WorldWideScience

Sample records for include energy agriculture

  1. Energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, E J

    1980-02-01

    Agriculture is an important component of Canadian energy policy. There are many opportunities for both the production of energy from agricultural processes and the conservation of energy in agricultural production. These opportunities, as well as current practices and research in progress, are outlined in this report. Energy sources in agriculture include biomass (straw and other residues), methane production from manure, and oil and alcohol from crops. Alternate energy sources such as solar and wind power conserve conventional resources, and additional conservation opportunities exist in the use of greenhouses, waste heat and energy-efficient farming processes. Research programs and possible trends are outlined. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil carbon effects, of producing agriculture and forestry feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina E. Canter; Zhangcai Qin; Hao Cai; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Wang; D. Andrew Scott

    2017-01-01

    The GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption associated with producing potential biomass sup­ply in the select BT16 scenarios include emissions and energy consumption from biomass production, harvest/collection, transport, and pre-processing activities to the reactor throat. Emissions associated with energy, fertilizers, and...

  3. RENEWABLE ENERGY BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GROSU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in the entire world, including Moldova and Romania as states that tend to reach their micro- and macro-economic objectives. One of the most important goal remains thedevelopment of renewable energy from agricultural waste and so the energy coming from natural sources such assolar, wind or water without air pollution. As a conclusion, the solution to obtain this renewable energy is to attractfinancial resources from EU or USA investors.

  4. Energy conservation in agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggo, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The annual production of foodgrains in India rose from 50.8 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 178 million tonnes in 1989-90. One of the factors which led to this impressive growth is the continued increase in input of mechanization and energy in the agricultural sector by way of tractors running on diesel and pumps (for water supply) based on diesel and electricity. Electricity consumption in agricultural sector rose from 833 million kWh in 1960-61 to 47000 million kWh in 1990-91 and is further expected to rise to 81.8 TWH in 1999-2000. Considering the heavy investments required for production and supply of energy, it has become imperative to avoid wasteful use of energy and to use energy more efficiently. This can be done by : (1) Changing the electricity tariff structure from the present horse power related rates to energy consumption related rates. This will induce farmers to avoid waste in energy use. (2) Adopting energy efficiency measures. These measures are : (1) replacement of inefficient foot valves, suction pipes and delivery pipes of the pump sets, (2) increasing power factor of electric motors used for pumps sets, (3) reducing distribution losses over LT lines, and (4) optimizing use of fertilizers. This optimization will indirectly conserve energy by reducing electricity consumption by fertilizer industry. (M.G.B.). 5 refs., 4 tabs

  5. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-01-01

    This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming i...

  6. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Balducchi, R.; Bernardini, A.; Dondi, F.; Di Carlo, F.; Genovese, A.; Scoccianti, M.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions. [it

  7. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming innovations. The article is of interest to smart farming’s decision makers (from farmers to governance actors and a broader audience – anyone interested in engendering equity through innovation-led societal transitions.

  8. Priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides research gaps and priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture across Europe, based on the analysis of the Coordination and Support Action AGREE (Agriculture & Energy Efficiency) funded by the 7th research framework of the EU (www.agree.aua.gr). The analysis from

  9. Biogas - Energy from the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrez, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Swiss agriculture produces biomass in the form of manure, crop residue or specifically grown biomass energy crops. There are a variety of procedures available to make use of this biomass. The right choice depends on the type of biomass and the energy end-product. For example thermal energy use, power generation or biogenetic fuels require physical, thermo-chemical or biological conversion. The following reports presents an overview of existing technologies, gives details of selected case studies on agricultural biogas production and discusses the importance of agricultural biomass energy use for the attainment of Swiss climate protection targets. (author)

  10. Energy production and use in Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.A.; Lange, J.M.; Wit, de C.T.

    1974-01-01

    Energy relationschips in the agriculture of one of the most densely populated areas of the world, the Nether lands, are described. The Netherlands appear selfsupporting in food energy. However, if one takes account of energy consumption in horticulture, the direct and indirect fossil energy cost

  11. Nuclear energy for use in Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervellini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of nuclear energy to solve problems in agriculture, aiming to increase the food production, is presented. The projects that are being developed at CENA (Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura) are showed. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Nuclear energy and Ecuadorian agriculture development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molineros Andrade, J.

    1979-09-01

    The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission has elaborated a plan for development of nuclear energy, the construction of a 1-3 MW Nuclear Reactor for Research and production of radioisotopes and of the related laboratories. Agriculture is a very important part of this plan, in the following areas: genetics, irrigation, plant and animal nutrition and metabolisms, and pest and disease control. Ecuadorian agriculture institutions have also been considered in this plan. (Author)

  13. Energy for agriculture. A computerized information retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, B.A.; Myers, C.A. (comps.)

