WorldWideScience

Sample records for include energy conservation

  1. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  2. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  3. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  5. Energy audit for energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanetkar, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Energy audit is a very effective management tool for betterment of plant performance. The energy audit has a problem solving approach rather than a fault finding technique. The energy conservation is a rational use of energy. It has been the experience of the developed countries that energy is one issue which results into cost savings with relatively much less efforts/cost in comparison with other resources used in production, development and adoption of energy efficiency equipment and practices in most of production process has been the result of same technique. (author). 1 tab

  6. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  7. Energy conservation. A goal for Albertans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, L

    1988-01-01

    In late 1985, the Public Advisory Committees to the Environmental Council of Alberta began working toward a draft conservation strategy for Alberta. A prospectus was published and meetings and workshops held, the goal being a conservation strategy in place by 1992. This report is one of a series of discussion papers on relevant sectors such as agriculture, fish and wildlife, tourism, and various specific energy sources. This report focuses on energy use in general in the province, including the role of energy conservation in a conservation strategy, the potential for energy conservation, barriers, actions to encourage conservation, the impacts of conserving energy, and the next steps to take. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Selling energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  9. Energy conservation, efficiency and energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the conservation, efficiency, audit, fundamentals, differences and methods, the objectives of energy conservation, definitions of energy audit, scope, short term, medium term and long term measures to be taken for conservation are discussed

  10. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy

  11. Why not energy conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics. (paper)

  12. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  13. Industrial energy conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P.S.; Williams, M.A. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 60 papers included in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 21 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  14. Transportation energy conservation data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A. S.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Burch, D. F.; Howard, E. B.; Hull, J. F.; Madewell, D. G.; Malthouse, N. S.; Ogle, M. C.

    1976-10-01

    Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; Conservation Alternatives; Government Impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; Energy Supply, including domestic petroleum production, prices, and projections; and Transportation Demand, including population characteristics and economic determinants. A bibliography of data sources is provided at the end of each chapter. A more general bibliography glossary, and subject index are included at the end of the book.

  15. Energy conservation at the Nippon Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Shigetoshi

    1979-07-01

    Characteristics of the Japanese energy demand-supply structure are discussed. Nippon Steel's energy consumption and energy conservation measures are discussed. Results of Nippon's energy conservation activities are summarized. Additional information on the Japanese short-range measures for the reduction in oil consumption, the effect of efforts for the reduction of petroleum consumption, and concrete measures for securing the effect is included.

  16. Energy conservation in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.A.; Knowles, J.B.

    1983-11-01

    The SIMMER code contains models of the many interacting thermo-hydraulic processes that occur during a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), to provide an overall picture from accident initiation to containment loading. In calculations of roof loadings following the HCDA, errors in computing the overall energy balance were found to be up to ten times the kinetic energy of the sodium slug which creates the loading. On this account, the results were considered to be seriously compromised. This report describes a systematic investigation into the effect, nature and origin of the energy discrepancies. Its main conclusion are that, the errors stem from a systematic rather than a random source, energy errors for individual cells can be two decades larger than the mean value provided by the code, and cellular mass and energy errors are strongly correlated and they can actually increase when the mesh is refined. A likely cause of the conservation errors is identified as the solution of the liquid phase mass and energy equations at effectively different time instants during each timestep. (author)

  17. Energy conservation in the Netherlands 1995-2006. Including decomposition of the energy consumption trend; Energiebesparing in Nederland 1995-2007. Inclusief decompositie energieverbruikstrend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, J.; Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Vreuls, H. [SenterNovem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verdonk, M. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Pouwelse, J.W. [Centraal Planbureau CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    Realized energy savings in the Netherlands for the period 1995-2007 are presented for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services, transport, refineries and electricity, and on a national level. The figures on energy savings are based on the 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Savings', a common methodology and database for calculating energy savings. Results are presented for savings on final energy use, conversion in end-use sectors (co-generation) and conversion in the energy sector. National savings for the period 1995-2007 equal 0.9% per year on average, with a decreasing tendency in recent years. Continuing the trends of last year, the highest figure for end-use sectors is found for agriculture (2.6%) and the lowest figure for transport (0.1%). An uncertainty analysis reveals that the margin for the national savings figure is {+-}0.3 percent-point. At the request of PBL, a decomposition of the change in energy use into 14 different factors has been conducted. This shows that the growth of energy use from 1995 to 2007, if no savings would have been achieved, would have been almost twice as high. [Dutch] In dit rapport worden de energiebesparingcijfers gepresenteerd voor de periode 1995-2007, berekend volgens het Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing (PME). De besparing wordt berekend voor de verbruiksectoren industrie, huishoudens, transport, land- en tuinbouw, diensten en raffinaderijen, de elektriciteitscentrales en het nationale niveau.

  18. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  19. Energy conservation. Ambitions and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    From results of monitoring it is shown that energy conservation in the Netherlands is behind the ambitions of the Dutch government. The Dutch Court of Audit examined the reasons why energy conservation targets are not met and what the consequences are for the national and European energy and climate goals for 2020. Also the Dutch Court of Audit looked at the possibilities to make energy saving policies more effective. [nl

  20. Dictionary of applied energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, D

    1982-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.

  1. Industrial Energy Conservation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  2. Energy conservation and petroleum substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebbekus, J; Kraft-Woelfel, G

    1982-04-01

    Shortage and price increases for energy have caused large population groups to give new thought to the subject. For the knowledge on energy necessary to make a decision, ultimate consumers mostly rely on their social environment, personal contacts and the media. Important information on energy conservation should be provided by regional electric utilities. A concept for this purpose is discussed.

  3. Principles of the Energy Conservation Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes 21 principles of the draft Energy Conservation Bill. The principles lay down fundamental responsibilities of the government, the municipalities, business entities, citizens and power plants in the field of economical energy management. Included are principles to minimize energy consumption and to stimulate a reasonable energy management, the role of the energy distribution network, responsibilities of the central load dispatching center, and power plant output regulation schemes. (J.B.)

  4. Energy & Conservation Glossary. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, John; And Others

    Defined in this glossary are nearly 800 terms related to energy and conservation. Space provided at the end of each alphabetic section allows users to add new words and definitions. This publication is part of a set of resources prepared for teachers by "Energy and Man's Environment." (Author/WB)

  5. Energy conservation applications of microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, James Y.

    1979-07-01

    A survey of the application of microprocessors for industrial and commercial energy conservation has been made. Microprocessor applications for HVAC, chiller control, and automotive equipment are discussed. A case study of successful replacement of a conventional cooling plant control is recounted. The rapid advancement of microelectronic technology will affect efficient energy control, more sophisticated control methodology, and more investment in controls.

  6. Energy conservation in rented buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Broechner, J.; Forsman, J.; Gaunt, L.; Holgersson, M.

    1984-08-01

    The bulletin is an anthology of nine essays by different authors addressing the issue of energy conservation in buildings, where there exists a landlord/tenant relationship. After an overview of the rental market and the stock of rental buildings different types of rental contracts and energy charges are described.

  7. Energy conservation in foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natu, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    In any foundry, the cost of fuel in the form of coal, oil or electrical power, is about 10 to 15% of the cost of the product. Saving of the order of 30 to 50% can be achieved in energy by reducing consumption of fuel and increasing efficiency. This has been illustrated by describing 4 examples in foundry industry. In each case, saving in terms of rupees is also indicated. (N.B.)

  8. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for distribution transformers. It was recently discovered that values in certain tables of the...,'' including distribution transformers. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT 1992), Public Law 102-486, amended...

  9. US National energy policy: conservation and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michna, J.; Bednarz, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents extracts from an extended review devoted to recent changes and current trends in the national energy policy pursued in the USA. In 2001 the President Bush proposed an energy strategy for the period to 2025 that would promote energy conservation, repair and expand energy infrastructure, and increase energy supply while protecting the environment. The material stresses the importance of a sound national energy policy addressing supply, energy distribution and conservation. Well - illustrated data are given on the energy production and consumption (total, per capita, per $, by category, by fuel, etc.) and on the emissions (by sector, by fuel, by region, etc.). Giving an accurate account of the current situation with energy in America and a vision of its development for the first quarter of our century, these data are helpful for analyzing the national energy policies in other countries, post - transitional included. (authors)

  10. Conserving energy by eliminating waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N. H.

    1979-07-01

    Some ways in which energy is wasted in industry are discussed and the losses involved are quantified. Reference is made to a particular loss in annealing furnaces; wasted energy in factory and lighting systems; heat generated by motors and lighting and by such processes as welding; unlagged hot pipework and most hot processes; and poor building envelope features. It is concluded that an industry should declare its intention of conservation at the highest possible level, identify conservation as a manufacturing target, and invest the responsibility in people for whom it is a full-time activity. (MCW)

  11. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  12. Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Omar I; Delmas, Magali A

    2015-02-10

    In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers.

  13. Consumer energy conservation policy. An analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programmes. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy - economic stability and economic security - are goals well worth pursuing.

  14. Foreign energy conservation integrated programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, Maria Luiza Viana; Bajay, Sergio Valdir

    1999-01-01

    The promotion of energy economy and efficiency is recognized as the single most cost-effective and least controversial component of any strategy of matching energy demand and supply with resource and environmental constraints. Historically such efficiency gains are not out of reach for the industrialized market economy countries, but are unlikely to be reached under present conditions by developing countries and economics in transition. The aim of the work was to analyze the main characteristics of United Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia and Denmark energy conservation integrated programs

  15. Canada's voluntary industrial energy conservation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Jr., C. A.

    1979-07-01

    The organization of the voluntary industrial energy conservation program is described. There are 15 industrial sectors in the program and the plan implemented by the sectors including individual companies, trade associations, industry task forces, task force coordinating committee, and government is described. Targets for attack are mainly housekeeping projects, energy efficiency in retrofitting, and new processes. Problems are identified. It is concluded that compiled total performance has essentially achieved its target of 12% improved energy efficiency two years ahead of schedule. (MCW)

  16. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 8-10: Conservation of Energy; Impulse and Momentum; and Rotational Motion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  17. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... the term ``fluorescent lamp,'' which EPCA defines as ``a low pressure mercury electric-discharge... discharge into light,'' and as including the four enumerated types of fluorescent lamps for which EPCA... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  18. Energy conservation using face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.

    2011-10-01

    Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.

  19. Personality traits and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Meng; Cui, Qingbin; Fu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    As a cost-effective solution to energy conservation, behavior based method focuses on changing people's behavior through normative feedback for energy efficiency. While the application of behavior-based method is promising, the challenge exists to achieve efficiently sustainable behavioral change. Based on multi-period observation of energy behavior at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, this paper presents a model-based approach aimed to improve the nationally popular and deep-seated benchmark setting strategy for normative feedback used in home energy reports. The improved approach has its merits of countering the undesirable boomerang effect and enhancing the effectiveness of normative feedback targeting different personalities. By introducing a modified opinion dynamics model, this paper simulates the process of energy behavior change and therefore identifies the driver and elementary rules of behavioral change. In particular, the paper defines various behavioral zones in accordance with people's personality and proposes a new customized energy reporting mechanism that maps normative benchmark to personality trait. The new energy reporting policy has strong industrial implication for promoting behavior-based method towards a sustained energy conservation movement. -- Highlights: •We explore the personality driving resident behavior change under peer pressure. •We map the distribution of behavior clusters driven by personality and benchmarks. •The model is tested using data from an experiment conducted in Maryland, U.S. •The population exposed to normative feedback can be divided into six categories. •A personality trait-based home energy reporting mechanism is proposed

  20. Non conventional energy sources and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno M, F.

    1995-01-01

    Geographically speaking, Mexico is in an enviable position. Sun, water, biomass and geothermal fields main non conventional energy sources with commercial applications, are presents and in some cases plentiful in national territory. Moreover the coastal tidal power which is in research stage in several countries. Non conventional energy sources are an alternative which allow us to reduce the consumption of hydrocarbons or any other type of primary energetic, are not by oneself choices for the energy conservation, but energy replacements. At the beginning of this year, CONAE created the Direction of Non conventional Energy Sources, which main objective is to promote and impulse programs inclined towards the application of systems based in renewable energy sources. The research centers represent a technological and consultative support for the CONAE. They have an infrastructure developed along several years of continuous work. The non conventional energy sources will be a reality at the same time that their cost be equal or lower than the cost for the traditional generating systems. CONAE (National Commission for Energy Conservation). (Author)

  1. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.

  2. Energy conservation in agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggo, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The annual production of foodgrains in India rose from 50.8 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 178 million tonnes in 1989-90. One of the factors which led to this impressive growth is the continued increase in input of mechanization and energy in the agricultural sector by way of tractors running on diesel and pumps (for water supply) based on diesel and electricity. Electricity consumption in agricultural sector rose from 833 million kWh in 1960-61 to 47000 million kWh in 1990-91 and is further expected to rise to 81.8 TWH in 1999-2000. Considering the heavy investments required for production and supply of energy, it has become imperative to avoid wasteful use of energy and to use energy more efficiently. This can be done by : (1) Changing the electricity tariff structure from the present horse power related rates to energy consumption related rates. This will induce farmers to avoid waste in energy use. (2) Adopting energy efficiency measures. These measures are : (1) replacement of inefficient foot valves, suction pipes and delivery pipes of the pump sets, (2) increasing power factor of electric motors used for pumps sets, (3) reducing distribution losses over LT lines, and (4) optimizing use of fertilizers. This optimization will indirectly conserve energy by reducing electricity consumption by fertilizer industry. (M.G.B.). 5 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  4. Focus on energy conservation: a project list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    The Urban Land Institute (ULI) has prepared the following list of outstanding energy conserving projects for the US Department of Energy. As requested by the Department, the list includes descriptions of land developments and individual buildings suggested by members of ULI and by other sources. The projects have been selected to exemplify the major energy saving techniques in use today, with emphasis on those strategies most significant for people engaged in the business of land development. To make the list a useful reference for developers and public officials, ULI has attempted to cover energy conservation in the broadest sense from overall site planning to the functioning of individual building components. Focusing too closely on the myriad types of hardware available has been avoided and examples of the basic considerations important to energy-conscious planning and design are provided. Details on some heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are provided in order to acquaint readers with major innovations in the field.

  5. 77 FR 59712 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Dishwashers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... amended energy conservation standards, DOE conducted a market survey using all available public... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Dishwashers AGENCY: Office of Energy... establish amended energy conservation standards for dishwashers in the Federal Register on May 30, 2012. DOE...

  6. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY... proposes energy conservation standards for a number of different groups of electric motors that DOE has not...

  7. Dark Energy from Violation of Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Thibaut; Perez, Alejandro; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2017-01-13

    In this Letter, we consider the possibility of reconciling metric theories of gravitation with a violation of the conservation of energy-momentum. Under some circumstances, this can be achieved in the context of unimodular gravity, and it leads to the emergence of an effective cosmological constant in Einstein's equation. We specifically investigate two potential sources of energy nonconservation-nonunitary modifications of quantum mechanics and phenomenological models motivated by quantum gravity theories with spacetime discreteness at the Planck scale-and show that such locally negligible phenomena can nevertheless become relevant at the cosmological scale.

  8. Department of Energy workshops on industrial energy conservation reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Douglas G.

    1979-01-01

    A voluntary industrial energy-conservation program was initiated and now includes 50 trade organizations representing over 3,000 companies. Their current reporting system is an effort to respond to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act requirements, as now modified by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act. DOE's Office of Industrial Programs held six workshops in various key locations between November 1978 and February 1979 to enable energy managers to develop ideas and make suggestions that would improve the current and future energy-reporting programs. This report is a summary of the wide range of recommendations that the workshop participants offered as a means of meeting the NECPA requirements and the criticism of the current reporting program. It also reflects industry's views on potential approaches to future reporting. (MCW)

  9. Energy conservation policy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, T; Roland, K [ECON-Centre for Economic Analysis, Oslo (NO)

    1992-02-01

    Energy market developments and the state of the environment will be decisive for economic growth and modernization of Chinese society. Lack of adequate energy supplies could in the future seriously impair the growth potential of the economy, as it has partly done during the 1980s. Environmental damage creates major health problems for the population and hamper the productive capacity of Chinese agriculture and industry. One obvious and effective measure to meet these challenges is a policy that pursues more efficient use of energy supplies. China achieved impressive results in energy efficiency improvements during the 1980s, largely on the back of the cheapest and most obvious conservation opportunities. These are now exhausted. Further improvements will require stronger measures. It is difficult to see how the current rate of economic growth (above 6 per cent) and energy efficiency improvements can be sustained without comprehensive market reforms. Economic growth and development is however, in Chinese policy, subordinate to political stability and continuity. The disruption of the political and economic reform processes in 1988-9 was largely motivated by a perceived fear of political instability and disintegration of the state. Thus, there may exist some degree of conflict between the objective of strong economic growth and the existing 'social order and stability'. To balance the potential conflict inherent in this development process is the big challenge facing Chinese society for the coming decades. (author).

  10. 76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... included the HPBA membership directory, Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI.... Summary of the Proposed Rule II. History of the Energy Conservation Standards Rulemaking and Current... notice. DOE's rationale is presented in further detail immediately below. II. History of the Energy...

  11. Consumer energy - conservation policy: an analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described, and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programs. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy (economic stability and economic security) are goals well worth pursuing. 13 references, 2 tables.

  12. Energy conservation prospects through electric load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shirbeeny, E H.T.

    1984-04-01

    In this paper, concepts of electric load management are discussed for effective energy conservation. It is shown that the conservation program must be comprehensive to provide solutions to the problems facing the electric consumer, the electric utility and the society by reducing the rate of growth of energy consumption and power system peak demand requirements. The impact of energy management programs on electric energy conservation is examined, with emphasis on efficiency, storage, cogeneration and controls with computers.

  13. Energy consumption and conservation in food retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Ge, Y.; Hadawey, A.; Marriott, D.

    2011-01-01

    The total annual CO 2 emissions associated with the energy consumption of the major retail food outlets in the UK amount to around 4.0 MtCO 2 . The energy consumption and emissions from supermarkets varies widely and can depend on many factors such as the type and size of the store, business and merchandising practices and refrigeration and environmental control systems used. This paper provides energy consumption data of a sample of 2570 retail food stores from a number of major retail food chains in the UK. The sample covers all major store categories from convenience stores to hypermarkets and includes approximately 30% of the total number of stores in the UK having a net sales area more than 280 m 2 . The data show a wide variability of energy intensity even within stores of the same retail chain. A power law can be used to describe the variation of the average electrical energy intensity of the stores in the sample with sales area. If the electrical intensity of the stores above the average is reduced to the average by energy conservation measures, annual energy savings of the order of 10% or 840 GWh can be achieved representing 355,000 tonnes annual reduction in CO 2 emissions. The paper also discusses the major energy consuming processes in retail food stores and identifies opportunities for energy savings. - Research highlights: → Energy consumption by supermarkets in the UK is significant and a wide variability exists between stores of similar size. → Energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption of individual stores to the average can produce a0% energy savings. → Significant opportunities for energy savings exist from the integration of HVAC and refrigeration equipment.

  14. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that…

  15. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool... heating equipment and pool heaters. Table I.1--Amended Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... for national energy and water conservation; and 7. Other factors the Secretary of Energy (Secretary...

  16. Facts about industrial energy conservation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, William A.

    1979-07-01

    The story of energy conservation in the US with particular emphasis on industry is presented. Then, the energy conservation program in General Motors including organization, plant guidelines, communication and motivation techniques, successful case histories, and some concepts for future savings is described in detail. (MCW)

  17. Promoting energy conservation in China's metallurgy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    China is undergoing rapid industrialization and urbanization, with consequent dramatic increase in energy demand. Given energy scarcity, environmental pollution, energy security and energy cost constraints, energy conservation will be the major strategy in China's transition to a low-carbon economy. Since the metallurgy industry is a main sector of energy consumption, the efficiency of energy conservation in this industry will affect the future prospects of energy savings. This paper analyzes the energy conservation potential of China's metallurgy industry. First, seemingly unrelated regression method is applied to investigate the relationship between energy relative price, R&D input, enterprise ownership structure, enterprise scale and energy intensity of the metallurgy industry. Then, based on the SUR results, we use the scenario analysis method to predict energy consumption and savings potential in the industry in different scenarios. This paper provides references for China's government and metallurgy industry in formulating relevant energy conservation policies. - Highlights: • Seemingly unrelated regression method is applied to analyze the energy intensity of metallurgy industry. • We use the scenario analysis method to predict energy consuming and energy saving of Chinese metallurgy industry. • Provide references for China's government and metallurgy industry in formulating relevant energy conservation policies.

  18. Illinois energy conservation plan report: 1979 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In response to Energy Policy and this Conservation Act (PL 94-163) and Energy Conservation and Production Act (PL 94-385), this paper describes the activities to be undertaken by Illinois to meet the mandatory requirements of the Acts and to carry out other activities to encourage energy conservation by energy-consuming sectors in the state. Programs reach the residential, commercial/industrial, agricultural, educational, transportation, and government sectors. The overall goal of the program is to reduce projected energy consumption in 1980 by 5% through information and educational activities.

  19. Energy conservation employing membrane-based technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Membranes based processes, if properly adapted to industrial processes have good potential with regard to optimisation and economisation of energy consumption. The specific benefits of MBT (membrane based technology) as an energy conservation methodology are highlighted. (author). 6 refs

  20. Nature conservation guidelines for renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    English Nature commissions this report in order to identify the likely nature conservation implications of renewable energy developments and for wind farm proposals in particular, to give guidance on siting criteria to minimise the nature conservation impact. The report is intended to be of use to developers, local planning authority staff and other interested parties in considering a renewable energy project. In consequence, the report concentrates on planning and nature conservation matters and outlines technical issues where relevant. (UK)

  1. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  2. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  3. Workplace Energy Conservation at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Summer; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This research contributes to the literature on workplace energy conservation by examining the predictors of individual employee behaviors and policy support in a university. The purpose of this research is to better understand what factors influence energy conservation behaviors in this setting to inform programs and interventions.…

  4. Towards a more conservative energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, N.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is treated under the following headings: the meaning of energy policy; previous attempts to formulate United Kingdom energy policy; patterns of energy supply and demand (in the UK) (current and future); towards a more conservative energy policy (the use of energy in the various sectors, the conversion and distribution of energy (coal, nuclear power, electricity, oil and gas, renewable sources)); energy policy in broader perspective (international context, cost benefit assessments, contrasting patterns of energy use, ethical issues). (U.K.)

  5. 78 FR 51463 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... merging the metal halide lamp fixture and the high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp rulemakings. This NOPR... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  6. Consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Ester, P.; Mindell, C.; Schopman, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overview of consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands and analyses them in terms of program objectives, conservation strategies, program instruments, context elements, and impacts on energy consumption, on consumers' lifestyles and on the environment. Part 1 briefly outlines the energy situation in the Netherlands. Diversification of energy sources and conservation of energy use are the main themes of Dutch energy policy. Controversial issues are the export volume of natural gas and the acceptability of nuclear energy. Part 2 describes and evaluates a number of consumer energy conservation programs. A broad range of programs is presented, including governmental programs (mass media compaigns, the national insulation program), initiatives from consumer organizations and environmental groups, as well as projects on the community level. Part 3 summarizes the main findings and suggests some policy recommendations. The climate of opinion in the Netherlands appears to be quite favorable towards energy conservation. The commitment to conserve, however, is not very strong. Given the broad variety of conservation programs the necessity of coordination is emphasized. As consumers tend to be weakly represented in the program agencies, it is recommended to extend or introduce their participation. Particular attention is given to the lack of evaluation studies. Usually, program impacts are unknown. The desirability of utilizing community level indicators in the assessment of energy conservation policy is underlined. (orig.)

  7. Indian energy conservation- status and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmalingam, P.

    1996-01-01

    High rates of inflation combined with social justice against a backdrop of ever increasing population- this is a challenge which the Government of India is facing today. It is evident that the annual growth rate of 5.6% as envisaged for the VIIIth five year plan can never be met unless conscious efforts are made to augment energy supplies by energy demand management through energy conservation. In this context, a review of the energy consuming sectors in terms of their consumption trends, energy efficiencies or intensities, energy conservation opportunities, technologies used and energy investment programmes would prove useful and informative. (author). 10 tabs

  8. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DeLonghi); energy and environmental advocates (American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2013-BT-STD-0020] RIN 1904-AC98 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners...

  9. Energy conservation: its planning and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, K.S.; Patra, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Energy conservation, its planning and management and the development of renewable energy systems of proven design are very worthy challenges for all. Energy education at various levels is most important particularly in the development of renewable energy technology. 2 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Reduced energy conservation law for magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    A global energy conservation law for a magnetized plasma is studied within the context of a quasiparticle description. A reduced energy conservation law is derived for low-frequency, as compared to the gyromagnetic frequency, plasma motions with regard to both non-uniform mean flows and fluctuations in the plasma. The mean value of plasma energy is calculated and sufficient stability conditions for non-equilibrium plasmas are derived. (orig.)

  11. Estimating energy conservation patterns of Greek households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardianou, Eleni

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical model to investigate the main determinants of household energy conservation patterns in Greece employing cross-section data. In the empirical analysis, household energy-conserving choices models are employed, using a discrete and a latent trait variable respectively as a dependent variable. The results show that socio-economic variables such as consumers' income and family size are suitable to explain differences towards energy conservation preferences. In addition, the results suggest that electricity expenditures and age of the respondent are negatively associated with the number of energy-conserving actions that a consumer is willing to adopt. Finally, other variables such as environmental information feedback and consciousness of energy problems are characteristics of the energy-saver consumer. By evaluating consumer's decision-making process with regards to energy conservation measures, we are able to formulate and propose an effective energy conservation framework for Greece. An energy policy framework is among the main prerequisites not only to achieve sustainable development but also to maintain consumers' quality of life

  12. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  13. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for small electric motors, which was published on March 9, 2010. In that final rule, the U.S... titled ``Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors.'' 75 FR 10874. Since the publication of...

  14. Energy conservations from an environmental viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijikata, Kunio [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Ohokayama, Meguroku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    It is not incorrect to state that all major environmental problems, such as the greenhouse effect, destruction of the ozone layer from CFC`s, acid rain due to air pollution by NOx and SOx, etc., are caused by excessive industrial and residential energy consumption. Considering the finite world energy resources and limited global space, the day might be already upon us in which the total amount of energy consumption in the world should be reduced. To maintain a high living standard without increasing energy consumption, waste energy recovery and energy conservation are vitally important. In order to effective use of energy resources, we should really know the meaning of the energy consumption and the characteristics of energy resources. In this paper, the technological aspects of energy conservation are stated from the standpoint of available energy.

  15. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... published on October 23, 2013. That final rule adopted changes to definitions and energy conservation... revised definition and revised energy conservation standards for small duct high velocity central air... Congress has provided in the AEMTCA for the Secretary of Energy to revise definitions and energy...

  16. Italian energy conservation laws: Implementation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Italian energy conservation Law No. 9 was designed to reduce Italy's worrisome 82% dependency on foreign energy supplies by encouraging the development and use of renewable energy sources, fuel diversification and auto-production/cogeneration by private industry. Law No. 10 was intended to promote energy conservation initiatives especially with regard to the efficient use of energy for space heating in public buildings. Both of these legal incentives have encountered great difficulties in implementation due to the inability of the Government to provide the necessary timely and sufficient start-up funds, as well as, due to the excessive bureaucratism that was built into the administrative procedures

  17. Green Tribology Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

  18. Profit by conserving energy in your restaurant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This manual is aimed at the Canadian restaurant sector with a view of promoting sound energy conservation practices. Monitoring is recommended to identify energy consumption and measure results of a conservation effects. These efforts can be done with respect to selection, operation, and maintenance of restaurant equipment used in food preparation, HVAC systems, refrigeration, water heating, and lighting. Overall building design and planning of new installations are also considered. 27 figs.

  19. Energy conservation in India: a profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The decade and half since the oil crisis of 1973 has been a period that has witnessed a steady growth of the energy conservation ethos in India. Housekeeping and low risk conservation options have been largely preferred so far. The IMWG (Inter-Ministerial Working Group on Utilization and Conservation of Energy) study did not evaluate potential saving through the introduction of high risk and high pay-off technologies. The potential for energy conservation in India is substantial. However, some of the barriers to achieving the potential in the past have been energy prices which deviate from rational tariffs and prices, a lack of information on specific measures and of options for achieving energy conservation, paucity of capital for schemes requiring technology upgradation and efficiency improvements, and the inadequacy if institutional arrangement for promoting energy conservation in different sectors of the economy. Recent efforts pursued by several organizations however provide some basis for optimism. Given the growing capital intensity of the energy sector in India, more vigorous efforts are likely to be made in the future. In particular, success stories in some industrial units indicate that decentralized efforts by the units themselves can achieve a great deal in improving the efficiency of energy use, particularly in the Indian industry. Policies to promote such programmes would help accelerate energy conservation efforts in industrial units and in other sectors. It is therefore hoped that the intensity of energy use in several sectors of the indian economy will be reduced significantly in the coming years. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Energy consumption and conservation, evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-04-01

    The energy consumption is increasing of more than 1% each year. It is necessary to slow down this growth and much better to inverse it. Observing the main consumption posts, energy saving is possible at short dated for the residential sector and medium and long dated for the transports and the industry. Anyway the individual behaviors are essential. The author presents the situation for each posts, providing data on the energy consumption and saving and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  1. Global energy-momentum conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissani, N.; Leibowitz, E.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a family of coordinate systems in which the energy-momentum tensor is globally conserved. Furthermore, this preferred class of frames includes geodesic systems with respect to any arbitrary point or timelike geodesic line. This implies a physically satisfactory conservation law with no need to introduce an extraneous pseudotensor

  2. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EE-2006-BT-STD-0129] RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on page 20112 in the issue of Friday...

  3. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Salah, Wael [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Mujeebu, M. Abdul [School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors. (author)

  4. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Mujeebu, M. Abdul; Salah, Wael

    2009-01-01

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors.

  5. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  6. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  7. US energy conservation and efficiency policies. Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert K.; Onysko, Ganna [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); McGowan, Elizabeth; Scheer, Richard M. [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future. (author)

  8. US energy conservation and efficiency policies: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert K. [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); McGowan, Elizabeth [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Onysko, Ganna, E-mail: gonysko@thegef.or [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Scheer, Richard M. [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future.

  9. US energy conservation and efficiency policies: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Robert K.; McGowan, Elizabeth; Onysko, Ganna; Scheer, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future.

  10. Energy conserving dehumidification of greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.

    2014-01-01

    As greenhouses become better insulated and increasingly airtight, the humidity of the inside air rises easily and may become unfavourably high. Therefore, most greenhouses frequently open their vents to remove the moisture excess. When heated, opening the vents will increase the energy consumption.

  11. Motivated creativity: A conservation of energy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation developed a novel conservation of energy principle to explain how approach and avoidance motivation influence performance. On the one hand, we showed that avoidance motivated people can excel when they are sufficiently stimulated to invest their energy and cognitive resources. This

  12. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  13. Exploration of energy conservation opportunities through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, R.K.; Swain, A.K.; Subudhi, B.

    1994-01-01

    Developing countries like India, has to cater the imbalance of energy between the supply and demand in almost all the sectors, so as to devise energy conservation strategies. Electricity is one of the most convenient form of energy gifted to the mankind. The raising cost of electricity and the need to raise large resources to meet the required demand is only at the most of other important assets of the country. This gap between demand and supply can be partially met by appropriate energy conservation schemes through energy audit- a scientific approach for balancing the supply and demand. India has to go a long way ahead in it, therefore, energy audit has been initiated at vulnerable energy consuming places. This paper presents the effectiveness of energy audit strategy in achieving energy conservation. The energy audit of Shrama Shakti Bhavan, an office complex at New Delhi, has been taken as a case study for this work. (author). 2 refs., 12 tabs

  14. Exploration of energy conservation opportunities through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, R.K.; Swain, A.K.; Subudhi, B.

    1995-01-01

    Developing countries like India, has to cater to the imbalance of energy between the supply and demand in almost all the sectors, so as to devise energy conservation strategies. Electricity is one of the most convenient form of energy gifted to the mankind. The raising cost of electricity and the need to raise large resources to meet the required demand is only at the cost of other important assets of the country. This gap between demand and supply can be partially met by appropriate energy conservation schemes through energy audit- a scientific approach for balancing the supply and demand. India has to go a long way ahead in it, therefore, energy audit has been initiated at vulnerable energy consuming places. This paper presents the effectiveness of energy audit strategy in achieving energy conservation. The energy audit of Shrama Shakti Bhavan, an office complex at New Delhi, has been taken as a case study. (author). 2 refs., 12 tabs

  15. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Kirk, Roy J.; Welker, Robert A.; Sparling, William J.; Butler, Sharon E.; Irwin, Susan W.

