concepts into practice-typically with little chance of substantial changes later-are made during this period. Herein, we present a holistic and interdisciplinary process design approach that combines the concept of novel process windows with process modeling, simulation, and simplified cost and lifecycle assessment for the deliberate development of a cost-competitive and environmentally sustainable alternative to an existing production process for epoxidized soybean oil. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Application of membrane-mimetic chemistry to environmental and energy related engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.; Chen, J.; Chen, J.R.; Lian, H.J.; Lin, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Membrane-mimetic chemistry principles can be applied to both decontamination and beneficiation processes where impurities must be separated from host molecules by a micellar change. These changes are dependent on the geometrical patterns and assemblages of micelles, vesicles or large liquid crystals (gels). They can be affected by radical transfer initiated by ultrasound irradiation or other microwave sources. Reactions proceed in a submicro environment of compression, rarefaction or cavitation with localized instantaneous high pressure and temperature flux or microstreaming. The following results are achieved through utilization of new technological concept: (1) decontamination of oily soils and upgrading of fossil fuels, (2) destruction of halogenated compounds in water, (3) desulfurization of coal by multiphase biocatalysis, (4) peptization and mesophase transition for geomacromolecules

  18. Environmentally dependent dust chemistry of a super Asian dust storm in March 2010: observation and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongzhen; Dong, Xinyi; Fu, Joshua S.; Xu, Jian; Deng, Congrui; Jiang, Yilun; Fu, Qingyan; Lin, Yanfen; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2018-03-01

    Near-surface and vertical in situ measurements of atmospheric particles were conducted in Shanghai during 19-23 March 2010 to explore the transport and chemical evolution of dust particles in a super dust storm. An air quality model with optimized physical dust emission scheme and newly implemented dust chemistry was utilized to study the impact of dust chemistry on regional air quality. Two discontinuous dust periods were observed with one traveling over northern China (DS1) and the other passing over the coastal regions of eastern China (DS2). Stronger mixing extents between dust and anthropogenic emissions were found in DS2, reflected by the higher SO2 / PM10 and NO2 / PM10 ratios as well as typical pollution elemental species such as As, Cd, Pb, and Zn. As a result, the concentrations of SO42- and NO3- and the ratio of Ca2+ / Ca were more elevated in DS2 than in DS1 but opposite for the [NH4+] / [SO42-+NO3-] ratio, suggesting the heterogeneous reactions between calcites and acid gases were significantly promoted in DS2 due to the higher level of relative humidity and gaseous pollution precursors. Lidar observation showed a columnar effect on the vertical structure of particle optical properties in DS1 that dust dominantly accounted for ˜ 80-90 % of the total particle extinction from near the ground to ˜ 700 m. In contrast, the dust plumes in DS2 were restrained within lower altitudes while the extinction from spherical particles exhibited a maximum at a high altitude of ˜ 800 m. The model simulation reproduced relatively consistent results with observations that strong impacts of dust heterogeneous reactions on secondary aerosol formation occurred in areas where the anthropogenic emissions were intensive. Compared to the sulfate simulation, the nitrate formation on dust is suggested to be improved in the future modeling efforts.

  19. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  20. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  1. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  2. Understanding Our Energy Footprint: Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Investigation of Environmental Impacts of Solid Fossil Fuel Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging undergraduates in the environmental consequences of fossil fuel usage primes them to consider their own anthropogenic impact, and the benefits and trade-offs of converting to renewable fuel strategies. This laboratory activity explores the potential contaminants (both inorganic and organic) present in the raw fuel and solid waste…

  3. Annual report 1988 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1989-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1988 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  4. Annual report 1989 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1990-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1989 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  5. Annual report 1986 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1986 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistral, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  6. Aspects of the environmental isotope chemistry in groundwaters in Eastern Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the environmental isotope data from a sandstone and a limestone aquifer are given. The data concerning the sandstone are limited but indicate the type of recharge that is occurring in the outcrop area. Although the 14 C data indicate some modern recharge in radiocarbon terms the tritium data show evidence of only localized recharge. Stable isotope data from one well indicate that indirect recharge may be important. In the limestone aquifer it is found that tritiated groundwater occurs chiefly in the vicinity of wadis indicating the importance of indirect recharge. The lack of tritiated groundwater in the 'recharge mounds' in the interfluve areas is seen as partly a function of sampling but also as indicating the high permeability zones at the tops of the aquifers. The delta 13 C data distribution are examined with respect to possible recharge mechanisms. (author)

  7. Automated Clean Chemistry for Bulk Analysis of Environmental Swipe Samples - FY17 Year End Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McBay, Eddy H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment to shorten lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures. This development addresses a serious need in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (IAEA NWAL) to increase efficiency in the Bulk Analysis of Environmental Samples for Safeguards program with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on COTS equipment. It was modified for uranium/plutonium separations using renewable columns packed with Eichrom TEVA and UTEVA resins, with a chemical separation method based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) NWAL chemical procedure. The newly designed prepFAST-SR has had several upgrades compared with the original prepFAST-MC2. Both systems are currently installed in the Ultra-Trace Forensics Science Center at ORNL.

  8. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  9. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Includes a Broad Spectrum of Inflammatory Responses and Epithelial Repair ProcessesSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED, a chronic diffuse inflammation of the small intestine, is associated with stunting in children in the developing world. The pathobiology of EED is poorly understood because of the lack of a method to elucidate the host response. This study tested a novel microarray method to overcome limitation of RNA sequencing to interrogate the host transcriptome in feces in Malawian children with EED. Methods: In 259 children, EED was measured by lactulose permeability (%L. After isolating low copy numbers of host messenger RNA, the transcriptome was reliably and reproducibly profiled, validated by polymerase chain reaction. Messenger RNA copy number then was correlated with %L and differential expression in EED. The transcripts identified were mapped to biological pathways and processes. The children studied had a range of %L values, consistent with a spectrum of EED from none to severe. Results: We identified 12 transcripts associated with the severity of EED, including chemokines that stimulate T-cell proliferation, Fc fragments of multiple immunoglobulin families, interferon-induced proteins, activators of neutrophils and B cells, and mediators that dampen cellular responses to hormones. EED-associated transcripts mapped to pathways related to cell adhesion, and responses to a broad spectrum of viral, bacterial, and parasitic microbes. Several mucins, regulatory factors, and protein kinases associated with the maintenance of the mucous layer were expressed less in children with EED than in normal children. Conclusions: EED represents the activation of diverse elements of the immune system and is associated with widespread intestinal barrier disruption. Differentially expressed transcripts, appropriately enumerated, should be explored as potential biomarkers. Keywords: Environmental Enteropathy, Fecal Transcriptome, Stunting, Intestinal Inflammation

  10. Nanopesticides: Guiding principles for regulatory evaluation of environmental risks. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kookana, R.S.; Boxall, A.; Reeves, P.T.; Ashauer, R.; Beulke, S.; Chaudhry, Q.; Cornelis, G.; Fernandes, T.F.; Gan, J.; Kah, M.; Lynch, I.; Ranville, J.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Tiede, K.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nanopesticides or nano plant protection products represent an emerging technological development that, in relation to pesticide use, could offer a range of benefits including increased efficacy, durability, and a reduction in the amounts of active ingredients that need to be used. A number of

  11. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  12. Monitoramento atmosférico passivo de SO2, NO2 e O3 em áreas urbanas e de influência industrial como prática de química ambiental para alunos de graduação Atmospheric passive monitoring of SO2, NO2 and O3 in urban areas and in those under industrial influence as an environmental chemistry experiment for undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia P. Campos

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a result of undergraduate student participation in the Environmental Chemistry discipline provided by the Chemistry Institute/UFBA. The students were involved in the development of passive samplers, a project of the LAQUAM (Environmental Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The students' residences and other neighborhoods were used to create a passive sampling network, allowing the measurement of atmospheric levels of pollutants in urban areas and in those under industrial influence. The assembly of the passive samplers, including impregnation of filters and chemical analysis were part of the students' practice tasks. The results were analyzed taking into consideration the Brazilian legislation.

  13. Oak ridge national laboratory automated clean chemistry for bulk analysis of environmental swipe samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    To shorten the lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures, sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. This addresses a serious need in the nuclear safeguards community to debottleneck the separation of U and Pu in environmental samples—currently performed by overburdened chemists—with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on current COTS equipment that was modified for U/Pu separations utilizing Eichrom™ TEVA and UTEVA resins. Initial verification of individual columns yielded small elution volumes with consistent elution profiles and good recovery. Combined column calibration demonstrated ample separation without crosscontamination of the eluent. Automated packing and unpacking of the built-in columns initially showed >15% deviation in resin loading by weight, which can lead to inconsistent separations. Optimization of the packing and unpacking methods led to a reduction in the variability of the packed resin to less than 5% daily. The reproducibility of the automated system was tested with samples containing 30 ng U and 15 pg Pu, which were separated in a series with alternating reagent blanks. These experiments showed very good washout of both the resin and the sample from the columns as evidenced by low blank values. Analysis of the major and minor isotope ratios for U and Pu provided values well within data quality limits for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Additionally, system process blanks spiked with 233U and 244Pu tracers were separated using the automated system after it was moved outside of a clean room and yielded levels equivalent to clean room blanks, confirming that the system can produce high quality results without the need for expensive clean room infrastructure. Comparison of the amount of personnel time necessary for successful manual vs

  14. Annual report 1987 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1988-04-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1987 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistry, mineral processing, and general. 13 ills., (author)

  15. Annual report 1982 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1983-04-01

    The work going on in the Risoe National Laboratory, Chemistry Department is briefly surveyed by a presentation of all articles and reports published in 1982. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The papers are divided into eight activities: 1. neutron activation analysis 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry 6. radical chemistry 7. poitron annihilation 8. uranium process chemistry. (author)

  16. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report: Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, October 1977-September 1978. [Summary of research activities at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R. E.; Inokuti, Mitio [eds.

    1978-01-01

    Research presented includes 32 papers, six of which have appeared previously in ERA, and 26 appear in this issue of ERA. Molecular physics and chemistry including photoionization, molecular properties, oscillator strengths, scattering, shape resonances, and photoelectrons are covered. A list of publications is included. (JFP)

  17. Collaboration Between Environmental Water Chemistry Students and Hazardous Waste Treatment Specialists on the University of Colorado-Boulder Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    semester, the students conduct a bench-scale laboratory exercise where they study part of the treatment process. Several small start-up companies are testing components in the lab, which adds to the colaboration of the project.; Figure 1. Students in Environmental Water Chemistry lab conducting a titration.

  18. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to include environmental knowledge in decision making in the case of an aluminium reduction plant in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2011-01-01

    assessments. As there was no conflict between economic and environmental recommendations, and hence no visible proof of SEA’s influence on the outcome of the decision, it is discussed whether environmental knowledge, in this decision making process, equals influence. The investigation was carried out...... environmental knowledge in a decision-making process. It is concluded that the SEA secured inclusion of environmental knowledge in three out of four key decision arenas, which determined the direction and outcome of the process. The results from the SEA did not oppose the recommendations based on the economic...

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Barry M. Goldwater Range East Range Enhancements (Including First and Second Record of Decision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    quality and environmental management. Mary Harclerode Production A.A. Business Administration with 2 years experience. Rachel Healey ...Manned Range 3, Barry M Goldwater Range East, Arizona. EcoPlan Associates Mesa, Arizona. Neuzil, Anna, Jill Hjeilman, Jason Sperinck, Daniel

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Central California (Including Monterey Bay Sanctuary), maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps have been developed for the coastal areas of Central California from Point Conception to Point Reyes National Seashore....

  1. ESI PDF Maps: Environmental Sensitivity Index PDF Maps (for the U.S. Shorelines, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building Replacement Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    NNSA, an agency within DOE, proposes to replace the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The CMRR EIS examines the potential environmental impacts associated with the Proposed Action of consolidating and relocating the mission-critical CMR capabilities from a degraded building to a new modern building(s). The existing CMR Building, constructed in the early 1950s, houses most of LANL's analytical chemistry and materials characterization AC and MC capabilities. Other capabilities at the CMR Building include actinide processing, waste characterization, and nondestructive analysis that support a variety of NNSA and DOE nuclear materials management programs. In 1992, DOE initiated planning and implementation of CMR Building upgrades to address specific safety, reliability, consolidation, and security and safeguards issues. Later, in 1997 and 1998, a series of operational, safety, and seismic issues surfaced regarding the long-term viability of the CMR Building. Because of these issues, DOE determined that the extensive upgrades originally planned would be much more expensive and time consuming and of only marginal effectiveness. As a result, DOE decided to perform only the upgrades necessary to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the CMR Building through 2010 and to seek an alternative path for long-term reliability. The CMRR EIS evaluates the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental impacts associated with the Proposed Action. The Proposed Action is to replace the CMR Building. The Preferred Alternative is to construct a new CMRR Facility at Technical Area (TA) 55, consisting of two or three buildings. One of the new buildings would provide space for administrative offices and support functions. The other building(s) would provide secure laboratory spaces for research and analytical support activities. The buildings would be expected to operate for a minimum of 50 years. Tunnels could be

  3. Radioanalytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The bibliography of Hungarian literature in the field of radioanalytical chemistry covers the four-year period 1976-1979. The list of papers contains 290 references in the alphabetical order of the first authors. The majority of the titles belongs to neutron activation analysis, labelling, separation and determination of radioactive isotopes. Other important fields like radioimmunoassay, environmental protection etc. are covered as well. (Sz.J.)

  4. The 2015 Annual Meeting of SETAC German Language Branch in Zurich (7-10 September, 2015): ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry-from research to application

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Inge; Aldrich, Annette; Becker, Benjamin; Becker, Dennis; Brinkmann, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael; Caspers, Norbert; Campiche, Sophie; Chèvre, Nathalie; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Escher, Beate I.; Fischer, Fabian; Giebner, Sabrina; Heye, Katharina; Hollert, Henner

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, ...

  5. Proceedings of the 11. ENQA: Brazilian meeting on analytical chemistry. Challenges for analytical chemistry in the 21st century. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 11th National Meeting on Analytical Chemistry was held from 18 to 21 September, 2001 at the Convention Center of UNICAMP, with the theme Challenges for Analytical Chemistry in the 21st Century. This meeting have discussed on the development of new methods and analytical tools needed to solve new challenges. The papers presented topics related to the different sub-areas of Analytical Chemistry such as Environmental Chemistry; Chemiometry techniques; X-ray Fluorescence Analysis; Spectroscopy; Separation Processes; Electroanalytic Chemistry and others. Were also included lectures on the Past and Future of Analytical Chemistry and on Ethics in Science

  6. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  7. Toxicity of tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products to environmentally relevant bacteria, including selected tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, B.; Sengeløv, G.; Tjørnelund, J.

    2002-01-01

    solution were theoretically identified at various environmental conditions, such as pH, presence of chelating, metals, and fight. Their potency was assessed on sludge bacteria, tetracycline-sensitive soil bacteria, and tetracycline-resistant strains. Several of the degradation products had potency...

  8. Individual differences in plasma ALT, AST and GGT: contributions of genetic and environmental factors, including alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, J B; Martin, N G

    1985-01-01

    The causes of individuality of the plasma enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) were investigated in a study of 206 pairs of twins. Between-person variance was greater in men than women, while within-person variation was similar in both sexes. Plasma ALT and AST levels were affected by genetic factors, while GGT was affected by some environmental factor shared by co-twins. In the men, alcohol intake had a significant but small effect on all three enzyme levels, and since alcohol consumption was highly heritable, this appeared as a genetic influence on enzyme activities. The major factors involved in the observed correlations between these enzymes were a non-shared environmental factor other than alcohol affecting ALT, AST and GGT, and a genetic factor affecting only ALT and AST.

  9. Green analytical chemistry - the use of surfactants as a replacement of organic solvents in spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, Daniel Y.

    2017-07-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to the many practical uses of surfactants in analytical chemistry in replacing organic solvents to achieve greener chemistry. Taking a holistic approach, it covers some background of surfactants as chemical solvents, their properties and as green chemicals, including their environmental effects. The achievements of green analytical chemistry with micellar systems are reviewed in all the major areas of analytical chemistry where these reagents have been found to be useful.

  10. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  11. Variations in Carabidae assemblages across the farmland habitats in relation to selected environmental variables including soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Baranová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The variations in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae assemblages across the three types of farmland habitats, arable land, meadows and woody vegetation were studied in relation to vegetation cover structure, intensity of agrotechnical interventions and selected soil properties. Material was pitfall trapped in 2010 and 2011 on twelve sites of the agricultural landscape in the Prešov town and its near vicinity, Eastern Slovakia. A total of 14,763 ground beetle individuals were entrapped. Material collection resulted into 92 Carabidae species, with the following six species dominating: Poecilus cupreus, Pterostichus melanarius, Pseudoophonus rufipes, Brachinus crepitans, Anchomenus dorsalis and Poecilus versicolor. Studied habitats differed significantly in the number of entrapped individuals, activity abundance as well as representation of the carabids according to their habitat preferences and ability to fly. However, no significant distinction was observed in the diversity, evenness neither dominance. The most significant environmental variables affecting Carabidae assemblages species variability were soil moisture and herb layer 0-20 cm. Another best variables selected by the forward selection were intensity of agrotechnical interventions, humus content and shrub vegetation. The other from selected soil properties seem to have just secondary meaning for the adult carabids. Environmental variables have the strongest effect on the habitat specialists, whereas ground beetles without special requirements to the habitat quality seem to be affected by the studied environmental variables just little.