    1979-12-01

    Energy may come from the sun or the earth or be the product of plant materials or agricultural wastes. Whatever its source, energy is indispensable to our way of life, beginning with the production, processing, and distribution of abundant, high quality food and fiber supplies. This specialized bibliography on the subject of energy for agriculture contains 2613 citations to the literature for 1973 through May 1979. Originally issued by Michigan State University (MSU), it is being reprinted and distributed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The literature citations will be incorporated into AGRICOLA (Agricultural On-Line Access), the comprehensive bibliographic data base maintained by Technical Information Systems (TIS), a component of USDA's Science and Education Administration (SEA). The citations and the listing of research projects will be combined with other relevant references to provide a continuously updated source of information on energy programs in the agricultural field. No abstracts are included.

  14. Can agriculture generate clean energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeijts, H.; Oosterveld, E.B.; Timmerman, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Fossil fuels meet a large part of the energy requirements in Europe. The carbon dioxide produced by using these fuels contributes to the greenhouse effect. By generating energy from vegetable fibres (biomass) the emission of greenhouse gasses can be reduced. As well as an ecological advantage, the cultivation of crops for the supply of energy could also improve the moderate to bad economical results of Dutch arable farms. So far research into the use of biomass as a source of energy has been mainly concerned with its technical and economic feasibility. Our research also assesses the ecological sustainability of the cultivation and use of energy crops. The principal questions we have answered are: how harmful to the environment is the cultivation of energy crops?; what are the direct and indirect environmental effects of fitting energy crops into the cropping plan?; what indirect effects are to be expected at a regional and national level?; on balance, how much energy is produced in the entire cultivation, transport and processing chain?; What effect does this have on the emission of greenhouse gases?; what is the overall conclusion for the various crops with regard to sustainability? The conclusions of this research could help policy makers answer the question whether it is useful from the point of view of sustainability to stimulate the generation of energy from biomass. We have assessed the effects of the cultivation and use of energy crops on: the emission of minerals and pesticides; the use of energy and the emission of greenhouse gases; the fixation of carbon from CO2; the use of by-products and waste products; dehydration; erosion; the contribution to natural values; the contribution to scenic values; and use of space. In the overall assessment each criterion was given equal weight. This choice is arbitrary: in practice, the ratios are different in each situation. We have studied nine crops and their processing chains. Rape is converted into bio-diesel oil by

  15. Energy potential of agricultural crops in Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahiti, Naser; Sfishta, Avni; Gramatikov, Plamen

    2015-01-01

    Primary energy mix in Kosovo with 98 % consisting of lignite and only 2 % of water is far from portfolio of primary energy sources which could contribute to a sustainable and environmental friendly energy supply of the country. In order to improve the situation, government is supporting activities in favor of upgrading of electricity production capacities based on Renewable Energy Sources. Corresponding action plans and feed in tariffs are already in place. However, prior to any investment, one needs specific results on available potential. Current study provides results of the analysis of Kosovo potential for energy production by using of agricultural crops. Study is based on national statistics on available agricultural crops in Kosovo and provides results on biomass potential of crops, corresponding energy potential and an assessment of financial cost of energy produced.

  16. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  17. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  18. The role of energy policy in agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production by agricultural biogas plants has recently recorded considerable growth in Visegrad countries. The development was enhanced by European Union’s efforts to increase the proportion of energy produced from renewable sources. The paper aims to assess the role of energy policy in the development of agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad region. Conducted studies have shown that among various forms of support for energy production from renewable energy sources, the price system prevails, including the support by feed in tariffs and bonuses. Feed in tariffs were adopted in Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. Another kind of support system – a quota system – was adopted in Poland, what includes tendering and certificate systems. The results confirm the adoption of legal framework was necessary step to enable agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries, but itself it was not enough to stimulate development of agricultural biogas energy production significantly. Rapid development in each country was recorded only after the certain financial support systems took effect, what made production of agricultural biogas energy economically efficient for investors. The production of energy from agricultural biogas grew the most in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the financial support was the highest. Nevertheless, the protracted process of changes in legal framework and transformation of energy policy, certain measures including state-controlled price-making systems, risk regarding with auction system might hamper agricultural biogas energy production further development.