    1989-04-01

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  16. Conservation and energy efficiency plan 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This plan outlined details of Nova Scotia's proposed $5 million incremental investment in energy efficiency and conservation measures in 2006. The plan was developed through consultation with various Canadian utilities, customers and external stakeholders. A team of stakeholders identified lighting, pricing, partnerships and education as opportunities offering the greatest potential for results. Market research was conducted to identify market potential and the identification of barriers to customer adoption of programs as well as customer expectations regarding program implementation. It was anticipated that the plan will reduce electricity usage and result in significant savings for customers, as well as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The aim of the plan is to help build a conservation and energy efficiency culture in Nova Scotia and to bring Nova Scotia Power together with community-based partners. Specific plans for 2007 included: a 72 GWh reduction in annual electricity usage; approximately $7.7 million in annual savings to customers; a 16 MW reduction in peak electricity demand; and a 50 thousand tonne reduction of GHGs. A business case was presented along with details of proposed residential, commercial and industrial programs. A cost benefit analysis was provided, as well as an outline of the plan's budget and organizational structure. It was concluded that the success of the various program elements will be based on quantitative and qualitative data on the actual effect on energy use of each customer sector, as well as its effect on system demand profiles. Data will be collected through the use of customer surveys, questionnaires, and direct feedback from partners, educators and manufactures and suppliers. 11 tabs., 16 figs

  17. Energy prices and the promotion of energy conservation. A background study for energy conservation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The prices of fuels in the international markets affect the development of consumer prices of energy in Finland. In the near future no factors can be foreseen, which would cause major increases in the prices of oil, coal or gas. It can thus not be expected that increased fuel prices would motivate more efficient energy conservation. In international comparison, consumer prices of energy have been relatively low in Finland. This applies especially to electricity. After the removal of price controls, energy prices have been determined by the markets. The influence of the public authorities in energy pricing is put into effect through taxation. The price of energy has a fairly small effect on energy consumption in a short term, but longer term effects are more significant. Energy products are faxed in all western countries. (orig.)

  18. Energy Conservation: Heating Navy Hangars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    temperature, IF Tf Inside air temperature 1 foot above the floor, OF T. Inside design temperature, IF To Hot water temperature setpoint , OF TON Chiller ...systems capable of optimizing energy usage base-wide. An add-on to an existing large scale EMCS is probably the first preference, followed by single...the building comfort conditions are met during hours of building occupancy. 2. Optimized Start/Stop turns on equipment at the latest possible time and

  19. Energy principle with included boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Earlier comments by the author on the limitations of the classical form of the extended energy principle are supported by a complementary analysis on the potential energy change arising from free-boundary displacements of a magnetically confined plasma. In the final formulation of the extended principle, restricted displacements, satisfying pressure continuity by means of plasma volume currents in a thin boundary layer, are replaced by unrestricted (arbitrary) displacements which can give rise to induced surface currents. It is found that these currents contribute to the change in potential energy, and that their contribution is not taken into account by such a formulation. A general expression is further given for surface currents induced by arbitrary displacements. The expression is used to reformulate the energy principle for the class of displacements which satisfy all necessary boundary conditions, including that of the pressure balance. This makes a minimization procedure of the potential energy possible, for the class of all physically relevant test functions which include the constraints imposed by the boundary conditions. Such a procedure is also consistent with a corresponding variational calculus. (Author)

  20. Energy conservation in electric distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chong-Jin.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential for energy and power savings that exist in electric power delivery systems. These savings translate into significant financial and environmental benefits for electricity producers and consumers as well as for society in general. AlliedSignal's knowledge and perspectives on this topic are the result of discussions with hundreds of utility executives, government officials and other industry experts over the past decade in conjunction with marketing our Amorphous Metal technology for electric distribution transformers. Amorphous metal is a technology developed by AlliedSignal that significantly reduces the energy lost in electric distribution transformers at an incremental cost of just a few cents per kilo-Watt-hour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: Amorphous Metal Alloy Technology; Energy Savings Opportunity; The Industrial Barriers and Remedies; Worldwide Demand; and A Low Risk Strategy. I wish this presentation will help KEPCO achieve their stated aims of ensuring sound development of the national economy and enhancement of public life through the economic and stable supply of electric power. AlliedSignal Korea Ltd. in conjunction with AlliedSignal Amorphous Metals in the U.S. are here to work with KEPCO, transformer manufacturers, industry, and government agencies to achieve greater efficiency in power distribution

  1. Energy conservation in pulp and paper industry: some thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadawarte, N. S.; Prasad, A. K.; Khanolkar, V. D.; Shenoy, S. C.

    1980-03-15

    The pulp and paper industry is highly energy intensive. In view of the spiralling fuel prices and rising power costs, there is an urgent need to conserve energy through better management of various operations in the industry, from the optimal utilization of the forest residues to the shipment of the final product. The total energy concept, e.g., energy generation, distribution and utilization in Indian paper industry is discussed. The need for an energy audit is emphasized and the formats of energy reporting forms are included. Short and long term measures to be enforced to achieve energy savings in the pulp and paper mills are outlined. Some important energy conservation approaches are also discussed. Factors affecting energy efficiency in a pulp and paper mill are reviewed. Some areas where sustained R and D efforts should be focused to make the paper industry nearly self-sufficient in energy generation and utilization are also given. It is essential to have a National Energy Policy clearly defining achievable targets of energy conservation for industry. The Indian paper industry could advantageously form its own committee to review the operation of the various mills in the country and come out with concrete solutions for higher energy efficiency and more effective conservation of energy.

  2. Calorimeter energy calibration using the energy conservation law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new calorimeter energy calibration method was developed for the proposed ILC detectors. The method uses the center-of-mass energy of the accelerator as the reference. It has been shown that using the energy conservation law it is possible to make ECAL and HCAL cross calibration to reach a good energy resolution ...

  3. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  4. 77 FR 8525 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... way of representing consumer NPV), and (2) the monetary value of the benefits of emission reductions... standards to the Nation (energy savings, positive NPV of consumer benefits, consumer LCC savings, and... and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and...

  5. 75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    .... 1. Consensus Agreement On January 26, 2010, the Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration... subsections. B. History of the Standards Rulemaking for Residential Furnaces 1. Background Energy conservation... recommending minimum energy conservation standards for residential central air conditioners, heat pumps, and...

  6. Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1981-12-01

    This document is a study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major end-use sectors. The study develops and applies a systematic approach to identifying and screening applied energy conservation research opportunities. To broadly cover the energy end-use sectors, this study develops useful information relating to the areas where federally-funded applied research will most likely play an important role in promoting energy conservation. This study is not designed to produce a detailed agenda of specific recommended research activities. The general information presented allows uniform comparisons of disparate research areas and as such provides the basis for formulating a cost-effective, comprehensive federal-applied energy conservation research strategy. Chapter 2 discusses the various methodologies that have been used in the past to identify research opportunities and details the approach used here. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5 the methodology is applied to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors and the opportunities for applied research in these sectors are discussed.Chapter 6 synthesizes the results of the previous three chapters to give a comprehensive picture of applied energy conservation research opportunities across all end-use sectors and presents the conclusions to the report.

  7. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  8. Organizational determinants of energy-conservation management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmer, J. (Hong Kong Baptist Coll., Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Management)

    1994-10-01

    Energy-conservation activities require new functional and technical activities in all participating organizations and the prospects of effectively managing such activities are contingent upon the specific organizational setting. Based on a previous large-scale investigation in which we identified five organizational archetypes, in-depth longitudinal case studies were undertaken of five organizations in Sweden during 5 years, each organization representing a different archetype. The five organizations have distinct organizational prerequisites and separate basic motivations to engage and succeed in energy-conservation management. Implications for government policy and managerial action are discussed in detail. (author)

  9. A Compendium of Energy Conservation Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office{endash}Energy Utilization Research{endash}sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

  10. A compendium of energy conservation success stories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office/endash/Energy Utilization Research/endash/sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

  11. Including climate change in energy investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ybema, J.R.; Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Smit, J.T.J.

    1995-08-01

    To properly take climate change into account in the analysis of energy investment decisions, it is required to apply decision analysis methods that are capable of considering the specific characteristics of climate change (large uncertainties, long term horizon). Such decision analysis methods do exist. They can explicitly include evolving uncertainties, multi-stage decisions, cumulative effects and risk averse attitudes. Various methods are considered in this report and two of these methods have been selected: hedging calculations and sensitivity analysis. These methods are applied to illustrative examples, and its limitations are discussed. The examples are (1a) space heating and hot water for new houses from a private investor perspective and (1b) as example (1a) but from a government perspective, (2) electricity production with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (ICGCC) with or without CO 2 removal, and (3) national energy strategy to hedge for climate change. 9 figs., 21 tabs., 42 refs., 1 appendix

  12. Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  13. 77 FR 32307 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial... Efficiency Levels 5. Proprietary Designs 6. Reverse Engineering D. Markups Analysis E. Energy and Water Use... per-cycle hot water energy consumption; (2) the total weighted per-cycle machine electrical energy...

  14. Building Standards and Codes for Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, James G.; Pierlert, James H.

    1977-01-01

    Current activity intended to lead to energy conservation measures in building codes and standards is reviewed by members of the Office of Building Standards and Codes Services of the National Bureau of Standards. For journal availability see HE 508 931. (LBH)

  15. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  16. Avoidance motivation and conservation of energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  17. Thermal Comfort and Strategies for Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohles, Frederick H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses studies in thermal comfort which served as the basis for the comfort standard. Examines seven variables in the human response to the thermal environment in terms of the ways in which they can be modified to conserve energy. (Author/MK)

  18. French industry and the energy conservation challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpette, M.

    1979-07-01

    The general position of France and its energy conservation objectives; the action taken by the government to stimulate this policy; and government cooperation with industrial circles and the action of industry itself are discussed. It is observed that the potential for future energy savings are smaller in France than in other countries because consumptions are already down to minimal levels. Consumption patterns in France are illustrated. (MCW)

  19. Motivation: its role in energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J. E.; Kingsley, K. J.

    1979-07-01

    The program at International Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation to motivate people by emphasizing the importance of the individual to save energy is described. Three major areas of conservation in the industry considered important since they identify the different motivational approaches needed that are discussed are manufacture, recycling, and by conversion to energy saving products. The importance of communication, participation, and recognition are emphasized. (MCW)

  20. CO2 reduction through energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A study was carried out of the potential to economically reduce carbon dioxide emissions through energy conservation in the petroleum and natural gas industry. The study examined current and projected emissions levels, cogeneration at gas plants, flaring, economics, regulation, reporting requirements, implementation, and research and development. Economically attractive energy conservation measures can reduce oil and gas industry, exclusive of Athabasca oil sands operations, CO 2 emissions by 6-7%. The energy conservation options identified range from field energy awareness committees through to equipment retrofits and replacement. At ca 3 million tonnes/y, these reductions will not offset the increases in oil and gas related CO 2 emissions anticipated by producers and Alberta government agencies. There will be increasing emphasis on in-situ bitumen production, more energy intensive light crude oil production and increasing natural gas sales, increasing energy inputs in excess of reductions. Cogeneration of electricity for utility company distribution and for internally required steam at gas plants and in-situ production sites is not economic due to low electricity prices. 8 tabs

  1. On energy conservation and energy research. Om energioekonomisering og energiforskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report to the Storting (Parliament) is the third one on energy conservation during the last 10 years. As earlier, the report mainly treats the use of energy for stationary objects. The background for this report is, above all, the increased environmental requirements to the energy policy attached to the use of fossil fuels. The economic energy conservation potential of Norway is estimated on the basis of the present energy prices and available technology. For stationary energy use it amounts to ca 23 TWh, of which 16 TWh refer to electric power and 7 TWh to oil. Among the measures of the authorities to realize this potential, information about energy economy and energy technology is one of the most important. Other important measures are research and development activities as well as temporary arrangements for economic support. Energy conservation efforts, and efforts for a better environment should often be considered together, because higher energy efficiency in general can result in important positive environmental impacts. In the long term, the global enviromental problems may be the strongest motive power for an increased effort in energy conservation. 38 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. Energy Conservation Guidebook : to be Used in Conjunction with the Energy Conservation Policies October 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    This guidebook is an instrument for implementing BPA`s Energy Conservation Policies established through the concensus of the four Area Office Managers and the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Energy Resources. As technical support for, and elaboration of, the Energy Conservation Policies, the Guidebook follows the format of the Policies themselves. The Guidebook tackles each section of the Policies in order, again assigning roles and responsibilities where appropriate, enlarging on policy issues and, where appropriate, outlining data considerations. The sections in order are: conservation load reduction, cost-effectiveness limits, BA management targets, consumer contributions, utility contribution, program verification, and program evaluation.

  3. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program: Bibliography, 1988 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H. (comp.)

    1988-04-01

    The 831 references covering the period 1980 through Feb. 1988, are arranged under the following: analysis and evaluation, building equipment, building thermal envelope systems and materials, community systems and cogeneration, residential conservation service, retrofit, advanced heat engine ceramics, alternative fuels, microemulsion fuels, industrial chemical heat pumps, materials for waste heat utilization, energy conversion and utilization materials, tribology, emergency energy conservation,inventions, electric energy systems, thermal storage, biofuels production, biotechnology, solar technology, geothermal, and continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations. An author index is included.

  4. Consumer energy conservation options - professional and consumer perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, B.J.R.; Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify government policies for reducing Canadian consumption of home heating fuel, electricity, and gasoline; assess probable effectiveness of different policy alternatives as a means of reducing consumer energy consumption; and measure the acceptability to Canadian consumers of the different policy alternatives. Interviews were conducted with energy conservation professionals to identify and evaluate existing energy conservation programs, and interviews were conducted with consumers who had evaluated selected programs previously reviewed by the professionals. Information was also gathered on energy conservation activities of consumers surveyed. A directory of 34 energy conservation programs was also compiled. Some of the conclusions reached in this report are as follows. There is a need for an information system to gather data on existing conservation programs in order to increase the knowledge of relevant parties as to the outcomes of operating programs. This would help evaluation and improvement of current programs and suggest new program possibilities. The professionals rated six of the 34 programs highly, including the Energuide and the Canadian Home Insulation Program (CHIP). Retrofitting programs for houses are recommended for continuation and expansion, with some consideration given to linking these kinds of programs with home audit programs. In the private transport sector, any new conservation programs should be thoroughly tested on a small scale before widespread implementation, as evidence indicates that certain programs favorably evaluated by professionals may not be received favorably by consumers. 3 refs., 24 tabs.

  5. A compendium of energy conservation: Success stories 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

  6. A Compendium of Energy Conservation: Success Stories 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R&D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

  7. Grant request: to implement energy conservation measures as part of the state original and supplemental energy conservation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-16

    The program measures described in this document comprise a grant request to DOE under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 and the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976. The amount requested, $5,555,000, will allow the extension, acceleration, and implementation of energy conservation activities already in progress in California. Accomplishments to date have included the adoption of residential standards, and the implementation of an energy survey program for public buildings. Efficiency standards have been established for refrigerators and room and central air conditioners, appliances which utilize a significant amount of residential energy. Before the end of 1977, efficiency standards will be established for clothes dryers, washers, and water heaters. Program elements are: technical/financial assistance; public awareness; standards setting; solar element; research/analysis/evaluation; and coordination and management.

  8. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential water... final rule revising energy conservation standards for residential water heaters, direct heating.... EERE-2009-BT-TP-0013] RIN 1904-AB95 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures...

  9. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan... for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document... other aspect of the rulemaking for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. The comment period is...

  10. Transportation energy conservation data book: edition I. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonka, D B; Loebl, A S; Ogle, M C; Johnson, M L; Howard, E B

    1977-01-01

    This document contains statistical information on the major transportation modes, their respective energy consumption patterns, and other pertinent factors influencing performance in the transportation sector. Data relating to past, present, and projected energy use and conservation in the transportation sector are presented under seven chapter headings. These focus on (1) modal transportation characteristics, (2) energy characteristics of the transportation sector, (3) energy conservation alternatives involving the transportation sector, (4) government impacts on the transportation sector, (5) the supply of energy to the transportation sector, (6) characteristics of transportation demand, and (7) miscellaneous reference materials such as energy conversion factors and geographical maps. References are included for each set of data presented, and a more general bibliography is included at the end of the book. In addition, a glossary of key terms and a subject index is provided for the user. A second edition of this document is scheduled for publication in September 1977.

  11. Energy Conservation In Compressed Air Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I.Y.; Dewu, B.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Compressed air is an essential utility that accounts for a substantial part of the electricity consumption (bill) in most industrial plants. Although the general saying Air is free of charge is not true for compressed air, the utility's cost is not accorded the rightful importance due to its by most industries. The paper will show that the cost of 1 unit of energy in the form of compressed air is at least 5 times the cost electricity (energy input) required to produce it. The paper will also provide energy conservation tips in compressed air systems

  12. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  13. Conservation of energy and momentum in nonrelativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Nunami, M.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation laws of energy and momentum for nonrelativistic plasmas are derived from applying Noether's theorem to the action integral for the Vlasov-Poisson-Ampère system [Sugama, Phys. Plasmas 7, 466 (2000)]. The symmetric pressure tensor is obtained from modifying the asymmetric canonical pressure tensor with using the rotational symmetry of the action integral. Differences between the resultant conservation laws and those for the Vlasov-Maxwell system including the Maxwell displacement current are clarified. These results provide a useful basis for gyrokinetic conservation laws because gyrokinetic equations are derived as an approximation of the Vlasov-Poisson-Ampère system.

  14. Energy conservation by reducing process variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Lafourcade, Sebastien [Pepite S.A., Liege (Belgium); Mack, Philippe [Pepite Technologies Inc., Montreal (Canada)

    2011-12-21

    Energy conservation is becoming an increasingly important instrument to stay competitive in today is increasingly global market. Important investments have been made in infrastructure and personnel in order to improve the management of energy such as increased metering, energy dashboards, energy managers, etc. Despite these investments, the results have not materialized and there is still a significant potential to further reduce energy consumption. In this paper a new methodology will be presented that helps industry better operate existing assets in order to reduce energy consumption, without having to make capital investments. The methodology uses a combination of advanced data analysis tools and a specific implementation scheme that has lead to significant savings in industry. The advanced data analysis tools are used to analyze the variability of the process in order to assess when the plant has been operated well or not so well in the past. By finding the root causes of these variations and the key variables that can explain them, improved operating guidelines and models can be developed and implemented. The specific implementation scheme is an important part of the methodology as it involves the people operating the plant. Several user cases will be presented showing an energy conservation of between 10%-20% without capital investments necessary. (author)

  15. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  16. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen L. Witkowski, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...-0121, (202) 586-7463, e-mail: stephen[email protected] . Ms. Elizabeth Kohl, U.S. Department of... paragraphs (b) and (h) to read as follows: Sec. 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their...

  17. Energy conservation and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    If the equivalence principle is violated, then observers performing local experiments can detect effects due to their position in an external gravitational environment (preferred-location effects) or can detect effects due to their velocity through some preferred frame (preferred frame effects). We show that the principle of energy conservation implies a quantitative connection between such effects and structure-dependence of the gravitational acceleration of test bodies (violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle). We analyze this connection within a general theoretical framework that encompasses both non-gravitational local experiments and test bodies as well as gravitational experiments and test bodies, and we use it to discuss specific experimental tests of the equivalence principle, including non-gravitational tests such as gravitational redshift experiments, Eoetvoes experiments, the Hughes-Drever experiment, and the Turner-Hill experiment, and gravitational tests such as the lunar-laser-ranging ''Eoetvoes'' experiment, and measurements of anisotropies and variations in the gravitational constant. This framework is illustrated by analyses within two theoretical formalisms for studying gravitational theories: the PPN formalism, which deals with the motion of gravitating bodies within metric theories of gravity, and the THepsilonμ formalism that deals with the motion of charged particles within all metric theories and a broad class of non-metric theories of gravity

  18. Including environmental concerns in energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, Michel

    2014-05-01

    In this article, the author comments the different impacts on the environment and risks related to energy, provided that all energies have an impact on the environment (renewable energies are generally cleaner than fossil energies) and these impacts can be on human health, ecosystems, buildings, crops, landscapes, and climate change. He comments the efforts made in the search for a higher energetic efficiency, and proposes an overview of the various available tools implemented by environmental policies in the energy sector: regulatory instruments, economic instruments, negotiated agreements, and informational instruments. He comments the implementation of an energetic taxing aimed at developing a greater respect of the environment

  19. Annotated directory of energy conservation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    Summaries of 34 consumer energy conservation programs in Canada and the USA are listed. Areas of focus are: (1) home heating and cooling; (2) household appliances; (3) private transportation; and (4) community involvement. Each summary contains information on the program objectives, operating details, results to date, costs and benefits, and source of funding. The key contact person is identified and background literature references are given. ((MJJ)

  20. Energy conservation achievements by New Shorrock Mills, Ahmedabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, N.L.; Trivedi, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The New Shorrock Mills, Ahmedabad is a textile mill manufacturing cloth. Managerial practices like energy auditing and energy conservation monitoring introduced to conserve energy are described. Various measures implemented to conserve energy in machines power; carding, winding, warping and sizing operations; auto looms and lighting power are described. Cost reduction in terms of rupees is given. (N.B.)

  1. Energy conservation and fuel substitution in Ube Kosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    After describing various changes in the Ube Kosan of Japan, an account is given of the history of the energy changeover and conservation being promoted by this company, together with details of the results of these measures and the company structures involved. Topics mentioned include imports of coal, the changeover to coal as a heat source in the production of cement and for the company's private power generation, the establishment of a coal centre, the organization of the drive towards energy conservation, the adoption of the SAVE technique, feedstock substitution, and the state of development of new processes.

  2. Pollution prevention and energy conservation: Understanding the interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    The traditional view holds that pollution prevention is good for energy conservation and vice versa. Analysis of pollution prevention and energy conservation activities indicates, however, that interactions and synergies between environmental and energy factors can mean that pollution prevention can be energy intensive and, conversely, that energy conservation can lead to increased pollution. Full cost accounting, taking into account all media, must be performed before precise pollution prevention-energy conservation interrelationships can be characterized and quantified. Use of a pollution prevention-energy conservation matrix can further this understanding

  3. Towards energy self sufficiency in the North: Energy conservation and forest biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A symposium was held to address the issues of controlling energy demand through conservation, and increasing the range of energy supply using forest products (biomass) as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels in Canada's northern climates. Sections on retrofitting of thermal insulation, production of wood fuels, and unconventional energy analyses of these technologies are included. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 23 papers.

  4. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and... Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. (a) Each... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the...

  5. Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, L

    1980-10-01

    Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

  6. Jersey City energy conservation demonstration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, R.F.

    1978-08-01

    The Aerospace Corporation, the City Government, and the Board of Education of Jersey City have conducted a group of energy-conservation experiments to explore a number of conservation techniques believed to offer quick payback and to be of wide applicability. Experiments include the updating and/or rehabilitation of the energy-consuming features of old buildings and installation of devices designed to minimize energy losses caused by human error or laxity. Specific examples include: upgrading of the deteriorated and inefficient steam-distribution system of the city hall (originally constructed in 1894); an extensive program of reducing infiltration in an old school building; use of several timing devices in connection with heating, ventilation, and lighting systems to encourage energy-conservation practices; retrofit of school classrooms with high-pressure sodium lamps; and demonstration of practical and cost-effective ways of increasing the efficiency of conventional steam boilers. The report presents: the nature of the selected experiments; technical, human, and organizational factors that proved significant in performing and evaluating the experiments; discussions of observations and lessons learned; and general recommendations for an extended program of energy conservation in local governments. It is emphasized that, in retrofit of existing buildings, the unexpected is commonplace; and the habits and attitudes of building occupants are elements of the system that must always be taken into account. This report shows the benefits of energy saving, cost saving, and added comfort that may be attained by retrofitting old buildings, noting typical complications that arise. The effectiveness of the conservation methods is presented in terms of costs relative to effective payback periods calculated from results of their application in Jersey City.

  7. Electrorheology for energy production and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke

    Recently, based on the physics of viscosity, we developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. The method is universal and applicable to all complex fluids with suspended particles of nano-meter, submicrometer, or micrometer size. Completely different from the traditional viscosity reduction method, raising the temperature, this technology is energy-efficient, as it only requires small amount of energy to aggregate the suspended particles. In this thesis, we will first discuss this new technology in detail, both in theory and practice. Then, we will report applications of our technology to energy science research. Presently, 80% of all energy sources are liquid fuels. The viscosity of liquid fuels plays an important role in energy production and energy conservation. With an electric field, we can reduce the viscosity of asphalt-based crude oil. This is important and useful for heavy crude oil and off-shore crude oil production and transportation. Especially, since there is no practical way to raise the temperature of crude oil inside the deepwater pipelines, our technology may play a key role in future off-shore crude oil production. Electrorehology can also be used to reduce the viscosity of refinery fuels, such as diesel fuel and gasoline. When we apply this technology to fuel injection, the fuel droplets in the fuel atomization become smaller, leading to faster combustion in the engine chambers. As the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines depends on the combustion speed and timing, the fast combustion produces much higher fuel efficiency. Therefore, adding our technology on existing engines improves the engine efficiency significantly. A theoretical model for the engine combustion, which explains how fast combustion improves the engine efficiency, is also presented in the thesis. As energy is the key to our national

  8. 76 FR 45606 - Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...-N131; 80221-1112-80221-F2] Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Southern California: Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and..., as amended, for the proposed Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP). The EIS will be a...

  9. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Cooperative project on energy conservation seminar; 1999 nendo sho energy seminar kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization), from the viewpoint that the development and popularization of energy conservation technologies are extremely important as energy conservation measures, collected energy related primary information from 12 Asian countries including Japan for the development and popularization of energy conservation technologies, and has constructed a database NEDO/DB. NEDO is now propelling forward its efforts to popularize the database. For popularizing NEDO/DB in Vietnam and for rendering the people conscious of energy conservation, NEDO dispatched some lecturers to an energy conservation seminar sponsored by the Vietnamese Government. The importance of energy conservation promoting measures was highlighted at the seminar. NEDO's approach to AIJ (activities implemented jointly) and CDM (clean development mechanism) was described at the seminar, and a lecture meeting was held to explain NEDO/DB and to teach how to use the database. (NEDO)

  10. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  11. Energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in science laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplowitz, Michael D.; Thorp, Laurie; Coleman, Kayla; Kwame Yeboah, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ► Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ► Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ► Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ► Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.

  12. Energy conservation on Nova Scotia farms: Baseline energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Gordon, R.; Burton, D.; Yiridoe, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Direct energy use is a small but essential component of the farm greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. Improvements in energy efficiency and renewable energy can help reduce farm operating costs, improve air quality and reduce GHG emission levels. Energy conservation is especially important in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, where fossil fuels, particularly coal, remain the primary source of electrical generation. Responses from mail surveys were used to establish baseline data on a cross-section of NS farms with respect to direct energy costs and usage to demonstrate differences in farm type and size. A 32% (N=224) response rate was achieved. Based on this survey, the average energy bill for a NS farm in 2004 was $11,228, with most (61.7%) of their energy cost attributable to the purchase of petroleum products. Almost all farmers (96.4%) indicated that their energy cost was a primary concern. Farmers identified the operation of vehicles and mobile equipment, as well as lighting and heating as having the greatest energy requirements in their operations. Energy usage varied with farm type and size. NS farms consumed 1.2 petajoules of energy equivalent to 127 kilotonnes of CO 2 with 52.7% of emissions from electricity use in 2004

  13. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  14. Department of Energy programs and objectives: energy conservation in agricultural production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This document describes the current Department of Energy agriculture research program as it relates to the research recommendations submitted by a 1976 workshop on energy conservation in agricultural production. In-depth discussions on fertilizers, irrigation, crop drying, fuel substitution, crop and animal production systems, greenhouses, materials handling, and transport systems are included. (MCW)

  15. Energy Conservation, Understanding and Activities for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication on energy conservation is designed as a resource material for the classroom. It is divided into three chapters concerning a definition of energy, the conservation of energy, and the uses of energy. For each subtopic within the chapters, there is background information and suggested project topics designed for secondary school…

  16. Energy conservation-problems and perspectives for developing nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, P. R. [National Productivity Council, New Delhi, India; Padrmanabhan, S.

    1980-03-15

    While studies of the past indicated a tight coupling of energy consumption and GNP, longer range indications are that they can be mutually decoupled. Developing nations can move forward towards achieving significant energy savings in their economics without fear of economic stagnation. Conservation policies at the national level are difficult to enunciate and the implementation mechanisms have to be strengthened. Macro-level economics may not be easily apparent as unit level economics. If energy conservation is not practiced, we would require the development of additional energy supply capacity with all of its economic implications. The role of science and technology inputs in industrial processes for minimizing energy consumption is significant. Sufficient funds should be allocated for pursuance of R and D activities in energy conservation and in developing alternative energy resources to supplement and later replace the existing costly transient fuels. A climate to promote conservation of energy should formulate policies which lays emphasis on energy conservation strategies rather than soley on energy growth issues. The effort should be directed towards energy programs that are a judicious mix up of energy and energy conservation strategies for achieving economic growth and a reasonable standard of living commensurate with the aspirations of the people. In capital-scarce economies, an account of the fact that energy conservation requires far less investment than energy capital supplies, conservation policies must play a central role in the overall framework of developing nation's national energy policies.

  17. Energy conservation and pomeron loops in high energy evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, Goesta

    2007-01-01

    We present a formalism which modifies the Mueller Dipole Model such that it incorporates energy-momentum conservation as well as important colour suppressed effects in the cascade evolution. The formalism is implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation program, and the results are compared to inclusive data from HERA and the Tevatron. We here find a generally very good agreement between our model and the experimental data. (author)

  18. Energy Conservation and Passive Solar Techniques in Campus Renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probasco, Jack; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of a building from an energy conservation and passive solar potential has three aspects: building envelope, landscaping, and room utilization. Typical conservation and solar control modifications are listed. (Author/MLF)

  19. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  20. Energy conservation opportunities: audit vis-a-vis mine productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, G.H.

    2009-07-01

    Mining operation, whether opencast or underground, with modern equipment is highly energy intensive, needing energy conservation and management to ensure efficiency, cost effectiveness, and overall productivity. Exhaustible primary energy resources such as coal, lignite, oil, and nuclear fuels are being mined out to meet our energy needs. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight the energy conservation opportunities, energy audit, the relevant Energy Conservation Act 2001 and certain energy saving measures leading to higher productivity followed by a few case study examples. 3 refs.

  1. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  2. Energy conservation in nationalised transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R C

    1980-01-01

    About 60% of high speed diesel is consumed by the road transport industry. The hike in fuel prices calls for urgent measures to conserve diesel. The paper discusses the various measures undertaken to conserve diesel in the nationalized transport sector.

  3. Strategies for energy conservation in HWP (M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, V.V.S.; Gupta, R.V.; Rao, A.L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy water plant at Manuguru is designed to produce 185 MTY of NG heavy water based on bi-thermal H 2 S-H 2 O exchange process. Being a plant based on isotopic separation process, the requirement of feed water, utilities and the inventory of H 2 S is very huge. Sustained efforts have brought down the specific energy consumption from 53.3 GJ/Kg of nuclear grade product in the financial year 1997-98 to a value of 37.6 GJ/Kg of product in the financial year 2001-02, which amounts to a reduction of 29.5%. Several modifications have been done in the following areas, which contributed towards significant energy conservation eg. reduction in consumption of steam, electric power, chemicals and man hours and in the down time of the plant/equipment's, reduction in the loss of H 2 S, D 2 O and various utilities, enhanced recycling of liquid effluents, increase in production, on stream hours, purity of the inputs, avoiding trips and unusual occurrences, trimming the built in cushions, changes in the design/elimination of certain design provisions resulting in savings, increase in operational flexibility to facilitate smooth operation, improved house keeping and quality management, improved O and M practices, upgradation of required skills/qualifications of the personnel and increasing their motivation. This paper highlights the improvements done/being taken up since the year 2000. (author)

  4. Targeting water and energy conservation using big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water conservation is often the most cost effective source of additional water supply for water stressed regions to maintain supply reliability with increasing population and/or demands, or shorter-term droughts. In previous research we demonstrated how including energy savings of conserved water can increase willingness to adopt conservation measures, at the same time that increases energy and GHG emissions savings. But the capacity to save water, energy and GHG emissions depends fundamentally in the economic benefits for customers and utilities. Utilities have traditionally used rebates, subsidies or incentives to enhance water conservation. But the economic benefits originated by these rebates depend on the actual savings of the water, energy and GHG emissions. A crucial issue that is not considered in the financial analysis of these rebates is the heterogeneity in water consumption, resulting in rebating households that actually do not need improvements in certain appliances. Smart meters with end-use disaggregation allow to consider this heterogeneity and to target rebates. By using an optimization approach that minimizes water and energy residential costs—accounting for retrofit costs and individual benefits according to previous levels of consumption—we are able to assess economically optimal rebate programs both for customers and utilities. Three programs are considered: first, same economic incentives are provided to all households and then they do their optimal decisions; second, traditional appliance-focused rebates are assessed; and third, utilities provide only rebates to those households that maximize water, energy or GHG emissions savings. Results show that the most economically efficient options for households are not the best options for utilities, and that traditional appliance-focused rebates are much less optimal than targeted rebates.

  5. Careers in the Renewable Energy and Conservation Professions and Trades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    Many kinds of jobs can be found in the renewable energy and energy conservation industries. This pamphlet indicates that a large career potential exists within the solar and conservation professions and trades. These careers consist of individuals who design, build, or install solar heating or hot water systems, who implement energy conservation…

  6. 40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy... renewable energy reserve. The Administrator will allocate 300,000 allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of the Acid Rain Data System. Allowances from this Reserve will be...