  12. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  13. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  14. Annual report 1983 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1984-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1983 are presented. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The activities are divided into nine groups: 1. radioisotope chemistry 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry and waste disposal 6. radical chemstry 7. positron annihilation 8. mineral processing 9. general. (author)

  15. Fourteenth National Congress of the Environmental and Cultural Heritage Chemistry Division, "Chemistry in a Sustainable Society," held in Rimini (Italy) in June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Elena; Passarini, Fabrizio; Morselli, Luciano

    2014-12-01

    This report briefly presents the aims and the fields of interest of the Environmental and Cultural Heritage Division (Italian Chemical Society) and the issues addressed during its national congress, held in Rimini in June 2013. The broad range of topics raised by different speakers, the variety of affiliations and institutions participating at the conference, the scientific organisations and private companies co-sponsoring the different sessions give a clear picture of the interdisciplinarity which is a hallmark of this division.

  16. Emission and costs up to and including 2030 for the current environmental policy. Background information for the National Environmental Outlook 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Kuijpers-Linde, M.A.J.; Van Gerwen, O.J.

    2001-03-01

    Every four years the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) publishes an Environmental Outlook in preparation for the National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP). The fifth National Environmental Outlook (NEOS) describes developments in the quality of the environment in the Netherlands for 2000-2030 against a background of developments on the European and global scales. The two macro-economic scenarios of the Netherlands Bureau for Economic and Policy Analysis (CPB) used are the European Coordination (EC) scenario and the Global Competition scenario (GC). Consequences for public health, nature and the human physical environment are also indicated. 'Fixed policy' scenarios are used in the Environmental Outlook for the Netherlands. In 'fixed policy' scenarios it is assumed that all policy measures agreed on by the year 2000 will be implemented, but no new measures taken. In this way the Outlook offers baseline scenarios that can be compared with targets and objectives to facilitate the development of new policy. The Fifth National Environmental Outlook was realised with the assistance of many other Dutch research institutes. This background document to NEOS presents estimated levels of energy use, emissions and costs of environmental measures for the 1995-2020 period. The main conclusions are: The environmental problems most difficult to tackle are climate change and noise nuisance. These problems are highly related to energy use and transportation; The policy as presented in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid', a document describing the Dutch Kyoto-related climate policy, results in a reduction of greenhouse gases of 15 Mton CO2 equivalents (GS scenario) with respect to the pre-Kyoto policy in 2010. To meet the Kyoto agreements a further reduction of approximately 45 Mton CO2 equivalents is needed. If policies in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid' are further instrumentalised and made concrete, an extra reduction of 10 Mton is possible

  17. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  18. Yearly scientific meeting: chemistry in human health and environment protection. Bialystok'92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The conference has been divided into 12 sections devoted to following topics: analytical chemistry; environmental chemistry; chemistry of natural compounds; chemistry of pharmaceutics and toxic compounds; chemistry in medicine; electrochemistry; young scientists forum; didactics and history of chemistry; chemistry and industry - technologies environment friendly; new trends in polymer science; crystallochemistry; pro-ecological actions in leather industry. Different analytical methods for determination of heavy methods and rare earths have been presented. Some of them have been successfully applied for the examination of environmental and biological materials. The basic chemical and physico-chemical studies including thermodynamic, crystal structure, coordination chemistry, sorption properties etc. have been extensively resented. The existence of radioactive elements in environment has been also investigated, especially in respect to municipal and industrial wastes and products of their processing. The radiation effects for different materials have been reported and discussed as well

  19. Applied chemistry and environmental engineering for engineers. Manual for students and practicians. 2. ed.; Angewandte Chemie und Umwelttechnik fuer Ingenieure. Handbuch fuer Studium und betriebliche Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessmann, J.; Orth, H.

    2002-07-01

    This is a practically oriented textbook for chemistry and environmental protection training of students of mechanical engineering, vehicle engineering, electrical engineering, space HVAc engineering etc. Students are also given useful information on the practical applications of chemistry and on environmental protection in industrial practice. The book also contains problem solutions for managing engineers in organizations of the metal and electrical branch who are confronted with chemical problems in chemical engineering, quality assurance, industrial safety and environmental protection. [German] Das Handbuch vermittelt in konzentrierter Form die Grundlagen der Chemie und Umwelttechnik und schlaegt rasch die Bruecke zur industriellen Anwendung bevorzugt in der Metall- und Elektroindustrie. Das Handbuch ist ein praxisorientiertes Lehrbuch fuer die Chemie- und Umweltschutzausbildung von Ingenieurstudenten der Fachrichtungen Maschinenbau, Fahrzeugtechnik, Elektrotechnik, Versorgungstechnik u.a. Darueberhinaus finden Schueler von Chemieleistungskursen an Gymnasien oder Chemiestudenten an Fachhochschulen oder Universitaeten viele nuetzliche Informationen ueber die Anwendungen von Chemie und Umweltschutz in der industriellen Praxis. Nicht zuletzt enthaelt das Buch Problemloesungen fuer Betriebsingenieure, insbesondere aus dem Bereich der Metall- und Elektrobranche, die mit chemischen Fragestellungen in der Verfahrenstechnik, Qualitaetssicherung oder Arbeits-/Umweltschutzueberwachung konfrontiert sind. (orig.)

  20. Shaping of macroinvertebrate structures in a small fishless lowland stream exposed to anthropopressure, including the environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krepski Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of abiotic and biotic factors influencing macroinvertebrate assemblages, there is always the problem of which factor – fish predation or environmental conditions – has the strongest impact on the invertebrates and whether the impact is positive or negative. The aim of our study was to determine the impact on the structures of macrozoobenthos in a small field watercourse exerted by abiotic conditions, with the concurrent lack of predators and varied intensity of anthropopressure. During the entire study period, the presence of 49 taxa of macroinvertebrates was recorded. The highest number of taxa and value of biodiversity was observed in the upper part of the watercourse, and subsequently decreased down the stream, reaching the lowest value at the sites located near the outlet. The tributaries significantly differed between each other in the number of taxa. In the tributary carrying water from wetland, a much higher number of taxa was noted than in the tributary carrying municipal water where the density achieved a significantly higher value of individuals than the remaining sites. The most limiting factors for the abundance of the investigated taxa were the oxygen concentration, nutrients and ammonia.

  1. Measurements of local chemistry and structure in Ni(O)-YSZ composites during reduction using energy-filtered environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Quentin; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images are acquired during the reduction of a NiO-YSZ composite in H-2 up to 600 degrees C. Temperature-resolved quantitative information about both chemistry and structure is extracted with nm spatial resolution from the data, paving the way...

  2. Measurements of local chemistry and structure in Ni(O)-YSZ composites during reduction using energy-filtered environmental TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeangros, Quentin; Hansen, Thomas W; Wagner, Jakob B; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Hébert, Cécile; Van Herle, Jan; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha

    2014-02-21

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images are acquired during the reduction of a NiO-YSZ composite in H2 up to 600 °C. Temperature-resolved quantitative information about both chemistry and structure is extracted with nm spatial resolution from the data, paving the way for the development of detailed reduction models.

  3. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for Hawaii 2002: Water Quality, Fish Taxon, Sediment Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0061250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), in conjunction with...

  6. Science Writing Heuristics Embedded in Green Chemistry: A Tool to Nurture Environmental Literacy among Pre-University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamuganathana, Sheila; Karpudewan, Mageswary

    2017-01-01

    Existing studies report on the importance of instilling environmental literacy among students from an early stage of schooling to enable them to adopt more pro-environmental behaviors in the near future. This quasi-experimental study was designed to compare the level of environmental literacy among two groups of students: the experimental group (N…

  7. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  8. Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

  9. Non-thermally activated chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiller, W.

    1987-01-01

    The subject is covered under the following headings: state-of-the art of non-thermally activated chemical processes; basic phenomena in non-thermal chemistry including mechanochemistry, photochemistry, laser chemistry, electrochemistry, photo-electro chemistry, high-field chemistry, magneto chemistry, plasma chemistry, radiation chemistry, hot-atom chemistry, and positronium and muonium chemistry; elementary processes in non-thermal chemistry including nuclear chemistry, interactions of electromagnetic radiations, electrons and heavy particles with matter, ionic elementary processes, elementary processes with excited species, radicalic elementary processes, and energy-induced elementary processes on surfaces and interfaces; and comparative considerations. An appendix with historical data and a subject index is given. 44 figs., 41 tabs., and 544 refs

  10. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  11. Developmental variations in environmental influences including endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing and neuroendocrine control: Revision of human observations and mechanistic insight from rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Gérard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Puberty presents remarkable individual differences in timing reaching over 5 years in humans. We put emphasis on the two edges of the age distribution of pubertal signs in humans and point to an extended distribution towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final pubertal stages. Such distortion of distribution is a recent phenomenon. This suggests changing environmental influences including the possible role of nutrition, stress and endocrine disruptors. Our ability to assess neuroendocrine effects and mechanisms is very limited in humans. Using the rodent as a model, we examine the impact of environmental factors on the individual variations in pubertal timing and the possible underlying mechanisms. The capacity of environmental factors to shape functioning of the neuroendocrine system is thought to be maximal during fetal and early postnatal life and possibly less important when approaching the time of onset of puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  13. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  14. Promoting Pro-Environmental Attitudes and Reported Behaviors of Malaysian Pre-Service Teachers Using Green Chemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Environmental degradation is a general problem but it is often more serious in developing nations where levels of awareness are lower than in industrialized countries. There is, therefore, a need particularly in developing countries to increase pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. In this paper, we report the results of a quasi-experimental…

  15. Chemistry for protection of the environment, Eight international conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, W.J.; Pawlowski, L.; Dlugosz, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents research programs from the International Conference on the Chemistry For Protection of the Environment. Topics covered include environmental transport, waste minimization, pollution control and prevention, waste management, soil remediation, and health concerns associated with environmental contamination. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  16. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  17. Acid Deposition Simulations for Alberta, Saskatchewan, and the Canadian Oil Sands, using the Global Environmental Multiscale - Modelling Air-quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Paul; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Moran, Michael; Wong, Isaac; Aherne, Julian; Hayden, Katherine; Li, Shao-Meng; Zhang, Junhua; Baratzedah, Pegha; Pabla, Balbir; Cheung, Philip; Cole, Amanda; Kirk, Jane; Scott, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The Global Environmental Multiscale - Modelling Air-quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) system (version 2) was used to carry out simulations of acid deposition for the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. These model predictions include the hourly deposition of four sulphur and eleven nitrogen containing species (SO2(g), HSO3(-)(aq) , SO4(2-)(aq), particulate sulphate, and NH3(g), NO2(g), HNO3(g), NH4(+)(aq), NO3(-)(aq), HONO(g), PAN(g), HNO4(g), particulate nitrate, particulate ammonium, and gaseous organic nitrate, respectively). A two-bin aerosol size distribution configuration of GEM-MACH was used to estimate the annual deposition of these chemicals, for the period August 1, 2013 through July 31, 2014, at two resolutions—a 10km resolution North American domain and a 2.5km resolution Alberta and Saskatchewan domain. The model estimates of acid deposition from both resolutions (version 2), were used to determine the relative contributions of the different species towards total sulphur and nitrogen deposition, and to evaluate the effect of model resolution on estimates of acid deposition. The potential ecosystem impacts of acid deposition were examined via comparison of model-predicted total deposition to different sources of sulphur and nitrogen critical load data, for forest and lake ecosystems in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. The deposition estimates were compared to observations of snowpack sulphur and nitrogen ions, collected during the winter of 2013. The processes underlying acidifying deposition in the vicinity of the Canadian oil sands were examined in more detail using the 12-bin aerosol size distribution configuration of GEM-MACH (version 2), for a period from mid-August to mid-September 2013. This time period corresponds to an aircraft measurement intensive campaign designed to examine emissions, transportation, and deposition associated with air pollution sources in the Canadian oil sands. Multiple model simulation scenarios were

  18. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  19. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  20. Proceedings of the 37. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the summaries of the papers presented at the 37. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry. The topics include subjects about new technologies in the field of relevance for nuclear interest and energy field, involving environmental aspects, analytical chemistry and electrochemistry. The chemistry of elements of nuclear interest has been presented, and dissertations about rare earth elements were discussed. Studies about fuels, mainly petroleum, their products and biomass fuels, including their production, physical-chemical properties, structure studies and feasibility studies has also been comprehended

  1. The influence of environmental exposure to complex mixtures including PAHs and lead on genotoxic effects in children living in Upper Silesia, Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna

    2006-01-01

    Environmental exposure is a complex mixture of hazardous compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity. In case of concomitant exposure to carcinogenic substances--such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--and to heavy metals--such as lead (Pb)--the level of DNA damage may be enhanced...... and to investigate their relation with the environmental exposure to PAHs and Pb. The examined population included 74 children 5-14-year-old who lived in two cities located in the most polluted centre of the Silesia province. Individual exposure to lead was assessed for each child by measuring lead in blood (Pb....... Emissions from coal-burning stoves are important contributors to the total exposure to PAHs and Pb in Silesian children....

  2. The Efficacy of a Green Chemistry Laboratory-Based Pedagogy: Changes in Environmental Values of Malaysia Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Every day, climate change due to greenhouse emissions, pollution and other environmental degradation appears to make the news. Rather than doing something about the environment, namely in the developing countries where populations frequently are less educated about the long-term impact of human actions, they tend to disregard these problems. There…

  3. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  4. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

  5. DSSTox: The Open Environmental Chemistry Data underlying the CompTox Chemical Dashboard (OpenTox USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DSSTox project has long been dedicated to the idea of making chemical information linked to environmental or toxicological data of interest freely available. Since its first posting of data files in 2004, DSSTox database development has consistently focused on enabling data ...

  6. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Michael P

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  8. American Chemical Society. Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The meeting of the 201st American Chemical Society Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology was comprised from a variety of topics in this field including: nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics, and nuclear techniques for environmental studies. Particular emphasis was given to fundamental research concerning nuclear structure (seven of the nineteen symposia) and studies of airborne particle monitoring and transport (five symposia). 105 papers were presented

  9. Chemistry Cube Game - Exploring Basic Principles of Chemistry by Turning Cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus T

    2018-02-01

    The Chemistry Cube Game invites students at secondary school level 1 and 2 to explore basic concepts of chemistry in a playful way, either as individuals or in teams. It consists of 15 different cubes, 9 cubes for different acids, their corresponding bases and precursors, and 6 cubes for different reducing and oxidising agents. The cubes can be rotated in those directions indicated. Each 'allowed' vertical or horizontal rotation of 90° stands for a chemical reaction or a physical transition. Two different games and playing modes are presented here: First, redox chemistry is introduced for the formation of salts from elementary metals and non-metals. Second, the speciation of acids and bases at different pH-values is shown. The cubes can be also used for games about environmental chemistry such as the carbon and sulphur cycle, covering the topic of acid rain, or the nitrogen cycle including ammoniac synthesis, nitrification and de-nitrification.

  10. Single particle ICP-MS as a tool for determining the stability of silver nanoparticles in aquatic matrixes under various environmental conditions, including treatment by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgmann, Lena; Nguyen, Michael Thanh Khoa; Shen, Li; Yargeau, Viviane; Hintelmann, Holger; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in a large number of consumer products due to their antimicrobial and antifungal properties, and these materials may be discharged into municipal wastewater. Wastewater treatment, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), may modify the forms of silver in wastewater before they are discharged into surface waters. In addition, little is known about the changes in AgNPs that occur in natural waters under different environmental conditions. In this project, we utilized single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analytical techniques to evaluate changes in the number and size of AgNPs in laboratory experiments with milliQ water under different environmental conditions, as well as during ozonation. Changes in the number and size of AgNPs determined by spICP-MS were evidence of altered stability of the nanoparticles. Increased rates of dissolution occurred under extremes of pH. Lower temperature decreased the rate of dissolution of AgNP relative to the dissolution in treatments at room temperature. The addition of chloride resulted in the loss of AgNPs from suspension due to agglomeration and precipitation. Ozonation led to a rapid decline in the number and size of AgNPs, as indicated by both spICP-MS and DLS analysis. An increase in the concentration of dissolved silver in the ozone treatments was evidence that changes in particle size were a result of oxidative dissolution of AgNPs to silver ion. Graphical abstract Single particle ICP-MS is used to evaluate dissolution of silver nanoparticles under different environmental conditions, including water treatment by ozonation.