  19. Department of Energy programs and objectives: energy conservation in agricultural production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This document describes the current Department of Energy agriculture research program as it relates to the research recommendations submitted by a 1976 workshop on energy conservation in agricultural production. In-depth discussions on fertilizers, irrigation, crop drying, fuel substitution, crop and animal production systems, greenhouses, materials handling, and transport systems are included. (MCW)

  20. Energy principle with included boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Earlier comments by the author on the limitations of the classical form of the extended energy principle are supported by a complementary analysis on the potential energy change arising from free-boundary displacements of a magnetically confined plasma. In the final formulation of the extended principle, restricted displacements, satisfying pressure continuity by means of plasma volume currents in a thin boundary layer, are replaced by unrestricted (arbitrary) displacements which can give rise to induced surface currents. It is found that these currents contribute to the change in potential energy, and that their contribution is not taken into account by such a formulation. A general expression is further given for surface currents induced by arbitrary displacements. The expression is used to reformulate the energy principle for the class of displacements which satisfy all necessary boundary conditions, including that of the pressure balance. This makes a minimization procedure of the potential energy possible, for the class of all physically relevant test functions which include the constraints imposed by the boundary conditions. Such a procedure is also consistent with a corresponding variational calculus. (Author)

  1. Energy Crops and the Common Agricultural Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Kes; Nilsson, Helen; Tomescu, Mihail [Lund Univ. (Sweden). International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE)

    2006-07-15

    The Biomass Action Plan (BAP) for Europe outlines how to achieve the targets for bioenergy and energy crops defined by the European Commission and member states. However, it is the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that shapes the utilisation of agricultural land. This paper therefore reviews the supportive measures for energy crops in recent CAP reforms and investigates the effects on farmers in 'real-life' case studies from Sweden, Italy and Austria. This paper explores if the recent CAP reforms are sufficient to motivate farmers to cultivate energy crops; identifies the barriers and drivers for energy crops from the perspective of farmers; and suggests how to enhance supportive measures in the CAP to overcome barriers and complement the BAP.

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  3. Predicting the potential of energy from agricultural wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifah Bahar; Ahmad Mahir Razali; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the prediction of the potential of energy supply from agricultural wastes in Malaysia until the year 2005. The exponential smoothing method is used to predict the supply of energy from these resources. The prediction is based on four scenarios namely (a) business as usual, (b) increase in the plantation area by 1 % (c) increase in productivity by 1 % with no increase in plantation area and (d) decrease in plantation area of 1%. The agricultural wastes considered are from rubber, oil palm ,cocoa, paddy, coconut and pineapple resources. In Peninsular Malaysia, these resources include groundnut, sugar cane, and tapioca. Assuming an energy conversion of 30%, only three agricultural wastes can contribute as an energy supply i.e. oil palm, paddy and sugar cane wastes. The contribution of these resources to the demand of energy for Malaysia is 21% in the year 2000 and 17% in the year 2005. (Author)

  4. Prospective analysis agriculture energy 2030. Agriculture and the challenges of energy - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vert, Julien; Portet, Fabienne; Even, Marie-Aude; Herault, Bruno; Laisney, Celine; Mahe, Thuriane

    2010-01-01

    The present overview document contains the main results of the Agriculture Energy 2030 prospective study, based on the work of the group led by the CEP [Centre d'etudes et de prospective/Centre for studies and strategic foresight] at the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, Fisheries, Rural Affairs and Spatial Planning. Energy in agriculture is all too often seen as a purely cyclical problem whereas it is a major issue for the future due to its economic consequences for agricultural holdings, its links with environmental and climatic issues, and its influence on food supply chains and spatial planning. Based on the scenario method, this analysis initially involved describing the whole range of links between agriculture and energy in France and organising them into a system of variables before going on to draw up an inventory of the knowledge available. Starting out from this diagnostic approach, the group constructed four scenarios over the period to 2030: 'Regionalization and sobriety to confront the crisis', 'Twin track agriculture and energy realism', 'Health Agriculture with no major energy constraints' and 'Ecological agriculture and energy savings'. These scenarios do not form an exhaustive panorama of all possible developments of the agriculture-energy system - they are rather formalised images of what the future might hold. However, quantification and comparison of the scenarios has led to the identification of major room for progress in energy efficiency in French farming. By helping gain greater awareness of future difficulties and issues or, conversely, opportunities to be grasped, these scenarios provided input for the strategic analysis phase, the concluding stage of this exercise, and the identification of general objectives and levers for public action. (authors)

  5. Including climate change in energy investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ybema, J.R.; Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Smit, J.T.J.