  7. Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrews, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    .... This report reviews energy conservation legislation and Executive Orders that apply to the Department of Defense, directives and instructions to the military departments and agencies on implementing...

  8. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... average unit costs of residential energy in a Federal Register notice entitled, ``Energy Conservation... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  9. BPA's Eighth Annual Energy Conservation Management Conference : Proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Conservation Management Conference (8th : 1981); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The five-year energy conservation program at Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is described at the conference. An overview of the program is presented. Topics covered in panel discussions include: how utilities can work effectively with weatherization contractors, homebuilders, energy auditors, and weatherization material suppliers; mechanisms for implementing conservation programs in the commercial sector; experiences gained in existing residential weatherization programs; and streamlining relationships between consumers, utilities, and BPA in providing services and getting feedback. The planning, programming, technical assistance, and engineering thrusts of BPA's conservation programs are discussed. Indoor air quality, renewable energy, and the regulator's role in relationships to energy conservation are discussed. Passive solar programs, DOE initiatives in solar and conservation for buildings, conservation potential in the commercial and industrial sectors, and current conservation research and development are also discussed. (MCW)

  10. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  11. Energy conservation efforts in Indian mining industry - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, G.K.; Chattoraj, P.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of energy is a national agenda as had been set by our Prime Minister at various fora, in the case of coal mining also there is ample scope to reduce specific energy conservation. The issue can be resolved through 'energy audit' so as to identify the areas of improvement, technology to introduce and innovative system to adopt. In a nutshell it can be concluded that, through energy audit, we can immediately save 10-15 % of energy without any major investment

  12. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  13. 10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments 430.34 Section 430.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.34 Energy and water conservation standards...

  14. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  15. Machine learning of accurate energy-conserving molecular force fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Stefan; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Sauceda, Huziel E.; Poltavsky, Igor; Schütt, Kristof T.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2017-01-01

    Using conservation of energy—a fundamental property of closed classical and quantum mechanical systems—we develop an efficient gradient-domain machine learning (GDML) approach to construct accurate molecular force fields using a restricted number of samples from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) trajectories. The GDML implementation is able to reproduce global potential energy surfaces of intermediate-sized molecules with an accuracy of 0.3 kcal mol−1 for energies and 1 kcal mol−1 Å̊−1 for atomic forces using only 1000 conformational geometries for training. We demonstrate this accuracy for AIMD trajectories of molecules, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene, ethanol, uracil, and aspirin. The challenge of constructing conservative force fields is accomplished in our work by learning in a Hilbert space of vector-valued functions that obey the law of energy conservation. The GDML approach enables quantitative molecular dynamics simulations for molecules at a fraction of cost of explicit AIMD calculations, thereby allowing the construction of efficient force fields with the accuracy and transferability of high-level ab initio methods. PMID:28508076

  16. Energy conservation in selected buildings, Gdansk. 1. final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This Final Report marks the end of the implementation stage of the project: 'Energy Conservation in Selected Buildings in Gdansk, Poland' supported by the Danish Environment-related Energy Sector Programme for Poland under the Danish Energy Agency. The residential and commercial sectors together with public buildings account for 40-45% of the total energy consumption and are dominated by the use of space heating and hot water. The sector has a significant over-consumption of energy, which first of all is due to the lack of or too weak incentives for the individual tenants to decrease the energy consumption. Bad thermal insulation of buildings and inefficient central heating systems with a widespread lack of measurement and automatic control systems give cause for extensive heat losses. The objective of the project has been to document the effects of energy savings in 18 multi-family houses when different types of energy saving measures are applied. These measures include thermal insulation of buildings, refurbishment of the heating system and introduction of individual billing system for heating and hot tap water. Energy audits of 18 buildings were performed by combination of on-site inspection of all buildings and data collection from the available drawings, technical descriptions, etc. The on-site inspection was carried out by use of an energy audit scheme specially developed for this project. (EG)

  17. Energy conservation in selected buildings, Gdansk. 1. final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This Final Report marks the end of the implementation stage of the project: `Energy Conservation in Selected Buildings in Gdansk, Poland` supported by the Danish Environment-related Energy Sector Programme for Poland under the Danish Energy Agency. The residential and commercial sectors together with public buildings account for 40-45% of the total energy consumption and are dominated by the use of space heating and hot water. The sector has a significant over-consumption of energy, which first of all is due to the lack of or too weak incentives for the individual tenants to decrease the energy consumption. Bad thermal insulation of buildings and inefficient central heating systems with a widespread lack of measurement and automatic control systems give cause for extensive heat losses. The objective of the project has been to document the effects of energy savings in 18 multi-family houses when different types of energy saving measures are applied. These measures include thermal insulation of buildings, refurbishment of the heating system and introduction of individual billing system for heating and hot tap water. Energy audits of 18 buildings were performed by combination of on-site inspection of all buildings and data collection from the available drawings, technical descriptions, etc. The on-site inspection was carried out by use of an energy audit scheme specially developed for this project. (EG)

  18. Atomic energy, environment and energy conservation in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Koko

    1990-01-01

    About 12 % of generated electric power is the nuclear power in Eastern European countries. Generally electric power is short in these countries, and as the countermeasures for environment, the promotion of nuclear power generation is considered. However, the public opinion opposing it is also strong. The situation in respective countries is briefly discussed. The prevention of warming of the earth and the reduction of carbon dioxide gas release are the largest environmental problems discussed in western countries, but in Eastern European countries, the far more primitive problem of the damage due to SO 2 is serious. Notwithstanding high sulfur brown coal is the main fuel, the installation of desulfurizing facilities has been neglected. The demand for the countermeasures to environmental pollution by people has become strong. The energy efficiency in Eastern European countries is poor, and it is one of the causes of environmental pollution. The industrial structure is centering around heavy industries which consume much energy, the energy loss arises due to the delay of equipment modernization, and the energy is cheap, so its saving is neglected. Energy conservation is important. (K.I.)

  19. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  20. Environmental Development Plan for Transportation Energy Conservation. FY 79 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. K.; Bernard, III, M. J.

    1978-12-15

    This is the first annual update of the Environment Development Plan (EDP) for the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation program. It identifies the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with the division's transportation programs. These programs include the research, development, demonstration and assessment (RDD and A) of seventeen transportation technologies and several strategy and policy development and implementation projects. The transportation technologies projects deal with highway transport including electric vehicles, marine transport and pipeline transport. This EDP presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns stemming from these programs.

  1. Energy conservation and efficiency in manufacturing: Employee decisions and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Marla D.

    Energy conservation and intensity reduction efforts are becoming increasingly more prevalent and ultimately necessary, especially for energy-intensive manufacturing companies in particular to stay in business. Typical actions are to change technology, and thus, realize an energy cost savings in overall utilities. However, in today's competitive market, with climate change and other environmental impacts as well, it is necessary for the cost of energy to be valued as a cost of making a product, and thus, managed at the same level as the cost of labor or materials. This research assessed human behavior at the individual and organizational levels both at work and at home that either prompted or prohibited employees from taking daily action to conserve energy or develop greater energy efficient practices. Ultimately, the questions began with questions regarding employee views and knowledge of energy at work and at home and what drives both behaviors toward conservation or efficiency. And, the contribution identifies the key drivers, barriers, and/or incentives that affect those behaviors. The results of this study show that the key driver and motivator for energy conservation both at home and work is cost savings. The study showed that to further motivate individuals to conserve energy at home and work, more knowledge of the impact their actions have or could have as well as tools would be needed. The most poinient aspect of the research was the level of importance placed on energy conservation and the desire to conserve. The feedback given to the open ended questions was quite impressive regarding what employees have done and continue to do particularly within their homes to conserve energy. These findings brought about final recommendations that were in fact not expected but could significantly influence an increase in energy conservation at work by leveraging the existing desire to conserve which is a key component to decision making.

  2. Conservation of energy for the Euler-Korteweg equations

    KAUST Repository

    Dębiec, Tomasz

    2017-12-30

    In this article we study the principle of energy conservation for the Euler-Korteweg system. We formulate an Onsager-type sufficient regularity condition for weak solutions of the Euler-Korteweg system to conserve the total energy. The result applies to the system of Quantum Hydrodynamics.

  3. 24 CFR 965.306 - Energy conservation equipment and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Measures § 965.306 Energy conservation equipment and practices. In purchasing original or, when needed, replacement equipment, PHAs shall acquire only equipment that meets or exceeds the minimum efficiency... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy conservation equipment and...

  4. Financial Energy Conservation Projects at Independent Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    Factors affecting financial decisions for energy conservation projects at independent colleges and universities and methods that may be used when making a financial investment decision are examined, along with sources of funding for the projects. Projects that result in the conservation of energy resources might, in a time of extreme shortages,…

  5. Energy conservation in molecular dynamics simulations of classical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Classical Newtonian dynamics is analytic and the energy of an isolated system is conserved. The energy of such a system, obtained by the discrete “Verlet” algorithm commonly used in molecular dynamics simulations, fluctuates but is conserved in the mean. This is explained by the existence...

  6. A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm--within a few percent--that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have…

  7. Conservation of energy for the Euler-Korteweg equations

    KAUST Repository

    Dębiec, Tomasz; Gwiazda, Piotr; Świerczewska-Gwiazda, Agnieszka; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    In this article we study the principle of energy conservation for the Euler-Korteweg system. We formulate an Onsager-type sufficient regularity condition for weak solutions of the Euler-Korteweg system to conserve the total energy. The result applies to the system of Quantum Hydrodynamics.

  8. Energy conservation through thermally insulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Dayyeh, Ayoub

    2006-01-01

    The propose of this paper is to explicate its title through investigating the different available thermal insulating materials and the various techniques of application, as practiced in Jordan, in particular, and as practiced in many parts of the world in general, which will satisfy Jordanian standards in terms of heat transmittance and thermal comfort. A brief comparison with international standards will shed some light on the stringent measures enforced in the developed world and on our striving aspirations to keep pace. The paper consists of four main parts, pseudoally divided. The first part will deal with the mechanism of heat loss and heat gain in structures during summer and winter. It will also explain the Time-lag phenomenon which is vital for providing thermal comfort inside the dwellings. The second part will evaluate the damages induced by the temperature gradients on the different elements of the structure, particularly next to exterior opening. The paper will also demonstrate the damages induced by water condensation and fungus growth on the internal surfaces of the structure and within its skeleton. A correlation between condensation and thermal insulation will be established. The third part of the paper will evaluate the different available thermal insulating materials and the application techniques which will satisfy the needs for thermal insulating and thermal comfort at the least cost possible. The criteria of an economical design shall be established. As a conclusion, the paper infers answers to the following different criteria discussed throughout the different parts of the paper. The main theme of questions can be summarized as follows: 1)How energy conservation is possible due to thermal insulation? 2)The feasibility of investing in thermal insulation? 3)Is thermal comfort and a healthy atmosphere possible inside the dwellings during all season! What are the conditions necessary to sustain them? 4)What environmental impacts can exist due to

  9. Potential for energy-conserving capital equipment in UK industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawkes, S D

    1986-01-01

    A summary is given of recent research into the potential for energy-conserving capital equipment in UK industries. The research had significant findings regarding the feasibility of achieving low-energy scenarios. It also stressed the importance of site specific factors in inhibiting incremental technical change such as that common in energy-conservation investments, developed a soft systems model of energy-management activities and investigated current progress and management styles in the brewing, malting, distilling and dairy sectors.

  10. Intercity passenger transportation: energy efficiency and conservation case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    To demonstrate a methodology for energy analysis and to advance technical knowledge on the energy conservation potential in intercity passenger transportation, this paper reports findings of a case study of the Toronto-Ottawa-Montreal multimodal system. From a total (direct and indirect) energy perspective for origin-destination travel, energy efficiency and conservation potential of technological improvements, modal shifts and increased load factors are reported. 11 refs.

  11. Solar energy and conservation technologies for Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objectives of the Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF) project were to develop and publish materials and conduct workshops on solar energy and conservation technologies that would directly address the needs and interests of tourist facilities in the Caribbean basin. Past contacts with the Caribbean and US tourist industries indicated that decision-makers remained unconvinced that renewable technologies could have a significant impact on development and operation costs or that renewable energy products and services suited their needs. In order to assure that the materials and programs developed were responsive to the Caribbean tourist industry and U.S. conservation and renewable energy industries, marketing research with potential end users and the organizations and associations that serve those users was included as an underlying task in the project. The tasks outlined in the CTF Statement of Work included conference planning, gathering of field data, development of educational materials, and conduct of workshop(s). In addition to providing a chronicle of the fulfillment of those tasks, this final report includes suggestions for distributing the documents developed during the project, venues for future workshops, and other technology transfer and market influence strategies.

  12. Airline energy conservation options : summary options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-27

    In late May, 1973 the task of determining and evaluating measures for conserving fuel consumed by the airline industry was undertaken. This task was a part of the larger effort conducted by the Transportation Systems Center to determine measures that...

  13. Developing sustainable energy policies for electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ajlan, S.A.; Al-Ibrahim, A.M.; Abdulkhaleq, M.; Alghamdi, F.

    2006-01-01

    Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this

  14. Developing sustainable energy policies for electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajlan, S.A. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: salajlan@kacst.edu.sa; Al-Ibrahim, A.M. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Abdulkhaleq, M. [Ministry of Water and Electricity (Saudi Arabia); Alghamdi, F. [Ministry of Water and Electricity (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-09-15

    Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this

  15. 77 FR 14509 - State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket No. EESEP0216] State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request for Information AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... (SEP) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) program, in support of energy...

  16. Overview of energy demand and opportunities for conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, P. J.

    1977-10-15

    The widespread practice of conservation could make a substantial reduction in the rate of growth of demand and hence in the rate at which resources need to be developed and consumed. An attempt is not made to show that conservation is an alternative to increasing energy supply. After reviewing the consumption of energy before the 1973 energy crisis, the main features of conservation which have brought it to the forefront of energy policy are examined. Some information on present consumption patterns in New Zealand is presented.

  17. Energy conservation in industry; Energibesparelser i erhvervslivet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S (Denmark)); Maagoee Petersen, P. (Viegand and Maagoee ApS (Denmark))

    2010-02-15

    The report describes the completed survey and the methodology used for the analysis of energy saving opportunities and potentials for processing technologies and equipment in the industry. The report also includes a total of fourteen technology descriptions, of which eleven relate to end use of energy, while the three descriptions are for cross-technologies. The technology descriptions analyse any significant savings opportunities in the processing technologies concerned and work out the potentials of 'here and now' cost savings, with 2, 4 and 10-year payback time, respectively. The survey makes it possible to prioritize the instruments with the shortest payback times. The total savings potential for the eleven end-use technologies is estimated to be 10% at 2 years of payback time, 15% at four year payback time, and 32% at the 10 year payback time. The percentage potential is somewhat greater for the end-use technologies using electricity than the end-use which mainly uses fuel. That the potential is less for fuel-based end-use technologies may be explained by the fact that they are key processes that are regularly upgraded to increase product quality, to reduce production time and waste, etc. Such improvements also help to save energy and means that further improvements are relatively expensive. (ln)

  18. Energy conservation in mechanical industry; Maitrise de l`energie dans les industries mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The workshop is composed of 12 communications on the theme of energy consumption, conservation and management in industry, and more especially in metal industry: evaluation of the energy savings potential in the French industry; official energy diagnosis procedure in buildings; the French national gas utility policy for energy conservation and economical performance in industry; energy conservation with speed variators for electric motors; energy audits and energy metering for conservation objectives. Examples of energy efficient systems or energy audits in various industrial sectors (compressed air, industrial buildings, heat treatments, curing...) are also presented. The electric power quality EDF`s contract is also discussed

  19. Energy resources, CO2 production and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    World fossil fuel reserves, historical and current rates of consumption are reviewed and estimates of indigeneous lives in geographical regions are made. Rates of production and accumulations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are calculated and correlations made with measured global mean temperatures and concomitant sea-level rises. It is concluded that, if present rates of global fossil-fuel consumptions continue unabated, the world's fossil-fuel store will be depleted by the year 2050. This would be accompanied by a substantial rise in global mean temperature. The effects of various protocols for the reductions of emissions are examined. It is concluded that there is no alternative than to cease the production and release into the atmosphere of the more damaging man-made greenhouse gases as soon as is practicably possible and to seek a sustained reduction in the rates of combustion of fossil fuels world-wide via energy management and conservation. (author)

  20. Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction for the Public in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wujun Wen; Xiaowen Liu; Geng Xu (Research Center for Sustainable Development of Shandong Province, Shandong Normal Univ., Jinan Shandong 250014 (China)). e-mail: wenwj@sdnu.edu.cn

    2009-05-15

    The Ministry of Science and Technology of China organized experts to develop the Internet-based software Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction to directly measure energy conservation and emission reduction potentials in people's daily lives. Research and testing of the software have been completed, and the software is available to the public on the Internet. The Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction software is being promoted with the aim of stimulating the public's enthusiasm for energy conservation and emission reduction. The software is of great significance in energy conservation and emission reduction education oriented to elementary and middle school students and community residents, thus changing the lagged public participation of Chinese citizens in energy conservation and emission reduction. The counter can calculate people's energy conservation and emission reduction potential in six aspects of daily life. The user can know his or her value of energy conservation and emission reduction in each aspect by clicking the options in keeping with his or her true daily routines. The user can also know the amounts of energy conservation and emission reduction as well as the potential energy conservation and emission reduction of the whole nation by clicking the Effect Calculation Button. Family life areas mainly include the methods and habits of water use, the use of energy conservation cookers, methods of saving paper, the use of environmental protection products, the habit of home appliance use, and the methods of washing clothing, especially the use of the washing machine with the function of energy conservation. Housing includes the building materials, the heating and cooling systems, the temperature control measures, and the lighting, etc. Heating and cooling times for the house by air conditioner should be reduced. Architects can do a great deal by using energy-efficient building materials and designing houses

  1. Energy Conservation in Dissipative Processes: Teacher Expectations and Strategies Associated with Imperceptible Thermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in…

  2. Energy conservation potential in Taiwanese textile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Gui-Bing; Su, Te-Li; Lee, Jenq-Daw; Hsu, Tsung-Chi; Chen, Hua-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwan's energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwan's textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074 ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving was equivalent to 94,614 MWh of electricity, 23,686 kl of fuel oil and 4887 ton of fuel coal. It represented a potential reduction of 143,669 ton in carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 3848 ha plantation forest. This study summarizes energy-saving measures for energy users and identifies the areas for making energy saving to provide an energy efficiency baseline.

  3. Conservation – a new and efficient source of energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Building Research Institute

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is becoming increasingly expensive. Conservation can offset the increase in energy cost and can therefore be considered a new and can fairly inexpensive source of energy. The following article looks at the ways in which energy savings in both...

  4. Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011–2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years’ research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  5. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  6. 76 FR 22324 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... standards, the current standards for room air conditioners and clothes dryers, and the history of the... Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... equipment, including residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. EPCA also requires the U.S...

  7. Airplane energy use and conservation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilati, D.A.

    1974-05-01

    Domestic commercial airplane fuel use is examined as a function of stage length. A fuel use model is developed using the eight most popular airplanes. Short flights are very fuel inefficient; a 100-mile flight consumes 2.5 times as much fuel per passenger-mile than a 1,000-mile flight. Half of today's flights are for distances under 260 miles. Fuel consumption for purposes other than flying directly between airports is examined. Over 10% of total fuel use is for those portions of the flight in which no enroute distance is achieved. Delays account for at least 4.2% of the fuel consumption and auxiliary power units use over 1%. Fuel requirements for attempting to recover lost time and for fuel ferrying are also discussed. Airplane fuel efficiency can be increased in the short term by operational changes, particularly by increasing the load factor. A load factor increase from 50 to 60% would reduce airplane fuel use by 16% for the same traffic. Other options include reducing cruise speeds, increasing cruise altitudes, and changing ground operations. Each of these strategies offer savings of 1 to 3%. Total transportation energy use can be reduced by shifting air passengers to ground modes, especially for the inefficient short-stage traffic. Net energy savings for diverting half the flights under 200 miles to buses or trains is equivalent to 6% of the fleet fuel use. (6 tables, 6 fig., 36 references)

  8. Report on energy conservation. Potential feasibility study on energy conservation at the national textile factories (Energy-saving equipment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In consideration of the future CDM project, feasibility study was made on the energy conservation/cost reduction in national textile factories in Egypt. In textile factories in Egypt, the steam by oil fueled boiler is used in dyeing, drying and other production processes. In this study, studied were the energy conservation effect, greenhouse effect gas reduction effect and economical efficiency in the case of using electric power/steam by the natural gas fueled cogeneration system. As a result of the study, the energy conservation effect in 6 national textile factories became 13% on average, which equals to the conservation of 15,000 toe per year. The greenhouse effect gas reduction effect also became 13%, which equals to the reduction of approximately 46,000 t-CO2 per year. As to the economical efficiency, the depreciation period of investment became 4.0-8.6 years (5.6 years on average). In the light of the operation period of cogeneration facilities of 15 years, it was indicated that the system was very advantageous. (NEDO)

  9. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume II. Energy conservation technology: for the building inspector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This training manual contains the basic information necessary to acquaint the field building inspector with the concepts of energy conservation in buildings and instructs him in the basic techniques of field inspection of energy compliance.

  10. State energy conservation plan for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The energy-savings and energy-management programs set up by state agencies in New Mexico are presented. Also the energy-savings and energy-management programs for public schools are presented. Plans and summaries are also given for the following program: solar water heaters for secondary schools; solar portable classroom demonstration; energy-savings and energy-management programs for county and municipal governments; energy-savings programs for commercial and residential sectors; weatherization; solar sustenance; energy-savings programs for hospitals and industrial buildings; carpools and vanpools; a program encouraging compliance with the national 55-mph speed limit; waste-oil recycling; utilitites; agriculture; procurement; modification; public information; and an administrative packet containing information on how to facilitate internal accounting procedures.

  11. Energy demand : analysis, management and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasinghe, Mohan

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this book are expected make useful contributions to energy research and policy whether they are driven with the objective of augmenting supplies to reduce oil dependence, to increase the economic benefit per unit of energy consumed, or to reduce the impact of energy use on the environment. Papers relevant to INIS subject scopes are indexed separately. (original)

  12. Energy conservation status in Taiwanese food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chih-Ming; Chen, Ming-Hue; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2012-01-01

    The food industry in Taiwan is labor intensive, the cost of raw materials is high, and there is much product diversification. Although this industry is primarily small and medium scale, it is a large user of electricity in Taiwan's manufacturing sector. The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from manufacturing activities and vehicle emissions has increased remarkably. Energy audits are a basic and direct means by which energy efficiency can be improved, energy consumption reduced, and carbon dioxide emissions inhibited. This work summarizes the energy saving potential of 76 firms and the energy savings implemented by 23 firms as determined by energy audit tracking and from the on-line energy declaration system in Taiwan's food industry. The results of this study can serve as a benchmark for developing a quantified list in terms of potential energy savings and opportunities for improving the efficiency of the food industry. - Highlights: ► This work summarizes the energy saving potential and the energy savings implemented in food industry. ► The results of this study can serve as a benchmark for developing a quantified list in terms of potential energy savings. ► The opportunities for improving the efficiency of the food industry can be a reference.

  13. Energy conservation: a requirement of the present time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcoforado, Fernando Antonio Goncalves

    1993-01-01

    The origins of the financial crisis that affects the Brazilian electrical sector is presented. The options available to overcome this situation and the role played by energy conservation are described. 7 refs

  14. Energy conservation campaign at Sandvik AB in Sandviken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Rune

    1979-07-01

    Sandvik AB's performed an analysis showing oil consumption for steam production was increasing considerably. Energy conservation measures were implemented to decrease the oil consumption and to make lasting changes.

  15. Balancing act: Government roles in an energy conservation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterman, A.; Kourula, A.; Levitt, R.

    2014-01-01

    Government-led interorganizational alliance networks present a sensible opportunity to overcome many societal challenges through collaborative governance. In particular, few researchers have studied alliance networks in the field of energy conservation in commercial buildings—a sector with unique

  16. Energy conservation in French industry and at Rhone-Poulenc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongon, A.

    1979-07-01

    Thirteen examples are given to illustrate France's energy conservation program. The examples show the most efficient way of energy sources management, the application of the process optimization's method, and the use of control equipment for process and heating. The details on how energy is used rationally at Rhone-Poulenc are presented.

  17. Basic Energy Conservation and Management--Part 2: HVAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal, and new technologies have brought greater energy efficiencies to the school environment. In Part 1 of this two-part series, the author discussed the steps required to establish an energy conservation and management program with an emphasis on lighting. In this article, he…

  18. Energy Conservation. The Best of ERIC, Number 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The 13 articles in this annotated bibliography cover a wide range of concerns from the finances of energy conservation to solar energy applications, to building design, to building maintenance, and to the role of the science teacher as an energy analyst and activist. (IRT)

  19. The animal feed and energy conservation properties of Avotan (Avoparcin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C W [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom); O` Beirne, P [Cyanamid (United Kingdom) Ltd. (United Kingdom). Animal Health Div.

    1994-12-31

    AVOTAN, avoparcin is a glycopeptide antibiotic manufactured by Cyanamid (UK) via the fermentation of a strain of Streptomyces candidus. The gross energy requirement of manufacturing avoparcin is calculated and compared with the gross energy savings of feed utilisation when used in animal feeding regimes for broiler chickens, pigs, beef cattle and dairy cows for milk production. Avoparcin improves farm animal production in terms of liveweight gains and feed conversion efficiency. So, by conserving animal feed it conserves the energy which would have been expended to produce that animal feed. The energy savings thus calculated range from one to two orders of magnitude on an energy ratio basis and so are very significant. The widespread use of avoparcin in world agriculture is therefore very beneficial in an energy conservation context. (Author)

  20. Economics of Energy Conservation: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gunatilake, Herath; Padmakanthi, Dhammika

    2008-01-01

    Global energy security relies heavily on exhaustible fossil fuels, whose use contributes significantly to global environmental problems. The recent unprecedented rise in oil prices and the threat of global warming highlight the urgent need for solutions to the energy and environment problem. Shifting to clean renewable energy sources - the long-term solution - has been slow despite efforts of the global community since the 1970s. Demand side management (DSM) is part of the solution to the ene...

  1. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

  2. Quasilocal energy and conserved charges derived from the gravitational action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.D.; York, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The quasilocal energy of gravitational and matter fields in a spatially bounded region is obtained by employing a Hamilton-Jacobi analysis of the action functional. First, a surface stress-energy-momentum tensor is defined by the functional derivative of the action with respect to the three-metric on 3 B, the history of the system's boundary. Energy surface density, momentum surface density, and spatial stress are defined by projecting the surface stress tensor normally and tangentially to a family of spacelike two-surfaces that foliate 3 B. The integral of the energy surface density over such a two-surface B is the quasilocal energy associated with a spacelike three-surface Σ whose orthogonal intersection with 3 B is the boundary B. The resulting expression for quasilocal energy is given in terms of the total mean curvature of the spatial boundary B as a surface embedded in Σ. The quasilocal energy is also the value of the Hamiltonian that generates unit magnitude proper-time translations on 3 B in the timelike direction orthogonal to B. Conserved charges such as angular momentum are defined using the surface stress tensor and Killing vector fields on 3 B. For spacetimes that are asymptotically flat in spacelike directions, the quasilocal energy and angular momentum defined here agree with the results of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner in the limit that the boundary tends to spatial infinity. For spherically symmetric spacetimes, it is shown that the quasilocal energy has the correct Newtonian limit, and includes a negative contribution due to gravitational binding

  3. Bibliography for transportation energy conservation. [578 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, Sarah J.

    1976-05-01

    A listing is given of 578 reports, books, articles, and conference papers on transportation and energy. Coverage is primarily on U. S. developments and research from 1970 to 1975. Following a section of citations of general works on energy, the bibliography contains two main parts: ''Energy for Transportation'' and ''Transportation of Energy.'' Within each of these topics the arrangement is multimodal (at the urban, regional, national, or international level), then by mode. Selected information sources are listed in the last part. Within each section, entries are arranged alphabetically by author or, lacking an author, by title. References were drawn from the Transportation Center Library collection and other libraries in the Northwestern University system. An earlier bibliography, Transportation and Energy, compiled by the Transportation Center Library in March 1974, forms the basis for the arrangement and provides coverage from 1970 to 1973.

  4. On Some Aspects of Energy Conservation in Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Keerti; Seksena, S. B. L.; Thakur, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    Energy demand has increased continuously due to advancement in technology and living standards of a large section of people resulting in a wide gap between supply and demand. One of the approaches to reduce this gap would be the adoption of measures of energy conservation in general and the efficient use of energy particularly in motor. This paper presents a review of the research activity in the field of efficiency optimization of three-phase induction motor drive. The approach is analyzed and the better option of energy conservation are identified.

  5. Energy conservation and the residential and commercial sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A detailed analysis of energy conservation actions relevant to the residential and commercial sector has led to the conclusion that the potential for savings is great. The task will not be easy, however, since many of the actions require significant life style changes that are difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, many of the conservation actions cited as instant solutions to the energy crisis are those with only mid to long term potential, such as solar energy or heat pumps. Three significant conservation approaches are viable: adjusting price structure, mandating actions, and educating consumers. The first two appear to be the most feasible. But they are not without a price. Higher utility bills adversely affect the poor and the elderly on fixed incomes. Likewise, strict mandatory measures can be quite distasteful. But the effect of alternatives, such as voluntary savings accomplished through education processes, is minimal in a nation without a true conservation ethic.

  6. Overview topic paper on mass media energy conservation communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertinsky, P; Vertinsky, I

    1979-02-01

    The utilization of information diffusion strategies to increase energy conservation knowledge and practices among the general population in Canada is discussed in terms of 5 media functions: information dissemination, remedial behavior modification, lifestyle decisions, initiating conservation action, and crisis management. Each of these functions is critically addressed in terms of media mix, message content and form, timing and intensity, exposure, and specific target populations. The diffusion strategies are then organized into a matrix of policy options to enable the appropriate one to be selected. Four major categories of energy conservation information considered are the nature of the energy problem, methods of conservation, results of conservation, and the individual consumer decision-making process. Heavy television exposure suggests this medium has enormous potential for informing Canadians on conservation issues. Print seems to be the main source of detailed, specialized, and sophisticated kinds of information. However, despite wide media availability, large numbers of the population consistently escape contact with widely reported information. Behavioral modification to change undesirable energy habits is examined from the perspectives of initial change and cultural/social change required to sustain new lifestyles. The use of mass media during crisis situations may be of essential importance for implementation of future energy policies. Information dissemination and responses to the mass media do not appear to have the same patterns during crisis and non-crisis situations. 279 refs.

  7. Low effectiveness of the energy conservation policy in the horticulture in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Roozendaal, P.J.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Between December 2000 and June 2002 the Netherlands Court of Audit ('Algemene Rekenkamer') carried out a study on the title subject, focusing on the effect of energy saving measures on the energy consumption per product unit in the greenhouse sector in the Netherlands for the period 1994-2000, including the effect of the energy conservation policy for the period 1997-1999 [nl

  8. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government energy management and conservation programs, Fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-06

    This report provides sinformation on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet statutory requirements of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act. It also describes energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Implementation activities undertaken during FY94 by the Federal agencies under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and Executive Orders 12759 and 12902 are also described. During FY94, total (gross) energy consumption of the US Government, including energy consued to produce, process, and transport energy, was 1.72 quadrillion Btu. This represents {similar_to}2.0% of the total 85.34 quads used in US.

  9. Energy management: a program of energy conservation for the community college facility. [Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various Authors

    1978-01-01

    This handbook developes helps for assessing and improving the energy efficiency of the community-college facility. The TEEM approach (Total Educational Energy Management) is a labor-intensive approach which requires the commitment and participation of all segments of the college community. The TEEM program presented here defines a series of tasks selected, ordered, and implemented in such a way as to achieve two basic objectives: (1) reducing campus energy requirements, and (2) meeting those reduced energy requirements more efficiently without adversely affecting the quality of educational programs. This guide to large-scale energy conservation on college campuses includes step-by-step procedures for establishing a program task force, defining specific tasks, and assigning responsibilities. Action plans are developed, energy consumption monitored, goals set, and conservation measures implemented. A series of appendices provides more detailed information, charts, and worksheets related to all aspects of energy use. The TEEM program provides the basic structure for achieving a significant reduction in campus energy costs.

  10. 78 FR 77019 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... air conditioning heat pump'' that were established in section 5 of the American Energy Manufacturing... heat pump'' product class, including the definition and standards. DATES: DOE will accept comments....gov . Table of Contents I. Background and Authority II. Discussion III. Procedural Requirements A...

  11. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  12. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  13. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... 5-year average ratio with heating oil prices published in the Monthly Energy Review, but the propane... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program... and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In this notice, the U.S...

  14. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J...