  11. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  12. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  13. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  14. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  15. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  16. Yearly scientific meeting: chemistry in human health and environment protection. Bialystok`92; Doroczny zjazd naukowy: chemia w ochronie zdrowia i srodowiska czlowieka. Bialystok`92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The conference has been divided into 12 sections devoted to following topics: analytical chemistry; environmental chemistry; chemistry of natural compounds; chemistry of pharmaceutics and toxic compounds; chemistry in medicine; electrochemistry; young scientists forum; didactics and history of chemistry; chemistry and industry - technologies environment friendly; new trends in polymer science; crystallochemistry; pro-ecological actions in leather industry. Different analytical methods for determination of heavy methods and rare earths have been presented. Some of them have been successfully applied for the examination of environmental and biological materials. The basic chemical and physico-chemical studies including thermodynamic, crystal structure, coordination chemistry, sorption properties etc. have been extensively resented. The existence of radioactive elements in environment has been also investigated, especially in respect to municipal and industrial wastes and products of their processing. The radiation effects for different materials have been reported and discussed as well.

  17. Environmental Toxin Acrolein Alters Levels of Endogenous Lipids, Including TRP Agonists: A Potential Mechanism for Headache Driven by TRPA1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Emma; Kunkler, Phillip E; Manchanda, Meera; Sangani, Kishan; Stuart, Jordyn M; Oxford, Gerry S; Hurley, Joyce H; Bradshaw, Heather B

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N -acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N -arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization.

  18. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leishman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

  19. Summary report for April, May, and June 1950. Chemistry Divison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, D. W. [ed.

    1950-07-27

    A summary of activities for the Chemistry Division is reported for April-June 1950. Areas reporting activity include: Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry, Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, and Process Chemistry.

  20. Cyclodextrin chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.; Chuaqui, C.A.

    1990-05-01

    The chemistry of cyclodextrins was studied. This study included synthesising some cyclodextrin derivatives, preparing selected inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and investigating the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and certain linear oligosaccharides. This report presents a brief review of the structure and properties of cyclodextrins, the synthesis of cyclodextrin derivatives, their complexation and applications. This is followed by a description of the synthesis of some cyclodextrin derivatives and the preparation of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with some organic compounds. Finally, the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins, some of their derivatives and certain structurally related carbohydrates are discussed. The gamma irradiation studies were carried out for two reasons: to study the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and their derivatives; and to investigate selectivity during the gamma irradiation of cyclodextrin derivatives

  1. The 2015 Annual Meeting of SETAC German Language Branch in Zurich (7-10 September, 2015): Ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry-from research to application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Inge; Aldrich, Annette; Becker, Benjamin; Becker, Dennis; Brinkmann, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael; Caspers, Norbert; Campiche, Sophie; Chèvre, Nathalie; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Escher, Beate I; Fischer, Fabian; Giebner, Sabrina; Heye, Katharina; Hollert, Henner; Junghans, Marion; Kienle, Cornelia; Knauer, Katja; Korkaric, Muris; Märkl, Veronika; Muncke, Jane; Oehlmann, Jörg; Reifferscheid, Georg; Rensch, Daniel; Schäffer, Andreas; Schiwy, Sabrina; Schwarz, Simon; Segner, Helmut; Simon, Eszter; Triebskorn, Rita; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Wintgens, Thomas; Zennegg, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, and Mesocosm GmbH (Germany). Over 200 delegates from academia, public agencies and private industry of Germany, Switzerland and Austria attended and discussed the current state of science and its application presented in 75 talks and 83 posters. In addition, three invited keynote speakers provided new insights into scientific knowledge 'brokering', and-as it was the International Year of Soil-the important role of healthy soil ecosystems. Awards were presented to young scientists for best oral and poster presentations, and for best 2014 master and doctoral theses. Program and abstracts of the meeting (mostly in German) are provided as Additional file 1.

  2. Lu2O3-SiO2-ZrO2 Coatings for Environmental Barrier Application by Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying and Influence of Precursor Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darthout, Émilien; Quet, Aurélie; Braidy, Nadi; Gitzhofer, François

    2014-02-01

    As environmental barrier coatings are subjected to thermal stress in gas turbine engines, the introduction of a secondary phase as zircon (ZrSiO4) is likely to increase the stress resistance of Lu2Si2O7 coatings generated by induction plasma spraying using liquid precursors. In a first step, precursor chemistry effect is investigated by the synthesis of ZrO2-SiO2 nanopowders by induction plasma nanopowder synthesis technique. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon precursor and zirconium oxynitrate and zirconium ethoxide as zirconium precursors are mixed in ethanol and produce a mixture of tetragonal zirconia and amorphous silica nanoparticles. The use of zirconium ethoxide precursor results in zirconia particles with diameter below 50 nm because of exothermic thermal decomposition of the ethoxide and its high boiling point with respect to solvent, while larger particles are formed when zirconium oxynitrate is employed. The formation temperature of zircon from zirconia and silica oxides is found at 1425 °C. Second, coatings are synthesized in Lu2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 system. After heat treatment, the doping effect of lutetium on zirconia grains totally inhibits the zircon formation. Dense coatings are obtained with the use of zirconium ethoxide because denser particles with a homogeneous diameter distribution constitute the coating.

  3. Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications - including criteria for Sb and As; Miljoeriktlinjer foer askanvaendning i anlaeggningsbyggande - inklusive haltkriterier foer Sb och As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Jones, Celia; Pettersson, Michael; Elert, Mark (Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    exposure scenarios including exposure pathways and points of compliance. Risk evaluation becomes an issue of comparing the estimated (-modeled) increased concentrations at specified target points with general human and environmental toxicological criteria. Guidelines have been calculated for two different types of constructions, with or without an impermeable (asphalt-) pavement that prevents rain water from infiltrating into the road. Also the possible exposure of intruding ground water has been taken into account. A set of ashes, for which data on total content and leachability was available in the ALLASKA and MALTE database, have been classified according to three categories of applications/situations. The results show that due to lack of data it could not be assessed whether naphthalene, bens(a)pyren and selen in ashes imply an insignificant risk or not. Cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and zinc generally shows a large margin to the calculated guidelines for total content and leachability for most ashes. Thus, ashes in constructions constitute an acceptable risk with respect to these elements. Antimony and lead in ashes fall above the guideline values for leaching in some cases. The total content of arsenic in many ashes exceeds the guideline values when used in an unpaved construction even when taking the oral bioavailabity of arsenic in ashes in consideration. To a lesser extent this also holds for total content of lead. Accordingly, it can not be excluded that the reuse of some ashes in some applications may imply a certain risk. Spreading as dust, deposition on vegetables and the subsequent intake has reveled itself as an important exposure pathway. Little data, theory and models are available on dust generation and transport, the calculations made here are rough and conservative. Also, guidelines for the ash construction left in place in the post use phase are difficult to determine. The health risk associated with intake of vegetables and

  4. Developments in the analytical chemistry of arsenic to support teaching and learning through research in environmental topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampiah-Bonney, Richmond Jerry

    Two manifolds were designed to determine phosphate concentrations. The linear range for the 2-channel manifold was 0 to 30 mg L-1, and that for the 3-channel manifold was 0 to 400 mg L-1. Optimized conditions for the determination of arsenic with molybdenum-blue method were 0.5% w/v ascorbic acid, 0.4 M sulfuric acid in the molybdate solution and 80°C reaction temperature. A method for determination of arsenic using pervaporation flow injection hydride generation with visible spectrophotometry was developed. The method was sensitive for low arsenic concentrations (≤ 10 mug L-1), with sensitivity decreasing as arsenic concentration increased. There was no heating required, and the pervaporation membrane transferred only arsine. The analytical performance of two arsenic test kits was assessed. The Alpha Environmental kit cannot be recommended for arsenic measurement in water. The Hach kit was reliable for measuring arsenic concentrations greater than 70 mug L-1. A modified reaction tube was constructed that allowed NaBH4 solution to be delivered into the reaction mixture to replace zinc powder in the Hach kit, with no loss of gases. A more quantitative way of measuring arsenic using the Hach kit was developed by measuring the B-value of the color of jpeg images of test strips taken by a desktop scanner. Leersia oryzoides grown in soil amended with 110 mg kg-1arsenic extracted up to 305 mug g-1 and 272 mug g-1 arsenic into its shoots and roots respectively, giving a shoot:root quotient (SRQ) of 1.12 and phytoextraction coefficients (PEC) up to 1.3 in greenhouse experiments. Five supervised arsenic-related projects were reported. All except one of these reports fell short of the standards acceptable for a publishable manuscript. Factors such as high expectations, competitive entrance requirements and good motivation were responsible for the publishable report. For the remaining reports, problems with working in a team, relatively low expectations and lack of

  5. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  6. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  7. A abordagem de questões ambientais: contribuições de formadores de professores de componentes curriculares da área de ensino de química Addressing environmental issues: the contribution of teacher-trainers of chemistry teaching curricular components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study involving current teachers of the chemistry teaching curricular components of twelve Chemistry licentiate courses at state universities in the South and South-east of Brazil. The aim was to analyse how these curricular components can work together to address environmental issues in Chemistry teacher-training. From analysis of the interviews, it can be ascertained for example that environmental themes in the curricular components analysed are treated with differing levels of intensity and perspectives, and in some cases, have a more illustrative character regarding chemistry concepts.

  8. NWCA 2011 Soil Chemistry - Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NWCA 2011 Soil Chemistry Data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Nahlik, A., and M.S. Fennessy. Carbon storage in US wetlands. Nature...

  9. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  10. Biomass burning: Its history, use, and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreae, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the following topics are discussed: global estimates of amounts of biomass burning; kinds and amounts of emissions to the atmosphere; environmental transport and atmospheric chemistry of these emissions; and environmental impacts. These impacts include acid deposition, climate changes, disruption of nutrient cycles, soil degradation, perturbation of stratospheric chemistry and the ozone layer

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Professor Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, developed Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization to make polymers with copper catalysts and environmentally friendly reducing agents.

  12. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in biological or environmental samples. Due to low consumption of eluent (usually 0.3-1mL/run) mainly composed of water-alcohol binary mixtures, this method can be considered as environmentally friendly and green chemistry focused analytical tool, supplementary to analytical protocols involving column chromatography or planar micro-fluidic devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  14. Characterization of Carbon Onion Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, including small particle size, high surface area, and manipulatable surface chemistry, provide high potential for their application to environmental remediation. While research has devoted to develop nanotechnology for environm...

  15. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  16. EPRI BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    BWRVIP-190: BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines – 2008 Revision has been revised. The revision committee consisted of U.S. and non-U.S. utilities (members of the BWR Vessel and Internals Protection (BWRVIP) Mitigation Committee), reactor system manufacturers, fuel suppliers, and EPRI and industry experts. The revised document, BWRVIP-190 Revision 1, was completely reformatted into two volumes, with a simplified presentation of water chemistry control, diagnostic and good practice parameters in Volume 1 and the technical bases in Volume 2, to facilitate use. The revision was developed in parallel and in coordination with preparation of the Fuel Reliability Guidelines Revision 1: BWR Fuel Cladding Crud and Corrosion. Guidance is included for plants operating under normal water chemistry (NWC), moderate hydrogen water chemistry (HWC-M), and noble metal application (GE-Hitachi NobleChem™) plus hydrogen injection. Volume 1 includes significant changes to BWR feedwater and reactor water chemistry control parameters to provide increased assurance of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation of reactor materials and fuel reliability during all plant conditions, including cold shutdown (≤200°F (93°C)), startup/hot standby (>200°F (93°C) and ≤ 10%) and power operation (>10% power). Action Level values for chloride and sulfate have been tightened to minimize environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of all wetted surfaces, including those not protected by hydrogen injection, with or without noble metals. Chemistry control guidance has been enhanced to minimize shutdown radiation fields by clarifying targets for depleted zinc oxide (DZO) injection while meeting requirements for fuel reliability. Improved tabular presentations of parameter values explicitly indicate levels at which actions are to be taken and required sampling frequencies. Volume 2 provides the technical bases for BWR water chemistry control for control of EAC, flow accelerated corrosion

  17. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  18. Green chemistry; La chimie verte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colonna, P. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Dept. Caracterisation et Elaboration des Produits, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  19. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  20. Deepwater Horizon MC252 analytical data from the Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) containing sediment chemistry data, tissue chemistry data, environmental quality and monitoring data, sample pre/post oiling analysis data, and Total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (TPAH) contaminants chemistry data from samples collected from 2010-03-07 to 2013-08-28 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NCEI Accession 0163796)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Archival Information Package (AIP) contains Environmental Resource Management Application (ERMA) GIS layers that represent nearshore tissue and sediment...

  1. Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JACAR is a learned journal devoted to the publication of high quality articles in all areas of Agricultural Sciences and Applied Chemistry. Applied Chemistry manuscripts should be restricted to corrosion of materials, environmental chemistry and water quality (pollution studies), physico-chemical properties of naturally ...

  2. Catalysis as a foundational pillar of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, Paul T. [White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Department of Chemistry, University of Nottingham Nottingham, (United Kingdom); Kirchhoff, Mary M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Trinity College, Washington, DC (United States); Williamson, Tracy C. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-11-30

    are serving as a strong incentive to industry to adopt greener technologies. Developing green chemistry methodologies is a challenge that may be viewed through the framework of the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry . These principles identify catalysis as one of the most important tools for implementing green chemistry. Catalysis offers numerous green chemistry benefits including lower energy requirements, catalytic versus stoichiometric amounts of materials, increased selectivity, and decreased use of processing and separation agents, and allows for the use of less toxic materials. Heterogeneous catalysis, in particular, addresses the goals of green chemistry by providing the ease of separation of product and catalyst, thereby eliminating the need for separation through distillation or extraction. In addition, environmentally benign catalysts such as clays and zeolites, may replace more hazardous catalysts currently in use. This paper highlights a variety of ways in which catalysis may be used as a pollution prevention tool in green chemistry reactions. The benefits to human health, environment, and the economic goals realized through the use of catalysis in manufacturing and processing are illustrated by focusing on the catalyst design and catalyst applications.

  3. Computational quantum chemistry website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage

  4. Evaluation of 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene degradation in the detailed tropospheric chemistry mechanism, MCMv3.1, using environmental chamber data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Metzger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The degradation mechanism of 1,3,5-trimethyl- benzene (TMB as implemented in the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM was evaluated using data from the environmental chamber at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The results show that the MCM provides a consistent description of the photo-oxidation of TMB/NOx mixtures for a range of conditions. In all cases the agreement between the measurement and the simulation decreases with decreasing VOC-NOx ratio and in addition with increasing precursor concentration. A significant underestimation of the decay rate of TMB and thus underestimation of reactivity in the system, consistent with results from previous appraisals of the MCM, was observed.

    Much higher nitrous acid (HONO concentrations compared to simulations and expected from chamber characterization experiments were measured during these smog chamber experiments. A light induced NO2 to HONO conversion at the chamber walls is suggested to occur. This photo-enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion with subsequent HONO photolysis enhances the reactivity of the system. After the implementation of this reaction in the model it describes the decay of TMB properly. Nevertheless, the model still over-predicts ozone at a later stage of the experiment. This can be attributed to a too slow removal of NO2. It is also shown that this photo-enhanced HONO formation is not restricted to TMB photo-oxidation but also occurs in other chemical systems (e.g. α-pinene. However, the influence of HONO as a source of OH radicals is less important in these more reactive systems and therefore the importance of the HONO chemistry is less obvious.

  5. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  6. Environmental chemistry: microscale laboratory experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibanez, Jorge G

    2008-01-01

    ... in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar metho...

  7. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  8. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology. ...

  9. A computer model for one-dimensional mass and energy transport in and around chemically reacting particles, including complex gas-phase chemistry, multicomponent molecular diffusion, surface evaporation, and heterogeneous reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S. Y.; Yetter, R. A.; Dryer, F. L.

    1992-01-01

    Various chemically reacting flow problems highlighting chemical and physical fundamentals rather than flow geometry are presently investigated by means of a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates multicomponent molecular diffusion, complex chemistry, and heterogeneous processes, in the interest of obtaining sensitivity-related information. The sensitivity equations were decoupled from those of the model, and then integrated one time-step behind the integration of the model equations, and analytical Jacobian matrices were applied to improve the accuracy of sensitivity coefficients that are calculated together with model solutions.

  10. Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

  11. Supramolecular Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    antigen interactions. working in different areas such as chemical science, biological science, physical science, material science and so on. On the whole, supramolecular chemistry focuses on two over- lapping areas, 'supramolecules' and ...

  12. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  13. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2B. Alabama. Water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Alabama study site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricks, J D; Bogner, J E; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Johnson, D O

    1980-05-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water, coal, and overburden chemistry was conducted at a surface coal mine in Alabama from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites included the pit sump, a stream downgrade from the mine, the discharge from the water treatment facility, and a small stream outside the mine drainage. Water samples were collected every two weeks by Argonne subcontractors at the Alabama Geological Survey and analysed for the following parameters: specific conductance, pH, temperature, acidity, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, sulfate, and 20 metals. Analysis of the coal and overburden shows that no potential acid problem exists at this mine. Water quality is good in both streams sampled, and high levels of dissolved elements are found only in water collected from the pit sump. The mine effluent is in compliance with Office of Surface Mining water quality standards.