    1995-08-01

    To properly take climate change into account in the analysis of energy investment decisions, it is required to apply decision analysis methods that are capable of considering the specific characteristics of climate change (large uncertainties, long term horizon). Such decision analysis methods do exist. They can explicitly include evolving uncertainties, multi-stage decisions, cumulative effects and risk averse attitudes. Various methods are considered in this report and two of these methods have been selected: hedging calculations and sensitivity analysis. These methods are applied to illustrative examples, and its limitations are discussed. The examples are (1a) space heating and hot water for new houses from a private investor perspective and (1b) as example (1a) but from a government perspective, (2) electricity production with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (ICGCC) with or without CO 2 removal, and (3) national energy strategy to hedge for climate change. 9 figs., 21 tabs., 42 refs., 1 appendix

  6. Use of solar energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaunet, L.; Vassbotn, T.; Naavik, G.; Lillevik, O.

    1982-04-01

    The report discusses some materials for utilization of solar energy in agriculture. Accessible data on solar radiation are prepared with a view to practical use in different parts of the country. Physical conditions regarding the mode of operation of different solar collectors are examined, and some methods of transitory storage of solar energy are described. Fields in which practical use of solar energy can be urgent are discussed. These are: water heating and drying of hay and grain. Some practical examples are given. 53 drawings, 9 tables.

  7. Importance of energy balance in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, R.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning, man has tried to control nature and the environment, and the use of energy, mainly from non-renewable sources providing the necessary power for that. The consequences of this long fight against nature has reached a critical state of unprecedented worldwide environmental degradation, as evidenced by the increasing erosion of fertile lands, the deforestation processes, the pollution of water, air and land by agrochemicals, the loss of plant and animal species, the progressive deterioration of the ozone layer and signs of global warming. This is exacerbated by the increasing population growth, implying a steady increase in consumption, and consequently, in the use of energy. Unfortunately, all these claims are resulting in serious economic and environmental problems worldwide. Because the economic and environmental future of the countries is interrelated, it becomes necessary to adopt sustainable development models based on the use of renewable and clean energies, the search for alternative resources and the use of productive systems more efficient from an energy standpoint, always with a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the agricultural sector, the question we ask is: how long can we keep the current energy-intensive agricultural techniques in developed countries? To analyze this aspect, energy balance is a very helpful tool because can lead to more efficient, sustainable and environment-friendly production systems for each agro-climatic region. This requires the identification of all the inputs and the outputs involved and their conversion to energy values by means of corresponding energy coefficients or equivalents (International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies). Energy inputs (EI) can be divided in direct (energy directly used in farms as fuel, machines, fertilizers, seeds, herbicides, human labor, etc.) and indirect (energy not consumed in the farm but in the elaboration, manufacturing or manipulation of

  8. Application of solar energy to agricultural production processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The presentations in this report were a result of research and development projects funded and managed by Interagency Agreements between the Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture. The performing institutions were selected on the basis of peer reviews of invited and/or unsolicited proposals. During the time period covered, approximately 9 years, hundreds of technical reports and presentations have been made. The audience for these reports has included other researchers, manufacturers, sales people, contractors and end users of the information. As a result, thousands of installations have been made. Some of these have been highly successful, while others have been less successful, and some have failed. Nevertheless, these projects have shown areas where solar energy can be profitably applied to replace non-renewable forms of energy for agricultural production; areas where the use of solar energy is marginal; and areas where the use of solar energy is not profitable with current costs of non-renewable energy.

  9. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  10. Including environmental concerns in energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, Michel

    2014-05-01

    In this article, the author comments the different impacts on the environment and risks related to energy, provided that all energies have an impact on the environment (renewable energies are generally cleaner than fossil energies) and these impacts can be on human health, ecosystems, buildings, crops, landscapes, and climate change. He comments the efforts made in the search for a higher energetic efficiency, and proposes an overview of the various available tools implemented by environmental policies in the energy sector: regulatory instruments, economic instruments, negotiated agreements, and informational instruments. He comments the implementation of an energetic taxing aimed at developing a greater respect of the environment

  11. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  12. Energy use for economic growth: A trivariate analysis from Tunisian agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebri, Maamar; Abid, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Following the importance of energy in the agrarian economies, the investigation of the causal relationship between energy consumption in agriculture sector and economic growth has a fundamental role in implementing suitable policies. This paper examines the causal relationship between energy consumption and agricultural value added, controlling for trade openness, in Tunisia from 1980 to 2007. The relationship is investigated at aggregated as well as disaggregated components of energy consumption, including oil and electricity. Using Granger's technique, it is shown that various results are obtained regarding the direction of causality between competing variables. Nevertheless, the most common finding suggest that trade openness and both aggregated and disaggregated energy consumption Granger causes agricultural value added. Therefore, the energy-led growth and trade-led growth hypotheses are supported in the Tunisian agriculture sector. An important policy implication resulting from this study is that energy can be considered as a limiting factor to agriculture value added and, therefore, shocks to energy supply would have a negative impact onto agriculture performance. Furthermore, trade liberalization seems to be a stimulus factor to the Tunisian agriculture development. - Highlights: ► We study the energy consumption-economic growth nexus of Tunisian agriculture sector. ► We use Johansen's cointegration approach and Granger causality. ► Energy consumption can be considered as limiting factor to agricultural performance. ► Electrical energy will represent an important input to agricultural production growth.