  15. Kalaeloa Energy System Redevelopment Options Including Advanced Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanderMey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In June 2016, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Branch for the Hawaii State Energy Office (HSEO), the Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), the United States Navy (Navy), and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) established a project to 1) assess the current functionality of the energy infrastructure at the Kalaeloa Community Development District, and 2) evaluate options to use both existing and new distributed and renewable energy generation and storage resources within advanced microgrid frameworks to cost-effectively enhance energy security and reliability for critical stakeholder needs during both short-term and extended electric power outages. This report discusses the results of a stakeholder workshop and associated site visits conducted by Sandia in October 2016 to identify major Kalaeloa stakeholder and tenant energy issues, concerns, and priorities. The report also documents information on the performance and cost benefits of a range of possible energy system improvement options including traditional electric grid upgrade approaches, advanced microgrid upgrades, and combined grid/microgrid improvements. The costs and benefits of the different improvement options are presented, comparing options to see how well they address the energy system reliability, sustainability, and resiliency priorities identified by the Kalaeloa stakeholders.

  16. Conservation voltage regulation (CVR) applied to energy savings by voltage-adjusting equipment through AMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, B.-R.; Chang, C.-A.; Huang, P.-Y.; Kuo, C.-H.; Ye, Z.-J.; Shen, B.-C.; Chen, B.-K.

    2017-11-01

    Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) includes peak demand reduction, energy conservation, carbon emission reduction, and electricity bill reduction. This paper analyzes the energy-reduction of Siwei Feeders with applying CVR, which are situated in Penghu region and equipped with smart meters. Furthermore, the applicable voltage reduction range for the feeders will be explored. This study will also investigate how the CVR effect and energy conservation are improved with the voltage control devices integrated. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the Taiwan Power Company to promote and implement voltage reduction and energy conservation techniques. This study is expected to enhance the energy-reduction performance of the Penghu Low Carbon Island Project.

  17. Energy conservation in the EC glass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, H. de [TNO Institute of Applied Physics, Delft (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    The data presented in this survey are based mainly on a recent study, performed by the Energy Technology Support Unit ETSU. Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom, in the context of the EC-Thermie programme. Also, use has been made of a paper `Glass Manufacture, energy and CO{sub 2}-emissions`, presented by G.J. Copley of the British Glass Manufacturers Confederation, Sheffield, United Kingdom, presented at the Thermie Seminar in Wiesbaden, 1992. A third source of information has been the data collected by the CPIV, the European Glass Manufacturers Federation on the present and future economic situation of the EC Glass Industry. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of selected near-term energy-conservation options for the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Colsher, C.S.; Hamilton, R.W.; Buehring, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    This report evaluates the potential for implementation of near-term energy-conservation practices for the residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, transportation, and utility sectors of the economy in twelve states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The information used to evaluate the magnitude of achievable energy savings includes regional energy use, the regulatory/legislative climate relating to energy conservation, technical characteristics of the measures, and their feasibility of implementation. This work is intended to provide baseline information for an ongoing regional assessment of energy and environmental impacts in the Midwest. 80 references.

  19. Training program for energy conservation in new building construction. Volume III. Energy conservation technology for plan examiners and code administrators. Energy Conservation Technology Series 200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, a Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. The subject of regulation of new building construction to assure energy conservation is recognized as one in which code officials have not had previous exposure. It was also determined that application of the model code would be made at varying levels by officials with both a specific requirement for knowledge and a differing degree of prior training in the state-of-the-art. Therefore, a training program and instructional materials were developed for code officials to assist them in the implementation and enforcement of energy efficient standards and codes. The training program for Energy Conservation Tehnology for Plan Examiners and Code Administrators (ECT Series 200) is presented.

  20. Conservation of topological quantum numbers in energy bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.N.; Liang, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Quantum systems described by parametrized Hamiltinians are studied in a general context. Within this context, the classification scheme of Avron-Seiler-Simon for non-degenerate energy bands is extended to cover general parameter spaces, whole their sum rule is generalized to cover cases with degenerate bands as well. Additive topological quantum numbers are defined, and these are shown to be conserved in energy band ''collisions''. The conservation laws dictate that when some invariants are non-vanishing, no energy gap can develop in a set of degenerate bands. This gives rise to a series of splitting rules

  1. Conservation law of plants' energy value dependence of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants differences in biochemical composition are analyzed, and the conservation law of energy value in plants is obtained. The link between the need for the nutrients and the plants biochemical composition is examined, Liebig's law is specified. Keywords: plant's biochemical composition, biochemistry, energy value in ...

  2. 77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... CFR Parts 1710, 1717, 1721, 1724, and 1730 RIN 0572-AC19 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan..., proposing policies and procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for the benefit of rural...

  3. Conservation of Mechanical and Electric Energy: Simple Experimental Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikvar, D.; Planinsic, G.

    2009-01-01

    Two similar experiments on conservation of energy and transformation of mechanical into electrical energy are presented. Both can be used in classes, as they offer numerous possibilities for discussion with students and are simple to perform. Results are presented and are precise within 20% for the version of the experiment where measured values…

  4. Energy conservation techniques as innovations, and their diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darley, J M

    1978-04-01

    Many effective products, procedures, and techniques for achieving energy conservation have been discovered by researchers. This paper focuses on the conditions under which these procedures and techniques will be adopted voluntarily. It is suggested, first, that an economic incentive for the utilization of those energy-conserving techniques is not a sufficient condition for their adoption, and second, that a psychologically-based theory of the diffusion of innovation will identify the critical variables for promoting the adoption of energy-conserving products and techniques. Based on preliminary, small-scale observations of homeowners' reactions to a complex, time-controlled thermostat, the initial parameters of a diffusion theory for energy innovation are suggested.

  5. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    OpenAIRE

    S. M Hosseini; S Afzalinia; K Mollaei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006). Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006). In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by com...

  6. To conserve, or not to conserve ... : Large eddy simulation of wind farms with energy-conserving schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, D.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis concerns the industrial application of large eddy simulation to wind farm aerodynamics. Through a series of simple tests, it presents the pros and cons of using energy-conserving time integration and furthers the importance of a dissipation-free spatial discretisation. Finally, it

  7. 1999 annual progress report -- Energy conservation team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. (EERE OTT Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies Energy Conversion Team Leader)

    1999-10-19

    This report highlights progress achieved during FY 1999 under the Light-duty Fuels Utilization R and D Program. The program is comprised of two elements: the Advanced Petroleum-Based APB Fuels Program which focused on developing and testing advanced fuels for use with compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) engines and fuel cells and the Alternative Fuels Program which focused on Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels. The report contains 17 summaries of industry and National Laboratory projects. Fuel efficient vehicles with very low emissions are essential to meet the challenges of climate change, energy security, and improved air quality. The authors anticipate cooperative efforts with the auto and energy industries to develop new and innovative technologies that will be used to make advanced transportation vehicles that are fuel efficient, clean, and safe.

  8. Can energy conservation and religion mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J

    1987-08-01

    Many churches share problems of inefficient heating systems, drafty windows, high ceilings, and poor insulation. The author has devised a four-stage method to evaluate the energy efficiency of a religious building and to develop recommendations for improvement. The suggested payback period is four years or less. This article describes the proposed method and highlights a successful project in Oshawa, Ontario as an example.

  9. Energy efficiency and conservation in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarasekura, S W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical, predominantly agricultural island with a mixed population. The economy is rapidly expanding since 1977. So far the country is self-sufficient in rice, which is the staple food of the population. Indiscriminate cutting of forests for firewood resulted in a disastrous upsetting of the rain pattern. The existing capacity of hydro-electric power plants is not adequate to meet the demands of the rapidly growing industries and of households where the use of appliances increases dramatically with the progress of the economy. Periodic cut-offs of electric power supply became necessary. These are very harmful to industry. In order to keep the balance of payments in equilibrium, the government is fostering the development of new sources of foreign income, such as tourism and export of gems and spices. Remedies used to master the energy crisis are: the building of new hydroelectric plants, reforestation; introduction of ''kerosene stamps'' which will restrict the sale of this product at subsidized prices to the needy only; encouraging the use of fuel-efficient motorcycles in preference to automobiles; introduction (in cooperation with Honda) of alcohol-powered motorcycles; appointment of a Ministerial Committee endowed with broad powers to formulate and implement national energy policy. Although the general energy situation in Sri Lanka is rather bleak for the moment, it is confidently hoped that these measures will bear fruit in the long run.

  10. Promoting energy conservation in the rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taale, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 70% of the population of Ghana live in the rural areas. Cooking and heating in these areas are mainly achieved by fuelwood and other biomass. Although wood is a renewable energy resource, this is only so if it is grown faster than it is consumed. Firewood consumption exceeds forest growth in Ghana and other developing countries. Added to this, is the fact that the World's wood resource is used for such purposes as sawn timber, clearing of land and felling trees for agricultural purposes, etc. If our forests are to be preserved it is this population that has to be targeted. One method of reducing fuelwood demand is to encourage alternative supplies such as biogas (methane). Rural populations could be mobilized to construct bio-latrines in their communities to make use of the biogas generated to cook their food and also for heating purposes. Through levies, funds could be generated to undertake such projects in each community. Before this could be possible, a lot of education will have to be undertaken by the Renewable Energy unit of the Ministry of Mines and Energy. This is because many people are apprehensive of the idea of cooking with gas derived from their own feces. Some of the benefits to be derived from such a project are the use of the effluent slurry as high quality organic manure for farming. This will surely lead to increase food production and help to keep the environment clean (au)

  11. Energy Conservation of the Designated Government Buildings in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangskarn Prapat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The designated government buildings have implemented and administered energy program under the energy development and promotion Act 2007 for many years continuously until 2015. Appointment person responsible for energy, performing energy management and implementing the energy conservation work plan and measures are legal requirements for the designated buildings. Therefore, the ministry of Energy has launched the project to support the implementation of energy management. The aim of the project was to create the energy management system in the designated government buildings, and to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, the evaluation of the project has been presented from the achievements of 839 designated government buildings. The energy saving is more than 440 ktoe/year. This is about 3% of energy consumptions of buildings.

  12. Energy conserving site design case study: Shenandoah, Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The case study examines the means by which energy conservation can be achieved at an aggregate community level by using proper planning and analytical techniques for a new town, Shenandoah, Georgia, located twenty-five miles southwest of Atlanta's Hartsfield International Airport. A potentially implementable energy conservation community plan is achieved by a study team examining the land use options, siting characteristics of each building type, alternate infrastructure plans, possible decentralized energy options, and central utility schemes to determine how community energy conservation can be achieved by use of pre-construction planning. The concept for the development of mixed land uses as a passively sited, energy conserving community is based on a plan (Level 1 Plan) that uses the natural site characteristics, maximizes on passive energy siting requirement, and allows flexibility for the changing needs of the developers. The Level 2 Plan is identical with Level 1 plan plus a series of decentraized systems that have been added to the residential units: the single-family detached, the apartments, and the townhouses. Level 3 Plan is similar to the Level 1 Plan except that higher density dwellings have been moved to areas adjacent to central site. The total energy savings for each plan relative to the conventional plan are indicated. (MCW)

  13. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  14. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Langkilde, G; Olesen, Bjarne W [Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moerck, O [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark); Sundman, O [DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Engelund Thomsen, K [Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  15. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their...

  16. A new mechanism for energy conservation technology services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Feng

    1996-12-31

    In the ninth-five year plan of China, the socialist market economy model will be developed. In the stage of transferring from planning economy to market economy, the energy conservation technology services industry in China has met new challenges. Over the past ten to fifteen years, there has developed a new mechanism for financing energy efficiency investments in market economies. The process is simple. After inspecting an enterprise or an entity for energy saving opportunities, an Energy Service Company (ESCO) which business aimed at making money will review the recommended energy conservation opportunities with the enterprise or the entity (user) and implement those measures acceptable to the user at no front end cost to the user. The ESCO then guarantees that the energy savings will cover the cost of the capital renovations using the Performance Contracting.

  17. Energy conservation investments: A comparison between China and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Growth in energy consumption in China has soared from 2001 to 2004, driven largely by a booming economy and heavy investment in infrastructure and housing. In response, China has poured billions of dollars of investment in building power plants-at a rate of one large power plant (1000 MW) per week. In fact, China in 2004 has added the entire generating capacity of California or Spain in a single year. In contrast, investment in energy conservation projects has weakened considerably in recent years. This paper examines trends in energy efficiency investments in China and the US. The comparison highlights the potential of energy conservation investments in addressing China's current energy crisis as well as the inadequacy of such investments in China. Finally, the paper outlines a few scenarios for appropriate levels of investments in energy efficiency in China in the future

  18. Energy conservation through more efficient lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, J; Grossman, M W; Lagushenko, R; Waymouth, J F

    1984-10-26

    The efficiency of a mercury-rare gas electrical discharge, which forms the basis of a fluorescent lamp, can be increased about 5 percent simply by increasing the concentration of mercury-196 from 0.146 percent (natural) to about 3 percent. These findings can be implemented immediately without any significant change in the process of manufacturing of this widely used source of illumination, provided that mercury-196 can be obtained economically. The potential energy savings for the United States are estimated to be worth in excess of $200 million per year.

  19. Energy literacy, awareness, and conservation behavior of residential households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brounen, Dirk; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The residential sector accounts for one-fifth of global energy consumption, resulting from the requirements to heat, cool, and light residential dwellings. It is therefore not surprising that energy efficiency in the residential market has gained importance in recent years. In this paper, we examine awareness, literacy and behavior of households with respect to their residential energy expenditures. Using a detailed survey of 1721 Dutch households, we measure the extent to which consumers are aware of their energy consumption and whether they have taken measures to reduce their energy costs. Our results show that “energy literacy” and awareness among respondents is low: just 56% of the respondents are aware of their monthly charges for energy consumption, and 40% do not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment. We document that demographics and consumer attitudes towards energy conservation, but not energy literacy and awareness, have direct effects on behavior regarding heating and cooling of the home. The impact of a moderating factor, measured by thermostat settings, ultimately results in strong variation in the energy consumption of private consumers. - Highlights: • We use a detailed survey of 1,721 Dutch households to measure awareness and conservation behavior in energy consumption. • Energy literacy and awareness among residential households is low. • 40 percent of the sample does not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment • Demographics and consumer attitudes affect behavior regarding heating and cooling of a home

  20. Smarter by Degrees. Towards new instruments for energy conservation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    Achieving the government's ambition of 1.5 to 2% energy savings annually will require every effort to be made. Households, small and medium-sized businesses, government and semi-governmental institutions (energy-extensive energy consumers) will also be able to make an important contribution. This group represents considerable savings potential of about 300 PJ. There are three types of instruments that may be used for this group to achieve the desired goal (1) obligation/prohibition, i.e., regulations and standards to demand energy efficient investments (construction, facilities, equipment, etc.); (2) price incentives (subsidies/taxes) to promote energy-efficient solutions; (3)enticement/influence, appealing to reason (information, arguments) or emotion to promote the right choice/behaviour. Analysis of past experiences presents the conclusion that so-called soft instruments are sometimes briefly effective but often have little or no effect. The Council believes, however, that such a conclusion is premature, as certain conditions were not met in the past that were very important to effectiveness. First, soft instruments must be implemented consistently and over the long term (about 4 years, at least). Appealing to the very diverse consumers also requires a custom approach. The tone of the conservation policy must also be more in tune with changing trends in society. Citizens must especially be appealed to in terms of cost advantages, responsible energy consumption (good housekeeping) and comfort, whereas the emphasis in the past lay on decency, solidarity and thrift. Specific action perspectives must also be offered. Partly on the basis of experience, such as in waste collection, the Council concludes that a well-assembled mix of soft and hard instruments will be necessary to encourage energy conservation. It is clear that soft instruments alone can be expected to produce unsatisfactory results. Therefore, a combination of soft and hard instruments is advocated

  1. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  2. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    .... EERE-2010-BT-STD-0011] RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...

  3. 75 FR 13123 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... that of heating oil, based on the 2004-2008 averages for these two fuels. The source for these price... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program... and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In this notice, the U.S...

  4. Key role for nuclear energy in global biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Barry W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-06-01

    Modern society uses massive amounts of energy. Usage rises as population and affluence increase, and energy production and use often have an impact on biodiversity or natural areas. To avoid a business-as-usual dependence on coal, oil, and gas over the coming decades, society must map out a future energy mix that incorporates alternative sources. This exercise can lead to radically different opinions on what a sustainable energy portfolio might entail, so an objective assessment of the relative costs and benefits of different energy sources is required. We evaluated the land use, emissions, climate, and cost implications of 3 published but divergent storylines for future energy production, none of which was optimal for all environmental and economic indicators. Using multicriteria decision-making analysis, we ranked 7 major electricity-generation sources (coal, gas, nuclear, biomass, hydro, wind, and solar) based on costs and benefits and tested the sensitivity of the rankings to biases stemming from contrasting philosophical ideals. Irrespective of weightings, nuclear and wind energy had the highest benefit-to-cost ratio. Although the environmental movement has historically rejected the nuclear energy option, new-generation reactor technologies that fully recycle waste and incorporate passive safety systems might resolve their concerns and ought to be more widely understood. Because there is no perfect energy source however, conservation professionals ultimately need to take an evidence-based approach to consider carefully the integrated effects of energy mixes on biodiversity conservation. Trade-offs and compromises are inevitable and require advocating energy mixes that minimize net environmental damage. Society cannot afford to risk wholesale failure to address energy-related biodiversity impacts because of preconceived notions and ideals. © 2014 The Authors Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Energy conservation through the implementation of cogeneration and grid interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashash, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    With increasing awareness of energy conservation and environmental protection, the Arab World is moving to further improve energy conversion efficiency. The equivalent of over 2.7 MM bbl is being daily burnt to fuel the thermal power plants that represent 92% of the total Arab power generation. This adds up to close to one billion barrels annually. At a conservative 30$ per barrel, this represents a daily cost of over $81 Million. This paper will introduce two strategies with the ultimate objective to cut-off up to half of the current fuel consumption. Firstly, Cogeneration Technology is able to improve thermal efficiency from the current average of less than 25% to up to 80%. Just 1% improvement in power plant thermal efficiency represents 3 million $/day in fuel cost savings. In addition, a well-designed and operated cogeneration plant will: - Reduce unfriendly emissions by burning less fuel as a result of higher thermal efficiency, - Increase the decentralization of electrical generation, - Improve the reliability of electricity supply. As an example, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's experience of implementing cogeneration will be presented, in particular within its hydrocarbon facilities and desalination plants. This will include the existing facilities and the planned and on-going projects. Secondly, by interconnecting the power networks of all the adjacent Arab countries, the following benefits could be reached: - Reduce generation reserves and enhance the system reliability, - Improve the economic efficiency of the electricity power systems, - Provide power exchange and strengthen the supply reliability, - Adopt technological development and use the best modern technologies. At least two factors plead for this direction. On one hand, the four-hour time zone difference from Eastern to Western Arab World makes it easy to exchange power. On the other hand, this will help to reduce the reserve capacity and save on corresponding Capital investment, fuel, and O and M

  6. 10 CFR 431.156 - Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. 431.156 Section 431.156 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... Standards § 431.156 Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. Each commercial clothes...

  7. Promotion of energy conservation and renewable energy sources in Bavaria; Foerderung von Energiesparen und Erneuerbaren Energien in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, D. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Technologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The present article gives an overview of the measures taken in Bavaria (Federal German Republic) for promoting energy conservation. There include: Efficient energy utilisation; communal energy saving concepts; utilisation of renewable energy sources; small-scale hydropower plants; modernisation measures; and cultivable raw materials. (HW) [Deutsch] Der Artikel liefert einen Ueberblick ueber die Foerdermassnahmen zur Energieeinsparung im Freistaat Bayern (Bundesrepublik Deutschland): - Rationelle Energieverwendung - kommunale Energieeinsparkonzepte - Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien - Kleinwasserkraftanlagen - Modernisierungsmassnahmen - nachwachsende Rohstoffe. (HW)

  8. Analysis to develop a program for energy conservation in irrigated agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.; Brix, V.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Laughlin, B.M.

    1978-09-01

    It is estimated by the FEA that 0.26 quadrillion Btus of energy is annually required to irrigate crops in the USA. The development of a DOE program for energy conservation in irrigation is described. Information is included on: studies of how this energy consumption can be reduced and by how much; engineering and economic studies of irrigation equipment and methods; proposals for improving the efficiency of pumps and prime movers; projects selected for demonstrating irrigation energy conservation; and recommendations for further research. (LCL)

  9. Energy conservation and management plan for plant facilities at the Livermore site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, W.; Szybalski, S.; Kerr, W. H.; Meyer, H. J.

    1976-03-15

    An energy conservation and management plan for the Livermore site of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is presented. The plan defines the energy-conservation goals for the next 10 years and proposes the ways and means of attaining them. The main features contained in this plan are as follows: development of the criteria and underlying assumptions required for long range planning, including energy growth rates and the case for using the concept of the technical-fix energy growth rate, LLL energy outlook and fuel cost projections, and life-cycle-cost criteria; targets of the long-range plan include between 1975 and 1985, an annual energy usage growth equal to 5.8 percent of the 1975 energy consumption, 1985 and thereafter, zero energy growth, a change from the current dependence on natural gas to the use of other fuels for heating, and a doubling of the 30-day strategic oil storage capacity; and cost schedule for the next 10 years.

  10. Current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.Y.-L.; Yang, K.-H.; Hsu, C.-H.; Chien, M.-H.; Hong, G.-B.

    2007-01-01

    Growing concern in Taiwan has arisen about energy consumption and its adverse environmental impact. The current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan, including the iron and steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, textiles and electric/electrical industries has been presented. Since the energy consumption of the top 100 energy users (T100) comprised over 50% of total industry energy consumption, focusing energy consumption reduction efforts on T100 energy users can achieve significant results. This study conducted on-site energy audits of 314 firms in Taiwan during 2000-2004, and identified potential electricity savings of 1,022,656 MWH, fuel oil savings of 174,643 kiloliters (KL), steam coal savings of 98,620 ton, and natural gas (NG) savings of 10,430 kilo cubic meters. The total potential energy saving thus was 489,505 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), representing a reduction of 1,447,841 ton in the carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 39,131-ha plantation forest

  11. Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42% from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. The process was divided into 5 sections and the energy consumed in each step was determined based on 3 sets of conditions; a conventional distilled spirits process; a modern process incorporating commercially proven energy conservation; and a second generation process incorporating advanced conservation technologies which have not yet been proven. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of electricity on fuel ethanol plants is also studied. (MCW)

  12. Energy conservation aircraft design and operational procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisson-Quinton, P.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews studies associated with improved fuel efficiency. Several aircraft design concepts are described including: (1) increases in aerodynamic efficiency through decreased friction drag, parasitic drag, and drag due to lift, (2) structural efficiency and the implementation of composite materials, (3) active control technology, (4) the optimization of airframe-engine integration, and (5) VTOL and STOL concepts. Consideration is also given to operational procedures associated with flight management, terminal-area operations, and the influence of environmental noise constraints on fuel economy.

  13. The status of energy conservation in Taiwan's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Te-Li; Chan, David Yih-Liang; Hung, Ching-Yuan; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry represents one of the most energy intensive sectors in Taiwan. Energy audits are the direct tools which are employed to help reduce energy consumption. The objectives of energy audits are to establish energy audit systems, provide on-site energy audit service and reduce production cost. This study summarized the energy savings implemented in Taiwan's cement industry; the data were obtained from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2010. The total implemented energy savings amounted to 68,512 kilo liter of crude oil equivalent (KLOE). The energy audit group audited seven Taiwanese cement plants in 2011 and revealed an energy saving potential of 2571.6 MWh of electricity and 1002.8 KLOE of thermal energy. The total potential energy saving was 1708.5 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), equivalent to a 4560 t reduction in CO 2 emissions, representing the annual CO 2 absorption capacity of a 122 ha forest plantation. - Highlights: • This study summarizes the energy savings implemented in Taiwan's cement industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System. • The energy audit group audited seven Taiwanese cement plants in 2011 and revealed energy saving potential was 1708.5 KLOE. • This work aims to examine what Taiwan has done and also describes the current status in cement industry. • In addition, some potential energy conservation opportunities or measures are revealed in this paper

  14. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  15. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    .... EERE-2013-BT-STD-0030] RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...

  16. Energy conservation in developing countries using green building idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Akram; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Green buildings uses processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle. In these buildings Certain energy conservative and environment friendly steps are considered and implemented from design, construction, operation, maintenance and renovation. In present era no doubt new technologies are constantly constructed and used in creating greener structures, energy efficient buildings. The common objective is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health using available energy efficiently. To increase the efficiency of the System or the building, Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomasscan significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. Any how power generation using renewable sources that is Solar system may further enhance energy conservation ideas. Power Factor improvement can also be another source of efficient tool for efficient use of Electrical Energy in green buildings. In developing countries a significant amount of Electrical Energy can be conserved and System efficiency as a whole can be increased by Power Factor correction. The reverse flow of power can be locally engaged instead of creating extra stress and opposition to the existing grid lines.

  17. Operation of buildings: Energy supply and energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, H

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving in public administration. A list-like collection of the measures to monitor the consumption, the measures of saving energy at existing buildings, new systems and by new techniques. Examples with figures for the savings achieved in the region of Marburg-Biedenkopf (Hesse). Guidelines are set up which are mainly based on energy saving, heat recovery, use of new technologies and renewable energy sources, fluidized-bed combustion also in smaller plants of ca. 2 MW, waste management separating wastes into burnable/unburnable, information of the public administration and the people and the setting up of energy concepts. (PJH).

  18. Generating heavy particles with energy and momentum conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereš, Michal; Melo, Ivan; Tomášik, Boris; Balek, Vladimír; Černý, Vladimír

    2011-12-01

    We propose a novel algorithm, called REGGAE, for the generation of momenta of a given sample of particle masses, evenly distributed in Lorentz-invariant phase space and obeying energy and momentum conservation. In comparison to other existing algorithms, REGGAE is designed for the use in multiparticle production in hadronic and nuclear collisions where many hadrons are produced and a large part of the available energy is stored in the form of their masses. The algorithm uses a loop simulating multiple collisions which lead to production of configurations with reasonably large weights. Program summaryProgram title: REGGAE (REscattering-after-Genbod GenerAtor of Events) Catalogue identifier: AEJR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1523 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9608 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC Pentium 4, though no particular tuning for this machine was performed. Operating system: Originally designed on Linux PC with g++, but it has been compiled and ran successfully on OS X with g++ and MS Windows with Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition, as well. RAM: This depends on the number of particles which are generated. For 10 particles like in the attached example it requires about 120 kB. Classification: 11.2 Nature of problem: The task is to generate momenta of a sample of particles with given masses which obey energy and momentum conservation. Generated samples should be evenly distributed in the available Lorentz-invariant phase space. Solution method: In general, the algorithm works in two steps. First, all momenta are generated with the GENBOD algorithm. There, particle production is modeled as a sequence of two

  19. Energy audit: potential of energy - conservation in Jordanian ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adas, H.; Taher, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper represents the findings of the preliminary energy-audits performed by the Rational Use of Energy Division at the National Energy Research Center (NERC), as well as the findings of a detailed energy-audit carried out in the largest Ceramic plant in Jordan (Jordan Ceramic industries).These studies were preceded by a survey of the ceramic factories in Jordan. The survey was carried out in 1997. The performed preliminary energy-audits showed that an average saving-potential in most of theses plants is about 25 % of the total energy-bills in these plants, which constitutes a considerable portion of the total production-cost. This fact was verified through the detailed energy-audit performed by NERC team for the largest Ceramic Plant in Jordan in June 2003, which showed an energy-saving potential of about 30 %. This saving can be achieved by some no-cost or low-cost measures, in addition to some measures that need reasonable investments with an average pay-back period of about two years. This detailed energy-audit covered electrical systems, refrigeration systems, compressed-air systems, and kilns. The results of the detailed energy-audit can be disseminated to other Ceramic plant, because of the similarity in the production process between these plants and the plant where the detailed energy-audit was carried out. (author)

  20. 76 FR 39245 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Wes.Anderson@ee.doe.gov . Mr. Eric Stas or Ms. Jennifer Tiedeman, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of.... Wesley Anderson (central air conditioners and heat pumps), U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy...

  1. Energy conservation and dust production in wet rotary cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, N J; Fischbach, F A

    1976-12-01

    Energy conservation is currently a major concern of the cement industry. A comparison of data supplied by the U.S. Federal Energy Administration with that gathered in an extensive private study incorporating 29 wet cement plants indicates that a significant reduction of the energy consumed can be accomplished by decreasing the amount of dust generated in the process. Energy saving of 8 percent through dust suppression appears possible by increasing the slurry moisture and by using hammermills rather than impactors as the crushing technique.

  2. Energy R and D. Conservation planning and management should be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Richard A.; Fishkin, Christine M.B.; MacLeod, Molly W.; Davis, Alphonse R.; Crawford, John T.; Dowd, Leonard L.; Sisson, John W.; Sugimura, Richard H.

    1990-07-01

    Increased energy efficiency can lessen our dependence on imported oil, reduce environmental problems associated with the use of fossil fuels, and enhance the competitive position of U.S. companies internationally. Following a decade in which conservation R and D program funding declined by more than 50 percent, the Secretary of Energy has said that energy conservation will be given increased priority in DOE. Increased priority for DOE's energy efficiency R and D program would support interim DOE National Energy Strategy (NES) report findings. DOE's interim NES report said that broad public support exists for increasing energy efficiency and protecting the environment from the effects of energy production and use. In the 1970s and 1980s, the DOE conservation R and D program produced some commercially successful technologies, such as fluorescent lighting advances and low emissivity window coatings, that are providing energy savings and are expected to provide substantial savings in the future. In the early 1980s energy conservation R and D funding and staff were reduced substantially, reflecting the administration's view that conservation research should be conducted primarily by the private sector. Since the large cutback, funding has been relatively stable, it was $346 million in 1980, $152 million in 1982, and $149 million in 1990. The 1991 budget request reflects a 9-percent program reduction compared with the prior year's appropriations. Since 1983, DOE's Office of Conservation has used a long-term planning process to produce an energy conservation multi-year R and D plan. However, the plan and the planning process could be strengthened to more fully meet the needs of policy makers. For example, the plan's usefulness and credibility would be improved if it provided detailed information on individual projects. Also, the planning process does not include systematic project reviews at DOE headquarters or use a uniform project prioritization methodology to rank

  3. The role of energy conservation in the BFKL equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forshaw, J.R.; Harriman, P.N.; Sutton, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    We study a modification to the BFKL equation at zero momentum transfer due to the imposition of energy conservation. The significance of our modification, which enters in the form of an ultraviolet cutoff, is illustrated directly and is discussed within the context of the gluon diffusion in k T . (Author)

  4. 24 CFR 968.115 - Modernization and energy conservation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... changing or installing a new utility system, conduct a life-cycle cost analysis, reflecting installation... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modernization and energy conservation standards. 968.115 Section 968.115 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  5. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1... procurement and property management documents reflect the policy set forth in paragraph (b) of this section... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Energy conservation...

  6. Energy conservation law for randomly fluctuating electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbur, G.; Wolf, E.; James, D.

    1999-01-01

    An energy conservation law is derived for electromagnetic fields generated by any random, statistically stationary, source distribution. It is shown to provide insight into the phenomenon of correlation-induced spectral changes. The results are illustrated by an example. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  7. A Quantification of the Energy Savings by Conservation Voltage Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Berry, A.; West, S.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of `Smart grid' technologies in the electricity supply industry has attracted new attention to Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR). CVR is a method that aims to save energy by reducing the voltage level of the electrical distribution network. However, not all devices consume less

  8. Administrative memo relative to the delivery of energy conservation certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This memo details the principles of the energy conservation certificates, the law texts of application, the part of the Government and the ADEME services, the certificates demand procedure, and the inscription of the certificates on the national registries. (A.L.B.)

  9. Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

  10. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-08-13

    We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

  11. The Energy Conservation Guide 98/99; ENOEK guiden 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Norwegians have the world's largest electricity consumption per capita. This booklet aims to advice house owners on efficient use of energy. The main sections discuss the concept of energy conservation in general, heating, stoves and fireplaces, central heating, insulation and sealing, windows, hot water, water saving, lighting, domestic appliances, ventilation, outdoor facilities, and finally gives some tips on investments and profitability and how to obtain expert advice. The booklet is profusely illustrated.

  12. Energy conservation through utilization of mechanical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, D. B.; Bliamptis, T. E.; Downer, J. R.; Heinemann, P. C.

    Potential benefits regarding fuel savings, necessary technology, and evaluation criteria for the development of flywheel-hybrid vehicles are examined. A case study is quoted in which adoption of flywheel-hybrid vehicles in a taxi fleet would result in an increase of 10 mpg average to 32 mpg. Two proposed systems are described, one involving direct engine power to the flywheel and the second regenerating the flywheel from braking energy through a continuously variable transmission. Fuel consumption characteristics are considered the ultimate determinant in the choice of configuration, while material properties and housing shape determine the flywheel speed range. Vehicle losses are characterized and it is expected that a flywheel at 12,000 rpm will experience less than one hp average parasitic power loss. Flywheel storage is suitable for smaller engines because larger engines dominate the power train mass. Areas considered important for further investigation include reliability of an engine run near maximum torque, noise and vibration associated with flywheel operation, start up delays, compatibility of driver controls, integration of normal with regenerative braking systems, and, most importantly, the continuously variable transmission.