  14. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program UARP and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1994 - 1996. Report to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Rose (Compiler); Wolfe, Kathy (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Science Division in the Office of Mission to Planet Earth at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort are also provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aeronautics. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper atmosphere and their effect on the distribution of chemical species in the stratosphere, such as ozone; understand the relationship of the trace constituent composition of the lower stratosphere and the lower troposphere to the radiative balance and temperature distribution of the Earth's atmosphere; and accurately assess possible perturbations of the upper atmosphere caused by human activities as well as by natural phenomena. In compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Law 101-549, NASA has prepared a report on the state of our knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere, and on the progress of UARP and ACMAP. The report for the year 1996 is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA UARP and ACMAP in a document entitled, Research Summary 1994-1996. Part 2 is entitled Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere

  15. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  16. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  17. Analytical chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila

    -, č. 22 (2011), s. 718-719 ISSN 1472-3395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : analytical chemistry * analytical methods * nanotechnologies Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/launch.aspx?referral=other&pnum=&refresh=M0j83N1cQa91&EID=82bccec1-b05f-46f9-b085-701afc238b42&skip=

  18. Research directions in plant protection chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Szekacs

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This Opinion paper briefly summarizes the views of the authors on the directions of research in the area of plant protection chemistry. We believe these directions need to focus on (1 the discovery of new pesticide active ingredients, and (2 the protection of human health and the environment. Research revenues are discussed thematically in topics of target site identification, pesticide discovery, environmental aspects, as well as keeping track with the international trends. The most fundamental approach, target site identification, covers both computer-aided molecular design and research on biochemical mechanisms. The discovery of various classes of pesticides is reviewed including classes that hold promise to date, as well as up-to-date methods of innovation, e.g. utilization of plant metabolomics in identification of novel target sites of biological activity. Environmental and ecological aspects represent a component of increasing importance in pesticide development by emphasizing the need to improve methods of environmental analysis and assess ecotoxicological side-effects, but also set new directions for future research. Last, but not least, pesticide chemistry and biochemistry constitute an integral part in the assessment of related fields of plant protection, e.g. agricultural biotechnology, therefore, issues of pesticide chemistry related to the development and cultivation of genetically modified crops are also discussed.

  19. Data for GMD article "A framework for expanding aqueous chemistry in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.1"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data were used to generate the figures included in the following manuscript: Fahey, et al. (2017) "A framework for expanding aqueous chemistry in the Community...

  20. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  1. Spotlight on medicinal chemistry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi

    2014-05-01

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry.

  2. Metalloporphyrins as Oxidation Catalysts: Moving toward "Greener" Chemistry in the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rose A.; Stock, Anne E.; Zovinka, Edward P.

    2012-01-01

    Training future chemists to be aware of the environmental impact of their work is of fundamental importance to global society. To convince chemists to embrace sustainability, the integration of green chemistry across the entire chemistry curriculum is a necessary step. This experiment expands the reach of green chemistry techniques into the…

  3. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  4. Research needs and opportunities in radiation chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara, Paul F

    1998-04-19

    There is a growing urgency for forefront basic research on ionizing radiation-induced chemical reactions, due to the relevance of these reactions in such areas of critical national need as environmental waste management, environmental remediation, nuclear energy production, and medical diagnosis and radiation therapy. Fortunately, the emergence of new theoretical and experimental tools for the study of radiation-induced chemical and physical processes, i.e. Radiation Chemistry, makes future progress quite promising. Nevertheless, a recent decline in he number of young investigators in radiation chemistry, as well as a natural obsolescence of large research facilities in radiation chemistry are serious obstacles to further progress. Understanding radiation-induced processes is of vital significance in such diverse fields as waste remediation in environmental cleanup, radiation processing of polymers and food, medical diagnosis and therapy, catalysis of chemical reactions, environmentally benign synthesis, and nuclear energy production. Radiation chemistry provides for these fields fundamental quantitative data, such as reaction rate coefficients, diffusion coefficients, radiation chemical yields, etc. As well as providing useful quantitative information of technological and medical importance, radiation chemistry is also a valuable tool for solving fundamental problems in chemistry and in material sciences. Exploiting the many facets of radiation chemistry requires a thorough and comprehensive understanding of the underlying chemical and physical processes. An understanding of the structure and dynamics of “tracks” produced by ionizing radiation is a central issue in the field. There is a continuing need to study the ultrafast processes that link the chemistry and physics of radiation-induced phenomena. This is especially true for practically important, but less well understood, nonstandard environments such as interfacial systems, supercritical media, and

  5. Circumstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassgold, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    Circumstellar chemistry has a special role in astrochemistry because the astrophysical conditions in the circumstellar envelopes of red giants are frequently well known and clear tests of chemical models are feasible. Recent advances in astronomical observations now offer opportunities to test relevant theories of molecule formation, especially in carbon-rich environments. Many new molecules have recently been discovered using radio and infrared techniques and high spatial resolution maps obtained with large telescopes and interferometers indicate where complex molecules are being formed in these envelopes. A large body of observational data can be understood in terms of the photochemical model, which embraces relevant elements of equilibrium chemistry, photodissociation, and ion-molecule chemistry of the photo-products. A critical review of the photochemical model will be presented together with new results on the synthesis of hydrocarbon molecules and silicon and sulfur compounds

  6. The on-line coupled atmospheric chemistry model system MECO(n) - Part 5: Expanding the Multi-Model-Driver (MMD v2.0) for 2-way data exchange including data interpolation via GRID (v1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkweg, Astrid; Hofmann, Christiane; Jöckel, Patrick; Mertens, Mariano; Pante, Gregor

    2018-03-01

    As part of the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy), the Multi-Model-Driver (MMD v1.0) was developed to couple online the regional Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model into a driving model, which can be either the regional COSMO model or the global European Centre Hamburg general circulation model (ECHAM) (see Part 2 of the model documentation). The coupled system is called MECO(n), i.e., MESSy-fied ECHAM and COSMO models nested n times. In this article, which is part of the model documentation of the MECO(n) system, the second generation of MMD is introduced. MMD comprises the message-passing infrastructure required for the parallel execution (multiple programme multiple data, MPMD) of different models and the communication of the individual model instances, i.e. between the driving and the driven models. Initially, the MMD library was developed for a one-way coupling between the global chemistry-climate ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry (EMAC) model and an arbitrary number of (optionally cascaded) instances of the regional chemistry-climate model COSMO/MESSy. Thus, MMD (v1.0) provided only functions for unidirectional data transfer, i.e. from the larger-scale to the smaller-scale models.Soon, extended applications requiring data transfer from the small-scale model back to the larger-scale model became of interest. For instance, the original fields of the larger-scale model can directly be compared to the upscaled small-scale fields to analyse the improvements gained through the small-scale calculations, after the results are upscaled. Moreover, the fields originating from the two different models might be fed into the same diagnostic tool, e.g. the online calculation of the radiative forcing calculated consistently with the same radiation scheme. Last but not least, enabling the two-way data transfer between two models is the first important step on the way to a fully dynamical and chemical two-way coupling of the various model instances.In MMD (v1

  7. MICROSCALE CHEMISTRY IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Ibáñez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the development of Microscale Chemistry in Latin America is here presented. The US National Microscale Chemistry Center (Merrimack College, Massachusetts was instrumental in the initiationof several centers. Its Mexican counterpart, the Mexican Microscale Chemistry Center (CMQM, has been a key player in this process. Other participating countries include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba,Guatemala, Perú and Uruguay.

  8. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  9. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  10. Role of analytical chemistry in environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.; Puranik, V.D.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Analytical chemistry plays an important role in the protection of human health from biological, chemical and radiological hazards in the environment. It is highly useful in the areas of environmental health sciences, such as air pollution, environmental chemistry, environmental management; environmental toxicology, industrial hygiene, and water quality

  11. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Spain): Main activities related to the use of XRF techniques at the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group of the University of Girona (UdG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguí, Eva; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Group (QAA) is a consolidated research group of the Department of Chemistry of the University of Girona (North- East Spain). The main research topics of the group are related to the development and application of analytical methodologies for the determination of inorganic and organic species in different kind of environmental, clinical and industrial samples. From the beginning of the 2000’s, one of the research focuses of the group, is the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) for the determination of trace amounts of metals and metalloids mostly in samples related to the environmental and industrial fields. For instance, in collaboration with the Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera” (ICTJA-CSIC, Spain), we have developed and successfully applied several analytical approaches based on the use of EDXRF (Energy dispersive XRF), WDXRF (Wavelength dispersive XRF) and PEDXRF (Polarised EDXRF) for the determination of metals at trace levels in complex liquid samples such as sea water or electroplating waters in vegetation samples collected around mining environments or in active pharmaceutical ingredients. At present, the evaluation of the analytical possibilities of TXRF (Total reflection XRF) in the chemical analysis field is also one of the research topics of QAA. In this sense, several contributions related to the use of this technique for element determination in liquid and solid samples have been developed. A summary of these contributions is summarized in the last section of this review

  12. Confectionary Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

  13. Supramolecular Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by-product from the 'unattractive goo' of an experiment which had gone wrong. Pederson examined the product and the struc- ture of dibenzo-18-crown-6 was determined (Figure 2A). Inter- estingly, in presence. 1. N Jayaraman, 2016 Nobel. Prize in Chemistry: Confer- ring Molecular Machines as. Engines of Creativity ...

  14. Food carbohydrate chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wrolstad, R. E

    2012-01-01

    .... Now in Food Carbohydrate Chemistry, author Wrolstad emphasizes the application of carbohydrate chemistry to understanding the chemistry, physical and functional properties of food carbohydrates...

  15. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  16. Staff rosters for 1979: environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The roster of the scientific and professional staffs of the Environmental Programs of the Department of Energy and Environment has been compiled as of December 1979. Staff members have been listed according to their organizational units, i.e., the Atmospheric Sciences Division, the Environmental Chemistry Division, the Oceanographic Sciences Division, and the Land and Freshwater Environmental Sciences Group. Educational background, research interests, professional activities, summary of experience at BNL, and selected publications have been included for each member listed.

  17. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry, June 1975--September 1976. [Summaries of research activities at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    A summary of research activities in the fundamental molecular physics and chemistry section at Argonne National Laboratory from July 1975 to September 1976 is presented. Of the 40 articles and abstracts given, 24 have been presented at conferences or have been published and will be separately abstracted. Abstracts of the remaining 16 items appear in this issue of ERA. (JFP)

  18. Using Demonstrations Involving Combustion and Acid-Base Chemistry to Show Hydration of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Magnesium Oxide and Their Relevance for Environmental Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C. Frank, III; Webb, James W.; Rothenberger, Otis

    2016-01-01

    The nature of acidic and basic (alkaline) oxides can be easily illustrated via a series of three straightforward classroom demonstrations for high school and general chemistry courses. Properties of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and magnesium oxide are revealed inexpensively and safely. Additionally, the very different kinetics of hydration of…

  19. Paper-Based Heavy Metal Sensors from the Concise Synthesis of an Anionic Porphyrin: A Practical Application of Organic Synthesis to Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabpal, Jutamat; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Praneenararat, Thanit

    2017-01-01

    Tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TSPP) was immobilized on patterned paper and used as a sensor for heavy metal ions in an advanced organic chemistry course. The resulting sensor could detect Hg[superscript 2+] and Cd[superscript 2+] ions colorimetrically, while Cu[superscript 2+] ion resulted in fluorescence quenching, thus demonstrating a…

  20. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for American Samoa 2004: water quality, sediment grain, and chemistry data (NODC Accession 0000455)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), coordinated through the...

  1. Short- and medium-term efficacy of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults including cognitive and environmental feedback: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math J J M; Oenema, Anke

    2015-01-19

    Web-based, computer-tailored nutrition education interventions can be effective in modifying self-reported dietary behaviors. Traditional computer-tailored programs primarily targeted individual cognitions (knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy). Tailoring on additional variables such as self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors (the home food environment arrangement and perception of availability and prices of healthy food products in supermarkets) may improve efficacy and effect sizes (ES) of Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education interventions. This study evaluated the short- and medium-term efficacy and educational differences in efficacy of a cognitive and environmental feedback version of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention on self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake compared to generic nutrition information in the total sample and among participants who did not comply with dietary guidelines (the risk groups). A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognition and self-regulation processes; n=456), plus (basic intervention additionally targeting environmental-level factors; n=459), and control (generic nutrition information; n=434) group. Participants were recruited from the general population and randomly assigned to a study group. Self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake were assessed at baseline and at 1- (T1) and 4-months (T2) postintervention using online questionnaires. Linear mixed model analyses examined group differences in change over time. Educational differences were examined with group×time×education interaction terms. In the total sample, the basic (T1: ES=-0.30; T2: ES=-0.18) and plus intervention groups (T1: ES=-0.29; T2: ES=-0.27) had larger decreases in high-energy snack intake than the control group. The basic version resulted in a larger decrease in

  2. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Theoretical Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Course on Theoretical Chemistry will include the topics: Organic Reaction Mechanism, Inorganic Re- action Mechanism, Stereo chemistry, Asymmetric Synthesis, Pericyclic Reactions, Electrocyclic reactions,. Cycloaddition reactions, Sigmatropic reactions, Photochemistry, Intermolecular reactions, Photochemistry of.

  3. EVALUATING METRICS FOR GREEN CHEMISTRIES: INFORMATION AND CALCULATION NEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research within the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing a methodology for the evaluation of green chemistries. This methodology called GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Ob...

  4. Integrating the Principles of Toxicology into a Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Designing safer products, processes and materials requires a commitment to engaging a transdisciplinary, systems approach utilizing the principles of chemistry, toxicology, environmental sciences and other allied disciplines. Chemistry and toxicology are inherently complementary ...

  5. Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieco, N.A.; Bogen, D.C.; Knutson, E.O.

    1990-11-01

    Volume 1 of this manual documents the procedures and existing technology that are currently used by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. A section devoted to quality assurance has been included. These procedures have been updated and revised and new procedures have been added. They include: sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications. 228 refs., 62 figs., 37 tabs. (FL)

  6. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  7. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  8. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2014-01-01

    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis...

  9. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  10. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  11. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Elisa, E-mail: Elisa.Andresen@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Opitz, Judith, E-mail: Daniela.Opitz@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Thomas, George, E-mail: George.Thomas@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: Ha-Jo.Staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dienemann, Holger, E-mail: Holger.Dienemann@smul.sachsen.de [Saxon State Company for Environment and Agriculture, Business Domain 5 (Laboratory), Department 53, Bitterfelder Str. 25, D-04849 Bad Düben (Germany); Jenemann, Kerstin, E-mail: Kerstin.Jenemann@smul.sachsen.de [Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Abteilung Wasser, Boden, Wertstoffe, Zur Wetterwarte 11, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: Bryan.Dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: Hendrik.Kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.

  12. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  14. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R.R.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research

  15. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  16. Fasting Is Not Routinely Required for Determination of a Lipid Profile: Clinical and Laboratory Implications Including Flagging at Desirable Concentration Cutpoints-A Joint Consensus Statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society and European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Langsted, Anne; Mora, Samia; Kolovou, Genovefa; Baum, Hannsjörg; Bruckert, Eric; Watts, Gerald F; Sypniewska, Grazyna; Wiklund, Olov; Borén, Jan; Chapman, M John; Cobbaert, Christa; Descamps, Olivier S; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Kamstrup, Pia R; Pulkki, Kari; Kronenberg, Florian; Remaley, Alan T; Rifai, Nader; Ros, Emilio; Langlois, Michel

    2016-07-01

    is >13 mmol/L (500 mg/dL), for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia when LDL cholesterol is >5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), and for very high cardiovascular risk when lipoprotein(a) >150 mg/dL (99th percentile). We recommend that non-fasting blood samples be routinely used for the assessment of plasma lipid profiles. Laboratory reports should flag abnormal values on the basis of desirable concentration cutpoints. Non-fasting and fasting measurements should be complementary but not mutually exclusive. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  17. Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-17

    Despite decades of nutrition education, the prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns is still high and inequalities in intake between high and low socioeconomic groups still exist. Therefore, it is important to innovate and improve existing nutrition education interventions. This paper describes the development, design and evaluation protocol of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults targeting fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. This intervention innovates existing computer-tailored interventions by not only targeting motivational factors, but also volitional and self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors. The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, ensuring a theory-informed and evidence-based intervention. Two versions of the intervention were developed: a basic version targeting knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy and volitional and self-regulation processes, and a plus version additionally addressing the home environment arrangement and the availability and price of healthy food products in supermarkets. Both versions consist of four modules: one for each dietary behavior, i.e. fruit, vegetables, high-energy snacks and fat. Based on the self-regulation phases, each module is divided into three sessions. In the first session, feedback on dietary behavior is provided to increase awareness, feedback on attitude and self-efficacy is provided and goals and action plans are stated. In the second session goal achievement is evaluated, reasons for failure are explored, coping plans are stated and goals can be adapted. In the third session, participants can again evaluate their behavioral change and tips for maintenance are provided. Both versions will be evaluated in a three-group randomized controlled trial with measurements at baseline, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months post-intervention, using online questionnaires. Both versions will be compared with a generic

  18. Physical chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Garrett, B.C.; Kolb, C.E. Jr.; Shaw, R.W.; Choppin, G.R.; Wagner, A.F.