  13. The relationship between agricultural technology and energy demand in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Khalid; Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq; Ahmad, Mehboob; Rustam, Rabiah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two fold: (i) to investigate the casual relationship between energy consumption and agricultural technology factors, and (ii) electricity consumption and technological factors in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. The study further evaluates four alternative but equally plausible hypotheses, each with different policy implications. These are: (i) Agricultural technology factors cause energy demand (the conventional view), (ii) energy demand causes technological factors, (iii) There is a bi-directional causality between the two variables and (iv) Both variables are causality independent. By applying techniques of Cointegration and Granger causality tests on energy demand (i.e., total primary energy consumption and electricity consumption) and agricultural technology factors (such as, tractors, fertilizers, cereals production, agriculture irrigated land, high technology exports, livestock; agriculture value added; industry value added and subsides) over a period of 1975–2010. The results infer that tractor and energy demand has bi-directional relationship; while irrigated agricultural land; share of agriculture and industry value added and subsides have supported the conventional view i.e., agricultural technology cause energy consumption in Pakistan. On the other hand, neither fertilizer consumption and high technology exports nor energy demand affect each others. Government should form a policy of incentive-based supports which might be a good policy for increasing the use of energy level in agriculture. - Highlights: ► Find the direction between green technology factors and energy demand in Pakistan. ► The results indicate that there is a strong relationship between them. ► Agriculture machinery and energy demand has bi-directional relationship. ► Green technology causes energy consumption i.e., unidirectional relationship. ► Agriculture expansion is positive related to total primary energy consumption.

  14. Application of atomic energy in agriculture in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Kuan-Jen

    1980-01-01

    In 1957 China established the first research laboratory for the application of atomic energy in agriculture as part of her 1st twelve-year plan on the development of science and technology. The laboratory, where some 300 were trained as technical personnels specializing in radioisotopes and ionizing radiation, was followed by a number of local laboratories and agricultural universities also providing such training programs. At present more than 500 specialists are engaged in agricultural research with nuclear techniques and symposium are often held among them to exchange information. Their achievements include creation of new types of crop featuring improved yield or superior cold resistance by inducing mutation with nuclear techniques. Promising results have been also obtained in various fields such as growth stimulation, food preservation, insect control, fertilizers and environmental protection. One of future subjects is to make the best use of nuclear techniques in macro-agriculture which covers not only conventional agriculture but forestry, animal husbandry, fishery and processing of by-products of these activities. (Kitajima, A.)

  15. Energy challenges for the French agriculture by 2030. Framework paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines the problematic and objectives of a prospective study on the relationship between agriculture and energy. It highlights that agriculture is not a high direct consumer of energy, but that the products it uses (nitrate fertilizers for example) consume a lot of energy and contribute to the greenhouse effect. On the other hand, agriculture and forest have a major role to play in the production of bio-energies, in the development of energy saving practices, and in the struggle against climate change. It defines the objectives of this prospective study which is planned to last about one year, the aims of which are to improve the knowledge on the relationships between agriculture and energy, to clarify trends and challenges for agriculture in terms of energy by 2030, to promote dialogue between stake holders, to enlighten public decision about possible futures. An approach and a method are proposed which notably comprise the elaboration of scenarios

  16. Assessing of energy policies based on Turkish agriculture:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Cengiz; Nisa Mencet, M.; Ozkan, Burhan

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the current energy status of Turkey and the effects of national energy policies on Turkish agricultural support policies are discussed for both current and future requirements. Turkey is an energy-importing country producing 30 mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent) energy but consuming 80 mtoe. The energy import ratio of Turkey is 65-70% and the majority of this import is based on petroleum and natural gas. Furthermore, while world energy demand increases by 1.8% annually, Turkey's energy demand increases by about 8%. Although energy consumption in agriculture is much lower than the other sectors in Turkey, energy use as both input and output of agricultural sector is a very important issue due to its large agricultural potential and rural area. Total agricultural land area is 27.8 million hectares and about 66.5% of this area is devoted for cereal production. On the other hand, Turkey has over 4 million agricultural farm holdings of which 70-75% is engaged in cereal production. Machinery expenses, mainly diesel, constitute 30-50% of total variable expenses in cereal production costs. It is observed that energy policies pursued in agriculture have been directly affected by diesel prices in Turkey. Therefore, support policy tools for using diesel and electricity in agriculture are being pursued by the Turkish government

  17. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  18. Current Status and Future Potential of Energy Derived from Chinese Agricultural Land: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China’s foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China’s marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China’s social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction.