  13. Exactly energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We report a new particle in cell (PIC) method based on the semi-implicit approach. The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its semi-implicit predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. Recent research has presented fully implicit methods where energy conservation is obtained as part of a non-linear iteration procedure. The new method (referred to as Energy Conserving Semi-Implicit Method, ECSIM), instead, does not require any non-linear iteration and its computational cycle is similar to that of explicit PIC. The properties of the new method are: i) it conserves energy exactly to round-off for any time step or grid spacing; ii) it is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency and allowing the user to select any desired time step; iii) it eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length; iv) the particle mover has a computational complexity identical to that of the explicit PIC, only the field solver has an increased computational cost. The new ECSIM is tested in a number of benchmarks where accuracy and computational performance are tested. - Highlights: • We present a new fully energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell (PIC) method based on the implicit moment method (IMM). The new method is called Energy Conserving Implicit Moment Method (ECIMM). • The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. • The new method is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency. • The new method eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length. • These

  14. Exactly energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapenta, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.lapenta@kuleuven.be

    2017-04-01

    We report a new particle in cell (PIC) method based on the semi-implicit approach. The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its semi-implicit predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. Recent research has presented fully implicit methods where energy conservation is obtained as part of a non-linear iteration procedure. The new method (referred to as Energy Conserving Semi-Implicit Method, ECSIM), instead, does not require any non-linear iteration and its computational cycle is similar to that of explicit PIC. The properties of the new method are: i) it conserves energy exactly to round-off for any time step or grid spacing; ii) it is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency and allowing the user to select any desired time step; iii) it eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length; iv) the particle mover has a computational complexity identical to that of the explicit PIC, only the field solver has an increased computational cost. The new ECSIM is tested in a number of benchmarks where accuracy and computational performance are tested. - Highlights: • We present a new fully energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell (PIC) method based on the implicit moment method (IMM). The new method is called Energy Conserving Implicit Moment Method (ECIMM). • The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. • The new method is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency. • The new method eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length. • These

  15. Selecting appropriate energy efficiency indicators for the Thai Energy Conservation Promotion Programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.

    2000-06-01

    In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)

  16. Energy conservation and energy prices: the Hungarian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, L.

    1997-01-01

    The main sources of emissions into the outdoor air are from the energy sector (e.g. power plants), industry, the transport sector and the residential sector (buildings). The danger from most of these emissions is the fact that heat plants and boilers of residential buildings in particular, are usually in the areas where people live and work and therefore their emissions may have a direct effect on health. The best way to improve this situation - to diminish emissions and to improve air quality - is to increase the efficiency of both energy production and use. This also has important consequences for the economic use of the national energy carrier stock and diminishes the need to import energy which increases the competitiveness of goods produced. The Hungarian government has set out an Energy Saving Programme to address, among other things the fact that the Hungarian average energy consumption per capita is less than the EU average but the energy intensity (the necessary energy to produce 1 USD GDP) is 3.5-4.0 times higher than the EU average. It has been shown that the best way to save energy is to invest in energy-conscious behaviour and training. Recent studies in public and residential buildings have shown that there is a potential for high energy saving in Hungarian buildings which is independent from the building technology used. Also, the pay-back times of investment in the building envelope are significantly higher than the pay-back times of investment in heating-ventilating or control systems, while the energy saved was of the same magnitude. (author) 5 figs., 5 tabs., 6 refs

  17. 75 FR 27227 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ...-7335. E-mail: Wes.Anderson@ee.doe.gov . Ms. Elizabeth Kohl, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of the... additional information regarding visiting the Resource Room. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Wes Anderson, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building...

  18. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  19. Combining interviewing and modeling for end-user energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldblatt, David L.; Hartmann, Christoph; Duerrenberger, Gregor

    2005-01-01

    Studying energy consumption through the lens of households is an increasingly popular research avenue. This paper focuses on residential end-user energy conservation. It describes an approach that combines energy modeling and in-depth interviews for communicating about energy use and revealing consumer preferences for change at different levels and intervention points. Expert knowledge was embodied in a computer model for householders that calculates an individual's current energy consumption and helps assess personal savings potentials, while also bringing in socio-technical and economic elements beyond the user's direct control. The paper gives a detailed account of this computer information tool developed for interviewing purposes. It then describes the interview guidelines, data analysis, and main results. In general, interview subjects overestimated the environmental friendliness of their lifestyles. After experience with the program, they tended to rate external (technological, societal) factors as somewhat stronger determinants of their consumption levels than personal (behavioral and household investment) factors, with the notable exception of mobility. Concerning long-term energy perspectives, the majority of subjects felt that society has the ability to make a collective choice towards significantly lower energy consumption levels. Interviewees confirmed that the software and interactive sessions helped them think more holistically about the personal, social, and technological dimensions of energy conservation. Lessons can be applied to the development of future energy communication tools

  20. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  1. Expanding Canadian renewable and conservation expenses class 43.1 to include solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Class 43.1 is a tax measure that allows for accelerated write-offs of renewable energy products for business use. Technologies that are included in the class for accelerated write off include renewable energy sources such as wind, small hydro, geo-thermal, fuel cells, bio-gas, cogeneration systems, and district heating and solar. In 2005, the federal budget announced 2 changes to class 43.1 The write off rate has been increased from 30 per cent to 50 per cent. This change would reduce the effective cost of solar energy for business owners. The class has also been extended to include distribution assets for district energy assets and biogas equipment. However, no changes to the restrictions for solar were announced. The Canadian Solar Industries Association (CanSIA) argues that class 43.1 currently does not help the solar industries, nor do the proposed changes solve this situation. The restrictions placed on solar eliminate about 90 per cent of the industrial applications for solar that class 43.1 should support. Class 43.1 currently covers only 1 per cent of photovoltaic applications, 2 per cent of solar hot water applications, and 9 per cent of solar air heating applications. CanSIA claims that an increase in tax write-offs for photovoltaic systems, solar hot water, and solar air heating would help increase the solar market from 1,060 kW to a market size of 11,600 kW. CanSIA has made recommendations to the federal government to remove the size restrictions for PV systems and to remove the restrictions on applications for solar thermal systems. 2 tabs

  2. Energy conservation and sustainable economic growth: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Soruco Carballo, Claudia Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the causal relationships among energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in twenty countries from Latin America and the Caribbean region. The methodology includes the use of Phillips and Perron (PP) tests, a cointegration model with vector error correction modeling (VECM) and vector autoregression (VAR) with Granger causality. The study concludes that of the twenty countries analyzed, only in four of them will it be possible to implement energy conservation polices without affecting their economic growth, four others are not able to consider an energy conservation policy with economic growth, and the other twelve should focus on their economic growth before adopting any conservation policies. Energy efficiency was found in this region, especially in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium. - Highlights: → Only four countries could implement energy conservation polices without affecting economic growth. → Twelve nations should focus on their economic growth before designing any energy conservation policies. → Energy efficiency was found in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium.

  3. Lessons for integrated household energy conservation policies from an intervention study in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kua, H.W.; Wong, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for a community energy conservation program in the southwest district of Singapore, a pilot intervention study was conducted between August and November 2008 to study the effectiveness of tailored information and feedback in promoting household conservation. A sample of 125 households was involved in the study, of which 63 were the control group. Both self-reported behavioral changes and actual energy reductions were measured and any Hawthorne effect was identified. It was found that self-reported behavioral changes were strongly correlated to the level of trust in the energy conservation information given, the need for ease in practicing the recommended conservation measures and feeling of satisfaction in executing the measures; these results differ from several past studies on energy interventions. 60.7% of those who reported behavioral changes actually reduced energy consumption. Reasons were found and discussed. Lessons from this intervention study can be applied to design integrated policies aimed at promoting energy conservation in households. - Highlights: ► Energy intervention was implemented on 125 households. ► Outreach instruments included stickers, pamphlets and counseling. ► Self-reported behavioral and actual reductions were recorded. ► Self-reported behavioral change was only correlated to trust of information given. ► It was also correlated to ease of actions and feeling of satisfaction from actions.

  4. Skating on Thin Ice: Evolution of Conservation in Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Jack

    2009-05-01

    Why are we physicists so often drawn into the nexus of energy policy and governance? There are several explanations. First, we are quite accustomed to this phenomenon of ``cause and effect,'' so we instinctively examine those two ends as well as the connections between them (i.e., what happens between a lump of coal and a light bulb). That way of thinking makes energy production and consumption intiminately connected and ``conservation'' naturally becomes a technological strategy rather than an appendage. Strangely, however, ``conservation'' in our society (called ``The Cowboy Economy'' by economist Kenneth Boulding) has been widely interpreted as competitive with supply and ridiculed as only a minor option, entailing denial of an amenity. After nearly a half-century of dialogue, innovation, and frustration, the rationality of what I call the ``physics'' perspective seems to have come of age. The evolution of relevant science and technology and public policy has advanced markedly, reflected and sustained at the national level by a succession of organizations. The Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, the Federal Office of Energy Conservation, the Federal Energy Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Not surprisingly, physicists continue to play key roles in the inculcation of science and analysis into the policy and governance. This requires, as implied by C.P. Snow, a bridging and strengthening of the thin ice between science and society. We still have a long road to travel.

  5. Conserving energy in new buildings: analysis of nonregulatory policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, R.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    The costs and effectiveness of non-regulatory options relative to those of a regulatory approach are analyzed. Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Chapter 2 briefly reviews survey data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys are reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. Chapter 3 examines the provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking. Chapter 4 examines how adjustments to the tax structure could enhance economic incentives and counter economic disincentives for energy conservation. Qualifying buildings for tax benefits would almost certainly require certification of design energy consumption. The effectiveness of tax incentives would depend in part on dissemination of public information regarding the incentives. Chapter 5 examines subsidies, such as subsidized mortgages and loan guarantees, which lower the cost of money or other costs but do not change the market structure facing the consumer. Certification that buildings qualify for such treatment would probably be required. Chapter 6 presents recommendations based on the study's findings. (MCW)

  6. Policy study: energy conservation in transportation in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, J

    1978-09-01

    The present study is an initial effort to apply social system analysis to transportation energy conservation, in order to prepare the ground for a team effort of transportation and energy specialists, regional planners, policy analysis and generalists, and government administrators - with additional imputs from commerce, industry and the community at large. The task of this study has been to inventory the principal factors and inputs in the field of transportation energy demand and possible conservation, estimate their magnitudes and relations, and arrange in a tentative but reasoned pattern - where there were before only so many scattered data, technical studies with a limited focus, sectoral programs and decisions, and vague impressions about the serviceability, the impacts and the social value of the product.

  7. NCSU solar energy and conservation house. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    A passive solar energy house has been built adjacent to the NCSU McKimmon Continuing Education Center. The house contains a two-story embedded sunspace, two Trombe walls, active solar hot water heating, thermal storage in a rock filled ceiling/floor, and numerous research treatments, and energy conservation features. (See attached photo brochure; Appendix 1). The house is completely decorated and furnished in an attractive manner and the exterior architecture is traditional and has broad consumer appeal. It is also thoroughly instrumented to monitor performance. The house is open to the public on weekends and numerous people come to visit on their own initiative and others take advantage of the close proximity to McKimmon while there attending conferences. The house will influence and motivate large numbers of people to consider solar and energy conservation facets in their homes and will provide data to substantiate performance to prospective home buyers and meaningful data on design and construction for builders.

  8. A policy of nuclear energy or energy conservation - on the construction of a wrong alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1981-01-01

    From the content: a secret good-bye - wrong information from the energy experts - is there any priority for the efficient utilization of energie - do nuclear energy and energy conservation measures complement each other - the hidden socio-political dimensions - counter-information is necessary. (HP) [de

  9. Hierarchical Energy Management of Microgrids including Storage and Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songli Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage (BES and demand response (DR are considered to be promising technologies to cope with the uncertainty of renewable energy sources (RES and the load in the microgrid (MG. Considering the distinct prediction accuracies of the RES and load at different timescales, it is essential to incorporate the multi-timescale characteristics of BES and DR in MG energy management. Under this background, a hierarchical energy management framework is put forward for an MG including multi-timescale BES and DR to optimize operation with the uncertainty of RES as well as load. This framework comprises three stages of scheduling: day-ahead scheduling (DAS, hour-ahead scheduling (HAS, and real-time scheduling (RTS. In DAS, a scenario-based stochastic optimization model is established to minimize the expected operating cost of MG, while ensuring its safe operation. The HAS is utilized to bridge DAS and RTS. In RTS, a control strategy is proposed to eliminate the imbalanced power owing to the fluctuations of RES and load. Then, a decomposition-based algorithm is adopted to settle the models in DAS and HAS. Simulation results on a seven-bus MG validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  10. Energy conservation and the environment: conflict or complement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.

    1978-09-01

    The policy discussion following the Oil Embargo was clouded with fears of a return to a primitive existence based on drastically reduced energy inputs to society, or, on the other hand, an abandoning of environmental goals, allegedly a major barrier to development of new energy supplies. Often the energy use associated with environmental improvements was cited as a reason for expanding energy supplies, as if to say that a conflict existed between a clean environment and reductions in energy use. Or it was argued that a relaxation of environmental goals would lower the direct costs of harvesting and using energy and thereby alleviate the need for energy conservation. It has also been argued that the geopolitics of energy alone will force us to substitute riskier or ''dirtier'' energy sources for relatively clean oil and gas. Indeed, there is no question that the relationship among energy, the environment, and economic well-being is complicated. This essay sorts out many of the confusing aspects in order to show how goals relating to the efficient use of energy are aligned both with traditional economic goals and with modern environmental goals. To do this the author analyzes in depth the role of energy in the economy and, using examples, traces the origins of many of the misconceptions about that role--misconceptions that have inhibited a profound discussion of energy-related goals.

  11. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  12. Gyrokinetic energy conservation and Poisson-bracket formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A.

    1989-01-01

    An integral expression for the gyrokinetic total energy of a magnetized plasma, with general magnetic field configuration perturbed by fully electromagnetic fields, was recently derived through the use of a gyrocenter Lie transformation. It is shown that the gyrokinetic energy is conserved by the gyrokinetic Hamiltonian flow to all orders in perturbed fields. An explicit demonstration that a gyrokinetic Hamiltonian containing quadratic nonlinearities preserves the gyrokinetic energy up to third order is given. The Poisson-bracket formulation greatly facilitates this demonstration with the help of the Jacobi identity and other properties of the Poisson brackets

  13. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... conditioners without reverse cycle and with louvered sides as 24,999 British thermal units per hour (Btu/ h... and with louvered sides as 25,000 Btu/h, rather than 27,999 Btu/h and 28,000 Btu/h, respectively...: Stephen L. Witkowski, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  14. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal....... An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...... point has been reached. Most cooks tend to continue using a high heat supply even though it is not necessary. This process is often carried out without lid on the pot even though the use of lid will reduce the energy loss considerably. It is also concluded that the average fuelwood consumption in Abodom...

  15. Reaching people with energy conservation information: four statewide residential case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Braid, R.B.; Jones, D.W.; Reed, J.H.

    1983-09-01

    Four state residential energy conservation programs are reviewed in terms of their origins, evolutions, purposes and goals, administration, organization, and outcomes. The four programs chosen were selected from among 30 nominated by state energy offices and regional Department of Energy personnel as being illustrative in terms of organization and/or outcomes. While intended primarily for state-level program managers and staff, the profiles of programs, conclusions, and recommendations should be useful to anyone interested in developing viable, action-oriented conservation programs. The four case studies included Oregon's Master Conserver program, Oklahoma's energy education project for low-income and elderly families, Virginia's workshops for heating dealers service and contractors, and Maine's three energy education projects - the Energy Bus, Energy Conservation Month, and the Home Energy Check-up. All four programs utilized Energy Extension Service (EES) funds from the federal government, and three were directly managed through the state EES organization. The findings of the study indicate that these programs (1) had flexibility to experiment, iterate, and reorganize as a result of their initial experiences, (2) made extensive use of networking to involve local groups in program delivery, (3) employed a large variety of delivery methods, and (4) made substantial efforts to tailor literature and handouts to the target audiences.

  16. Balanced program plan: analysis for biomedical and environmental research. Volume 7. Conservation and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Energy conservation technologies encompass the entire spectrum of human activities: electrical supply, industry, commercial and residential buildings, transportation and various overlapping combinations of these. This report is concerned with those conservation technologies that appear to be most important in the near and intermediate terms. Many of the specific R and D programs are contained in the preliminary ''Conservation Program Plan'' of the ERDA Assistant Administrator for Conservation. However, some projects are included that are supported by other Federal agencies and private industry. Section 1 contains a brief description of each conservation technology and an enumeration of health/safety/environmental impacts, both beneficial and adverse, that are expected to accrue from the new technology. Section 2 contains a brief discussion of problems, priorities and programs. Section 3 contains ''Problem Definitions'' and ''Program Units'' that are recommended to become a part of the ''BER Balanced Program Plan.''

  17. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  18. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  19. Survey of energy conservation in India: priorities and policy dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, R K

    1983-01-01

    The formulating and implementing of an energy conservation policy in India was delayed, because emphasis was placed upon an increase of energy production in the mistaken belief that this is tantamount to an improvement in the standard of life. Statistical data of energy production according to its source and of its consumption by individual sectors of the national economy are presented. They show that by far the largest turnover is in energy derived from firewood and vegetable and animal waste for domestic use in rural India. Although a very great potential for energy conservation exists in this domain, its implementation on a large scale is hardly practicable because it would affect many millions of village households with very different life styles dictated by varying natural conditions in individual areas of the country. Energy derived from oil and coal is used rather wastefully mainly because of obsolete equipment and technology. There is a vast scope for improvement in this area and appropriate measures have been initiated by the Government. The demand for oil derivatives for transportation is increasing dangerously, mainly because of dieselization of the national railways and of development of motorized road transport. A turnaround of this trend would require, however, a restructuring of the Indian transportation system.

  20. Identification of energy conservation research opportunities: a review and synthesis of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, W.J.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Hauser, S.G.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1982-03-01

    Thirty-eight studies of energy conservation research opportunities are reviewed. The 38 studies chosen for review include many of the major efforts in the identification of energy conservation research and development (R and D) opportunities and provide a representative sample of the types of studies that have been performed. The sample includes studies that focus on specific energy use (e.g., auto transport), as well as studies that focus on specific types of research (e.g., materials science). The sample also includes studies that can be further contrasted in terms of long-term vs. short-term projects, evolutionary vs. revolutionary ideas, generic vs. process-specific activities, and technology base research vs. hardware development. Each of these perspectives contributes toward assuring coverage of the breadth of energy conservation R and D opportunities. In each review the technical or end-use focus is described, the research ideas identified in the study are listed, and a critical summary is given. The reviews also indicate whether the studies present end-use consumption data, estimate potential energy savings, estimate times to commercialization, summarize existing research programs, or describe the identification methodology. In Section 2.0 the various research studies are compared. In Section 3.0 the characteristics of an aggregate list of research ideas are discussed. The characteristics were collected from the research opportunities studies, which are included in Appendix A. Appendix A contains a compilation of energy conservation R and D opportunities arranged by energy end-use applications. Appendix B contains an outline of the format followed in writing the critical reviews of the studies, the individual study reviews, and the extended bibliography of 88 studies that describe energy conservation research opportunities.

  1. 77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    .... Summary of the Proposed Rule A. Benefits and Costs to Consumers B. Impact on Manufacturers C. National.... Discount Rates 12. Benefits From Effects of Standards on Energy Prices H. Consumer Subgroup Analysis I... Impact Analysis a. Significance of Energy Savings b. Net Present Value of Consumer Costs and Benefits c...

  2. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... discussed the following major issues at the public meeting: the pros and cons of various efficiency metrics... of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington... copies. 4. Hand Delivery/Courier: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies...

  3. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public Comment Period AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... work of residential heating and cooling systems (``furnace fans''). The comment period closed on July 6... information relevant to the furnace fan rulemaking will be accepted until July 27, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested...

  4. Volumetric formulation of lattice Boltzmann models with energy conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Sbragaglia, M.; Sugiyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a volumetric formulation of lattice Boltzmann for compressible thermal fluid flows. The velocity set is chosen with the desired accuracy, based on the Gauss-Hermite quadrature procedure, and tested against controlled problems in bounded and unbounded fluids. The method allows the simulation of thermohydrodyamical problems without the need to preserve the exact space-filling nature of the velocity set, but still ensuring the exact conservation laws for density, momentum and energy. ...

  5. Energy conservation normatives in Italy: Thermotechnical Committee organizational efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, A [Comitato Termotecnico Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    1991-10-01

    A recent Italian law (No. 10/91) calls for energy conservation to be implemented in building materials and HVAC systems through the creation of a suitable set of normatives. The CTI (Italian Thermotechnical Committee) has been assigned the task of creating these normatives and is currently in the organizational stage. This paper lists the proposed normatives and reports on CTI's progress in assembling groups of consultants from various sectors - public administration, end users, industrial firms, etc.

  6. Application of economic principles in energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A

    1976-01-01

    The point of departure for the selection of any energy-conserving policy is the availability of (at least) two practical options or alternatives for policy maker at enterprise level. In real life, in the same point of time, or in the same geographical location, there could be several energy conservation options for the same industrial process. One need only set up a pairwise comparison of two options at a time and answer the question: which option is the most desirable from the energy conservation standpoint. Which option is the most desirable from the purchaser's point of view. If one takes both these factors into account, which option is socially the most desirable. We have explained two economic techniques (Life Cycle Cost (LCC), Market Acceptance) and their integration to compare two systems at a time. To begin with, a policy maker at enterprise level can carry out LCC. As technology progresses over time, Market Acceptance estimation may be warranted. Finally, Cost-Benefit Analysis may be applied to overall evaluation of competing projects which have involvement of large social groups, and wider foreign exchange implications.

  7. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  8. Conservation-reuse of water in fossil-fuel power plants including water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.S.R.

    1984-02-01

    The various areas where the conservation-reuse of water is possible are discussed. However, water conservation, especially effluent volume reduction-treatment reuse, should be seen in the light of pollution control measures. Some of the areas indicated recover a small quantity of water but they should be viewed in the light of well yield being not adequate, or having high salinity or having an increase of well water salinity after some use. Some of the methods can only be adopted at the design stage whereas others could be incorporated at the site.

  9. IRM National Reference Series: Japan: An evaluation of government-sponsored energy conservation research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, C.D.

    1987-07-01

    Despite the recent drop in world oil prices, the Japanese government is continuing to stress energy conservation, because Japan relies on imports for 85% of its total energy requirements and virtually 100% of its petroleum. Japan stresses long-term developments and sees conservation as an integral part of its 50- to 100-year transition from fossil fuels to nuclear and renewable sources of energy. The Japanese government is targeting new materials, biotechnology, and electronics technologies as the foundation of Japan's economy in the 21st century. Most government research programs in Japan are governed by aggressive timetables and fixed technical goals and are usually guaranteed funding over a 5- to 10-year period. Of the major energy conservation research programs, the best known is the Moonlight Project, administered by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), and oriented towards end-use technologies such as Stirling engines and advanced heat pumps. Parts of MITI's Basic Technologies for Future Industries Program involve research in new materials and bioreactors. The Science and Technology Agency's Exploratory Research in Advanced Technologies (ERATO) Program is also investigating these technologies while emphasizing basic research. Other ministries supporting research related to energy conservation are the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture and the Ministry of Construction. For 1985, government spending for energy conservation research was at least $50 million. Private sector funding of energy conservation research was $500 million in 1984. A brief outline of major programs and key participants is included for several of the most relevant technologies. An overview of Japan's experience in international scientific collaboration is also included.

  10. Application of energy conservation technologies in Indian industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    The quadrupling of oil prices in 1973 signaled the beginning of a crises period for the oil importing countries. It hampered the economic growth of developed and developing countries alike. The pace of industrialization slowed down, recession set in and the oil importing developing nations found their balance of payment situation steadily going worse. The second increase of oil prices in 1979 further compounded the problems. It did seem that the problem of economic growth and increasing debt burden was intractable as far as developing nations were concerned. Behind this turmoil were the faint stirrings of alternative actions that sought to wean the world from its oil and fossil fuel dominated economies. These alternatives ranged from harnessing renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind and biomass to implementing end-use energy efficiency strategies. A major lesson of the oil crunch era was that energy efficiency is tangible resource by itself that competes economically with contemporary energy supply options. In addition to this, four major national priorities, viz, economic competitiveness, utilization of scare capital for development, environmental quality and energy security through oil dependence provided an urgent rationale for saving energy. While conservation consciousness has already taken roots in Pakistan industry, it needs to be nurtured and gains need to be consolidated. The need of the hour is to take stock of the situation elsewhere, particularly in similar geographical and socio-economic situations, and plan for an energy efficient tomorrow. This article attempts to delineate the notable developments that have taken place in the application of energy conservation technologies in the Indian industries. These efforts have had a salutary effect on the Indian value added sector which was saddled with old plant and machinery designed in the era of cheap energy. (author)

  11. 77 FR 7281 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Electrical Efficiencies for all Liquid-Immersed Distribution Transformer Equipment Classes (Compliance... ``customers.'' Customers refer to electric utilities in the case of liquid-immersed transformers, and to... for Determining Energy Efficiency for Distribution Transformers'' published by the National Electrical...

  12. Business cycle and economic-wide energy intensity: The implications for energy conservation policy in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of voluntary and involuntary energy conservation policies, developing countries in Africa continue to struggle to achieve energy efficiency targets. Consequently, energy intensity levels have risen threatening the security of the energy system. This raises the important question: is there an economic state that induces agents to be energy conscious? In this study, we study the case of Algeria's energy intensity from 1971 to 2010. First, the paper argues that there is a certain economic state that economic agents find investing in energy conservation a viable option. Any state different from that would mean not investing in energy conservation. Second, the paper argues that the economy can do better even with an infinitesimal reduction in fuel subsidy, and that the gains in revenue from the policy can compensate for the negative socio-economic and equity impacts associated with such a policy. Third, the paper argues that, so long as, industrial expansion in the country move parallel with investment in technological innovation, long-term sustainable growth and energy conservation targets are jointly feasible. Fourth, the paper shows that income elasticity evolves with the business cycle, and the absorptive capability of the host country affects how FDI (foreign direct inflows) impact energy intensity. - Highlights: • Low income states inhibit fuel substitution and investment in energy conservation. • Income elasticity evolves as we pass through boom and recessionary periods. • The goals of sustainable growth and energy conservation are not mutually exclusive. • Absorptive capability affects the impact of FDI on energy intensity

  13. Profit by conserving energy in your restaurant. Economies d'energie et profits a la carte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This manual is aimed at the Canadian restaurant sector with a view of promoting sound energy conservation practices. Monitoring is recommended to identify energy consumption and measure results of a conservation effects. These efforts can be done with respect to selection, operation, and maintenance of restaurant equipment used in food preparation, HVAC systems, refrigeration, water heating, and lighting. Overall building design and planning of new installations are also considered. 27 figs.

  14. 78 FR 78305 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... that your comment does not include any sensitive personal information, such as anyone's Social Security... Part 305 Advertising, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Labeling, reporting and recordkeeping... as HDMI, Component video, Svideo, Composite video; and/or (3) Media storage devices such as a USB...

  15. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  16. Energy management for the future. A sourcebook of ideas and activities for energy conservation learning programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This book serves as a teaching aid for Canadian school programs in energy conservation and energy management. Suitable curriculum areas and objectives are outlined, and suggestions are presented for organizing thematic study units. References are made throughout to appropriate use of additional media such as filmstrips. Five study units, each with its own classroom activities, are detailed: energy resources, energy and the home, energy and food, energy and leisure, and energy in transportation. Suggestions are given for ongoing energy management educational programs to be tried out once the study units have been completed. 23 figs.

  17. Energy Conservation and Solar Retrofitting for Existing Buildings in Oregon: An Architectural Design Class Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. School of Architecture and Allied Arts.

    Five privately owned homes and two university owned homes were examined by architecture students in order to formulate design alternatives to fit the houses with solar collection, storage, and control devices for supplementing domestic space and/or water heating. General principles advanced include why energy conservation and solar retrofitting…

  18. Energy conservation and use of renewable energies in the bio-industries 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, F.

    1982-01-01

    The proceedings are presented of the Second International Seminar on Energy Conservation and the Use of Renewable Energies in the Bio-industries. Of 106 papers presented, the following 5 are of particular forestry interest: Brewbaker, J.L.; MacDicken, K.; Beldt, R. van den. Tropical nitrogen-fixing fuelwood trees. 108-119 (Refs. 15). Farnham, R.S.; Garton, S.; Louis, K.A.; Read, P.E. Propagating and establishing bioenergy plantations. 274-283 (Refs. 14). Salix and Alnus spp. in the marginal wetlands of northern Minnesota, USA. Kio, P.R.O. Factors and policies affecting forest resources use and conservation in Africa. 425-432 (Refs. 9), including discussion of the causes and consequences of deforestation. Plumptre, R.A.; Sandells, A. Construction, performance and economics of simple solar timber drying kilns. 577-586 (Refs. 11). Yermanos, D.M. Jojoba - outlook for maximizing oil production. 738-748 (Refs. 1). It describes experiments on seed and oil yields of Simmondsia chinensis in California.

  19. 78 FR 7296 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Unit Challenge (RTU Challenge). This program provides a market mechanism that reduces barriers for... commercial air-cooler air conditioners and heat pumps in the field. \\7\\ U.S. Department of Energy. Building... the IEER more than the EER for commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. D. Engineering Analysis The...

  20. 75 FR 23191 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Impact Analysis The NIA estimates the national energy savings (NES) and the net present value (NPV) of... to public comments. Accordingly, DOE intends to present the results of its analyses in the notice of... the real consumer cost of capital and puts the LCC in present-value terms. The PBP represents the...

  1. 76 FR 57515 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Contents I. Summary of the Final Rule and Its Benefits II. Introduction A. Authority B. Background 1... Wine Coolers From This Rulemaking 2. Product Classes a. General Discussion Regarding Added Product... Cost per Unit 4. Site-to-Source Energy Conversion 5. Discount Rates 6. Benefits From Effects of...

  2. 75 FR 59469 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    .... Methodology and Discussion A. Market and Technology Assessment 1. Exclusion of Wine Coolers From This.... Benefits From Effects of Standards on Energy Prices H. Consumer Subgroup Analysis I. Manufacturer Impact.... Net Present Value of Consumer Costs and Benefits c. Indirect Impacts on Employment 4. Impact on...

  3. 76 FR 26656 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... (202) 586-2945 or e-mail: [email protected] . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen L...: stephen[email protected] . Ms. Elizabeth Kohl, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of General Counsel.... 6291-6309; 28 U.S.C. 2461 note. 2. Revise Sec. 430.32 paragraphs (b), and (h) to read as follows: Sec...

  4. 77 FR 2355 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... advantages; distributive impacts; and equity); (4) to the extent feasible, specify performance objectives... Defense Council (NRDC), the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA), and the Northwest Power and... Strategic Plan commits the Department to reviewing minimum appliance efficiency standards at least every 5...

  5. Local policies for DSM: the UK's home energy conservation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Leach, M.

    2000-01-01

    Residential energy use accounts for approximately 28 per cent of total primary energy use in the UK, with consumption in this sector forecast to increase due partly to expanding numbers of households. Finding ways to reduce residential energy consumption must form a key part of the climate change strategies of the UK and all developed countries. In 1995, an innovative piece of legislation was passed in the UK, devolving residential energy efficiency responsibility to local government. Under 'The Home Energy Conservation Act' (HECA), local authorities are obliged to consider the energy efficiency of private as well as public housing stock. Authorities were given a duty to produce a strategy for improving residential energy efficiency in their area by 30 per cent in the next 10-15 years. This paper describes the enormous variation in the quality of local authorities' strategies and discusses reasons for this variation. Based on a nationwide survey of HECA lead officers, it considers the opportunities and constraints facing local authorities, and what has been achieved to-date under the Act. It also examines how HECA fits into the UK's national energy policy and explains the roles of other institutions across the public, private and voluntary sector in facilitating implementation of the Act. Finally, the paper considers how other countries can learn from the UK's HECA experience and can use the Act as a template to apply the principle of subsidiarity to this area of environmental policy. (Author)

  6. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  7. The origin of the energy-momentum conservation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.

    2017-09-01

    The interplay between the action-reaction principle and the energy-momentum conservation law is revealed by the examples of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories, and general relativity. These two statements are shown to be equivalent in the sense that both hold or fail together. Their mutual agreement is demonstrated most clearly in the self-interaction problem by taking account of the rearrangement of degrees of freedom appearing in the action of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories. The failure of energy-momentum conservation in general relativity is attributed to the fact that this theory allows solutions having nontrivial topologies. The total energy and momentum of a system with nontrivial topological content prove to be ambiguous, coordinatization-dependent quantities. For example, the energy of a Schwarzschild black hole may take any positive value greater than, or equal to, the mass of the body whose collapse is responsible for forming this black hole. We draw the analogy to the paradoxial Banach-Tarski theorem; the measure becomes a poorly defined concept if initial three-dimensional bounded sets are rearranged in topologically nontrivial ways through the action of free non-Abelian isometry groups.

  8. Measuring energy conservation on Nova Scotia (NS) farms: A 2004 to 2011 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Duinker, P.; Amyotte, P.; Adams, M.; Khan, F.