    1994-08-01

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ''Physical Chemistry and the Environment'' was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community

  19. Coupled Atmospheric Chemistry Schemes for Modeling Regional and Global Atmospheric Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, E.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry models require chemical reaction mechanisms to simulate the production of air pollution. GACM (Global Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism) is intended for use in global scale atmospheric chemistry models to provide chemical boundary conditions for regional scale simulations by models such as CMAQ. GACM includes additional chemistry for marine environments while reducing its treatment of the chemistry needed for highly polluted urban regions. This keeps GACM's size small enough to allow it to be used efficiently in global models. GACM's chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOC) is highly compatible with the VOC chemistry in RACM2 allowing a global model with GACM to provide VOC boundary conditions to a regional scale model with RACM2 with reduced error. The GACM-RACM2 system of mechanisms should yield more accurate forecasts by regional air quality models such as CMAQ. Chemical box models coupled with the regional and global atmospheric chemistry mechanisms (RACM2 & GACM) will be used to make simulations of tropospheric ozone, nitric oxides, and volatile organic compounds that are produced in regional and global domains. The simulations will focus on the Los Angeles' South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) where the Pacific Ocean meets a highly polluted urban area. These two mechanisms will be compared on the basis of simulated ozone concentrations over this marine-urban region. Simulations made with the more established RACM2 will be compared with simulations made with the newer GACM. In addition WRF-Chem will be used to simulate how RACM2 will produce regional simulations of tropospheric ozone and NOx, which can be further, analyzed for air quality impacts. Both the regional and global model in WRF-Chem will be used to predict how the concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxides change over land and ocean. The air quality model simulation results will be applied to EPA's BenMAP-CE (Environmental Benefits Mapping & Analysis Program-Community Edition

  20. Promoting sustainability through green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, Mary M. [American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Green chemistry is an important tool in achieving sustainability. The implementation of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is essential if the expanding global population is to enjoy an increased standard of living without having a negative impact on the health of the planet. Cleaner technologies will allow the chemical enterprise to provide society with the goods and services on which it depends in an environmentally responsible manner. Green chemistry provides solutions to such global challenges as climate change, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics in the environment, and the depletion of natural resources. A collaborative effort by industry, academia, and government is needed to promote the adoption of the green chemistry technologies necessary to achieve a sustainable society.

  1. Interstellar chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature. PMID:16894148

  2. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  3. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  4. Challenges of tomorrow... chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    According to the author, nuclear materials are going to play an increasing role in concerns regarding proliferation and international affair, with an increased demand for clean electric power, and in environmental and health and safety issues. Challenges range from detecting a single species in a sea of others at molar ratios of 10- 12 , or smaller, to a knowledge of the fundamental physical chemistry (e.g., thermodynamics, activity coefficients, etc., of a two phase system, containing about 40 materials, at 500 0 C) for the lanthanide and actinide elements produced during reactor operation. Other concerns are identified and discussed

  5. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry

  6. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  7. Condensate and feedwater systems, pumps, and water chemistry. Volume seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes condensate and feedwater systems (general features of condensate and feedwater systems, condenser hotwell level control, condensate flow, feedwater flow), pumps (principles of fluid flow, types of pumps, centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, jet pumps, pump operating characteristics) and water chemistry (water chemistry fundamentals, corrosion, scaling, radiochemistry, water chemistry control processes, water pretreatment, PWR water chemistry, BWR water chemistry, condenser circulating water chemistry

  8. Organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muetterties, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    The organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces is defined as a function of surface crystallography and of surface composition for a set of cyclic hydrocarbons that include benzene, toluene, cyclohexadienes, cyclohexene, cyclohexane, cyclooctatetraene, cyclooctadienes, cyclooctadiene, cycloheptatriene and cyclobutane. 12 figures

  9. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  10. Educational benefits of green chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Serenity; Ray, Christian; Andino Martínez, José G.

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we present our current state of affairs in the "greening" of general chemistry laboratories, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. We recognize the need to quantify our environmental mark and what we plan to do to continue to strive to make our work more sustainable and educational.

  11. The aqueous chemistry of oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Bruce C

    2016-01-01

    The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides is a comprehensive reference volume and special topics textbook that explores all of the major chemical reactions that take place between oxides and aqueous solutions. The book highlights the enormous impact that oxide-water reactions have in advanced technologies, materials science, geochemistry, and environmental science.

  12. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  13. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M

    2008-09-09

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  14. Analytical chemistry and isotope technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, B.K.; Venugopal, V.

    2007-01-01

    Isotopes both stable and radioactive, radiolabeled molecules and radiation sources are increasingly used in varied fields such as health care, industry, hydrology, agriculture, basic research and environmental studies. Analytical chemistry plays a major role in assay of the quantity as well as quality, thus enabling the characterization of the products

  15. Environmental research program. 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to contribute to the understanding of the formation, mitigation, transport, transformation, and ecological effects of energy-related pollutants on the environment. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental and applied research in chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and ecology. The program undertakes research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollution abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group investigates combustion, atmospheric processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  16. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  17. Carbonate chemistry, water quality, coral measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Carbonate chemistry parameters (pH, total alkalinity, and pCO2), water quality parameters (Temperature, salinity, Ca, Mg, PO4, NH3 and NO3) as well as all coral...

  18. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  19. Green analytical chemistry--theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Mechlińska, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-08-01

    This tutorial review summarises the current state of green analytical chemistry with special emphasis on environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. Green analytical chemistry is a part of the sustainable development concept; its history and origins are described. Miniaturisation of analytical devices and shortening the time elapsing between performing analysis and obtaining reliable analytical results are important aspects of green analytical chemistry. Solventless extraction techniques, the application of alternative solvents and assisted extractions are considered to be the main approaches complying with green analytical chemistry principles.

  20. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    A new book that is particularly relevant as tropical countries experience increased pressure on land resources to improve agricultural production. To ensure sustainable land use, the potentials and limitations of different kinds of tropical soils must be known in relation to crop production...... and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... that affect soil processes are the same in tropical soils as in temperate region soils, but because of high temperature year round and occurrence in very stable landscapes, some (but not all) tropical soils possess special composition and properties. These features are highlighted in the book, and general...

  1. Theoretical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Work in theoretical chemistry was organized under the following topics: scattering theory and dynamics (elastic scattering of the rare gas hydrides, inelastic scattering in Li + H 2 , statistical theory for bimolecular collisions, model study of dissociative scattering, comparative study of elastic scattering computational methods), studies of atmospheric diatomic and triatomic species, structure and spectra of diatomic molecules, the evaluation of van der Waals forces, potential energy surfaces and structure and dynamics, calculation of molecular polarizabilities, and development of theoretical techniques and computing systems. Spectroscopic parameters are tabulated for NO 2 , N 2 O, H 2 O + , VH, and NH. Self-consistent-field wave functions were computed for He 2 in two-center and three-center bases. Rare gas hydride intermolecular potentials are shown. (9 figures, 14 tables) (U.S.)

  2. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  3. ESR-ENDOR study of x-irradiated single crystals of α.D.glucopyranose and α-methyl.D.glucopyranoside; environmental effects upon radiation and free radical chemistry in carbohydrate model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystals of x-irradiated α-D-glucopyranose (αGlu) and α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (αMeGlu) were studied using electron spin resonance and electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy, to determine products and reaction mechanisms in carbohydrate radiation and free-radical chemistry. Four free-radical products were identified in αMeGlu single crystals irradiated and studied at 77K. Irradiation and observation at 12K produced yet another species. Four free radicals were identified in αGlu single crystals irradiated and observed at 12K and 77K. Free radical reaction in αGlu and αMeGlu were induced by slowly warming crystals irradiated at 77K until conversion occurred. Environmental influences upon these free-radical reaction mechanisms are discussed. The results from previous work on irradiated aqueous glasses of αGlu is briefly reviewed, and compared to those obtained from the single crystal system

  4. Chemistry and Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscher, Juraj

    2018-02-01

    This review summarizes possibilities of including scientific methods for investigation of art objects into the secondary school chemistry curriculum. We discuss methods such as X-ray radiography, infrared reflectography, neutron activation autoradiography, X-ray fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy and provide recent examples of their use. The results obtained, especially when combined with modern digital image processing algorithms, are indeed impressive. The second part of the paper is devoted to suggestions for actual use in teaching. The activities in the classroom can be centered around scientific investigation of a single painting, properties and use of a single pigment, or utilizing parallels in the history of Chemistry and history of Art. Finally, scientific methods for detecting art fraud including actual historical examples are especially motivating for the students and various teaching activities can be designed around this aspect.

  5. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, I I

    2013-01-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references

  6. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  7. Radioanalytical chemistry in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.; Levi, H.

    1979-12-01

    Publications from Denmark in the field of radioanalytical chemistry are presented in 2 groups, one involving neutron activation and similar techniques, and one for other radioanalytical work. Altogether 258 references including books are given for the period 1936-1977, and the overall doubling time is 5.2 years. A significant deviation from a purely exponential growth was caused by the Second World War. (author)

  8. The new world of phospha-organometallic chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The new world of phospha-organometallic chemistry. JOHN F NIXON. School of Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Science, University of. Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, England. The past few years have seen the development of a rich new area of organometallic chemistry in which phosphorus atoms have replaced ...

  9. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  10. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  11. Department of Chemistry, progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The research activities in Department of Chemistry during the last 3 years from 1986 to 1988 were compiled. The researches and works of Department of Chemistry are mainly those concerned with important basic matters and items which are committed to the further development of the nuclear fuels and materials, to the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle, and to the acquisition of data for the environmental safety studies. Intensive efforts were also made on chemical analysis service of various fuels and nuclear materials. (author)

  12. Introducing Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry Topics Using a Nanotechnology Approach: Removing Hazardous Metal Ions by Means of Humic-Acid-Modified Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Delmarcio; Menegatti de Melo, Fernando; Silveira, Alceu Totti, Jr.; Constancio da Cruz, Bruno; Prado, Caio Cesar Pestana; Pereira de Vasconcelos, Luana Cristina; Lucas, Vitor Amaral Sanches; Toma, Henrique Eisi

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment has been developed to illustrate environmental and sustainability aspects, focusing on the wastewater treatment by means of superparamagnetic nanoparticles functionalized with humic acid. The experiment, conducted by a group of high school students, involves nanoparticle synthesis and minor characterization, followed by…

  13. Dithiocarbamates as hazardous remediation agent: A critical review on progress in environmental chemistry for inorganic species studies of 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kanchi; P. Singh; K. Bisetty

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical review and a wide range of applications of dithiocarbamates (DTCs) in environmental samples. The characteristics of DTCs are reviewed with particular emphasis on inorganic speciation studies using state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation coupled with computational methods of analysis.

  14. The EPA CompTox Dashboard and Underpinning Software Architecture – a platform for data integration for environmental chemistry data (ACS Fall Meeting 7 of 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CompTox Dashboard was developed by the Environmental Protection Agency’s National Center for Computational Toxicology. This dashboard has been architected in a manner that allows for the deployment of multiple “applications”, both as publicly available databases, and for dep...

  15. Trace element-protein interactions in endolymph from the inner ear of fish: implications for environmental reconstructions using fish otolith chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Oliver R B; Ganio, Katherine; Roberts, Blaine R; Swearer, Stephen E

    2017-03-22

    Otoliths, the biomineralised hearing "ear stones" from the inner ear of fish, grow throughout the lifespan of an individual, with deposition of alternating calciferous and proteinaceous bands occurring daily. Trace element : calcium ratios within daily increments measured by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are often used in fisheries science to reconstruct environmental histories. There is, however, considerable uncertainty as to which elements are interacting with either the proteinaceous or calciferous zones of the otolith, and thus their utility as indicators of environmental change. To answer this, we used size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) of endolymph, the otolith growth medium, to determine the binding interactions for a range of elements. In addition, we used solution ICP-MS to quantify element concentrations in paired otolith and endolymph samples and determined relative enrichment factors for each. We found 12 elements that are present only in the proteinaceous fraction, 6 that are present only in the salt fraction, and 4 that are present in both. These findings have important implications for the reconstruction of environmental histories based on changes in otolith elemental composition: (1) elements occurring only in the salt fraction are most likely to reflect changes in the physico-chemical environment experienced during life; (2) elements occurring only in the proteinaceous fraction are more likely to reflect physiological rather than environmental events; and (3) elements occurring in both the salt and proteinaceous fractions are likely to be informative about both endogenous and exogenous processes, potentially reducing their utility in environmental reconstructions.

  16. High frequency Analysis of Stream Chemistry to Establish Elemental Cycling Regimes of High latitude Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-13

    FINAL REPORT High-frequency Analysis of Stream Chemistry to Establish Elemental Cycling Regimes of High-latitude Catchments SERDP Project RC-2507... ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Strategic Environmental... organic matter. Technical considerations and improvements for implementing instream sensors as part of an environmental monitoring program include

  17. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  18. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, L.

    1992-05-01

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional K D concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  19. The quadruple bottom line: the advantages of incorporating Green Chemistry into the undergraduate chemistry major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    2017-08-01

    When the author first became involved with the Green Chemistry movement, he noted that his colleagues in industry who were involved in one of the ACS Green Chemistry Institute® industrial roundtables emphasized the take-home message they described as the "triple bottom line." They noted that introducing Green Chemistry in industrial settings had economic, social, and environmental benefits. As someone who first went to school at age 5, and has been "going to school" most days for 65 years, it was easy for the author to see why introducing Green Chemistry into academics had similar beneficial effects within the context of economic, social and environmental domains at the college/university level. He was prepared to understand why faculty who had taught traditional courses often saw the advantage of incorporating Green Chemistry into the courses they teach. What was not as obvious is why students who were encountering chemistry for the first time were often equally passionate about the Green Chemistry movement. Recent attention has been paid, however, to a model that brings clarity to the hitherto vague term of "relevance" that might explain why integrating Green Chemistry into the undergraduate chemistry classroom can achieve a "quadruple bottom-line" for students because of potentially positive effects of adding a domain of "relevance" to the existing economic, social, and environmental domains.

  20. Marcoule Institute for Separation Chemistry - 2009-2012 Scientific report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet-Rostaing, Stephane; Zemb, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    ; 6 - Evolving Interfaces in Materials; 7 - Scattering and diffraction; 8 - Microscopies; 9 - Mesoscopic Modelization and Theoretical Chemistry. However, a large fraction of crucial results are obtained and published in common between teams within ICSM, via collaborations. Five focussed objectives of the research actions undertaken guide the choice of financially supported priorities within the large autonomy of creative chemists working at ICSM: - Understand chemical mechanisms underlying processes of chemical separation; - Optimize known methods for separation, in order to imagine, propose and test new separation methods, including supramolecular systems; - Anticipate the life-cycle of materials used in the context of nuclear and alternative energy productions; - Develop theory, with special attention to mesoscopic modelling, a well as develop methods of characterisation of fluid and solid samples: small angle scattering as well as environmental electronic microscopy; - Develop 'Green Chemistry' in all its facets, including sono-chemistry

  1. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  2. Organic Chemistry in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  3. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications.

  4. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications

  5. Chemistry and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Jack H.

    1998-11-01

    This lively collection looks at science as filtered through literature, film, and television. It discusses classic works in science fiction and provides an in-depth look at the chemistry depicted in popular culture, particularly in Start Trek , Star Wars , and Doctor Who . It includes an examination by Nebula Award winner Connie Willis of how science fiction authors use science, and reprints two tongue-in-cheek short stories by Isaac Asimov. The book also includes suggestions for using science fiction as an educational resource.

  6. History of Chemistry and Its Place in the School Chemistry [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available History and philosophy of chemistry belongs to the humanities more broadly than to science. The inclusion of humanitarian elements in chemistry education can increase students’ interest to chemistry. School subject curriculum, however, largely depends on what is included in the state educational requirements for learning content. The U.S. educational standards include the history and philosophy of chemistry both in curriculum and training of future teachers as an overriding obligation. In the Bulgarian standards no such obligation is presented. This article advocates the humanization of the course in chemistry in high school and highlights the benefits of this, and mentions some of the ways to implement such a change.

  7. Chemistry in Our Life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    toothpaste, soaps and cosmetics, (7) plastics and polymers, (8) chemistry in health and disease, (9) chemistry of building, (10) fire chemistry and (11) chemistry of electricity. To write on these topics at a popular level for lay persons, without bringing in chemical for- mulas, structures or equations, is extremely difficult.

  8. Chemistry of high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaenko, L.T.; Kuz'min, M.G.; Polak, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to integrate plasma chemistry, radiation chemistry and photochemistry under the name of ''Chemistry of high energies''. Theoretical background of these disciplines, as well as principles of their technology (methods of energy supply, methods of absorbed energy determination, apparatus and processes) are considered. Application of processes of high energy chemistry in engineering is discussed. 464 refs.; 85 figs.; 59 tabs

  9. The chemistry of playa-lake-sediments as a tool for the reconstruction of Holocene environmental conditions - a case study from the central Ebro basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, Brigitta

    The focus of the presented study is the reconstruction of the Holocene limnic and drainage basin conditions of the Laguna de Jabonera, a today playa-lake-system in the Desierto de Calanda, central Ebro Basin, using the inorganic characters of the lacustrine sediments. Mineralogical fabric helped to reconstruct the overall geomorphic processes and gives clues to the synsedimentary limnic environment (paleosalinity). The chemical composition of the lacustrine sediments largely reflects the mineralogical composition, but the higher resolution of the geochemical data compared to the mineralogical data enables to stratigraphically split the extracted core profile into three stratigraphic units. Supplementally, it is demonstrated that Statistics between chemical compounds point to the synsedimentary intensity of weathering and soil forming processes. As for the lacustrine sediments investigated there are no data yet available a preliminary chronological framework is derived by comparison with results from neighbouring areas. Based on this the hypothesis is put forward that during the socalled Little Ice Age subhumid to dry-subhumid environmental conditions occurred. Also possibly during the late Subboreal distinct wetter environmental conditions than today prevailed. Additionally, it is demonstrated that in the most recent past human impact is causing increased erosion rates and, thus, increased deposition of detritals in the most recent lacustrine sediments.