  19. Ag Can zeroes in on energy waste in food. [Agriculture Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebener, A.

    1979-12-01

    Agriculture Canada has increased its funding for energy conservation research from $25,000 to $500,000. Energy audits of food processing, distribution, and retailing (PDR) will determine how energy is used. The funding increase represents a shift in Canada's energy research policy and indicates that the PDR sector is now recognized as the major energy consumer in contrast to the production sector, which uses only 18% of agricultural energy. The research will focus on practical technology and will consider the economic, tax, and regulatory factors. PDR research programs include the use of renewable energy sources, waste heat recovery, greenhouse insulation, and hydroponics. (DCK)

  20. Agriculture energy prospective by 2030: scenarios and action patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and comments the main results of a work-group focused on the evolution of agriculture in France in relationship with the new energetic context. Four scenarios have been defined, corresponding to different energetic, but also social, political and economic contexts by 2030. The first one corresponds to a severe energy crisis with an emergence of regional governance. The second one corresponds to a high volatility of energy prices, an increased easing of restrictions on trade, and a decrease of public supports and subsidies for agriculture. The third one corresponds to a strong reduction of the use of phyto-sanitary products in agriculture, a continuous urban sprawl, and the prevalence of road transport. The fourth one corresponds to agriculture respectful of the environment and a good management of energy consumption. Direct and indirect energy consumptions are assessed for the four scenarios. Some general and operational objectives are thus identified

  1. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC BASES OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lisjutchenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Russian agricultural production at current stage is very energy intensive. At the cost of agricultural production overall cost of energy resources is growing: in 2000 was 36.5 billion rubles, 2008 - 92 billion rubles, 2009 - 110.6 billion rubles, and in 2010 rose to 119.8 billion rubles, or increased by 3.3 times. The analysis of consumption of the main energy sources for the period from 1990 to 2010 showed a decrease in general and the specific consumption of diesel fuel, gasoline and electricity by 5-7 times. Reducing energy consumption is explained as a forced saving resources because of lack of funds for the acquisition and implementation of agricultural enterprises of energy and resource saving measures (resource-saving technologies in the production process, motor fuel, biofuels and alternative energy sources. To solve this problem State and business in a matter of priority should be to build an effective system of innovation development for agriculture, promote the participation of agricultural science and education system in this process, modernize the domestic agricultural machinery, engineering and technology infrastructure.

  2. Agriculture energy prospective by 2030: scenarios and action patterns; Prospective Agriculture Energie 2030: scenarios et pistes d'action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents and comments the main results of a work-group focused on the evolution of agriculture in France in relationship with the new energetic context. Four scenarios have been defined, corresponding to different energetic, but also social, political and economic contexts by 2030. The first one corresponds to a severe energy crisis with an emergence of regional governance. The second one corresponds to a high volatility of energy prices, an increased easing of restrictions on trade, and a decrease of public supports and subsidies for agriculture. The third one corresponds to a strong reduction of the use of phyto-sanitary products in agriculture, a continuous urban sprawl, and the prevalence of road transport. The fourth one corresponds to agriculture respectful of the environment and a good management of energy consumption. Direct and indirect energy consumptions are assessed for the four scenarios. Some general and operational objectives are thus identified

  3. Energy consumption and total factor productivity growth in Iranian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghaddasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.

  4. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Forestry and agriculture in an energy crisis. The flow of energy in Swedish forestry and agriculture in 1956 and 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renborg, U; Uhlin, H E

    1975-01-01

    A report issued by the Energy Committee of the Kungl Skogsoch Landbruksakademi under the chairmanship of U. Renborg (published as Meddelanden Nos. 64 and 65, Institut fur Ekonomi och Statistik, Landburkshogskolan, 1975) is summarized. The flow of resources in both years of comparison is described separately for agriculture and forestry in physical, monetary, and energy terms. Energy input is subdivided into solar energy, direct auxiliary energy (in forestry, chiefly fossil fuel) and indirect auxiliary energy (e.g., fertilizers). Forestry is considered to be still very energy extensive (at 1972 prices, the cost per ha of auxiliary energy was 10% of proceeds vs 18% in agriculture (or 14 vs 384 dr/ha in money terms). Recommendations are made for increasing the input of auxiliary energy (e.g., mechanization and greater use of fertilizers) and for research into its more economic use.