    2016-01-01

    Many jurisdictions, including Nova Scotia (NS), have implemented policies and programs around energy. The NS government has targeted energy efficiency and more renewable energy as two main policy areas. The NS Department of Agriculture has taken initiative to provide support to implement energy conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy opportunities in recent years but have these programs and policies been effective? A baseline energy use survey was conducted in 2005 and responses from mail surveys in 2012 (n = 273, 11.4% response rate) were used to measure the change in NS farm energy use data reported for 2004 and 2011. There have been significant reductions in energy use on NS farms. On average, NS farmers spent $8790 on energy expenses in 2011 compared to $11,228 in 2004. Adjusting for inflation, this is a 32% decrease, despite energy commodity pricing increases beyond the inflation rate. This is likely due to a decrease in energy use and a shift from gasoline use to diesel use. By the end of 2012, 36.0% of NS farmers (more than 860) had received some level of support to evaluate their energy options. This includes 410 energy audits compared to only 36 by the end of 2005. - Highlights: • Nova Scotia farmers decreased their energy costs by 32% between 2004 and 2011. • Energy reductions were likely due to decreased energy use and a shift in fuel use. • An estimated 374 NS farms had an energy audit between 2005 and 2012.

  9. Residential energy-efficient technology adoption, energy conservation, knowledge, and attitudes: An analysis of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between measures of household energy use behavior and household characteristics are estimated using a unique dataset of approximately 5000 households in 10 EU countries and Norway. Family age-composition patterns are found to have a distinct impact on household energy use behavior. Households with young children are more likely to adopt energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation practices and place primary importance on energy savings for environmental reasons. By contrast, households with a high share of elderly members place more importance on financial savings, and have lower levels of technology adoption, energy conservation practice use, and knowledge about household energy use. Education levels also matter, with higher levels associated with energy-efficient technology adoption and energy conservation practice use. Similarly, university education increases the stated importance of energy savings for greenhouse gas reductions and decreases the stated importance for financial reasons. Education impacts also vary greatly across survey countries and there is some evidence of an Eastern–Western European divide with respect to attitudes towards energy savings. These cross-country differences highlight the need to balance a common EU energy-efficiency policy framework with flexibility for country specific policies to address unique constraints to energy-efficient technology and conservation practice adoption. - Highlights: ► Household energy use behavior is explored with data from 11 European countries. ► Household age structure and education influence household energy use behavior and attitudes. ► Significant country differences in household energy use behavior exist. ► The EU needs to balance a common energy-efficiency policy framework with country specific policies.

  10. Energy, momentum and angular momentum conservations in de Sitter gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jia-An

    2016-01-01

    In de Sitter (dS) gravity, where gravity is a gauge field introduced to realize the local dS invariance of the matter field, two kinds of conservation laws are derived. The first kind is a differential equation for a dS-covariant current, which unites the canonical energy-momentum (EM) and angular momentum (AM) tensors. The second kind presents a dS-invariant current which is conserved in the sense that its torsion-free divergence vanishes. The dS-invariant current unites the total (matter plus gravity) EM and AM currents. It is well known that the AM current contains an inherent part, called the spin current. Here it is shown that the EM tensor also contains an inherent part, which might be observed by its contribution to the deviation of the dust particle’s world line from a geodesic. All the results are compared to the ordinary Lorentz gravity. (paper)

  11. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...

  12. Alexandria electricity distribution company (AEDC) experience in energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, K.; Soliman, O.; Nabil, A.

    2005-01-01

    Alexandria is the second capital of Egypt and represents forty percent of Egypt's industrial activities. There are about 350 big industrial firms and more than 2 thousands small and medium enterprises. This industries produces significant greenhouse gas emission. Good efforts are exerted in the field of energy saving and environment conservation by AEDC in order to reduce and limit greenhouse gas emission. AEDC participated in many projects sponsored by different foreign counterparts. These projects are: 1 - Energy and urban environment in Mediterranean countries: Phases 1, 2(1995-1996). 2 - Demand side management (DSM) 1996 - 1997. 3 - Energy and urban environment in Mediterranean countries: Phases 3 (2002-2003). 4 - Global environment facility ( GEF ) 1999 - 2003. The results of these pilot projects are presented in details in this paper

  13. Energy as form giver: conservation technologies in architecture's future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosbeck, R R

    1981-07-01

    The need to conserve energy has changed architecture, which now has distinct energy-conscious designs and a new design vocabulary. Future designs will consider how energy affects buildings and minimize the impact in siting and landscaping decisions. Existing buildings must also be accommodated. No building performance standards exist yet that allow architects to be creative, although architects are working more closely with engineers and builders. Earth-sheltering designs will have to overcome psychological barriers, but the opportunities to preserve open space and views will improve their acceptability. The American Institute of Archiects will assume leadership in this area, but it will not take over all the research programs abandoned by the Reagan administration. Future housing will be more compact, grouped, and closely integrated. (DCK)

  14. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage

  15. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage. (DMC)

  16. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  17. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  18. 77 FR 59719 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... to include emissions that occur in manufacturing or transport of appliances. EPCA directs DOE to... with less automation and more labor than some of the larger competitors. To change the design of their...

  19. Performance of passive solar and energy conserving houses in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S.; Newcomb, C.; Shea, M.; Mort, D.

    1983-11-01

    This report provides a technical description of the methodology and the results of a two year effort to collect field data on the performance of passive solar and energy conserving houses in California. Sixty-three passive solar houses were visited and several hours were spent with the homeowner obtaining building details, management procedures, architectural plans, photographs, and at least a year of billing data. With this information thermal performance parameters were calculated for each of the houses. Eleven of the above sixty-three Class C sites (nine passive solar and two energy conserving houses) were instrumented and monitored using the SERI Class B methodology as a guideline. Continuous data were collected for one year using up to 18 different sensors to measure temperatures, electric power, insolation, and the status of fans, gas burners, and moveable insulation. In addition careful one time measurements were made to determine the loss coefficient, infiltration rate, and furnace efficiency. Analysis of this data giving comfort conditions maintained and energy uses for a complete heating and cooling season for each of the houses is presented.

  20. Retrofit energy conservation in residential buildings in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.; Birur, G. C.; Daksla, C.

    1982-01-01

    The common energy conservation techniques (ECTs) that can be retrofit-installed into residential buildings are surveyed. The quantity of saved energy for heating and cooling attributable to each ECT is evaluated for three common modes of heating: natural gas heating at 60/therm; heating via heat pump at $1.20/therm; and electric resistance heating at $2.40/therm. In every case, a life cycle cost comparison is made between the long term revenue due to energy conservation and a safe and conventional alternative investment that might be available to the prudent homeowner. The comparison between investment in an ECT and the alternative investment is brought into perspective using the life cycle payback period and an economic Figure of Merit (FOM). The FOM allows for relative ranking between candidate ECTs. Because the entire spectrum of winter heating climates in California is surveyed, the decision maker can determine whether or not a considered ECT is recommended in a given climate, and under what conditions an ECT investment becomes attractive.

  1. Energy conservation and management system using efficient building automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hazry, D.; Tanveer, M. Hassan; Joyo, M. Kamran; Warsi, Faizan A.; Kamarudin, H.; Wan, Khairunizam; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.; Hussain, A. T.

    2015-05-01

    In countries where the demand and supply gap of electricity is huge and the people are forced to endure increasing hours of load shedding, unnecessary consumption of electricity makes matters even worse. So the importance and need for electricity conservation increases exponentially. This paper outlines a step towards the conservation of energy in general and electricity in particular by employing efficient Building Automation technique. It should be noted that by careful designing and implementation of the Building Automation System, up to 30% to 40% of energy consumption can be reduced, which makes a huge difference for energy saving. In this study above mentioned concept is verified by performing experiment on a prototype experimental room and by implementing efficient building automation technique. For the sake of this efficient automation, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is employed as a main controller, monitoring various system parameters and controlling appliances as per required. The hardware test run and experimental findings further clarifies and proved the concept. The added advantage of this project is that it can be implemented to both small and medium level domestic homes thus greatly reducing the overall unnecessary load on the Utility provider.

  2. 78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program... implementing its new Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. The FONSI decision document is based on... entitled ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program,'' which expands upon policies and procedures...

  3. 40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.80 Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General. The Administrator will allocate allowances from the Conservation and...

  4. Energy conservation from a consumer perspective. Institut fuer marketing der Universitaet Muenster, Arbeitspapiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, R

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the standard of energy research in the American Literature on consumer behaviour is given. After the discussion of the importance of consumer research for energy conservation the difficulties on determining ''energy conservation behaviour'' are described. Moreover, the study compiles past American Literature that has tried to explain energy conservation behaviour. A further chapter analyzes measures of influencing the consumer energy conservation behaviour carried out so far in the United States and Canada. Finally, still open problems in future American energy conservation research in the field of consumer behaviour are demonstrated.

  5. Energy conserving, linear scaling Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, M J; Niklasson, Anders M N

    2012-10-07

    Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations with long-term conservation of the total energy and a computational cost that scales linearly with system size have been obtained simultaneously. Linear scaling with a low pre-factor is achieved using density matrix purification with sparse matrix algebra and a numerical threshold on matrix elements. The extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics formalism [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] yields microcanonical trajectories with the approximate forces obtained from the linear scaling method that exhibit no systematic drift over hundreds of picoseconds and which are indistinguishable from trajectories computed using exact forces.

  6. Correlation-induced spectral changes and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, G.S.; Wolf, E.

    1996-01-01

    An energy conservation law is derived for fields generated by random, statistically stationary, scalar sources of any state of coherence. It is shown that correlation-induced spectral changes are in strict agreement with this law and that, basic to the understanding of such changes, is a distinction that must be made between the spectrum of a source and the spectrum of the field that the source generates. This distinction, which is obviously relevant for spectroscopy, does not appear to have been previously recognized. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. DOE also....gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: CeilingFan[email protected

  8. 76 FR 67037 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ..., including trends derived using the experience curve approach. AGA and APGA stated that DOE's experience... and APGA using DOE's model, DOE has concluded that its model (which remains unchallenged in terms of... forecast has been trending downward over the last several years; (5) DOE's use of the AEO 2010 Reference...

  9. 77 FR 32381 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... on a CD. It is not necessary to include printed copies. 4. Hand Delivery/Courier: Ms. Brenda Edwards... washers under TSL 3, the first number for consumer impacts refers to the standard in 2015, and the second... the value of CO 2 reductions is based on a global value. Second, the assessments of operating cost...

  10. Energy conservation and management strategies in Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the competitive industrial environment it is essential that cost of the product is kept at the minimum possible. Energy conservation is an important aspect in achieving this as energy is one of the key recourses for growth and survival of industry. The process of heavy water production being very complex and energy intensive, Heavy Water board has given a focussed attention for initiating various measures for reducing the specific energy consumption in all the plants. The initiative resulted in substantial reduction in specific energy consumption and brought in savings in cost. The cumulative reduction of specific energy consumption has been over 30% over the last seven years and the total savings for the last three years on account of the same has been about Rs. 190 crore. The paper describes the strategies adopted in the heavy water plants for effecting the above achievements. The paper covers the details of some of the energy saving schemes carried out at different heavy water plants through case studies. The case studies of schemes implemented at HWPs are general in nature and is applicable for any other industry. The case studies cover the modifications with re-optimisation of the process parameters, improvements effected in utility units like refrigeration and cooling water systems, improvements in captive power plant cycle and improved recycle scheme for water leading to reduced consumptions. The paper also mentions the innovative ammonia absorption refrigeration with improved coefficient of performance and HWB's efforts in development of the system as an integrated unit of the ammonia water deuterium exchange process for heavy water production. HWB also has taken up R and D on various other schemes for improvements in energy consumption for future activities covering utilisation of low grade energy for generation of refrigeration. (author)

  11. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-10-01

    Manufactured, or HUD-Code, homes comprise a growing share of the housing stock in the Northwest, as well as nationally. Their relatively low cost has made them especially attractive to lower income families, first-time home-buyers, and retired persons. The characteristics of manufactured home (MH) buyers, the unique energy consumption characteristics of the homes, and their increasing market share make this market an especially critical one for energy consumption and conservation planning in the Northwest. This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that can potentially assist the design of a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. This study has the objective of assisting BPA in the development of a regional approach in which numerous organizations and parties would participate to achieve conservation in new manufactured homes. A previous survey and information collected for this study from regional dealers and manufacturers provide an indication of the energy conservation options being sold to manufactured home buyers in the PNW. Manufacturers in the Northwest appear to sell homes that usually exceed the HUD thermal requirements. Manufacturers typically offer efficiency improvements in packages that include fixed improvements in insulation levels, glazing, and infiltration control. Wholesale costs of these packages range from about $100 to $1500. Typical packages include significant upgrades in floor insulation values with modest upgrades in ceilings and walls. This study identifies trends and impacts that a marketing plan should consider to adequately address the financial concerns of manufactured home buyers.

  12. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, Allen L.; Knoll, Dana A.; Cieren, Emmanuel B.; Feltman, Nicolas; Leibs, Christopher A.; McCarthy, Colleen; Murthy, Karthik S.; Wang, Yijie

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  13. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Allen L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knoll, Dana A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cieren, Emmanuel B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feltman, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leibs, Christopher A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarthy, Colleen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murthy, Karthik S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yijie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-10

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  14. Energy conservation in Newmark based time integration algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Energy balance equations are established for the Newmark time integration algorithm, and for the derived algorithms with algorithmic damping introduced via averaging, the so-called a-methods. The energy balance equations form a sequence applicable to: Newmark integration of the undamped equations...... of motion, an extended form including structural damping, and finally the generalized form including structural as well as algorithmic damping. In all three cases the expression for energy, appearing in the balance equation, is the mechanical energy plus some additional terms generated by the discretization...

  15. Stable schemes for dissipative particle dynamics with conserved energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltz, Gabriel, E-mail: stoltz@cermics.enpc.fr

    2017-07-01

    This article presents a new numerical scheme for the discretization of dissipative particle dynamics with conserved energy. The key idea is to reduce elementary pairwise stochastic dynamics (either fluctuation/dissipation or thermal conduction) to effective single-variable dynamics, and to approximate the solution of these dynamics with one step of a Metropolis–Hastings algorithm. This ensures by construction that no negative internal energies are encountered during the simulation, and hence allows to increase the admissible timesteps to integrate the dynamics, even for systems with small heat capacities. Stability is only limited by the Hamiltonian part of the dynamics, which suggests resorting to multiple timestep strategies where the stochastic part is integrated less frequently than the Hamiltonian one.

  16. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  17. Technical analysis on energy conservation and emission reduction of new energy electric vehicle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    With the global environmental problems and energy crisis continuously emerging, all countries are taking active measures to achieve the benign development of domestic economy and society. Vehicle, as a large oil consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, nend to be a revolutionary change. Therefore, the development of new energy electric vehicle has become the consensus of the world. On this background, this paper has sorted out the current state and the related development planning of new energy electric vehicles in different countries to predict the car ownership of the new energy electric vehicles using elastic coefficient method and setting different path of development, conclude that under the consideration of energy conservation and emissions reduction factors, our country should mainly promote the BEV to realize the maximum energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  18. Conserving energy through new irrigation technologies. Technical briefing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    The benefits and applications of five irrigation technologies are explored: mobile drop-tube irrigation, computerized scheduling, reduced-pressure center pivots, well design and development, and automated gated-pipe systems. Perhaps the most promising of the new irrigation technologies is the low-energy, precision-application (LEPA) system. This mobile system used one-half the energy of conventional sprinkler systems and distributes water with greater efficiency through a series of low-pressure drop tubes suspended above the crop. Computerized methods of irrigation scheduling have been developed to help farmers conserve water and energy. Special computer programs determine when a crop needs water and how much to apply for optimal plant growth, thus preventing the unnecessary costs of pumping more water than the crop needs. Field test results show that replacing traditional scheduling methods of irrigation with computerized scheduling can reduce energy and water use by as much as 35%. The irrigation industry is actively promoting reduced-pressure water application methods, particularly for center-pivot systems. Reduced-pressure systems expend less energy but produce the same crop yields as conventional high-pressure systems, as long as excessive water runoff does not occur. If well design and development techniques are applied when a well is drilled into an unconsolidated acquifer, the well's life expectancy, as well as its operating efficiency, can increase, the later by as much as 40%.

  19. Residential Energy Use and Conservation. Economics, Demographics, and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounen, D. [Department of Financial Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kok, N. [Limburg Institute of Financial Economics LIFE, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Quigley, J.M. [Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Energy consumption in the residential sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. However, much of the current debate regarding energy efficiency in the housing market focuses on the physical and technical determinants of energy consumption, neglecting the role of the economic behavior of resident households. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which the use of gas and electricity is determined by the technical specifications of the dwelling as compared to the demographic characteristics of the occupying household, using a unique set of microeconomic data for a sample of more than 300,000 Dutch homes. The results show that residential gas consumption is determined principally by structural dwelling characteristics, such as the vintage, building type and quality of the home, while electricity consumption varies more directly with household composition, in particular income and family composition. Combining these results with projections on future economic and demographic trends, we find that, absent price increases for residential energy, the aging of the population and their increasing wealth will mostly offset improvements in the energy efficiency of the building stock resulting from policy interventions and natural revitalization.

  20. Feasibility study of energy conservation at Vietnam Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Feasibility study was conducted of the project for energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission by introducing the honeycomb type heat storage burner technology to heating furnaces of Vietnam Steel Corporation (VSC). Furnaces for study are the bar mill furnace at Gia Sang plant of TISCO Steelorks, bar mill furnace at Thu Duc plant of SSC Steelworks, billet furnace at new bar mill of SSC Steelworks, slab furnace at new hot strip mill that VSC is now in the planning stage. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount is 2,900 toe/y at TISCO Steelworks, 2,130 toe/y at SSC Steelworks, and 6,000 toe/y at VSC new hot strip mill, which totaled 11,030 toe/y. The amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction is 9,000 t-CO2/y at TISCO, 6,600 t-CO2/y at SSC, and 18,600 t-CO2/y at VSC, which totaled 34,200 t/y. The total investment amount is 0.23, 0.44, 1.32 and 1.99 billion yen for each. As to the profitability, the internal earning rate is 24%, 86%, 97% and 51% for each, which are all favorable. (NEDO)

  1. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  2. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen

    2012-05-01

    Maximizing the optical network unit’s (ONU) sleep time is an effective approach for achieving maximum energy conservation in green Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs). While overlapping downstream and upstream ONU transmissions can maximize the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green EPONs under the limited service discipline and the upstream-based overlapped time window. Specifically, we first derive the expected mean packet delay, and then present a closed-form expression of the ONU sleep time, setting identical upstream/downstream transmission cycle times based on a maximum downstream traffic delay re-quirement. With the proposed system model, we present a novel downstream bandwidth allocation scheme for energy conservation in green EPONs. Simulation results verify the proposed model and highlight the advantages of our scheme over conventional approaches.

  3. Energy-Integrating Master Plan for the City of Atlantic City, New Jersey: energy conservation element. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The Master Plan describes a coordinated energy-conservation effort for the City, the effective application and ultimate success of which depend primarily on the active involvement of the City government and its functional departments. Following an introductory section, Section XXI, Community Energy Determinants, describes the natural and man-made environment, growth and energy profiles, and the institutional environment. Additional sections are entitled: Energy-Conservation Options (passive energy options and active energy-conservation options); Energy Integration; Community Energy Management; Energy-Conservation Implementation Plan; and an appendix containing an energy-related glossary, a directory to various sources of information on energy conservation, various technical documents, a copy of the National Energy Act, and a bibliography. (MCW)

  4. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume IV. Energy conservation technology: advanced course for plan examiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This manual contains a more in-depth training in the review techniques and concepts required by the plan examiners and code officials in administering the code for conventional (buildings of 3 stories or less) construction.

  5. Analysis of energy demand, and evaluation of energy conservation measures in urban districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Yoshida, N.

    1994-01-01

    Mitsubishi Research Institute has analyzed the energy demand of a typical Japanese city, Yokohama, as well as the distribution of fossil-energy flow, and the final consumption by sectors. It has evaluated the effectiveness of various energy conservation measures, (e.g., cogeneration, electric cars, insulation,...) in countering the global warming trend. This study defines a viable methodology which may be utilized, in the future, in examining the effectiveness of environmental policies. (TEC). 1 tab., 4 figs

  6. A review of building energy regulation and policy for energy conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, hfs raised concerns over problems of energy supply and exhaustion of energy resources. Most of the developed countries are implementing building energy regulations such as energy standards, codes etc., to reduce building energy consumption. The position of developing countries with respect to energy regulations implementation and enforcement is either poorly documented or not documented at all. In addition, there is a lack of consistent data, which makes it difficult to understand the underlying changes that affect energy regulation implementation in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the progress of building energy regulations in developing countries and its implication for energy conservation and efficiency. The present status of building energy regulations in 60 developing countries around the world was analysed through a survey of building energy regulations using online survey. The study revealed the present progress made on building energy regulations in relation to implementation, development and compliance; at the same time the study recommends possible solutions to the barriers facing building energy regulation implementation in the developing world. - Research Highlights: →Progress and implications of energy regulations in developing countries. →Investigation assessed the progress made on energy regulations using online survey. →Energy regulation activities is progressively increasing in developing countries. →The study identified 25 developing countries without energy regulatory standards. →The study shows relationship between energy regulation and energy consumption.

  7. Survey of Public Understanding on Energy Resources including Nuclear Energy (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se-Moon; Song, Sun-Ja

    2007-01-01

    Women in Nuclear-Korea (WINK) surveyed the public understanding on various energy resources in early September 2006 to offer the result for establishment of the nuclear communication policy. The reason why this survey includes other energy resources is because the previous works are only limited on nuclear energy, and also aimed to know the public's opinion on the present communication skill of nuclear energy for the public understanding. The present study is purposed of having data how public understands nuclear energy compared to other energies, such as fossil fuels, hydro power, and other sustainable energies. The data obtained from this survey have shown different results according to the responded group; age, gender, residential area, etc. Responded numbers are more than 2,000 of general public and university students. The survey result shows that nuclear understanding is more negative in women than in men, and is more negative in young than older age

  8. Energy conservation in the earth's crust and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yao; Mu, Xinzhi

    2013-02-01

    Among various matters which make up the earth's crust, the thermal conductivity of coal, oil, and oil-gas, which are formed over a long period of geological time, is extremely low. This is significant to prevent transferring the internal heat of the earth to the thermal insulation of the surface, cooling the surface of the earth, stimulating biological evolution, and maintaining natural ecological balance as well. Fossil energy is thermal insulating layer in the earth's crust. Just like the function of the thermal isolation of subcutaneous fatty tissue under the dermis of human skin, it keeps the internal heat within the organism so it won't be transferred to the skin's surface and be lost maintaining body temperature at low temperatures. Coal, oil, oil-gas, and fat belong to the same hydrocarbons, and the functions of their thermal insulation are exactly the same. That is to say, coal, oil, and oil-gas are just like the earth's "subcutaneous fatty tissue" and objectively formed the insulation protection on earth's surface. This paper argues that the human large-scale extraction of fossil energy leads to damage of the earth's crust heat-resistant sealing, increasing terrestrial heat flow, or the heat flow as it is called, transferring the internal heat of the earth to Earth's surface excessively, and causing geotemperature and sea temperature to rise, thus giving rise to global warming. The reason for climate warming is not due to the expansion of greenhouse gases but to the wide exploitation of fossil energy, which destroyed the heat insulation of the earth's crust, making more heat from the interior of the earth be released to the atmosphere. Based on the energy conservation principle, the measurement of the increase of the average global temperature that was caused by the increase of terrestrial heat flow since the Industrial Revolution is consistent with practical data. This paper illustrates "pathogenesis" of climate change using medical knowledge. The

  9. Track structure for low energy ions including charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Nikjoo, H.

    2002-01-01

    The model and development is described of a new generation of Monte Carlo track structure codes. The code LEAHIST simulates full slowing down of low-energy proton history tracks in the range 1 keV-1 MeV and the code LEAHIST simulates low-energy alpha particle history tracks in the range 1 keV-8 MeV in water. All primary ion interactions are followed down to 1 keV and all electrons to 1 eV. Tracks of secondary electrons ejected by ions were traced using the electron code KURBUC. Microdosimetric parameters derived by analysis of generated tracks are presented. (author)

  10. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

    2014-03-26

    India is experiencing unprecedented construction boom. The country doubled its floorspace between 2001 and 2005 and is expected to add 35 billion m2 of new buildings by 2050. Buildings account for 35% of total final energy consumption in India today, and building energy use is growing at 8% annually. Studies have shown that carbon policies will have little effect on reducing building energy demand. Chaturvedi et al. predicted that, if there is no specific sectoral policies to curb building energy use, final energy demand of the Indian building sector will grow over five times by the end of this century, driven by rapid income and population growth. The growing energy demand in buildings is accompanied by a transition from traditional biomass to commercial fuels, particularly an increase in electricity use. This also leads to a rapid increase in carbon emissions and aggravates power shortage in India. Growth in building energy use poses challenges to the Indian government. To curb energy consumption in buildings, the Indian government issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which applies to commercial buildings with a connected load of 100 kW or 120kVA. It is predicted that the implementation of ECBC can help save 25-40% of energy, compared to reference buildings without energy-efficiency measures. However, the impact of ECBC depends on the effectiveness of its enforcement and compliance. Currently, the majority of buildings in India are not ECBC-compliant. The United Nations Development Programme projected that code compliance in India would reach 35% by 2015 and 64% by 2017. Whether the projected targets can be achieved depends on how the code enforcement system is designed and implemented. Although the development of ECBC lies in the hands of the national government – the Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the Ministry of Power, the adoption and implementation of ECBC largely relies on state and local governments. Six years after ECBC

  11. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  12. Simplified energy design economics: Principles of economics applied to energy conservation and solar energy investments in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H. E.; Ruegg, R. T.; Wilson, F.

    1980-01-01

    Economic analysis techniques for evaluating alternative energy conservation investments in buildings are presented. Life cycle cost, benefit cost, savings to investment, payback, and rate of return analyses are explained and illustrated. The procedure for discounting is described for a heat pump investment. Formulas, tables of discount factors, and detailed instructions are provided to give all information required to make economic evaluations of energy conserving building designs.

  13. Energy consumption and conservation patterns in Canadian households. Summary report. Habitudes de consommation et de conservation de l'energie dans les foyers Canadiens. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.; Claxton, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    To examine the consumer behavior sector of energy demand patterns in Canada, this report undertook to identify major groupings of households based on energy consumption profiles and energy values, to relate these groupings to situational and demographic factors, and to initiate a comparative analysis of the receptivity of the major groupings to alternative energy conservation policy proposals. Data were collected from household surveys and energy suppliers. Householders were asked about their attitudes to energy conservation and energy policy, and profiles of energy consumption patterns of typical households were identified. To aid in evaluating the research, households were classified according to their levels of in-home energy consumption and automobile gasoline consumption. The findings indicated a range of lifestyles highly interrelated in terms of levels of energy consumption, ownership of energy-consuming products, knowledge and concern for energy issues, willingness to cut back energy consumption, and preferences for alternative conservation policies. The study has shown that most consumers are not very aware of the energy problem, do not see conservation as a serious need, and are unlikely to accept major policy interventions that result in major changes in energy supplies and current lifestyles. A number of recommendations are made as to policies, and their possible impact, to conserve household energy. 8 refs. 11 tabs.

  14. Energy consumption and conservation patterns in Canadian households. Summary report. Habitudes de consommation et de conservation de l'energie dans les foyers Canadiens. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G H.G.; Ritchie, J R.B.; Claxton, J D

    1978-01-01

    To examine the consumer behavior sector of energy demand patterns in Canada, this report undertook to identify major groupings of households based on energy consumption profiles and energy values, to relate these groupings to situational and demographic factors, and to initiate a comparative analysis of the receptivity of the major groupings to alternative energy conservation policy proposals. Data were collected from household surveys and energy suppliers. Householders were asked about their attitudes to energy conservation and energy policy, and profiles of energy consumption patterns of typical households were identified. To aid in evaluating the research, households were classified according to their levels of in-home energy consumption and automobile gasoline consumption. The findings indicated a range of lifestyles highly interrelated in terms of levels of energy consumption, ownership of energy-consuming products, knowledge and concern for energy issues, willingness to cut back energy consumption, and preferences for alternative conservation policies. The study has shown that most consumers are not very aware of the energy problem, do not see conservation as a serious need, and are unlikely to accept major policy interventions that result in major changes in energy supplies and current lifestyles. A number of recommendations are made as to policies, and their possible impact, to conserve household energy. 8 refs. 11 tabs.

  15. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2012. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2012, the standards saved an estimated 3.6 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $51.4 billion. The average household saved $347 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2012 was 198 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2070 amount to 179 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,104 billion and $1,390 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.8 trillion gallons in 2012, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2040 of 54 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2012 from reduced water use amounted to $13 billon.

  16. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2015. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2015, the standards saved an estimated 4.49 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 5% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $63.4 billion. The average household saved $320 in operating costs as a result of residential appliance standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2015 was 238 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4.3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 216.9 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,627 billion and $1,887 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2015 and estimated cumulative water savings by 2090 amount to 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2015 from reduced water use amounted to $12 billon.

  17. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  18. Consumer behavior and energy conservation. A policy-oriented field experimental study on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions promoting residential energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, P

    1984-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting energy conservation by consumers. It is argued that energy conservation has many advantages over other energy policy options, especially with respect to sociopolitical, economic, technical, safety and environmental considerations. Theories are discussed which deal with micromotives behind individual energy consumption and their macroconsequences. Antecedent and consequence behavioral interventions (information/education, prompting, modeling, feedback, self-monitoring, reinforcement/punishment) for promoting energy conservation by consumers are analyzed, and an extensive review is presented of behavioral experiments conducted in this area. Discussed is how the field experiment, which was conducted in five cities in the Netherlands with appr. 400 subjects, has been implemented. Hypotheses are tested regarding belief structures with respect to energy conservation. Provided are data about the absolute and relative effectiveness of energy conservation information, biweekly and monthly feedback, and self-monitoring in encouraging consumers to conserve energy. Hypotheses are tested about cognitive aspects related to responsiveness to behavioral interventions and attitude change toward energy conservation. Conclusions are presented and some energy policy recommendations and directions for future research are formulated. (J.C.R.)

  19. The valuation of environmental externalities in energy conservation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernick, P.L.; Caverhill, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    The determination of the full societal costs of energy usage must incorporate estimates of the environmental effects, or externalities, of energy production and delivery. An externality is any cost or benefit that is not reflected in the price paid by a utility or its customers for energy produced or consumed. The potential variety and scope of externality analyses are discussed. Four methods of externality valuation are briefly discussed to highlight the uses, strengths and pitfalls of each method. The use of pollutants' relative potency, polling of experts, direct estimation of costs, and implied valuation, are compared. The authors preferred method of valuation for near-term energy supply decisions, implied valuation, is discussed in detail. The distinguishing feature of the implied valuation technique is its use of the cost of control, rather than the direct cost of emissions. Only the most expensive required control measure is relevant to valuation of the external effects. The difficulties in applying implied valuation, such as the definition of the margin, the multiple effects of pollutants and the imperfect nature of the regulatory system, are also considered. The effect of environmental externalities on the benefits of conservation are summarized

  20. Dynamic energy conservation model REDUCE. Extension with experience curves, energy efficiency indicators and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    1999-12-01

    The main objective of the energy conservation model REDUCE (Reduction of Energy Demand by Utilization of Conservation of Energy) is the evaluation of the effectiveness of economical, financial, institutional, and regulatory measures for improving the rational use of energy in end-use sectors. This report presents the results of additional model development activities, partly based on the first experiences in a previous project. Energy efficiency indicators have been added as an extra tool for output analysis in REDUCE. The methodology is described and some examples are given. The model has been extended with a method for modelling the effects of technical development on production costs, by means of an experience curve. Finally, the report provides a 'users guide', by describing in more detail the input data specification as well as all menus and buttons. 19 refs

  1. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 [3084-AB15] Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Energy Labeling Rule) AGENCY: Federal Trade...'') in 1979,\\1\\ pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA).\\2\\ The Rule requires...

  2. Energy secretary's priorities include San Francisco area research projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Widener, A

    2003-01-01

    "Bay Area research labs got a big boost Monday when the Secretary of Energy unveiled his priorities for major research projects his agency hopes to fund over the next two decades. Among the agency's 28 top priorities are a major computer expansion and an experiment examining the expanding universe that could be housed at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and a powerful X-ray laser planned for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center" (1 page).

  3. Effects of energy conservation on equilibrium properties of hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Ko, Che Ming

    2018-01-01

    Based on the relativistic Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport model, which includes relativistic scalar and vector potentials on baryons, we consider an N -Δ -π system in a box with periodic boundary conditions to study the effects of energy conservation in particle production and absorption processes on the equilibrium properties of the system. The density and temperature of the matter in the box are taken to be similar to the hot dense matter formed in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. We find that to maintain the equilibrium numbers of N ,Δ , and π , which depend on the mean-field potentials of N and Δ , we must include these potentials in the energy conservation condition that determines the momenta of outgoing particles after a scattering or decay process. We further find that the baryon scalar potentials mainly affect the Δ and pion equilibrium numbers, while the baryon vector potentials have considerable effect on the effective charged pion ratio at equilibrium. Our results thus indicate that it is essential to include in the transport model the effect of potentials in the energy conservation of a scattering or decay process, which is ignored in most transport models, for studying pion production in heavy ion collisions.