  10. JPRS Report Science & Technology USSR: Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-29

    environmentally beneficial. However, using sawdust or wood shavings precludes production of high quality products for machine building or...12 Universal Industrial Liquid Reactor of Continuous Action [Yu. S. Ivchenko; KHIMICHESKAYA PROMYSHLENNOST No 3, Mar 91] 12 COMBUSTION ... Combustible Fluids [Ye. R. Nazin, I. V. Karpukhina; KHIMICHESKAYA PROMYSHLENNOST No 3, Mar 91] 13 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Apparatus for Wet

  11. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.Z.; Ross, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation and reduction of metal ions and complexes can yield species in unusual oxidation states, and ligand-radicals coordinated to the central metal. These often unstable species can be mechanistically important intermediates in thermal, photochemical, and electrochemical reactions involving metal-containing substances. Their generation via radiolysis provides an alternate means of characterizing them using kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. We hope these bibliographies on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes, presented according to periodic groups, will prove useful to researchers in metallo-redox chemistry. These bibliographies contain only primary literature sources; reviews are not included. However, a list of general review articles on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes is presented here in the first section which covers cobalt, rhodium and iridium, Group 9 in the new IUPAC notation. Additional parts of the bibliography are planned, covering other periodic groups. Part A of the bibliography was prepared by a search of the Radiation Chemistry Data Center Bibliographic Data Base (RCDCbib) through January 1986 for papers on rhodium, iridium and cobalt compounds, and radiolysis (both continuous and pulsed). Papers in which the use of metal compounds was incidental to the primary objective of the study were excluded. Excluded also were publications in unrefereed and obscure sources such as meeting proceedings, internal reports, dissertations, and patents. The majority of the studies in the resultant compilation deal with experiments performed on solutions, mainly aqueous, although a substantial fraction is devoted to solid-state esr measurements. The references are listed in separate sections for each of the metals, and are presented in approximate chronological order. (author)

  12. Transversalidad de conceptos de educación ambiental para un desarrollo sostenible presentes en la legislación argentina Environmental education as a crosscutting issue for sustainable developement concepts included in Argentine regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Giuffré

    2007-07-01

    instituciones de educación superior. Se asegura el derecho a la información, todo habitante podrá obtener de las autoridades la información ambiental que administren y que no se encuentre contemplada legalmente como reservada. Los aspectos más importantes acerca de la educación ambiental y el desarrollo sostenible son ejes transversales de leyes de distinta jurisdicción, pero deberá bregarse por el cumplimiento y control de dichos principios, debido a las características con las que se percibe al derecho ambiental, de baja eficacia y eficiencia.Population environmental education must be conveyed in all educational levels, in order to contribute to a deep knowledge of environmental protection laws. These include contents about environmental education, but with scarce diffusion and low adhesion. If environmental education could force a detailed knowledge about regulations, its application could be demanded by community actions. Moreover, environmental education is considered in regulations as a fundamental tool for sustainable development. There is a profuse legislation in Argentina, with more than 3,000 legal instruments of different hierarchical order and jurisdictional level. Three argentine laws were studied and compared: Environmental General Law (national: Law 25,675; La Pampa Environmental Law (province order: Law 1,914; and Environmental Education Law of Buenos Aires (city order: Law 1,687. These laws regulate the incorporation of environmental education in formal system (public and private schools and institutions, for all levels: initial, primary, secondary and university studies, non formal system (extra-curricular activities and/or extension inside the institutions, and non formal education (by means of massive instruments of communication and information. Environmental education is considered as the basic tool to generate values, behavior and attitudes according to a balanced environment, tending to the preservation of natural resources and their sustainable

  13. Radiation chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, F.

    1998-01-01

    The rather strong and many-sided pollution of the environment (atmosphere, water resources, soil) as a consequence of human activities is summarized. The solution of the arised problems by application of radiation chemistry methods and the utilization of modern environmentally ''clean'' and economical technologies, founded on electron beam processing, are mentioned. Some basic environmental problems and their solution are briefly discussed: i) Removal of CO 2 from flue gases and its radiation induced utilization. ii) Principals for degradation of aqueous pollutants by electron beam processing in the presence of ozone (synergistic effect). The radiation chemistry as a modern and manifold discipline with very broad applications can also essentially contribute in the conservation of the environment

  14. Radiation chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola

    1999-01-01

    The rather strong and many-sided pollution of the environment (atmosphere, water resources, soil) as a consequence of human activity is summarized. The solution of the arised problems by application of radiation chemistry methods and the utilization of modern environmentally 'clean' and economical technologies, founded on electron beam processing, are mentioned. Some basic environmental problems and their solution are briefly discussed. (i) Removal of CO 2 from flue gases and its radiation induced utilization. (ii) Principals for degradation of aqueous pollutants by electron beam processing in the presence of ozone (synergistic effect). The radiation chemistry as a modern and manifold discipline with very broad applications can also essentially contribute in the conservation of the environment

  15. Organic chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  16. Aura as Part of Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations (IGACO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J.; Barrie, L. A.; Langen, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Aura satellite will become one of the cornerstones for the establishment of an integrated observational system for atmospheric composition measurements. Although atmospheric chemistry measurements lag the observational system for physical variables by several decades, all the components for such a system are either in place or, with careful planning, readily available at a reasonable cost within the next few years. What is missing is a strategic plan. Thus, recognizing the need for improvement and continuity of observation programs and for the integration of observation techniques and data, the "Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations" (IGACO) theme has been adopted as one of several themes that fall under the umbrella of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS). Tentatively to be completed within the year, the IGACO theme report will provide an analysis of the current and projected global atmospheric chemistry observing system, define the chemical variables that are prime candidates for an integrated global approach, and suggest a methodology as to how the IGACO system can be implemented. The IGACO report will also define gaps in the near-term measurement capabilities and make recommendations as to how such shortcomings might be remedied. The IGACO theme evolves from the establishment of IGOS, which was formed in1998 through a formal exchange of letters amongst 13 founding partners including CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Systems, which includes most of the world's space agencies), WMO/GAW (World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmospheric Watch Program), IGBP (International Global Biosphere Program), UNEP (United Nations Environmental Program), and others. Initially four themes were approved for development of an observational plan or Theme Report: The Ocean, The Global Water Cycle, The Global Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Chemistry. A panel of international scientists co-convened by WMO and the European Space Agency is in the

  17. 40 CFR 158.270 - Experimental use permit data requirements for residue chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for residue chemistry. 158.270 Section 158.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for residue chemistry. All residue chemistry data, as described in... section 408(r) is sought. Residue chemistry data are not required for an experimental use permit issued on...

  18. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  19. Water chemistry of nuclear reactor systems 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water chemistry aspects of nuclear reactors are of critical importance. This book is a state-of-the-art review of the best international experience. It embodies the expertise presented at the fifth triennial international conference on the water chemistry of nuclear reactor systems in October 1989. The book is published in two volumes. Topics covered range widely and are grouped into eight sections. These include PWR experience (13 papers), radiation control measures (8 papers), BWR operational experience (10 papers), radiolysis in BWR coolants (11 papers), decontamination (10 papers), secondary-side chemistry (8 papers), water chemistry purification (8 papers), and fission product chemistry (4 papers). There are also 45 poster papers on aspects of water chemistry. All the papers are indexed separately. Discussion on the papers is included in volume 2 but is not indexed. (author)

  20. Dynamics of forest soil chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alveteg, M.

    1998-11-01

    Acidification caused by emissions of nitrogen and sulphur and associated adverse effects on forest ecosystems has been an issue on the political agenda for decades. Temporal aspects of soil acidification and/or recovery can be investigated using the soil chemistry model SAFE, a dynamic version of the steady-state model PROFILE used in critical loads assessment on the national level, e.g. for Sweden. In this thesis, possibilities to replace the use of apparent gibbsite solubility coefficients with a more mechanistic Al sub-model are investigated and a reconstruction model, MAKEDEP, is presented which makes hindcasts and forecasts of atmospheric deposition and nutrient uptake and cycling. A regional application of SAFE/MAKEDEP based on 622 sites in Switzerland is also presented. It is concluded that the quantitative information on pools and fluxes of Al in forest ecosystems is very limited and that there currently exists no mechanistic alternative in modelling soil solution Al. MAKEDEP is a valuable and operational tool for deriving input to dynamic soil chemistry models such as SMART, MAGIC and SAFE. For multi-layer models, e.g. the SAFE model, including nutrient cycling in MAKEDEP is shown to be important. The strength of the regional assessment strategy presented in this thesis lies in its transparency and modularity. All sub-modules, including models, transfer functions, assumptions in the data acquisition strategy, etc., can be checked and replaced individually. As the presented assessment strategy is based on knowledge and data from a wide range of scientists and fields it is of vital importance that the research community challenge the assumptions made. The many measurable intermediate results produced by the included models will hopefully encourage scientists to challenge the models through additional measurements at the calculation sites. It is concluded that current reduction plans are not sufficient for all forest ecosystems in Switzerland to recover from

  1. From hot atom chemistry to epithermal chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, K.

    2004-01-01

    The rise and fall of hot atom chemistry (HAC) over the years from 1934 to 2004 is reviewed. Several applications are discussed, in particular to astrophysics and the interaction of energetic ions and atoms in space. Epithermal chemistry (ETC) is proposed to substitute the old name, since it better fits the energy range as well as the non-thermal and non-equilibrium character of the reactions. ETC also avoids the strong connexion of HAC to nuclear chemistry and stands for the opening of the field to physical chemistry and astrophysics. (orig.)

  2. Water chemistry and materials degradation in LWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, H.; Toerroenen, K.; Aaltonen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Water chemistry plays a major role in corrosion, in erosion corrosion and in activity transport in NPPs; it impacts upon the operational safety of LWRs in two main ways: integrity of pressure boundary materials and activity transport and out-of-core radiation fields. A good control of water chemistry can significantly reduce these problems and improve plant safety, but economic pressures are leading to more rigorous operating conditions: fuel burnups are to be increased, higher efficiencies are to be achieved by running at higher temperatures and plant lifetimes are to be extended. Typical water chemistry specifications used in PWR and BWR plants are presented and the chemistry optimization is discussed. The complex interplay of metallurgical, mechanical and environmental factors in environmental sensitive cracking is shown, with details on studies for carbon steels, stainless steels and nickel base alloys. 20 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  4. Radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Choppin, Gregory; RYDBERG, JAN; Ekberg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Radiochemistry or nuclear chemistry is the study of radiation from an atomic and molecular perspective, including elemental transformation and reaction effects, as well as physical, health and medical properties. This revised edition of one of the earliest and best-known books on the subject has been updated to bring into teaching the latest developments in research and the current hot topics in the field. To further enhance the functionality of this text, the authors have added numerous teaching aids, examples in MathCAD with variable quantities and options, hotlinks to relevant text secti

  5. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  6. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  7. Proceedings of the national conference on analytical science and technology: analytical science for technological excellence and environmental sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The topics covered are nuclear technology, separation chemistry, NDT techniques, supercritical extraction, nanotechnology, coordination chemistry, environmental and analytical chemistry, medical diagnostics, materials science and solution chemistry etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Green chemistry using radiotracers at SINP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Susanta

    2006-01-01

    Green chemistry is utilization of set of principles, which restricts the use, or generation of hazardous substances. In this aim, it is necessary to develop alternative methods, or to find greener reagents for minimum utilization of environmentally hostile substances. Radiotracers can be effectively utilized for development of such methods. This article describes the current status of Green Chemistry research using accelerator/reactor produced radionuclides at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India. (author)

  9. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R.R.

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research

  10. Virtually going green: The role of quantum computational chemistry in reducing pollution and toxicity in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Continuing advances in computational chemistry has permitted quantum mechanical calculation to assist in research in green chemistry and to contribute to the greening of chemical practice. Presented here are recent examples illustrating the contribution of computational quantum chemistry to green chemistry, including the possibility of using computation as a green alternative to experiments, but also illustrating contributions to greener catalysis and the search for greener solvents. Examples of applications of computation to ambitious projects for green synthetic chemistry using carbon dioxide are also presented.

  11. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  12. Hot atom chemistry of sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovski, D. S.; Koleva, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt to cover all papers dealing with the hot atom chemistry of sulpphur is made. Publications which: a) only touch the problem, b) contain some data, indirectly connected with sulphur hot atom chemistry, c) deal with 35 S-production from a chloride matrix, are included as well. The author's name and literature source are given in the original language, transcribed, when it is necessary, in latine. A number of primery and secondary documents have been used including Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atomindex, the bibliographies of A. Siuda and J.-P. Adloff for 1973 - 77, etc. (authors)

  13. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  14. Publicising chemistry in a multicultural society through chemistry outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce D. Sewry

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the emphasis in Higher Education on community engagement in South Africa and the importance of international collaboration, we discuss a joint approach to chemistry outreach in two countries on two continents with widely differing target school audiences. We describe the history of the partnership between the chemistry departments at Rhodes University and the University of Bristol and provide an outline of the chemistry content of their outreach initiatives, the modes of delivery, the advantages to both departments and their students for involvement in various levels of outreach, the challenges they still face and additional opportunities that such work facilitated. The lecture demonstration ‘A Pollutant’s Tale’ was presented to thousands of learners all over the world, including learners at resource-deprived schools in South Africa. Challenges to extend outreach activities in South Africa include long travelling distances, as well as a lack of facilities (such as school halls and electricity at schools. Outreach activities not only impacted on the target audience of young learners, they also impacted upon the postgraduate and other chemistry students taking part in these initiatives. This collaboration strengthened both institutions and their outreach work and may also lead to chemistry research collaborations between the academics involved.

  15. The latest general chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Geun Bae; Choi, Se Yeong; Kim, Chin Yeong; Yoon, Gil Jung; Lee, Eun Seok; Seo, Moon Gyu

    1995-02-01

    This book deals with the latest general chemistry, which is comprised of twenty-three chapters, the contents of this book are introduction, theory of atoms and molecule, chemical formula and a chemical reaction formula, structure of atoms, nature of atoms and the periodic table, structure of molecule and spectrum, gas, solution, solid, chemical combination, chemical reaction speed, chemical equilibrium, thermal chemistry, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, acid-base, complex, aquatic chemistry, air chemistry, nuclear chemistry, metal and nonmetal, organic chemistry and biochemistry. It has exercise in the end of each chapter.

  16. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G.; Bolen, S.K.

    1981-09-01

    Highlights of research progress accomplished in the Life Sciences Division during the year ending December 1980 are summarized. Reports from the following groups are included: Toxicology, Biophysics, Genetics; Environmental Pathology, Organic Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences. Individual abstracts have been prepared for 46 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  17. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, progress report for FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 (October 1992 through September 1993). This annual report is the tenth for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has research programs in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require development or modification of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), its principal ANL client, but provides technical support for many of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has four technical groups--Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis--which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL.

  18. Machine learning of atmospheric chemistry. Applications to a global chemistry transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. J.; Keller, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is central to many environmental issues such as air pollution, climate change, and stratospheric ozone loss. Chemistry Transport Models (CTM) are a central tool for understanding these issues, whether for research or for forecasting. These models split the atmosphere in a large number of grid-boxes and consider the emission of compounds into these boxes and their subsequent transport, deposition, and chemical processing. The chemistry is represented through a series of simultaneous ordinary differential equations, one for each compound. Given the difference in life-times between the chemical compounds (mili-seconds for O(1D) to years for CH4) these equations are numerically stiff and solving them consists of a significant fraction of the computational burden of a CTM.We have investigated a machine learning approach to solving the differential equations instead of solving them numerically. From an annual simulation of the GEOS-Chem model we have produced a training dataset consisting of the concentration of compounds before and after the differential equations are solved, together with some key physical parameters for every grid-box and time-step. From this dataset we have trained a machine learning algorithm (random regression forest) to be able to predict the concentration of the compounds after the integration step based on the concentrations and physical state at the beginning of the time step. We have then included this algorithm back into the GEOS-Chem model, bypassing the need to integrate the chemistry.This machine learning approach shows many of the characteristics of the full simulation and has the potential to be substantially faster. There are a wide range of application for such an approach - generating boundary conditions, for use in air quality forecasts, chemical data assimilation systems, centennial scale climate simulations etc. We discuss our approches' speed and accuracy, and highlight some potential future directions for

  19. Coordination Chemistry of Life Processes: Bioinorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Coordination Chemistry of Life Processes: Bioinorganic Chemistry. R N Mukherjee. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 53-62. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Mendeleev-2013. VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials. Book of abstracts. Section 2. Analytic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials was conducted on the Chemistry department of Saint-Petersburg University on April, 2-5, 2013. In the conference participants from 14 countries took part. There were five sections: Nanochemistry and nanomaterials, Analytic chemistry, Inorganic chemistry, Organic chemistry, Physical chemistry. In the collection (Section 2 - Analytic chemistry) there are the abstracts concerning determination of heavy metals in environmental samples, petroleum products, different biological active and toxic substances in human tissues, food products and water; usage of nanoparticles for modification of electrodes for electrochemical methods of analysis, etc [ru

  1. Green chemistry applied to corrosion and scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, D.; Rakshpal, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Numerous breakthroughs in environmental protection and pollution prevention have been realized in recent years by both industry and academia through the application of green chemistry principles. Green chemistry, or pollution prevention at the molecular level, is chemistry designed to reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous materials associated with the manufacture and application of chemicals. The application of the green chemistry principles to the areas of corrosion and scale inhibitors has resulted in the reduction/elimination of many of the more toxic inhibitors and the development of newer, more environmentally friendly ones.