  6. FARM-PRODUCED ENERGY OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE ORIGIN IMPROVES ITS PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Węglarzy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important tasks of Polish agriculture in 2014-2020 perspective will include maintaining food quality and safety, and orientation toward the part of the production of renewable energy, especially using biomass. Processing of biomass in anaerobic methane fermentation of agricultural biogas solves the problem of waste storage, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially high concentrations of methane, coming from the fermentation of slowly stored biomass. The economic aspect explains the popularity of biogas works; it is related to diversification of agricultural production through the introduction of a qualitatively new production of green energy from biogas, which significantly affects the profitability of agricultural production and will be an alternative for some companies, or large farms as a source of additional income and energy security. Energy generated in small biogas plants can fully protect the energy needs of a small farm releasing it from external sources and generating savings. For installations larger surplus may provide an additional source of farms’ income.

  7. Use of light agricultural waste as biomass for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Along with solar energy light agricultural wastes form an important source of renewable energy. Sugar cane field trash (PACHAT) forms a large source of energy, totally wasted even today. This article covers the thinking on biomass as energy source in India from 1985 till today and describes the important developments. Agricultural waste is a widely distributed source and costly to collect and transport. Hence its mode of use, equipment required became site specific. Equipment for carbonization and gasification of pachat developed by the author are described. Utilisation of agricultural waste is still an open field and challenge to develop and perfect small and large devices directly for thermal use or power generation. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Energy demand analysis in the household, commercial and agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Household, Commercial and Agricultural Sector. Per Capita total energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector is given and variation among countries are discussed. 12 figs, 1 tab

  9. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings...... by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology...

  10. “Multi-functional Agriculture - Agriculture as a Resource for Energy and Environmental Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Editors

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present global situation, agriculture plays a major role in the interaction between socio-economic and biophysical processes. In addition to its principal and fundamental role of providing food, it now also needs to consider other ecosystem services provided by agriculture and to explore the new frontiers for the the future. In the 50’s of the 20th century the major topic was the introduction of inorganic fertilizers, in the 60’s the use of synthetic compounds for plant protection (insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, in the 70’s industrial crops, in the 80’s organic farming and the environmental impact of agronomic practices, and in the 90’s genetically modified crops (herbicide tolerance, insect resistance. In the current decade the themes are: land and water degradation, the production of agricultural biomass for bio-energy, and the increased expression of functional compounds in crops. The Bologna X Congress of ESA “Multi-functional Agriculture - Agriculture as a Resource for Energy and Environmental Preservation”, will meet the needs of finding tools to deal with environmental problems coupled with the increasing demand for food, and filling the knowledge gap on the physiological relationships between functional compound bio-synthesis and agricultural practices. Members of the European Society for Agronomy already have a deep knowledge of these issues, and the Bologna ESA Congress will provide an opportunity to develop them further particularly in regard to innovative agricultural techniques, new energy sources and better environmental monitoring.

  11. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  12. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao

    and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential......In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according...... of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw...

  13. Kalaeloa Energy System Redevelopment Options Including Advanced Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanderMey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In June 2016, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Branch for the Hawaii State Energy Office (HSEO), the Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), the United States Navy (Navy), and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) established a project to 1) assess the current functionality of the energy infrastructure at the Kalaeloa Community Development District, and 2) evaluate options to use both existing and new distributed and renewable energy generation and storage resources within advanced microgrid frameworks to cost-effectively enhance energy security and reliability for critical stakeholder needs during both short-term and extended electric power outages. This report discusses the results of a stakeholder workshop and associated site visits conducted by Sandia in October 2016 to identify major Kalaeloa stakeholder and tenant energy issues, concerns, and priorities. The report also documents information on the performance and cost benefits of a range of possible energy system improvement options including traditional electric grid upgrade approaches, advanced microgrid upgrades, and combined grid/microgrid improvements. The costs and benefits of the different improvement options are presented, comparing options to see how well they address the energy system reliability, sustainability, and resiliency priorities identified by the Kalaeloa stakeholders.