  4. Methods and technologies of energy conservation in trade business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalveram, G

    1983-10-01

    Proposals to devise a structure of energy consumers in the Federal Republic of Germany mostly make use of the following division: industry, transport, and households, small consumers and other consumers. The third consumer group, which is supposed to include also trading businesses, accounts for approximately 44% of the total energy consumption. The remaining 56% are consumed by the industry (39%) and transport (17%). The level of energy consumption and energy cost in the trade is determined by a multitude of factors specific to the enterprise, such as for instance the geographic position of the undertaking, i.e. differing climatic conditions, opening times, condition of the buildings and technical equipment. In spite of this, considerable amounts can be saved if the energy sources respectively the aggregates powered with them are used carefully and economically and if the most recent energy-saving technologies are taken into account.

  5. Energy Conservation in Optical Fibers With Distributed Brick-Walls Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Javier; Ghozlan, Hassan; Kramer, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    A band-pass filtering scheme is proposed to mitigate spectral broadening and channel coupling in the Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) fiber optic channel. The scheme is modeled by modifying the NLS Equation to include an attenuation profile with multiple brick-wall filters centered at different frequencies. It is shown that this brick-walls profile conserves the total in-band energy of the launch signal. Furthermore, energy fluctuations between the filtered channels are characterized, and conditions on the channel spacings are derived that ensure energy conservation in each channel. The maximum spectral efficiency of such a system is derived, and a constructive rule for achieving it using Sidon sequences is provided.

  6. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents` energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today`s results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  7. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents' energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today's results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  8. Substantial energy conservation in air conditioners; Substantiele energiebesparing bij luchtbehandelingsinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    An air conditioner has been retrofitted by application of an optimized fan in combination with an EC motor (brushless dc-motor). Attention is paid to the difference between an AC- and and EC motor, between free-running and spiral housing fans, between direct or indirect-driven, and between forward-bended and backward-bended blades. By means of equations and diagrams the realized energy conservation is visualized. [Dutch] De renovatie van een luchtbehandelingskast wordt besproken. Door de toepassing van ventilatoren met een geoptimaliseerde waaier in combinatie met een EC-motor (borstelloze gelijkstroommotor) wordt een substantiele energiebesparing gerealiseerd. Er wordt op verschillende aspecten ingegaan. Onder meer het verschil tussen een AC- en EC-motor, tussen vrijlopende en slakkenhuisventilatoren, tussen direct- of indirect-gedreven schoepen en tussen voorwaarts- of achterwaartsgebogen schoepen. Aan de hand van vergelijkingen en diagrammen wordt de energiewinst zichtbaar gemaakt.

  9. Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Widespread Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Benedict; Williams, Leah J; Beresford, Alison E; Roddis, Philippa; Campbell, Colin; Teuten, Emma; Langston, Rowena H W; Bradbury, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy will potentially make an important contribution towards the dual aims of meeting carbon emission reduction targets and future energy demand. However, some technologies have considerable potential to impact on the biodiversity of the environments in which they are placed. In this study, an assessment was undertaken of the realistic deployment potential of a range of renewable energy technologies in the UK, considering constraints imposed by biodiversity conservation priorities. We focused on those energy sources that have the potential to make important energy contributions but which might conflict with biodiversity conservation objectives. These included field-scale solar, bioenergy crops, wind energy (both onshore and offshore), wave and tidal stream energy. The spatially-explicit analysis considered the potential opportunity available for each technology, at various levels of ecological risk. The resultant maps highlight the energy resource available, physical and policy constraints to deployment, and ecological sensitivity (based on the distribution of protected areas and sensitive species). If the technologies are restricted to areas which currently appear not to have significant ecological constraints, the total potential energy output from these energy sources was estimated to be in the region of 5,547 TWh/yr. This would be sufficient to meet projected energy demand in the UK, and help to achieve carbon reduction targets. However, we highlight two important caveats. First, further ecological monitoring and surveillance is required to improve understanding of wildlife distributions and therefore potential impacts of utilising these energy sources. This is likely to reduce the total energy available, especially at sea. Second, some of the technologies under investigation are currently not deployed commercially. Consequently this potential energy will only be available if continued effort is put into developing these energy sources

  10. Environmental protection through energy conservation: A free lunch at last?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    A cautious analysis of demand-side management programs is presented. Utility demand-side management (DSM) programs deserve to be given full and careful consideration as a potential way to give consumers better end-use energy services for their money, utilities an edge in an increasingly competitive market, and society a way to reduce the environmental costs of energy production. But in each of these areas, DSM programs offer no free lunches and have no inherent advantages over supply-side programs. If energy conservation makes sense on economic and business grounds, it can meet the standard economic and business tests applied to most of the rest of the economy; it neither requires nor deserves to be exempt from market concepts and disciplines. If utility DSM programs make sense on environmental grounds, they should be able to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness relative to other, primarily supply-side measures society is willing to undertake in order to control environmental effects. Subsidizing DSM measures in the hope that something good will happen far upstream can waste much money and cause disappointment and frustration

  11. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  12. The Power of Flexibility: Autonomous Agents That Conserve Energy in Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jun-young

    groups in commercial buildings by reactively suggesting energy conserving alternatives. TESLA takes a long-range planning perspective and optimizes overall energy consumption of a large number of group events or meetings together. THINC provides an end-to-end integration within a single agent of energy efficient scheduling, rescheduling and credit allocation. While SAVES, TESLA and THINC thus differ in their scope and applicability, they demonstrate the utility of agent-based systems in actually reducing energy consumption in commercial buildings. I evaluate my algorithms and agents using extensive analysis on data from over 110,000 real meetings/events at multiple educational buildings including the main libraries at the University of Southern California. I also provide results on simulations and real-world experiments, clearly demonstrating the power of agent technology to assist human users in saving energy in commercial buildings.

  13. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…

  14. Solar Energy: Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts: Student Material. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, bibliographies, and illustrations for seven course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the…

  15. Performance of two Vermont elementary school integrated energy conservation/solar energy retrofit projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.W. (Marlboro College, VT); Converse, A.O.

    1980-01-01

    Two Vermont elementary school energy conservation/passive solar energy retrofit projects are described. Both masonry buildings were insulated with polystyrene on the east, north and west exterior walls. The south walls of each building were converted to Trombe walls, and, in addition, a portion of the south wall of one building was fitted with a solar greenhouse. The construction details, the predicted performance, and some actual results are reported here.

  16. Ranking energy-conservation measures to establish research priorities: synopsis of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Le, T.Q.; Pierce, B.

    1979-05-02

    A workshop was convened to assist DOE's Technology Assessment Division in evaluating the need to prepare additional environmental- and social-impact assessments of different energy-conservation measures. Attendees participated in a decision-making exercise designed to rank 19 different energy-conservation measures according to their overall potential for achieving important national goals and their ease of implementation. The participants felt that the most-important ranking criteria dealt with questions concerning feasibility (economic, political/institutional, social, and technical) and economic efficiency. Other criteria, such as environmental quality and occupational health and safety received lower weights; possibly because of the widespread belief that most of the conservation measures presented would be environmentally beneficial. In the participants' view, the most-promising and feasible conservation measures include new-building-performance standards, retrofit of existing housing stock, new-appliance-performance standards and increased use of smaller cars. In contrast, conservation options which ranked rather low, such as diesel engines, coal-fired aluminum remelt furnaces, and cupola furnace modifications were expected to have some harmful environmental and health impacts. Most of these impacts are expected to be highly localized and of lesser national concern. Disagreement exists as to the efficacy of funding those projects deemed highly desirable and feasible versus those which are expected to have the greater environmental and social impacts. These differences must be taken into account in the research priorities that are eventually established. While environmental and social impacts of alternative energy-conservation measures may prove to be either harmful or beneficial, neither side should be ignored by the policy maker.

  17. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part V. Energy efficient buildings: the causes of litigation against energy conservation building codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, P.; Codina, R.; Cornwall, B.

    1978-09-01

    The guidelines laid out for the five subjects investigated in this series are to take a holistic view of energy conservation policies by describing the overall system in which they are implemented; provide analytical tools and sufficiently disagregated data bases that can be adapted to answer a variety of questions by the users; identify and discuss some of the important issues behind successful energy conservation policy; and develop an energy conservation policy in depth. Three specific cases reviewed are: the California nonresidential code (1976); the California residential code (1978); and the Farmers Home Administration code (1978). Although these three suits were brought by the building industry, this report also discusses considerations relevant to architects, bankers, and building inspectors. These cases are discussed from three perspectives: (1) objections to the codes explicitly stated in court, (2) industry conditions and practices behind objections stated in court, and (3) general beliefs not stated in court. This discussion focuses on suits intended to limit those building codes which the building industry sees as too strong. However, some energy conservation industries may sue to strengthen codes which they consider too weak. An example of such a case is Polarized Corporation's current suit against the Lighting section of ASHRAE 90-75 (Los Angeles Federal District Court, see Murnane, 1978). (MCW)

  18. Energy conservation through heat recovery steam generators at Engro Chemical Pakistan Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Akbar, K.N.

    2002-01-01

    With the deregulation of the nitrogenous fertilizer industry in Pakistan in 1986, the scenario changed for major energy conservation projects. In addition the government also started escalating the prices of natural gas. At this point they reactivated their major energy conservations projects. The plant was designed prior to the energy crisis period at the point when energy consumption was not a very major consideration. As a result, many of the energy conserving features built into subsequent plants were not included. On the gas turbine side, several changes were required in order to allow that the installation of the HRSG's. The gas turbine had to be upgraded to allow air flow due to the increased back pressure following installation of the HRSG's. Also with the uprate, the gas turbine control system had to be upgraded. The off take ducks for the HRSGs also required a design modification on the gas turbine exhaust to allow for a flanged connection, and the silencers in the exhaust duct had to be removed. The savings of natural gas was as per projections. Presently, with auxiliary firing, the HRSG's are producing 140,000 pph of steam. Their site total gas consumption has reduced by 10.6% or approximately 4 to 4.4 million CFD. In addition, the HRGS's have also provided significant ease of operation and flexibility. Of the three offsite boilers, two have been shut down and only one is operational. (A.B.)

  19. Ab initio calculation of molecular energies including parity violating interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakasov, A.; Ha Taekyu; Quack, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new approach, RHF-CIS, based on the perturbation of the ground state RHF wave function by the CIS excitations, has been implemented for evaluation of energy of parity violating interaction in molecules, E pv . The earlier approach, RHF-SDE, was based on the perturbation of the RHF ground states by the single-determinant ''excitations'' (SDE). The results obtained show the dramatic difference between E pv values in the RHF-CIS framework and those in the RHF-SDE framework: the E pv values of the RHF-CIS formalism are more than one order of magnitude greater compared to the RHF-SDE formalism as well as the corresponding tensor components. The maximal total value obtained for hydrogen peroxide in the RHF-CIS framework is 3.661 X 10 -19 E H (DZ ** basis set) while the maximal E pv value for the RHF-SDE formalism is just 3.635 X 10 -20 E H (TZ basis set). It is remarkable that both in the RFH-CIS and in the RHF-SDE approaches the diagonal tensor components of E pv strictly follow the geometry of a molecule and are always different from zero at chiral conformations. The zeros of the total E pv at chiral geometries are now found to be the results of the interplay between the diagonal tensor components values. We have carried out exhaustive analysis of the RHF-SDE formalism and found that it is not sufficiently accurate for studies of E pv . To this end, we have completely reproduced the previous work, which has been done in the RHF-SDE frame-work, and developed it further, studying how the RHF-SDE results vary when changing size and quality of basis sets. This last resource does not save the RHF-SDE formalism for evaluations of E pv from the general failure. Packages of FORTRAN routines called ENWEAK/RHFSDE-93 and ENWEAK/RHFCIS-94 have been developed which run on top of an ab initio MO package. We used 6-31G and 6-31G**, DZ and DZ**, TZ and TZ**, and (10s, 6p,**) basis sets. We will discuss the importance of the present results for possible measurement of the parity

  20. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006. Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006. In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by combining different tillage and planting operations. Results of research conducted in Fars province shows that conservation tillage saves fuel consumption for 77% compared to the conventional system (Afzalinia et al., 2009. Conservation tillage also reduces energy consumption from 23.6 to 42.8% in comparison to the conventional tillage (Rusu, 2005. Since energy indices would be affected by reduced input energies in conservation tillage, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of different tillage and planting methods on energy inputs and energy indices in irrigated wheat production in Eghlid region. Materials and Methods: This research was performed to evaluate and compare the energy indices in irrigated wheat production under different tillage and planting methods. The study was conducted in the form of a randomized complete block experimental design with five treatments and three replications in Eghlid region. The treatments were included, conventional tillage and seed broadcasting (A, conventional tillage and planting with Machine Barzegar grain drill (B, reduced tillage and seeding with Roto-seeder (C, direct seeding with Jairan Sanaat grain drill (D, and direct seeding with Sfoggia direct drill (E. Experimental plots with 10 by 50 m dimensions were used in this study. Loss crop residues were taken out of the experimental plots and standing crop residues were retained in the plots. In the conventional tillage method, primary tillage was performed

  1. Energy conservation in the pulp and paper industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Almost 40 specific research and development ideas were formulated by the 67 participants at this workshop. Projects were assessed with the following criteria in mind: potential energy savings, cost, risk, Federal role, time frame, and priority. Data are tabulated on the projects followed by six topics discussed by panel members: waste and recycling, energy management in the mill, papermaking, pulping and bleaching, power generation in the mill, and coating and conversion. Three summary speeches are included. (MCW)

  2. Energy conservation education. Need for coordination; Enoek-undervisning. Behov for koordinering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the energy conservation education at university level in Norway. The energy law of 29 june 1990 marks a turning point in the Norwegian energy policy; the market forces are introduced as the most important means of achieving an efficient socio-economic management of the energy resources. The importance of energy conservation is more fully appreciated. The Government can motivate energy conservation in many ways, above all by means of information and training. The position of coordinator for teaching energy conservation was created at NTH (Norwegian Institute of Technology) in 1989. Later a professorship in energy conservation has been established there. The area of activity of the professor is limited to stationary energy use in buildings and industry. 5 refs.

  3. Effects of energy conservation programs: report to IEA (International Energy Agency) Annex 7, Local Government Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Benton, L.; Engebeck, L.; Erikson, B.E.; Fredriksson, G.

    1984-01-01

    This Bulletin is an anthology of 13 essays by different authors covering various aspects of government programs for energy conservation. In six essays effects of energy codes, subsidies to conservation measures in buildings and advisory services are discussed. Results from several empirical studies are presented. Five essays deal with side-effects (or secondary effects) of energy conservation. Moisture and increased radiation from radon are two types of negative effects that are covered. Also positive effects such as promotion of innovations or increased employment are discussed. Policy instruments are normally implemented by the local authorities. This is illustrated by a description of energy planning for a new suburb in one municipality. Some tentative conclusions are presented in the final essay.

  4. 75 FR 28801 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program: Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of application deadline guideline...-FOA-0000013) for the formula grants of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG...

  5. Energy conservation in coal conversion. Final report, September 15, 1977--September 1, 1978. Selected case studies and conservation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcupile, J.C.

    1978-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the methodologies developed in the Energy Conservation in Coal Conversion August, 1977 Progress Report - Contract No. EY77S024196 - to an energy efficient, near-term coal conversion process design, and to develop additional, general techniques for studying energy conservation and utilization in coal conversion processes. The process selected for study was the Ralph M. Parsons Company of Pasadena, California ''Oil/Gas Complex, Conceptual Design/Economic Analysis'' as described in R and D Report No. 114 - Interim Report No. 4, published March, 1977, ERDA Contract No. E(49-18)-1975. Thirteen papers representing possible alternative methods of energy conservation or waste heat utilization have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  6. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  7. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  8. The potential energy conservation of the Dutch industrial, business and service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werff, R.L.; Opschoor, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The database ICARUS has been used as a starting point to estimate the economical potential for energy conservation in different sectors of the Dutch society. ICARUS is based on research on real energy consuming processes and applications in a number of sub-sectors of the Dutch economy. The present energy conservation potential in the Netherlands is based on energy conservation studies in the Netherlands and other countries. For this article the economical efficient energy conservation potentials in 1992 have been investigated for the Dutch sectors, which do not supply energy. The potentials are determined on the basis of the technical energy conservation potentials for the year 2000, according to the database ICARUS. Two methods were used to extract the economic potential from the technical potential: the method of the Net Market Value and the method of the payback period. From the ICARUS analysis it appears that the technical potential for energy conservation is 479 PJ, which is 28.8% of the primary energy consumption of 1664 PJ in 1985. The economic energy conservation potential is 262 PJ for a payback period of less than five years, which is 17% of the 1985 primary energy consumption. Next to the above-mentioned analysis policy-aimed simulations were carried out for three scenarios to determine economical energy conservation potentials. In one scenario doubled energy prices were used in comparison with the 1991 prices. Another scenario uses the Net Market Value method with a 5% discount rate, and the third scenario uses both parameters

  9. Energy management action plan: Developing a strategy for overcoming institutional barriers to municipal energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Energy offices working to improve efficiency of local government facilities face not only technical tasks, but institutional barriers, such as budget structures that do not reward efficiency, a low awareness of energy issues, and purchasing procedures based only on minimizing initial cost. The bureau, in working to remove such barriers in San Francisco, has identified 37 institutional barriers in areas such as operations & maintenance, purchasing, and facility design; these barriers were then reorganized into three groupings-- policy & attitudes, budget & incentives, and awareness & information-- and mapped. This map shows that the barriers mutually reinforce each other, and that a holistic approach is required for permanent change. The city`s recreation & parks department was used as a model department, and information about facility energy use was compiled into a departmental energy review. Staff interviews showed how barriers affect conservation. The bureau then generated ideas for projects to remove specific barriers and rated them according to potential impact and the resources required to implement them. Four of the six projects selected focused on maintenance staff: a cost- sharing lighting retrofit program, a boiler efficiency program, a departmental energy tracking system, and a budgetary incentive program for conservation. The other two projects are city-wide: promotion of a new term contract supplying energy-efficient light materials, and publication/distribution of ENERGY NEWS newsletter. A general methodology, the EMAP Strategy Guide, has been created to assist other energy offices in developing EMAPs.

  10. 75 FR 64173 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy... notice of proposed rulemaking, regarding the Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and...

  11. Energy conservation in the residential sector : The role of policy and market forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, energy conservation has been a hot topic of debate among policy makers and researchers due to the concerns about global climate change and energy dependency. From a policy perspective, residential sector has been an important target for energy conservation policies as it is a major

  12. 77 FR 49063 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products; Proposed...-AC01 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products... procedures for both dishwashers and conventional cooking products for the measurement of energy use in fan...

  13. 76 FR 12825 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy.... Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) to provide for the measurement of standby mode and off mode power use by microwave...

  14. The Modern History of Energy Conservation: An Overview for Information Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Wulfinghoff, Donald R.

    2000-01-01

    The current electricity crisis in California, along with high petroleum and natural gas prices everywhere, reminds us that energy conservation is a key to our survival as a civilization. This critical guide by the author of the Energy Efficiency Manual presents credible information sources on energy conservation.

  15. 75 FR 57555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... technologies not covered by the current procedure; (2) more accurately reflect current consumer behavior and... Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-TP-0021] RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test...

  16. 75 FR 57556 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... technologies not covered by the current procedure; (2) more accurately reflect current consumer behavior and... Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-TP-0021] RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test...

  17. Energy conservation for houses and its calculation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S H

    1981-04-01

    The concept of energy conservation of houses has been developed and began to be applied widely since the first oil crisis. Now we can say definitely that insulating a house is the most effective way of saving energy, and the renewable energy sources are useful only when the demand for space heating and hot water is minimized by insulating. If a house is well insulated, it will need a much smaller, simpler and cheaper heating system. So it will be less efficient to put a solar collector and wind generator on a poorly insulated house. Architects and engineers should have a certain level of practical knowledge of insulation for house to persuade customers using insulating materials and structure. Moreover, it is very essential to amend the existing building codes in order to facilitate this basic necessity. For instance, the Building Regulations of Denmark requires a U-value of 0.4 W/m/sup 2/ degC for heavy weight external wall. If the cavity wall has outer and inner leaf of just normal brick with internal finish of 20 mm cement mortar, which is a typical wall construction for houses in Korea, the thickness of insulation materials to the cavity can be calculated in order to fullfil the U-value of 0.4 W/m/sup 2/ degC in addition to the cavity of the external heavy wall: expanded polyurethane 58 mm, urea formaldehyde foam 67 mm, expanded polystyrene 78 mm, mineral wool 94 mm. The economic feasibility of solar heating system has been calculated. By applying 25% of the year inflation ratio for fuel cost, the result turns out economically comparable with solar heating systems.

  18. Development of marine renewable energies and biodiversity conservation - Renewable energies Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peguin, Marion; Le Visage, Christophe; Rolland, Guillemette; Moncorps, Sebastien

    2014-09-01

    After a presentation of the different challenges related to the development of marine renewable energies (energy challenges, conservation of the marine environment, regulatory context), this document proposes a presentation of the different marine renewable energy sectors (status of research, techniques, required conditions, and potential opportunities in France). It presents an assessment of impacts of these different sectors and some recommendations related to various opportunities and threats (noise and vibration, habitat modification, risks of collisions, residual impacts). After a synthesis, thematic sheets are proposed on biodiversity protocols, cumulative impacts, marine protected areas, connection issues, and dismantling issues

  19. The application of mass and energy conservation laws in physiologically structured population models of heterotrophic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman; Kooi; Hallam

    1999-04-07

    Rules for energy uptake, and subsequent utilization, form the basis of population dynamics and, therefore, explain the dynamics of the ecosystem structure in terms of changes in standing crops and size distributions of individuals. Mass fluxes are concomitant with energy flows and delineate functional aspects of ecosystems by defining the roles of individuals and populations. The assumption of homeostasis of body components, and an assumption about the general structure of energy budgets, imply that mass fluxes can be written as weighted sums of three organizing energy fluxes with the weight coefficients determined by the conservation law of mass. These energy fluxes are assimilation, maintenance and growth, and provide a theoretical underpinning of the widely applied empirical method of indirect calorimetry, which relates dissipating heat linearly to three mass fluxes: carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption and N-waste production. A generic approach to the stoichiometry of population energetics from the perspective of the individual organism is proposed and illustrated for heterotrophic organisms. This approach indicates that mass transformations can be identified by accounting for maintenance requirements and overhead costs for the various metabolic processes at the population level. The theoretical background for coupling the dynamics of the structure of communities to nutrient cycles, including the water balance, as well as explicit expressions for the dissipating heat at the population level are obtained based on the conservation law of energy. Specifications of the general theory employ the Dynamic Energy Budget model for individuals. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - List of Qualified Energy Conservation Measures, Qualified Renewable Generation, and Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thermal hybrid systems • Grid and non-grid connected photovoltaic systems, including systems added for... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve Pt. 73, Subpt. F... relocation • Register size and blade configuration • Return air location • Duct sizing • Duct insulation...

  1. 76 FR 11233 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ..., Part B of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), Public Law 94-163 (42 U.S.C. 6291-6309... to provide materially inaccurate comparative data. 10 CFR 430.27(a)(1). Petitioners must include in... true energy consumption characteristics as to provide materially inaccurate comparative data. Table 5.1...

  2. Energy conservation programs developed by PETROBRAS; Programas de eficiencia energetica desenvolvidos pela PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair Arone; Marinho, Frederico Augusto Varejao [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The two oil shocks of the 70s provoked a great swerve of course in PETROBRAS during the 80s and 90s. The most important and well known was the strategic decision of exploring oil under the sea. Another important area of the Company includes internal programs for cutting its own energy use and external programs, encouraging their products end-users to rationalize fuel's use. After 1974, our refineries concentrated efforts in level reduction of self-consumption fuel. In the 90s, the Federal Government introduced two energy conservation programs. One created Energy Saving Internal Committees - CICE - in all PETROBRAS' operational units. Another one established a National Program for Oil and Natural Gas Conservation - CONPET. PETROBRAS is in charge of the development and implementation of projects related to this. All these efforts were thoroughly successful. The currently oil production is higher than the country consumption. Nonetheless, as new exploratory frontiers must develop to hold this self-sufficiency in progress, conservation energy programs also have to be continuously updated. This paper presents a balance of the projects implemented since the creation of both programs, a critical analysis on the achieved results and, finally, suggestions on how to improve the effective accomplishment of the initially proposed targets. (author)

  3. Energy conservation programs developed by PETROBRAS; Programas de eficiencia energetica desenvolvidos pela PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair Arone; Marinho, Frederico Augusto Varejao [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The two oil shocks of the 70s provoked a great swerve of course in PETROBRAS during the 80s and 90s. The most important and well known was the strategic decision of exploring oil under the sea. Another important area of the Company includes internal programs for cutting its own energy use and external programs, encouraging their products end-users to rationalize fuel's use. After 1974, our refineries concentrated efforts in level reduction of self-consumption fuel. In the 90s, the Federal Government introduced two energy conservation programs. One created Energy Saving Internal Committees - CICE - in all PETROBRAS' operational units. Another one established a National Program for Oil and Natural Gas Conservation - CONPET. PETROBRAS is in charge of the development and implementation of projects related to this. All these efforts were thoroughly successful. The currently oil production is higher than the country consumption. Nonetheless, as new exploratory frontiers must develop to hold this self-sufficiency in progress, conservation energy programs also have to be continuously updated. This paper presents a balance of the projects implemented since the creation of both programs, a critical analysis on the achieved results and, finally, suggestions on how to improve the effective accomplishment of the initially proposed targets. (author)

  4. Human disease from radon exposures: the impact of energy conservation in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    The level of radon and its daughters inside conventional buildings is often higher than the ambient background level. Interest in conserving energy is motivating home-owners and builders to reduce the rate of infiltration of fresh air into homes, and hence to increase the concentration of indoor air contaminants, including radon. It is unlikely, but possible, that the present radiation levels from radon daughters account for much of the lung cancer rate in non-smokers. In any event, it is likely that some increased lung cancer risk would result from increased radon exposures; hence, it is desirable not to allow radon concentrations to rise significantly. There are several ways to circumvent the increased risk without compromising energy conservation considerations

  5. Residential energy consumption and conservation programs: A systematic approach to identify inefficient households, provide meaningful feedback, and prioritize homes for conservation intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsleyne, Amelia Chadbourne Carus

    There are three main objectives for residential energy conservation policies: to reduce the use of fossil fuels, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce the energy costs seen by the consumer (U.S. Department of Energy: Strategic Objectives, 2006). A prominent difficulty currently facing conservation policy makers and program managers is how to identify and communicate with households that would be good candidates for conservation intervention, in such a way that affects a change in consumption patterns and is cost-effective. This research addresses this issue by separating the problem into three components: how to identify houses that are significantly more inefficient than comparable households; how to find the maximum financially-feasible investment in energy efficiency for a household in order to reduce annual energy costs and/or improve indoor comfort; and how to prioritize low-income households for a subsidized weatherization program. Each component of the problem is presented as a paper prepared for publication. Household consumption related to physical house efficiency, thermostat settings, and daily appliance usage is studied in the first and second paper by analyzing natural gas utility meter readings associated with over 10,000 households from 2001-2006. A rich description of a house's architectural characteristics and household demographics is attained by integrating publicly available databases based on the house address. This combination of information allows for the largest number of individual households studied at this level of detail to date. The third paper uses conservation program data from two natural gas utilities that administer and sponsor the program; over 1,000 weatherized households are included in this sample. This research focuses on natural gas-related household conservation. However, the same principles and methods could be applied for electricity-related conservation programs. We find positive policy implications from each of

  6. Assessment of Energy Conservation in Egypt's Electric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar El Saeed Awad Abou Ghoniem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of energy saving policy as a key factor in Egypt's electric system in terms of benefits, invested cost, power quality and environmental impact, solutions have been made by system planners and decision makers aiming to face the challenges that being encountered by the electric system such as scarce and precious of prime energies are compared in terms of invested cost, implementation time and advantages for both of power providers and end users w.r.to energy savings. A case study that implemented in a pilot program for energy savings was given. It is a group of facilities include industrial, commercial, administrative companies and worship houses, they are connected to Alexandria electrical distribution network, they are classified as big customers, i.e. contracted power for each is higher than 0.5 mega watt, the goals of the program were evaluating potentials of energy saving opportunities in the system and estimating the outcomes. Options were evaluated with regard to savings in electricity, fuels and water. Cost of investments and pay back periods were calculated. Environmental impact as a result of saving in emitted green house gas co2 is determined. Potentials of energy savings are analyzed and benefits to both electric utilities and end users were assessed.

  7. Financial methods applicable to energy-conserving retrofits for single-family residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The National Savings and Loan League (NSLL) has been researching techniques that may be used to finance energy-conservation measures in the residential sector. Twelve techniques developed and tested by NSLL are: future-advances clause under open-end mortgages; borrowing against existing savings accounts; home-improvement loans; variable-rate mortgages; second trusts or second mortgages; variable-payment mortgages; balloon-payment mortgages; deferred monthly payments for periods of excessive energy use; renegotiation of terms at set intervals; lower interest rates offered on mortgages in return for lender sharing in equity appreciation of the property; graduated payments; and deferred-interest loans. The testing took place in Pittsburgh, PA. The program consisted of 8 specific tasks, including several directed at different financial innovations for the financing of retrofits. Details are presented on findings; legal research; relationship of utilities to installation of retrofits; financing techniques applicable to retrofits; and national energy program for single-family residences. Some extensive attachments include information on: legal aspects, energy loan advertisements, and potential savings to be realized from various residential retrofit energy-conservation measures.

  8. Tensions in implementing the “energy-conservation/carbon-reduction” policy in Taiwanese culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the Taiwanese public's perceptions of tensions between the implementation of an energy policy and the practice of traditional culture. The energy policy calls for public actions to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions. The research participants are 94 people, selected by balancing sexes, ages, and residential areas, from a wide range of vocations. The research data were collected by semi-structured interview with the participants individually. Interview questions were designed to elicit the participants' constructs, beliefs, behaviours, and tensions in relation to energy policy and traditional culture. Data analysis was performed based on a qualitative methodology by the procedure of open coding, theme finding, constant comparison, and theory generation. The analysis identifies four tensions: (1) tensions in knowledge bases between energy conservation and carbon reduction, (2) tensions in lifestyles between having and being, (3) tensions in social systems between authority and conformity, and (4) tensions in creation boundaries between technology and nature. The themes underlying the four tensions are uncertainty, pleasure, power, and control, respectively. Solutions to the four tensions may include practical knowledge, pragmatic idealism, hierarchical collaboration, and sustainable innovation. - Highlights: ► Tensions occur between energy policy and traditional culture. ► Tensions occur in knowledge, life, society, and creation in Taiwan. ► The themes of the four tensions are uncertainty, pleasure, power, and control

  9. Energy conservation potential in China’s petroleum refining industry: Evidence and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Xie, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A long-term equilibrium relationship of energy demand in China’s petroleum refining industry is established. • The sectoral energy conservation potential is evaluated by using scenarios analysis. • Energy prices, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure affect electricity intensity. • Future policy for energy conservation in China’s petroleum refining industry is suggested. - Abstract: China is currently the second largest petroleum refining country in the world due to rapid growth in recent years. Because the petroleum refining industry is energy-intensive, the rapid growth in petroleum refining and development caused massive energy consumption. China’s urbanization process will guarantee sustained growth of the industry for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to study the energy conservation potential of the petroleum industry. This paper estimates the energy conservation potential of the industry by applying a cointegration model to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption and some factors such as energy price, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure. The results show that R and D investment has the greatest reduction impact on energy intensity, and the growth of market participants (i.e. the decline of the share of state-owned companies) can improve energy efficiency of this industry. Under the advanced energy-saving scenario, the accumulated energy conservation potential will reach 230.18 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Finally, we provide some targeted policy recommendations for industrial energy conservation

  10. Water conservation implications for decarbonizing non-electric energy supply: A hybrid life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyuan; Wang, Can; Shi, Lei; Cai, Wenjia; Zhang, Lixiao

    2018-08-01

    Low-carbon transition in the non-electric energy sector, which includes transport and heating energy, is necessary for achieving the 2 °C target. Meanwhile, as non-electric energy accounts for over 60% of total water consumption in the energy supply sector, it is vital to understand future water trends in the context of decarbonization. However, few studies have focused on life-cycle water impacts for non-electric energy; besides, applying conventional LCA methodology to assess non-electric energy has limitations. In this paper, a Multi-Regional Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment (MRHLCA) model is built to assess total CO 2 emissions and water consumption of 6 non-electric energy technologies - transport energy from biofuel and gasoline, heat supply from natural gas, biogas, coal, and residual biomass, within 7 major emitting economies. We find that a shift to natural gas and residual biomass heating can help economies reduce 14-65% CO 2 and save more than 21% water. However, developed and developing economies should take differentiated technical strategies. Then we apply scenarios from IMAGE model to demonstrate that if economies take cost-effective 2 °C pathways, the water conservation synergy for the whole energy supply sector, including electricity, can also be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter

    2014-06-30

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2013. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2013, the standards saved an estimated 4.05 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $56 billion. The average household saved $361 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions associated with the standards in 2013 was 218 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 181 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,271 billion and $1,487 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2013, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2090 of 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2013 from reduced water use amounted to $16 billon.

  12. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Tack

    Full Text Available Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  13. Problems in the implementation of energy conservation measures. II. Consumer motivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P. H.