  2. KEEFEKTIFAN INKUIRI TERBIMBING BERORIENTASI GREEN CHEMISTRY TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Amalia Afiyanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effectiveness of guided inquiry oriented green chemistry for science process skills at XI school grade of SMA in Semarang on 2012/2013 period. The population is normal and homogeneous, so to take two groups of samples using cluster random sampling techniques. Design of this research is posttest only control design. The succes of this research seen from cognitive aspect of student achievement reach KKM. At the final stage of the analysis, the t test used was left-test with t count > t table (1.696. The student achievement for experimental classes obtained t count of 3.860 while the control class 0,914. This suggests that the experimental class has achieved mastery learning, while the control class not yet. The average value of the psychomotor aspects of students in the experimental class was 82.6 which is included in the excellent category and control class was 74 included in good category. In the aspect of Students environmental concern, the average value of the experimental class was 88.65 included in the excellent category and class control was 81.7 included in good category. The conclusion was that the research-oriented guided inquiry of green chemistry proved effectively increase the science process skills.Keywords: Green Chemistry, Guided Inquiry, Science Process Skills

  3. Recent developments in BWR water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water chemistry is of critical importance to the operation and economic viability of the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). A successful water chemistry program will satisfy the following goals: - Minimize the incidence and growth of SCC/IASCC, - Minimize plant radiation fields controllable by chemistry, -Maintain fuel integrity by minimizing cladding corrosion, - Minimize flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in balance-of-plant components. The impact of water chemistry on each of these goals is discussed in more detail in this paper. It should be noted that water chemistry programs also include surveillance and operating limits for other plant water systems (e.g., service water, closed cooling water systems, etc.) but these are out of the scope of this paper. This paper reviews developments in water chemistry guidelines for U.S. BWR nuclear power plants. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs

  4. Where is the future of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The future potentials of nuclear chemistry as a natural science with a strong orientation towards practical applications has been discussed at this meeting of 45 experts coming from research institutes and laboratories working in the fields of radiochemistry, nuclear chemistry, inorganic and applied chemistry, hot-atom chemistry, radiobiology, and nuclear biology, and from the two nuclear research centres at Juelich and Karlsruhe. The discussion centred around the four main aspects of future work, namely 1. basic research leading to an extension of the periodic table, nuclear reactions, the chemistry of superheavy elements, cosmochemistry; 2. radionuclide technology and activation analysis; 3. nuclear fuel cycle and reprocessing processes together with ultimate disposal methods; 4. radiochemistry in the life sciences, including nuclear chemistry and applications. (HK) [de

  5. A short textbook of colloid chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jirgensons, B

    1962-01-01

    A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry, Second Revised Edition details the factual aspect of colloid chemistry that includes the basic facts, established empirical and mathematical relationships, and practical applications. The chapters of the title are organized into two parts. In the first part, the text discusses the general concepts of colloid chemistry, such as the history and scope, basic terms, and basic methods in experiment with colloids. Part Two covers the technical aspect of colloid chemistry, such as the optical properties, electrical properties, and viscosity. The book will be of

  6. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  7. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  8. Preparative radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiation chemistry is increasingly used in laboratories as well as on a technical scale. A large number of new compounds has been produced with the methods of radiation chemistry. With the increasing number of available radiation sources, also the number of synthesis metods in radiation chemistry has increased. This paper can only briefly mention the many possible ways of synthesis in radiation chemistry. (orig./HK) [de

  9. Organic chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-01

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  10. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  11. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  12. Annual progress report of the physical chemistry department. Basic research 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic research for 1987 in physical chemistry of the French Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed. Topics include molecular chemistry, isotopic geochemistry, molecular photophysics, laser photochemistry, solid and surface physical chemistry. A list of publications and thesis is given [fr

  13. Chemistry is Evergreen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Chemistry is Evergreen. 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Swagata Dasgupta. Swagata Dasgupta is an. Associate Professor in the. Department of Chemistry at IIT Kharagpur. Her research interests revolve around proteins and their interactions. 1 GFP was declared the mol- ecule of the month by the Pro- tein Data Bank (PDB) ...

  14. Chemistry of interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Descriptions of the sun and other stars, energy sources in the interstellar clouds, spectroscopy and excitation, the chemistry and chemical abundance of interstellar elements, recent developments in interstellar molecular spectroscopy for a deeper insight into star evolution and other dynamics of the galaxy, and the next ten years of interstellar chemistry are described in an overall picture of the chemistry of interstellar space

  15. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  16. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report: For period ending December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report is divided into analytical spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; ORNL environmental programs; quality assurance, safety, and training; supplementary activities; and presentation of research results.

  17. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report: For period ending December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This report is divided into analytical spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; ORNL environmental programs; quality assurance, safety, and training; supplementary activities; and presentation of research results

  18. Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2000-10-27

    C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F

  19. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered include: mass asymmetry and total kinetic energy release in the spontaneous fission of 262 105; calculation of spontaneous fission properties of very heavy nuclei - 98 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 106 and 150 less than or equal to N less than or equal to 164; energy losses for 84 Kr ions in nickel, aluminium and titanium; differences in compound nuclei formed with 40 Ar and 84 Kr projectiles; measurement of the energy division vs. mass in highly damped reactions; ambiguities in the inference of precompound emission from excitation function analysis; selective laser one-atom detection of neutral prompt fission fragments; laser induced nuclear polarization - application to the study of spontaneous fission isomers; quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations in the actinide nuclei; high-spin states in 164 Yb; contrasting behavior of h/sub 9/2/ and i/sub 13/2/ bands in 185 Au; multiple band crossings in 164 Er; recoil-distance measurement of lifetimes of rotational states in 164 Dy, lifetimes of ground-band states in 192 Pt and 194 Pt and application of the rotation-alignment model; coulomb excitation of vibrational nuclei with heavy ions; surface structure of deformed nuclei; valency contribution to neutron capture in 32 S; neutron capture cross section of manganese; search for superheavy elements in natural samples by neutron multiplicity counting; and gamma-ray studies on the geochemistry of achondritic meteorites

  20. An introduction to serious nuclear accident chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Russell St. John Foreman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the chemistry occurring inside a nuclear power plant during a serious reactor accident is presented. This includes some aspects of the behavior of nuclear fuel, its cladding, cesium and iodine. This review concentrates on the chemistry of an accident in a water-cooled reactor loaded with uranium dioxide or mixed metal oxide fuel.

  1. Properties, performance and associated hazards of state-of-the-art durable water repellent (DWR) chemistry for textile finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, H; Schellenberger, S; van der Veen, I; Peters, G M; Leonards, P E G; Cousins, I T

    2016-05-01

    Following the phase-out of long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), the textile industry had to find alternatives for side-chain fluorinated polymer based durable water repellent (DWR) chemistries that incorporated long perfluoroalkyl side chains. This phase-out and subsequent substitution with alternatives has resulted in a market where both fluorinated and non-fluorinated DWRs are available. These DWR alternatives can be divided into four broad groups that reflect their basic chemistry: side-chain fluorinated polymers, silicones, hydrocarbons and other chemistries (includes dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticle chemistries). In this critical review, the alternative DWRs are assessed with regards to their structural properties and connected performance, loss and degradation processes resulting in diffuse environmental emissions, and hazard profiles for selected emitted substances. Our review shows that there are large differences in performance between the alternative DWRs, most importantly the lack of oil repellence of non-fluorinated alternatives. It also shows that for all alternatives, impurities and/or degradation products of the DWR chemistries are diffusively emitted to the environment. Our hazard ranking suggests that hydrocarbon based DWR is the most environmentally benign, followed by silicone and side-chain fluorinated polymer-based DWR chemistries. Industrial commitments to reduce the levels of impurities in silicone based and side-chain fluorinated polymer based DWR formulations will lower the actual risks. There is a lack of information on the hazards associated with DWRs, in particular for the dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticle chemistries, and these data gaps must be filled. Until environmentally safe alternatives, which provide the required performance, are available our recommendation is to choose DWR chemistry on a case-by-case basis, always weighing the benefits connected to increased performance against the risks to the

  2. Chemistry Teaching: Science or Alchemy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that the development of good chemistry teaching and the pursuit of research have essentially the same structure. Similarities include the need for a clear focus, efficiency in time and effort, and a direction that is more often right than wrong. (DDR)

  3. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  4. Teaching aids for nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides teachers with a set of resources to use in teaching modern nuclear chemistry in their classrooms. Included in the resources are references to recent articles on nuclear science, some preprints and abstracts of articles, ideas of where to go for help, lab experiments, and a videotape of simulated nuclear reactions

  5. Hot atom chemistry of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The chemistry of energetic carbon atoms is discussed. The experimental approach to studies that have been carried out is described and the mechanistic framework of hot carbon atom reactions is considered in some detail. Finally, the direction that future work might take is examined, including the relationship of experimental to theoretical work. (author)

  6. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  7. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  8. Improving chemistry performance in CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.; Guzonas, D.

    2010-01-01

    There is a strong interplay between coolant chemistry and materials selection in any nuclear power plant system. To achieve the design life of reactor components it is necessary to monitor and control relevant chemistry parameters, such as ionic conductivity, pH, concentrations of dissolved ions and redox species (e.g., hydrogen, hydrazine, oxygen) and the concentrations of suspended corrosion products. Chemistry specifications are set to achieve a balance between the sometimes conflicting requirements to minimize corrosion and radiological dose and to minimize operating and maintenance costs over the lifetime of the plant. For the past decade, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has taken a rigorous and disciplined approach to reviewing and updating all aspects of chemistry control in the CANDU® nuclear power plant (NPP). This approach has included proactively reviewing chemistry operating experience from existing CANDU® and other water-cooled NPPs worldwide to identify and address emerging issues, updating all of our chemistry control documentation to ensure that each chemistry parameter is linked to a specific requirement (e.g., reduce activity transport, monitor for condenser leak) and incorporating the latest results from our Research and Development (R and D) programs to ensure that all chemistry specifications are supported by a sound rationale. The results of this review and update have been incorporated into updated chemistry specifications and, in some cases, modified operating procedures for new and existing plants. In addition, recommendations have been made for design modifications to improve chemistry control in new build plants, especially during periods of shutdown and startup when chemistry control has traditionally been more challenging. Chemistry control in new-build CANDU® plants will rely increasingly on the use of on-line instrumentation interfaced directly to AECL's state-of-the-art chemistry monitoring, diagnostics and analysis

  9. Radiation chemistry research using PULAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Parimal [National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Priyadarsini, K.I. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Rao, B.S.M. [National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)], E-mail: bsmr@chem.unipune.ernet.in

    2008-10-15

    The details of the recently installed 7 MeV Pune University LINAC Facility (PULAF) coupled with the optical absorption technique for pulse radiolysis studies at the National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune, India are described. The facility has a selection of electron pulse widths in the range 10 ns-3 {mu}s with corresponding doses of about 5-144 Gy per pulse. The operation of the machine and the detection system are fully automated. Several researchers from various Indian universities and national laboratories use the PULAF and some of the projects that are currently undertaken by our group and others include the radiation chemistry of indole and chalcone derivatives, herbal antioxidants, structure-reactivity studies in cinnamates, redox chemistry of inorganic metal complexes, studies on oxidation of pyrimidine analogues and aromatic sulphur compounds. Some of them are briefly discussed here.

  10. Making Decisions by Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    It has been long recognized that results of analytical chemistry are not flawless, owing to the fact that professional laboratories and research laboratories analysing the same type of samples by the same type of instruments are likely to obtain significantly different results. The European......, forensics and other fields of science where analytical chemistry is the key instrument of decision making. In order to elucidate the potential origin of the statistical variations found among laboratories, a major program was undertaken including several analytical technologies where the purpose...... of accuracy published in research literature. The possible deviations are suspected to originate from long-term variations of detection systems of instrumental analysis, and the impact on these findings on future measurements of analytical chemistry is discussed....

  11. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  12. Organometallic Neptunium Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Polly L; Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Walter, Olaf

    2017-09-13

    Fifty years have passed since the foundation of organometallic neptunium chemistry, and yet only a handful of complexes have been reported, and even fewer have been fully characterized. Yet, increasingly, combined synthetic/spectroscopic/computational studies are demonstrating how covalently bonding, soft, carbocyclic organometallic ligands provide an excellent platform for advancing the fundamental understanding of the differences in orbital contributions and covalency in f-block metal-ligand bonding. Understanding the subtleties is the key to the safe handling and separations of the highly radioactive nuclei. This review describes the complexes that have been synthesized to date and presents a critical assessment of the successes and difficulties in their analysis and the bonding information they have provided. Because of increasing recent efforts to start new Np-capable air-sensitive inorganic chemistry laboratories, the importance of radioactivity, the basics of Np decay and its ramifications (including the radiochemical synthesis of one organometallic compound), and the available anhydrous starting materials are also surveyed. The review also highlights a range of instances in which important differences in the chemical behavior between Np and its closest neighbors, uranium and plutonium, are found.

  13. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J; Garg, Neil K

    2015-03-10

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki-Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a "green" alcohol solvent. The experiment employs heterocyclic substrates, which are important pharmaceutical building blocks. Thus, this laboratory procedure exposes students to a variety of contemporary topics in organic chemistry, including transition metal-catalyzed cross-couplings, green chemistry, and the importance of heterocycles in drug discovery, none of which are well represented in typical undergraduate organic chemistry curricula. The experimental protocol uses commercially available reagents and is useful in both organic and inorganic instructional laboratories.

  14. Applied Science Division annual report, Environmental Research Program FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, E.J.; Novakov, T.

    1984-05-01

    The primary concern of the Environmental Research Program is the understanding of pollutant formation, transport, and transformation and the impacts of pollutants on the environment. These impacts include global, regional, and local effects on the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and on certain aspects of human health. This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. During FY 1983, research concentrated on atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied physics and laser spectroscopy, combustion theory and phenomena, environmental effects of oil shale processing, freshwater ecology and acid precipitation, trace element analysis for the investigation of present and historical environmental impacts, and a continuing survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring

  15. Applied Science Division annual report, Environmental Research Program FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.; Novakov, T.

    1984-05-01

    The primary concern of the Environmental Research Program is the understanding of pollutant formation, transport, and transformation and the impacts of pollutants on the environment. These impacts include global, regional, and local effects on the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and on certain aspects of human health. This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. During FY 1983, research concentrated on atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied physics and laser spectroscopy, combustion theory and phenomena, environmental effects of oil shale processing, freshwater ecology and acid precipitation, trace element analysis for the investigation of present and historical environmental impacts, and a continuing survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring.

  16. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  17. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  18. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  19. Nuclear chemistry in the traditional chemistry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppinger, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    The traditional undergraduate program for chemistry majors, especially at institutions devoted solely to undergraduate education, has limited space for 'special topics' courses in areas such as nuclear and radiochemistry. A scheme is proposed whereby the basic topics covered in an introductury radiochemistry course are touched upon, and in some cases covered in detail, at some time during the four-year sequence of courses taken by a chemistry major. (author) 6 refs.; 7 tabs

  20. Detection in analytical chemistry. Importance, theory, and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Volume 361 of this ACS Series results from a symposium sponsored by the Analytical Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, and Nuclear Chemistry and Technology Divisions of the American Chemical Society during the 191st National Meeting. The book consists of 17 chapters in the general subject areas of Sociopolitical Perspectives (2 chapters), Fundamentals and Comparative Aspects of Detection (7 chapters). Detection Limits in Practice (5 chapter), and two chapters devoted to summaries of panel discussions

  1. Thermodynamic properties and environmental chemistry of chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    Values of standard entropy, standard enthalpy of formation, and standard free energy of formation for Cr and its solid and aqueous species are tabulated in this report. These values were selected or recalculated after careful evaluation of the best available current thermochemical data. The basis for selection of data centered on conformation with the recent studies of Vasil'ev et al. (1977a,b, 1978, 1980, 1981) for Cr/sup 3 +/ data and O'Hare and Boerio (1975) for CrO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ data. The thermodynamic data presented in this report will be incorporated into the data base of the geochemical computer model, MINTEQ. The distribution of Cr in the environment among its aqueous inorganic species is, according to the thermodynamic data, highly dependent upon pH and Eh and the presence of complexing ligands. The speciation of Cr in natural waters is also controlled by reduction and complexation by organic matter, adsorption and oxidation by Mn-oxide in suspended particulate matter and sediment, and reduction by H/sub 2/S released from anoxic sediments. 89 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  2. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  3. 2010 Gordon Research Conference, Environmental Bioinorganic Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, Rachael [Bates College, Lewiston, ME (United States)

    2010-06-18

    This interdisciplinary meeting will gather together scientists - structural biologists, chemists, geneticists, chemical and biological oceanographers, geochemists, and other specialist - who study the flows of essential and toxic elements through the environment and living systems, on timescales ranging from femptoseconds to eons. Of particular interest are the molecular mechanisms that govern element acquisition and use in organisms, and the tools and techniques used to study these phenomena. The aim of this community is to use these molecular-scale insights to understand the interconnected biotic and abiotic processes that shape the macroscopic environment and its development and change over a range of time scales.