    1977-10-15

    During the course of 1975 a national survey of household attitudes to energy use and conservation was undertaken. The study suggested that while the public are generally in favor of energy conservation, they do not practice it. The study highlighted the need to do more than merely raise the level of awareness of the need for energy conservation. The energy intensive nature of our life-style was identified as a critical constraint on the implementations of effective voluntary energy conservation programs. It was suggested that our pattern of energy use is so deeply embedded in our everyday behaviors that it would take more than the presentation of information to produce the necessary changes in behavior. Some of the problems involved in attempting to motivate the consumer to conserve energy using either an extrinsic or instrinsic motivational approach are explored. A general model of the energy system is employed to illustrate that changes in the informational environment must be accompanied by changes in the institutional environment if pro-conservation attitudes are to be converted into conserving behavior. The case of personal transportation is used to indicate the need for a comprehensive package of measures which not only motivate the consumer but also facilitate and reinforce positive behavior if the dual goals of satisfying personal mobility needs and energy conservation are to be satisfied.

  14. Greenhouse gas and energy co-benefits of water conservation[Water Sustainability Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, C.

    2009-03-15

    Energy is needed to deliver water to, within and from communities to remove contaminants from water and wastewater, and to heat water in homes. The interconnections between water and energy are referred to as the water-energy nexus. Large volumes of water are needed to generate energy, notably to power turbines, to cool thermal or nuclear energy plants, and to extract oil from tar sands. At the same time, large amounts of energy are needed to pump, treat, heat and distribute water for urban, industrial and agricultural use and to collect and treat the resulting wastewater. The two sides of the water-energy nexus are generating new research and policy proposals to address the challenges of climate change, energy security and increasing water scarcity. This report demonstrated that a large untapped opportunity exists for water conservation to reduce energy, municipal costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The water-energy research in this study was based on a Soft Path for Water approach that incorporated facets of water demand management while moving beyond a short-term focus on cost-benefit criteria to examine how the services currently provided by water can be delivered to meet the need for economic, social and ecological sustainability. Although the research was conducted using data for municipalities in Ontario, the report is relevant to the rest of Canada and much of North America. Water conservation strategies included water efficiency measures such as high efficiency toilets and washing machines, as well as water saving measures such as xeriscaping and rainwater harvesting. The objectives of the study were to quantify the energy use associated with each component of the urban water use cycle and to determine the potential for energy and GHG emissions reductions associated with water conservation strategies. This report provided an overview of energy inputs needed for water provision. It outlined the methodology used to achieve the project objectives and

  15. Probability distributions in conservative energy exchange models of multiple interacting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scafetta, Nicola; West, Bruce J

    2007-01-01

    Herein we study energy exchange models of multiple interacting agents that conserve energy in each interaction. The models differ regarding the rules that regulate the energy exchange and boundary effects. We find a variety of stochastic behaviours that manifest energy equilibrium probability distributions of different types and interaction rules that yield not only the exponential distributions such as the familiar Maxwell-Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution of an elastically colliding ideal particle gas, but also uniform distributions, truncated exponential distributions, Gaussian distributions, Gamma distributions, inverse power law distributions, mixed exponential and inverse power law distributions, and evolving distributions. This wide variety of distributions should be of value in determining the underlying mechanisms generating the statistical properties of complex phenomena including those to be found in complex chemical reactions

  16. Consumer energy-conservation policy in Canada: behavioural and institutional obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G. (Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, Ontario); Mank, R.B.

    1982-09-01

    This paper posits that if consumer energy-conservation policy is to succeed in Canada, both behavioral and institutional obstacles must be identified and overcome. The behavioral barriers, identified through a national household survey, include consumer resistance to policies that affect their lifestyles. The institutional barriers obtained from a series of interviews with government officials, include weak federal-provincial relations. Viewed from a federal perspective, these obstacles are discussed and then linked to policy types. A prior understanding of the obstacles that a particular program type is likely to face should allow more-effective execution of the program and enhance the probability of success. 11 references, 7 tables.

  17. Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Incentive Mechanisms for effective decrease of energy consumption at the workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, D.; Kalz, M.; Ternier, S.; Specht, M. [Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies CELSTEC, Open Universiteit, Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The work in this project is based on a previous project (Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible) in which several measurement and visualization approaches have been developed to make employees more aware about energy consumption and pro-environmental behavior at the workplace. While awareness is a first important step for the decrease of energy consumption and environmental learning it is not sufficient as a means for sustainable behavior change. For this reason we have explored in the follow-up project approaches how pro-environmental behavior at the workplace can be encouraged, rewarded and sustained. For this purpose we have implemented several technological solutions and we have piloted these in form of an energy conservation game called Mindergie at the main campus of the Open University in Heerlen, Netherlands. The project is in line with an earlier identified research gap in terms of energy conservation at the workplace and uses state-of-the-art technologies for mobile gaming and rewarding of non-formal learning activities.

  18. Dataset on information strategies for energy conservation: A field experiment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Victor L; Delmas, Magali A; Locke, Stephen L; Singh, Amarjeet

    2018-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled: "Information strategies for energy conservation: a field experiment in India" (Chen et al., 2017) [1]. The availability of high-resolution electricity data offers benefits to both utilities and consumers to understand the dynamics of energy consumption for example, between billing periods or times of peak demand. However, few public datasets with high-temporal resolution have been available to researchers on electricity use, especially at the appliance-level. This article describes data collected in a residential field experiment for 19 apartments at an Indian faculty housing complex during the period from August 1, 2013 to May 12, 2014. The dataset includes detailed information about electricity consumption. It also includes information on apartment characteristics and hourly weather variation to enable further studies of energy performance. These data can be used by researchers as training datasets to evaluate electricity usage consumption.

  19. Stimulating energy conservation: the use of the opinion-leadership process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavas, U [Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Riecken, G

    1981-09-01

    While the US federal government, public utilities and oil companies, among others, have instigated programs to educate the general public on energy conservation and to stimulate an energy-conservation ethic, results of a number of surveys indicate that such efforts in promoting energy conservation have had only limited success. This may be particularly attributable to the low credibility ascribed by the public to energy-information-disseminating sources. This article investigates the feasibility of utilizing opinion leadership, an untried approach, to overcome the credibility problem in disseminating energy information to the general public. 23 references, 4 tables.

  20. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Boiadjiev, Vassil I.; Hawk, John E.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Fernando, Gayanath W.; Rohana Wijewardhana, L. C.

    2008-03-01

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  1. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A; Boiadjiev, Vassil I; Hawk, John E; Gehl, Anthony C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6122 (United States); Fernando, Gayanath W [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Wijewardhana, L C Rohana [Physics Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2008-03-12

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Energy Program Conservation Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... have a personal and sustained commitment to the program, provide active direction and motivation, and... energy conservation. (7) Employee Awareness. Employees must gain an awareness of energy conservation through formal training and employee information programs. They should be invited to participate in the...

  3. 75 FR 57410 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ..., regarding the Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment; Correction AGENCY...

  4. 77 FR 76972 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... motors and pumps and certain other industrial equipment to conserve the energy resources of the nation... the efficiency of electric motors, pumps and certain other industrial equipment to conserve the energy... electric motors as covered equipment. A compressor may have some or all of the following components: piston...

  5. 75 FR 42612 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy... (NOPR) in which DOE proposed test procedures for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) to measure standby mode and off mode power use by microwave ovens. To address issues...

  6. 77 FR 76959 - Energy Conservation Program: Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... subject to energy conservation standards, the manufacturers removed the product from the market... Conservation Program: Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamp From Energy Conservation Standards AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...

  7. On Study of Application of Power Electronical Technology in Field of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ke

    2017-09-01

    aiming at achieving the sustainable development in economy and improving living standard of the residents, the government departments in China have strengthened the promotion of green, low-carbon and sustainable development concepts. Under this context, the energy conservation concept is implemented during the implementation of social production and life activities. Currently, in order to ensure the improvement in social energy conservation benefits, the advanced technologies are applied by China's enterprises and residents. This paper, based on this, discusses the development situations of energy conservation in China, and analyzes the application of power electronical technology in the field of energy conservation, hoping to realize the sustainable development of energy conservation cause in China and to gain high yield.

  8. An examination of measures designed to encourage energy conservation from the perspective of motivation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    This report addresses itself to the insights offered by the psychology of motivation to those wishing to encourage the conservation of energy. After an extensive review of the relevant literature, it was found that the bulk of the psychological literature offers little that can be adapted for immediate practical application to a large scale motivational campaign. There are, nevertheless, some well-supported conclusions that can be drawn from the theory and experimentation of psychology that are of direct relevance to the efficient and effective planning and execution of a campaign to encourage conservation of energy. This report addresses itself to these conclusions. The contents of the report include comments on the efficacy of various types of programs, the conditions under which those programs are most likely to succeed, and the critical elements which should be included in those programs if they are to exert their maximum effect. These types of programs include intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, i.e. creating new behavior patterns with internally or externally generated rewards, fear inducement (threats of energy shortages), and cogenitive dissonance, involving images of oneself and one's cultural environment. 66 refs.

  9. An examination of measures designed to encourage energy conservation from the perspective of motivation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    This report addresses itself to the insights offered by the psychology of motivation to those wishing to encourage the conservation of energy. After an extensive review of the relevant literature, it was found that the bulk of the psychological literature offers little that can be adapted for immediate practical application to a large scale motivational campaign. There are, nevertheless, some well-supported conclusions that can be drawn from the theory and experimentation of psychology that are of direct relevance to the efficient and effective planning and execution of a campaign to encourage conservation of energy. This report addresses itself to these conclusions. The contents of the report include comments on the efficacy of various types of programs, the conditions under which those programs are most likely to succeed, and the critical elements which should be included in those programs if they are to exert their maximum effect. These types of programs include intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, i.e. creating new behavior patterns with internally or externally generated rewards, fear inducement (threats of energy shortages), and cogenitive dissonance, involving images of oneself and one's cultural environment. 66 refs.

  10. Case studies in residual use and energy conservation at wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) funded a study to document energy conservation activities and their effects on operation costs, regulatory compliance, and process optimization at several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPS). The purpose of this report is to review the efforts of wastewater treatment Facilities that use residuals as fuels. Case histories are presented for facilities that have taken measures to reduce energy consumption during wastewater treatment. Most of the WWTPs discussed in this report have retrofitted existing facilities to achieve energy conservation. The case studies of energy conservation measures found no effects on the facilities` ability to comply with NPDES permits. Indeed, energy conservation activities enhance environmental compliance in several ways.

  11. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The enclosed work is based on previous research during this fiscal year, contained in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, June 1978. Five subjects were investigated and summaries were published for each subject in separate publications. This publication summarizes policy issues on the five subjects: tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives (economics of garbage collection; mechanical versus home separation of recyclables); policy barriers and investment decisions in industry (methodology for identification of potential barriers to industrial energy conservation; process of industrial investment decision making); energy-efficient recreational travel (information system to promote energy-efficient recreational travel; recreational travel; national importance and individual decision making); energy-efficient buildings (causes of litigation against energy-conservation building codes; description of the building process); and end-use energy-conservation data base and scenaerios (residential; commercial; transportation; and industrial).

  12. Energy conservation behavioural intention: attitudes, subjective norm and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. W. C.; Tanusia, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines the influence of attitude towards energy conservation at home, the attitude in the campus, subjective norm, and self-efficacy on energy conservation behavioural intention among students in a private university using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Data was collected from about 194 students using a questionnaire developed from current literature on TPB. Data analysis using Smart PLS version 3.2.4 found that attitude towards energy conservation at home has an indirect significant influence on attitude towards energy conservation behavioural intention via the mediating effect of attitude towards energy conservation in the campus. Self-efficacy and subjective norm are also positively related to energy conservation intention. The study also indicates the suitability of the TPB in predicting behavioural intention through attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Results suggest that energy education is vital in creating a positive attitude towards energy conservation while facilities managers in institutions need to formulate appropriate policies and regulations to inculcate the right attitude and behaviour towards energy saving.

  13. Energy pattern and conservations of condiment produced from soybean (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaila B. Anjorin; Rahman Akinoso; Mayowa S. Sanusi

    2018-01-01

    Energy being one of the largest operating expenses in most organizations especially manufacturing and processing industries leading to considerable scope for energy conservation and hence cost. Information on energy utilization and conservation pattern were obtained based on time taken, number of person involved and sources of energy using standard energy equations. A total of 445.40 ± 17.32MJkg-1 where thermal energy (420MJ ≈ 94%) and manual energy (25.40MJ ≈ 6%) were the only forms of energ...

  14. Secondary bremsstrahlung and the energy-conservation aspects of kerma in photon-irradiated media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Nahum, Alan E

    2016-02-07

    Kerma, collision kerma and absorbed dose in media irradiated by megavoltage photons are analysed with respect to energy conservation. The user-code DOSRZnrc was employed to compute absorbed dose D, kerma K and a special form of kerma, K ncpt, obtained by setting the charged-particle transport energy cut-off very high, thereby preventing the generation of 'secondary bremsstrahlung' along the charged-particle paths. The user-code FLURZnrc was employed to compute photon fluence, differential in energy, from which collision kerma, K col and K were derived. The ratios K/D, K ncpt/D and K col/D have thereby been determined over a very large volumes of water, aluminium and copper irradiated by broad, parallel beams of 0.1 to 25 MeV monoenergetic photons, and 6, 10 and 15 MV 'clinical' radiotherapy qualities. Concerning depth-dependence, the 'area under the kerma, K, curve' exceeded that under the dose curve, demonstrating that kerma does not conserve energy when computed over a large volume. This is due to the 'double counting' of the energy of the secondary bremsstrahlung photons, this energy being (implicitly) included in the kerma 'liberated' in the irradiated medium, at the same time as this secondary bremsstrahlung is included in the photon fluence which gives rise to kerma elsewhere in the medium. For 25 MeV photons this 'violation' amounts to 8.6%, 14.2% and 25.5% in large volumes of water, aluminium and copper respectively but only 0.6% for a 'clinical' 6 MV beam in water. By contrast, K col/D and K ncpt/D, also computed over very large phantoms of the same three media, for the same beam qualities, are equal to unity within (very low) statistical uncertainties, demonstrating that collision kerma and the special type of kerma, K ncpt, do conserve energy over a large volume. A comparison of photon fluence spectra for the 25 MeV beam at a depth of  ≈51 g cm−2 for both very high and very low charged-particle transport cut-offs reveals the considerable

  15. A mass and energy conserving spectral element atmospheric dynamical core on the cubed-sphere grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M A; Edwards, J; Thomas, S; Nair, R

    2007-01-01

    We present results from a conservative formulation of the spectral element method applied to global atmospheric circulation modeling. Exact local conservation of both mass and energy is obtained via a new compatible formulation of the spectral element method. Compatibility insures that the key integral property of the divergence and gradient operators required to show conservation also hold in discrete form. The spectral element method is used on a cubed-sphere grid to discretize the horizontal directions on the sphere. It can be coupled to any conservative vertical/radial discretization. The accuracy and conservation properties of the method are illustrated using a baroclinic instability test case

  16. Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

  17. A Note on Weak Solutions of Conservation Laws and Energy/Entropy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, Piotr; Michálek, Martin; Świerczewska-Gwiazda, Agnieszka

    2018-03-01

    A common feature of systems of conservation laws of continuum physics is that they are endowed with natural companion laws which are in such cases most often related to the second law of thermodynamics. This observation easily generalizes to any symmetrizable system of conservation laws; they are endowed with nontrivial companion conservation laws, which are immediately satisfied by classical solutions. Not surprisingly, weak solutions may fail to satisfy companion laws, which are then often relaxed from equality to inequality and overtake the role of physical admissibility conditions for weak solutions. We want to answer the question: what is a critical regularity of weak solutions to a general system of conservation laws to satisfy an associated companion law as an equality? An archetypal example of such a result was derived for the incompressible Euler system in the context of Onsager's conjecture in the early nineties. This general result can serve as a simple criterion to numerous systems of mathematical physics to prescribe the regularity of solutions needed for an appropriate companion law to be satisfied.

  18. The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Akhund, M.A.; Brohi, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    In England, housing accounts for some 30% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations and UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that. 66% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. Whereas currently only 4% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 % of energy and produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings. (author)

  19. Fiscal 1999 feasibility study on energy conservation at Novo-oil refinery in Ufa City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-31

    An energy conservation plan was examined for Novo oil refinery of Bashneftechim Company in Ufa City, Bashkortstan, Russia for the purpose of making the plan tied to the COP3 joint implementation. The objective units in the study include an atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit with throughput of 7.8 million tons/year, a visbreaker and a vacuum gas oil hydrodesulfurization unit (for feedstock of FCC in Lenin Refinery), and a catalytic cracking unit, for example. Energy conservation measures are improvement and revamping of heating furnace to control excess air ratio in furnace, installation of air pre-heater or heat recovery boiler to recover heat from exhaust gas of heating furnace, additional installation of heat exchangers to recover heat from product oils, and efficiency improvement of overall operation by modernization of instrumentation and controlling equipment. The policy is not complete rebuilding of the facilities but utilizing the existing facilities by improving energy efficiency as far as possible. The study shows that investment for energy saving will be recovered within 3-6 years in many cases while total investment is estimated to be 1.5-3.0 billion yen. Total reduction of fuel consumption will be 500-800 million yen. Yearly reduction of CO2 emission will amount to 0.29 million tons (23%). (NEDO)

  20. Energy, Metaphysics, and Space: Ernst Mach's Interpretation of Energy Conservation as the Principle of Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzardi, Luca

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses Ernst Mach's interpretation of the principle of energy conservation (EC) in the context of the development of energy concepts and ideas about causality in nineteenth-century physics and theory of science. In doing this, it focuses on the close relationship between causality, energy conservation and space in Mach's antireductionist view of science. Mach expounds his thesis about EC in his first historical-epistemological essay, Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes von der Erhaltung der Arbeit (1872): far from being a new principle, it is used from the early beginnings of mechanics independently from other principles; in fact, EC is a pre-mechanical principle which is generally applied in investigating nature: it is, indeed, nothing but a form of the principle of causality. The paper focuses on the scientific-historical premises and philosophical underpinnings of Mach's thesis, beginning with the classic debate on the validity and limits of the notion of cause by Hume, Kant, and Helmholtz. Such reference also implies a discussion of the relationship between causality on the one hand and space and time on the other. This connection plays a major role for Mach, and in the final paragraphs its importance is argued in order to understand his antireductionist perspective, i.e. the rejection of any attempt to give an ultimate explanation of the world via reduction of nature to one fundamental set of phenomena.

  1. Norway encourages energy conservation in Serbia; Norge fremmer ENOEK i Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2003-07-01

    There is a great potential in Serbia for energy conservation and new technology after years of war. In practice, Serbia has lost 10 - 15 years and much must be rebuilt from the ground. Norway is working with Serbia to develop Serb know-how in the field of energy conservation. This involves consultative advice to the energy department in Belgrade for the development of a new energy act and the preparation of an energy report to the parliamentary assembly. There is also cooperation with the universities in order to establish four regional centres for energy conservation, and with several industrial companies to develop and implement definite investment projects. In Norway, several models for local energy conservation centres have been tried out during the last 20 years. These centres used to be financed by a mark-up on the electric tariff and they offered subsidized energy conservation counselling to the energy consumers. However, this did not work out well and the centres were removed from the electricity companies and now have to compete with other consultants to deliver the demanded services to the industries and private consumers. This false step will not be repeated in Serbia, where the energy conservation centres will be independent, commercial centres from the beginning. In developing this system, experience is drawn upon from Norwegian projects in many of the major cities in North-Western Russia.

  2. ASEAN-USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project. Final report, Volume 3: Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, J.M.; Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    The auditing subproject of the ASEAN-USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project has generated a great deal of auditing activity throughout the ASEAN region. Basic building characterisfic and energy consumption data were gathered for over 200 buildings and are presented in this volume. A large number of buildings were given more detailed audits and were modeled with either the ASEAM-2 computer program or the more complex DOE-2 program. These models were used to calculate the savings to be generated by conservabon measures. Specially audits were also conducted, including lighting and thermal comfort surveys. Many researchers in the ASEAN region were trained to perform energy audits in a series of training courses and seminars. The electricity intensifies of various types of ASEAN buildings have been calculated. A comparison to the electricity intensity of the US building stock tentatively concludes that ASEAN office buildings are comparable, first class hotels and retail stores are more ewctricity intensive than their US counterparts, and hospitals are less intensive. Philippine and Singapore lighting surveys indicate that illuminance levels in offices tend to be below the minimum accepted standard. Computer simulations of the energy use in various building types generally agree that for most ASEAN buildings, electricity consumption for air-conditioning (including fan power) consumes approximately 60% of total building electricity. A review of the many studies made during the Project to calculate the savings from energy conservation opportunities (ECOS) shows a median potential savings of approximately 10%, with some buildings saving as much as 50%. Singapore buildings, apparently as a result of previously implemented efficient energy-use practices, shows a lower potential for savings than the other ASEAN nations. Air-conditioning ECOs hold the greatest potential for savings.

  3. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 2: energy planning and policy, energy conservation and rational use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The theme energy policy, regulation and sustainable development chosen for the 8. Brazilian congress on energy to be held in Rio de Janeiro from 30 November of 1999 to 02 December of 1999, specifically means the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme theme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; and renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  4. 78 FR 8444 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1710 Energy Efficiency and... new program that will implement the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program (EE). The PEA is... 12 to authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to reduce demand on electric...

  5. On the area of tension between energy conservation, environmental impact and IAQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolloos, M.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of conserving energy in the building sector, the Dutch Building Regulations incorporate requirements for the energy performance of houses and utility building. Use of the energy performance coefficient (EPC, see Box 1) offers excellent opportunities for enhancing the energy performance

  6. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters established under the Energy Policy and... U.S.C. 6293(e)(2)) The current energy conservation standards for direct heating equipment and pool... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2013-BT-TP-0004] RIN 1904-AC94 Energy...

  7. Energy conservation through behavioral change. Examining the effectiveness of a tailor-made approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamse, W.

    2007-12-06

    Households constitute an important target group when it comes to encouraging energy conservation. This dissertation provides an overview of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at encouraging households to reduce their energy use through behavioral changes. It also provides more insight into the factors related to household energy use and conservation. Tailored interventions in particular appear to be effective in reducing energy consumption. Households were given tailored information about energy saving measures they could apply. They were asked to try and save 5% energy and the website indicated how much energy they could save with each measure to attain that goal. Households also received feedback about their energy savings. Households who received the combination of tailored information, goal setting and tailored feedback via the Internet saved 5%, while households in a control group used more energy. Households had adopted more energy-saving measures and had more knowledge of energy conservation, compared to the control group. Also, household energy consumption appeared to be mainly related to socio-demographic variables, such as income and household size. Energy savings appeared to be mainly related to individual factors like perceived behavioral control. If the aim is to encourage households to adopt more sustainable lifestyles, it is important to provide them with more insight into which energy saving options are most effective for them to conserve energy. In view of the annual energy reduction targets set by the Dutch government, a tailor-made approach via the Internet can be an important step in that direction.

  8. Basic survey for promoting energy efficiency in developing countries. Database development project directory of energy conservation technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    In order to promote energy conservation in developing countries, the gist of Japanese energy saving technologies was edited into a database. The Asian territory is expected of remarkable economic development and increased energy consumption including that for fossil fuels. Therefore, this project of structuring a database has urgent importance for the Asian countries. New and wide-area discussions were given to revise the 1995 edition. The committee was composed of members from high energy consuming areas such as iron and steel, paper and pulp, chemical, oil refining, cement, electric power, machinery, electric devices, and industrial machinery industries. Technical literatures and reports were referred to, and opinions were heard from specialists and committee members representing the respective areas. In order to reflect the current status and particular conditions in specific industrial areas, additions were given under the assistance and guidance from the specialists. The energy saving technologies recorded in the database may be called small to medium scale technologies, with the target placed on saving energy by 10% or more. Small-scale energy saving technologies were omitted. Flow charts for manufacturing processes were also added. (NEDO)

  9. Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

  10. [Thermal energy utilization analysis and energy conservation measures of fluidized bed dryer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liming; Zhao, Zhengsheng

    2012-07-01

    To propose measures for enhancing thermal energy utilization by analyzing drying process and operation principle of fluidized bed dryers,in order to guide optimization and upgrade of fluidized bed drying equipment. Through a systematic analysis on drying process and operation principle of fluidized beds,the energy conservation law was adopted to calculate thermal energy of dryers. The thermal energy of fluidized bed dryers is mainly used to make up for thermal consumption of water evaporation (Qw), hot air from outlet equipment (Qe), thermal consumption for heating and drying wet materials (Qm) and heat dissipation to surroundings through hot air pipelines and cyclone separators. Effective measures and major approaches to enhance thermal energy utilization of fluidized bed dryers were to reduce exhaust gas out by the loss of heat Qe, recycle dryer export air quantity of heat, preserve heat for dry towers, hot air pipes and cyclone separators, dehumidify clean air in inlets and reasonably control drying time and air temperature. Such technical parameters such air supply rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, material temperature and outlet temperature and humidity are set and controlled to effectively save energy during the drying process and reduce the production cost.

  11. Examination of commercial aviation operational energy conservation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    Forty-seven fuel conservation strategies are identified for commercial aviation and the fuel saving potential, costs, constraints, and current implementation levels of these options are examined. This assessment is based on a comprehensive review of published data and discussions with representatives from industry and government. Analyses were performed to quantify the fuel saving potential of each option, and to assess the fuel savings achieved to date by the airline industry. Those options requiring further government support for option implementation were identified, rated, and ranked in accordance with a rating methodology developed in the study. Finally, recommendations are made for future government efforts in the area of fuel conservation in commercial aviation.

  12. Travelling energy systems: knowledge transfer for energy efficiency and conservation from European to Australian building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Tema Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency and conservation in the Australian built environment have not yet been implemented to any great extent. Despite favourable prerequisites, such as vast windswept unpopulated areas suitable for wind power and many hours of direct sunlight in most populated areas, electricity is mainly generated by burning brown coal and buildings are poorly equipped for hot summers and cool winters. Australia urgently needs to convert to alternative energy sources and implement energy efficiency measures, since its carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. In a recent major redevelopment in Sydney, the Carlton and United Brewery (CUB) site knowledge of energy efficiency and conservation measures used in European buildings was transferred and implemented in local designs and infrastructure. This knowledge came mainly from urban planning and developments in London, but also from high-profile architectural firms based in Paris and Germany. The arrival of this knowledge in Australia led to phases when the knowledge was translated and enacted in local spaces and the constituent ideas were transformed into action. The present research is based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in which the planning and design of the CUB site was observed. The results of the study identify barriers to and opportunities for energy system knowledge transfer between different cultures and local spaces. Substantial time must be spent overcoming cultural barriers, so the involved parties can start talking the same language. This is not only true for stakeholders operating in different continents, but for stakeholders operating in different local arenas in the same country.

  13. A review of energy conservation initiatives by the Government of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Paritosh; Basu, Sujay

    2008-01-01

    Energy conservation is the need of the hour. The first oil shock of 1973 shook up the industrialized nations of the world and awakened them from the sleepy complacency of never-ending oil flow. It made them face the stark reality of the uncertainty in oil supply restoration and the fragility of the trade in oil. This was the time when many countries realized the urgent need for energy conservation. Notably, the wave of energy conservation had struck the Indian intelligentia 3 years earlier when a Fuel Policy Committee was set up by the Government of India in 1970, which finally bore fruits three decades hence in the form of enactment of the much awaited Energy Conservation Act, 2001 by the Government of India. This Act made provisions for setting up of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, a body corporate incorporated under the Act, for supervising and monitoring the efforts on energy conservation in India. In this article the stages in the historical development of Energy Conservation in India, the Government initiatives taken in this regard and the reasons for the limited success in implementation of conservation policies in the past have been discussed. (author)

  14. Infrastructure improvement project for rationalization of international energy use. Survey project on best practices of energy conservation for buildings in south-east Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys were performed to provide the ASEAN countries with technical assistance so that smooth promotion will be implemented on the energy conservation awards system for commercial buildings in the countries. This system has been newly established by the ASEAN Center for Energy (ACE) to suppress the energy consumption in commercial buildings, for which 11 candidates were proposed from among six countries. The EGCO Tower in Bangkok, Thailand, and the Revenue House in Singapore were selected. Japan has provided the building energy inspection technologies used in Japan, and performed the surveys on these two buildings. The surveys were performed from December 12 through 14, 2000 on the EGCO Tower, and from January 29 through 31, 2001 on the Revenue House. The surveys included checks on application forms for the buildings, measurement and analysis of energy consumption by using different measuring devices, inspection of the actual energy conservation activities done in the buildings, reports on the survey results, proposals on energy conservation promoting means, and provision of appendix materials for energy conservation. (NEDO)

  15. Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, David; Kolar, Patrick; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    This report describes options for monitoring the status and population trends of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) within the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) area of Southern California in maintaining stable or increasing population in the planning area. The report profiles the ecology of golden eagles in the region and provides a range of potential sampling options to address monitoring needs and objectives. This approach also focused on links between changes in human land-use, golden eagle nesting and foraging habitat conditions, and population dynamics. The report outlines how monitoring data from demographic, prey, and habitat studies were used to develop a predictive demographic model for golden eagles in the DRECP area. Results from the model simulations suggest increases in renewable energy development could have negative consequences for population trajectories. Results also suggest site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative impacts to the local population of eagles. A monitoring framework is proposed including: (1) annual assessments of site-occupancy and reproduction by territorial pairs of golden eagles (including rates at which sites become colonized or vacated over time); (2) estimates of survival, movements, and intensity of use of landscapes by breeding and non-breeding golden eagles; (3) periodic (conducted every two to four years) assessments of nesting and foraging habitats, prey populations, and associations with land-use and management activities; and (4) updating the predictive demographic model with new information obtained on eagles and associated population stressors. The results of this research were published in the Journal of Rapture Research, Wiens, David,Inman, Rich D., Esque, Todd C., Longshore, Kathleen M. and Nussear, Kenneth (2017). Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes. 51(3):234-257.

  16. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.][Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Deringer, J.J. [Deringer Group, Riva, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  17. The effect of expected energy prices on energy demand: implications for energy conservation and carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical method for estimating the effect of expected prices on energy demand. Data for expected oil prices are compiled from forecasts for real oil prices. The effect of expectations on energy demand is simulated with an expectation variable that proxies the return on investment for energy efficient capital. Econometric results indicate that expected prices have a significant effect on energy demand in the US between 1975 and 1989. A model built from the econometric results indicates that the way in which consumers anticipate changes in energy prices that are generated by a carbon tax affects the quantity of emissions abated by the tax. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. The household energy gap: examining the divide between habitual- and purchase-related conservation behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Stewart; Gilg, A.W.; Ford, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the conceptual divide between energy saving behaviours in the home, relating to purchase-oriented behaviours and habitual action to conserve energy. Considerable empirical research indicates that this divide is of utility when characterising energy saving behaviour. However, little attention has been focused around the association between energy saving behaviours and other environmental actions. Accordingly, this paper examines the structural bases of energy conservation behaviours in the wider context of environmental behaviour. These findings are then used to examine the characteristics of energy savers as they relate to other environmental actions. Using cluster analysis, the paper defines a range of behavioural characteristics that transcend energy saving and other environmental actions. The use of such an approach to policy makers seeking to encourage energy conservation practices is discussed at the end of the paper

  19. Finding of no significant impact for the State Energy Conservation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), DOE/EA 1068, to assess the environmental impacts associated with the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). DOE previously funded SECP projects under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). The State Energy Efficiency Programs Improvements Act of 1990 (SEEPIA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) amended EPCA to broaden the range of state initiatives qualifying for Federal assistance under the SECP. The PEA presents a general analysis of the potential environmental effects associated with broad types of projects that can be funded under the SECP. It does not analyze specific environmental effects or alternatives associated with individual energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy projects. Individual actions are to be evaluated in detail on a project-by-project basis to determine whether their impacts fall within the bounding analysis of the impacts analyzed in the SECP PEA

  20. Assessment of tidal range energy resources based on flux conservation in Jiantiao Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wu, He; Yu, Huaming; Lv, Ting; Li, Jiangyu; Yu, Yujun

    2017-12-01

    La Rance Tidal Range Power Station in France and Jiangxia Tidal Range Power Station in China have been both long-term successful commercialized operations as kind of role models for public at large for more than 40 years. The Sihwa Lake Tidal Range Power Station in South Korea has also developed to be the largest marine renewable power station with its installed capacity 254 MW since 2010. These practical applications prove that the tidal range energy as one kind of marine renewable energy exploitation and utilization technology is becoming more and more mature and it is used more and more widely. However, the assessment of the tidal range energy resources is not well developed nowadays. This paper summarizes the main problems in tidal range power resource assessment, gives a brief introduction to tidal potential energy theory, and then we present an analyzed and estimated method based on the tide numerical modeling. The technical characteristics and applicability of these two approaches are compared with each other. Furthermore, based on the theory of tidal range energy generation combined with flux conservation, this paper proposes a new assessment method that include a series of evaluation parameters and it can be easily operated to calculate the tidal range energy of the sea. Finally, this method is applied on assessment of the tidal range power energy of the Jiantiao Harbor in Zhejiang Province, China for demonstration and examination.