  4. Applications of Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    fig. 3 Fluorescence decays of nitroxide derivatives ........................... 18 fig. 4 Absorption spectra of TEMPOL ...simply Wovelegt (,’ , shifting the site of substitution fro. the a.ftA) and $(IIIA) psiton Flgw 4. Absorption spectra of TEMPOL in a sen of solvents...constants have been normalized. k’ = 2.2.6.6-tetramethyll-piperdinyloxy ( TEMPOL ) krd’/o. to account for solvent dependent variations in lifetime. JF F

  5. Environmental analytical chemistry: Design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Alonso, F.

    1990-01-01

    The design of experiments is needed any time a work on analysis research or development is performed, in order to explain a physical phenomenon through a mathematical model or trying to optimize any kind of process. Therefore it results an unavoidable technique since multidimensional approximation are more economical and reliable. An empirical approximation is never so efficient and generally provides lower qualities. It is known as 'design of experiments' a group of mathematical-statistical techniques that have the maximum information about our problem and consequently the results obtained will have the maximum quality. The modelization of a physic phenomenon, the basic concepts in order to design the experiments and the analysis of results are studied in detail

  6. Environmental chemistry and toxicology of mercury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2012-01-01

    .... Bringing together information normally spread across several books, this text is unique in covering the entire mercury cycle and providing a baseline for what is known and what uncertainties remain...

  7. 2010 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE JUNE 20 - 25, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHN LOCKEMEYER

    2010-06-25

    The Inorganic Chemistry GRC is one of the longest-standing of the GRCs, originating in 1951. Over the years, this conference has played a role in spawning many other GRCs in specialized fields, due to the involvement of elements from most of the periodic table. These include coordination, organometallic, main group, f-element, and solid state chemistries; materials science, catalysis, computational chemistry, nanotechnology, bioinorganic, environmental, and biomedical sciences just to name a few. The 2010 Inorganic Chemistry GRC will continue this tradition, where scientists at all levels from academic, industrial, and national laboratories meet to define the important problems in the field and to highlight emerging opportunities through exchange of ideas and discussion of unpublished results. Invited speakers will present on a wide variety of topics, giving attendees a look at areas both inside and outside of their specialized areas of interest. In addition to invited speakers, the poster sessions at GRCs are a key feature of the conference. All conferees at the Inorganic Chemistry GRC are invited to present a poster on their work, and here the informal setting promotes the free exchange of ideas and fosters new relationships. As in previous years, we will offer poster presenters the opportunity to compete for one of several program spots in which they can give an oral presentation based on the subject matter of their poster. This is a great way to get your work noticed by the scientists attending the meeting, especially for those early in their career path such as junior faculty members, postdoctoral fellows, and those at comparable ranks. Anyone interested in participating in the poster competition should bring an electronic slide presentation and a small hard copy of their poster to submit to the committee.

  8. Antiparallel Dynamic Covalent Chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Bartosz M; Nowak, Piotr; Cvrtila, Ivica; Pappas, Charalampos G; Liu, Bin; Komáromy, Dávid; Otto, Sijbren

    2017-05-17

    The ability to design reaction networks with high, but addressable complexity is a necessary prerequisite to make advanced functional chemical systems. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry has proven to be a useful tool in achieving complexity, however with some limitations in controlling it. Herein we introduce the concept of antiparallel chemistries, in which the same functional group can be channeled into one of two reversible chemistries depending on a controllable parameter. Such systems allow both for achieving complexity, by combinatorial chemistry, and addressing it, by switching from one chemistry to another by controlling an external parameter. In our design the two antiparallel chemistries are thiol-disulfide exchange and thio-Michael addition, sharing the thiol as the common building block. By means of oxidation and reduction the system can be reversibly switched from predominantly thio-Michael chemistry to predominantly disulfide chemistry, as well as to any intermediate state. Both chemistries operate in water, at room temperature, and at mildly basic pH, which makes them a suitable platform for further development of systems chemistry.

  9. Introduction to environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalić, Anita; Zelić, Bruno

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays we can easily say that environmental engineering is truly an interdisciplinary science. Combining biology, ecology, geology, geography, mathematics, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, economy, etc. environmental engineering strives to use environmental understanding and advancements in technology to serve mankind by decreasing production of environmental hazards and the effects of those hazards already present in the soil, water, and air. Major activities of environmental engineer involve water supply, waste water and solid management, air and noise pollution control, environmental sustainability, environmental impact assessment, climate changes, etc. And all this with only one main goal - to prevent or reduce undesirable impacts of human activities on the environment. To ensure we all have tomorrow.

  10. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G.; Bolen, S.K. (comps.)

    1981-09-01

    Highlights of research progress accomplished in the Life Sciences Division during the year ending December 1980 are summarized. Reports from the following groups are included: Toxicology, Biophysics, Genetics; Environmental Pathology, Organic Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences. Individual abstracts have been prepared for 46 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  11. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography lists about 400 papers dealing solely with the production and reactivity of superoxide radical anions in irradiated aqueous and organic liquids. Only papers dealing with quantitative mechanistic, spectroscopic or kinetic data have been included. The listing was prepared by searching the RCDC bibliographic data base with SELECT keywords O 2 - or HO 2 and aqueous solution. The key words radicals (oxygen), peroxy radicals, pulse radiolysis, flash radiolysis, esr and gamma rays were also used. Additional relevant references were obtained from inspection of reviews, individual author indexes and cited references. The present bibliography excludes solid and gas phase studies, and also technical, government and in-house reports, theses, patents and some symposia proceedings. Several references prior to 1960 have been added, and the list should be reasonably comprehensive from 1965-1980. The listing is in chronological order, according to year of publication in the categories Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry, Other, and Reviews. (author)

  12. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Organometallic Chemistry, 8-13 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillhouse, Gregory [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-13

    The 2012 Organometallic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference will highlight new basic science and fundamental applications of organometallic chemistry in industrial, academic, and national lab settings. Scientific themes of the conference will include chemical synthesis, reactivity, catalysis, polymer chemistry, bonding, and theory that involve transition-metal (and main-group) interactions with organic moieties.

  13. Progress report 1983-1984 Reactor Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Description of the activity developed by the Reactor Chemistry Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission during the period 1983-1984 in its four divisions: Chemical Control; Moderator and Refrigerant Chemistry; Radiation Chemistry and Nuclear Power Plant's Service. A list of the publications made by the personnel during this period is also included. (M.E.L.) [es

  14. ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY THROUGH POPULAR SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketevan KUPATADZE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Popularization of Ecological Chemistry is the aim of scientific-popular articles, which are published in the online journal for teachers. With the articles of this type Ecological Chemistry is linked with literature and history. Due to this linkage articles, this module turns into an easily comprehensible one and it becomes fun. In all articles there is also included very useful and interesting information pertaining to Ecological Chemistry. It must be underlined the titles of such articles, because they should not only show the common meaning of article, but they should also attract readers.The utmost interest is generated by the historical papers, where chemical issues are connected with history. The period of alchemy is more popular and that’s why the alchemical stories are described in the articles.The outcome of the pedagogical experiment has made it clear, that such a method of teaching of Ecological Chemistry with scientific popular articles affects positively on school students motivation and changes their attitude towards the environmental pollution.CHIMIA ECOLOGICĂ ÎN ARTICOLELE ȘTIINȚIFICO-POPULAREPopularizarea Chimiei ecologice este scopul articolelor științifico-populare, care sunt publicate în reviste online pentru profesori. Prin intermediul articolelor de acest tip, Chimia ecologică este legată de literatură și istorie. Datorită respectivelor publicaţii, acest modul este ușor de înțeles și el devine distractiv. Toate articolele conțin informații foarte utile și interesante referitoarela Chimiaecologică. Trebuie de subliniat importanţa titlurilor acestor articole, deoarece ele ar trebui nu doar să redea succint înțelesul articolului, dar şi să atragă cititorul.Un interes deosebit trezesc documentele istorice, în cazul în care problemele chimiei sunt legate de istorie. Perioada alchimiei este mai populară, de aceea şi sunt descrise în articole poveștile alchimice.Rezultatul experimentului

  15. 1999 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENGEL-COX,J.; ZIMMERMAN,E.; LEE,R.; WILLIAMS,J.; GREEN,T.; PAQUETTE,D.; HOODA,B.; SCARPITTA,S.; GENZER,P.; ET AL

    2000-09-01

    Throughout the scientific community, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is renowned for its leading-edge research in physics, medicine, chemistry, biology, materials, and the environment. BNL is committed to supporting its world-class scientific research with an internationally recognized environmental protection program. The 1999 Site Environmental Report (SER) summarizes the status of the Laboratory's environmental programs and performance, including the steady progress towards cleaning up the site and fully integrating environmental stewardship into all facets of the Laboratory's mission. BNL is located on 5,265 acres of pine barrens in Suffolk County in the center of Long Island, New York. The Laboratory is situated above a sole source aquifer at the headwaters of the Peconic River; therefore, protecting ground and surface water quality is a special concern. Approximately 3,600 acres of the site are undeveloped and serve as habitat for a wide variety of animals and plants, including one New York State endangered species, the tiger salamander, and two New York State threatened species, the banded sunfish and the stiff goldenrod. Monitoring, preserving, and restoring these ecological resources is a high priority for the Laboratory.

  16. Mapping the Teaching of History of Chemistry in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suay-Matallana, Ignacio; Sanchez, Jose´ Ramon Bertomeu

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of history of chemistry have introduced new topics, challenges, and connections to a broad range of scientific, political, cultural, economic, and environmental issues. New audiences for the history of chemistry have emerged along with new topics, protagonists, spaces, and historical narratives. This paper…

  17. International Congress on Analytical Chemistry. Abstracts. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The collection of materials of the international congress on analytical chemistry taken place in Moscow in June 1997 is presented. The main directs of investigations are elucidated in such regions of analytical chemistry as quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis, sample preparation, express test methods of environmental and biological materials, clinical analysis, analysis of food and agricultural products

  18. Green chemistry measures for process research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constable, D.J.C.; Curzons, A.D.; Freitas dos Santos, L.M. (and others)

    2001-07-01

    A set of metrics has been developed which enables a simple assessment to be made of batch processes in terms of waste, energy usage, and chemistry efficiency. It is intended to raise awareness of green chemistry by providing a tool to assist chemists in monitoring progress in the reduction of environmental impact as they design new routes and modify processes. (author)

  19. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-17

    The chemical behavior of radioactive elements can differ from conventional wisdom because the number of atoms can be unusually small. Kinetic effects and unusual oxidation states are phenomena that make radiochemistry different from conventional analytic chemistry. The procedures developed at Los Alamos are designed to minimize these effects and provide reproducible results over a wide range of sample types. The analysis of nuclear debris has the additional complication of chemical fractionation and the incorporation of environmental contaminants. These are dealt with through the use of three component isotope ratios and the use of appropriate end members.

  20. Progress report 1987-1988. Reactor Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Review of the activities performed by the Reactor Chemistry Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina during 1987-1988. This department provides services and assistance in all matters related to water chemistry and nuclear reactors chemistry, in all their phases: design, construction, commissioning and decommissioning. The appendix includes information on the Reactor Chemistry Department staff, its publications, services, seminars, courses and conferences performed during 1987-1988. (Author) [es

  1. Atmospheric plasma processes for environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    Plasma chemistry is a rapidly growing field which covers applications ranging from technological processing of materials, including biological tissues, to environmental remediation and energy production. The so called atmospheric plasma, produced by electric corona or dielectric barrier discharges in a gas at atmospheric pressure, is particularly attractive for the low costs and ease of operation and maintenance involved. The high concentrations of energetic and chemically active species (e.g...

  2. Polymer chemistry (revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Mum

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with polymer chemistry, which is divided into fourteen chapters. The contents of this book are development of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer, molecule structure of polymer, thermal prosperities of solid polymer, basic theory of polymerization, radical polymerization, ion polymerization, radical polymerization, copolymerization, polymerization by step-reaction, polymer reaction, crown polymer and inorganic polymer on classification and process of creation such as polymeric sulfur and carbon fiber.

  3. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Progress Report for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L. [and others

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 (October 1993 through September 1994). This annual report is the eleventh for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has a research program in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL has four technical groups -- Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis -- which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL. The Chemical Analysis Group uses wet- chemical and instrumental methods for elemental, compositional, and isotopic determinations in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples and provides specialized analytical services. Major instruments in this group include an ion chromatograph (IC), an inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometer (ICP/AES), spectrophotometers, mass spectrometers (including gas-analysis and thermal-ionization mass spectrometers), emission spectrographs, autotitrators, sulfur and carbon determinators, and a kinetic phosphorescence uranium analyzer.

  5. Radiopharmaceutical chemistry for positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, PH

    Radiopharmaceutical chemistry includes the selection, preparation, and preclinical evaluation of radiolabeled compounds. This paper describes selection criteria for candidates for positron emission tomography (PET) investigations. Practical aspects of nucleophilic and electrophilic

  6. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  7. Applications, benefits and challenges of flow chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2013-01-01

    , environmental and manufacturing perspective. A potential solution to resolve these issues is to use flow chemistry in such processes, preferably with applications of micro-and mini-sized equipment. In addition, Process Analytical Technology (PAT) may be implemented in a very efficient way in such equipment due...

  8. Environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.

    1996-01-01

    Elements of a national environmental management system include: • monitoring networks to establish the prevailing environmental quality; • emission inventories, and projected emission inventories based on population growth, increase of traffic density, and economie growth; taking into account

  9. Current developments in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The theme of the 2000 Gordon Conference on Radiation Chemistry was 'diversity'. The range of topics covered was heralded by the opening presentations which went from the galactic to molecular biology, radiation chemistry and non thermal surface processes in the outer solar system to achievements and open challenges in DNA research. The rest of the conference reflected the extended usage of radiation chemistry -its processes and techniques - applied to a panorama of topics. The ability to generate either oxidising or reducing free radicals in known quantities has been the foundation stone on which all applications are based. In particular it is noticeable that biological systems have been attempted by an increasing number of workers, such as studies of biological ageing and also reactions of nitric oxide in biological environments. Electron transfer processes in proteins are straightforward applications of solvated electron chemistry even if the results are not straightforward in their interpretation. Other topics presented include, radiation chemical processes induced in: supercritical CO 2 , treatment of contaminated materials, 3-dimensional Fullerenes, zeolites and radiation catalysis. In material science, aspects of ions and excited states in polymers, conducting polymers, donor acceptor processes in photo curing, enhancement of photo-electron yields in doped silver halides- improvement of the photographic process, radiation chemistry in cages and bubbles are discussed. The fundamental aspects of radiation chemistry are not yet all worked out. Subpicosecond pulsed electron beam sources, some of them 'tabletop', are still being planned to probe the early events in radiation chemistry both in water and in organic solvents. There is still an interest in the chemistry produced by pre-solvated electrons and the processes induced by heavy ion radiolysis. The description of the relaxation of an irradiated system which contains uneven distributions of ions

  10. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  11. USSR Report, Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    This USSR Report on Chemistry contains articles on Aerosols, Adsorption, Biochemistry, Catalysis, Chemical Industry, Coal Gasification, Electrochemistry, Explosives and Explosions, Fertilizers, Food...

  12. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  13. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  14. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  15. Canopy Chemistry (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Canopy characteristics: leaf chemistry, specific leaf area, LAI, PAR, IPAR, NPP, standing biomass--see also: Meteorology (OTTER) for associated...

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Academic Award (Waymouth and Hedrick)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winners, Professor Robert M. Waymouth and Dr. James L. Hedrick, developed a broad class of highly active, environmentally benign, metal-free catalysts for synthesizing plastics.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, S.C. Johnson & Son, developed Greenlist, a rating system for environmental and health effects of ingredients. SC Johnson uses it to reformulate many of its products.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winners, Albemarle and CB&I, developed a safer technology to produce alkylate, a clean gasoline component by replacing liquid acid catalysts with a lower environmental impact catalyst

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2004 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winner, Engelhard Corporation, developed a wide range of environmentally friendly Rightfit azo pigments that contain calcium, strontium, or barium instead of heavy metals.

  20. GREEN REACTION CHEMISTRIES PERFORMED IN THE SST REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemical synthesis. Uti...