  14. State of the Art on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture, Country data on energy consumption in different agroproduction sectors in the European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Buisonje, de F.E.; Ellen, H.H.; Stanghellini, C.; Voort, van der M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. The general term "energy efficiency", when applied to agriculture, reflects changes in technology, governmental and EC policies – including the Common Agricultural Policy, climate

  15. Agriculture energy 2030. Report seminar. Summary of talks and exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Energy in agriculture is a major issue for its economic consequences for farms, for its relationships with environmental and climate issues, and for its influence on sector organisation and land planning. This seminar, through discussions on the relationships between energy, agriculture and territories and on the challenges for public action and research, proposes and discusses a comprehensive diagnosis of present challenges, as well as four scenarios by 2030. These scenarios are defined with respect to three evolution drivers: town-country mobility, economic dynamics, and natural resources

  16. Experimental evaluation of admission and disposition of artificial radionuclides including transuranium elements in agricultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhakhanov, T.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    Processes of radionuclides migration and transfer to agricultural plants are quite well developed worldwide, but the information on character of accumulation of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu transuranium radionuclides in agricultural plants is still fragmentary. Even in generalized materials of worldwide studies, IAEA guide, accumulation coefficient (AC) can have wide range of values (5-6 orders), no data exists on radionuclides' distribution in different organs of plants and they are given for joined groups of plants and types of soils. That is why the main aim of this work was to obtain basic quantitative parameters of radionuclides' migration in 'soil-plant' system, and firs of all- for transuranium elements.. In 2010 a series of experiments with agricultural plants was started at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site aimed to investigate entry of artificial radionuclides by crop products in natural climatic conditions. To conduct the experiment for study of coefficient of radionuclides' accumulation by agricultural corps, there was chosen a land spot at the STS territory, characterized by high concentration of radionuclides: {sup 241}Am - n*10{sup 4} Bq/kg, {sup 137}Cs - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg, {sup 90}Sr - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg and {sup 239+240}Pu- n*10{sup 5} Bq/kg. As objects of investigation, cultures, cultivated in Kazakhstan have been selected: wheat (Triticum vulgare), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa L.), water melon (Citrullus vulgaris), melon (Cucumis melo), potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus cultus), onion (Allium cepa), carrot (Daucus carota), parsley(Petroselinum vulgare)and cabbage (Brassica oleracea). Investigated plants have been planted within the time limits, recommended for selected types of agricultural plants. Cropping system included simple agronomic and amelioration measures. Fertilizers were not

  17. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winteringham, F P.W. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture

    1980-03-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation.

  18. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

  19. Controlled Environmental Agriculture and Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris [Morrisville State College, NY (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Task A: Heating Plant - To design/build a Heating Plant Building with associated heating components for heating the greenhouse and to house the biomass gasification system. The subtasks for this task was and Engineering Design, Procurement and Construction activities. Overall milestones for this task were one construction permit, a code review and stamped drawings, engineered building vendor supplied sealed drawings, and the actual erection of a 1250 sq.ft. building. Task B: Heating System - The activities for this task included the procurement of the heating boilers and all ancillary components. This also included the installation of all heating system components in the new building plus the existing greenhouse structure. The milestone for this task was for the ability to heat 2500 gallons of water to 80 degrees F. Task C: Organic Matter Automated Hopper - The activities involved in this task involved design/fabrication of an automated hopper to feed the biomass gasification system. We need to procure materials and the automated motion components, have the system installed and factory acceptance test of the system. The milestone is to be able to feed wood chips at a rate of 20 Kg/Hr. Task D: Imbert Gasification System - The activities involved in this include the design/build of the gasifier with all accompany ductwork, cyclones and feeding system. Also there is a modification to the scrubber assembly with an automated ash removal system. Lastly a modification to the exhaust/flair system is made to capture heat from this component. Milestone for this task was to be able to produce 15 CFM of SynGas. Task E: Generator Powered by SynGas - Procure two 20kW 4 pole generator heads for installation on the gasifier system. Modification of the fuel plenum manifold with adjustment to the fuel curves for maximum power and load points. Milestone for this task is the ability to run two fuels, either SynGas or propane. This continues with the following tasks: Controls Heating

  20. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A state-of-the-art survey of current research is presented in the form of a series of short articles which includes X-ray dosimetry intercomparison (EULEP), testing of lyoluminescent materials for the 25-krad to 2.5-Mrad dose range, behaviour of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in soils and plants (also fallout), plant nutrition in relation to soils, Experimental Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System tests, nitrogen fixation, gene mutations and chromosome manipulation in both legumes and ornamental plants, incompatibility studies, radiation mutagenesis, crop protection by genetic control of insects, food sterilization and preservation by irradiation, and waste irradiation. An outline is given of the research plans for the coming four years and the international cooperation involved. A survey of the outward services, lectures, publications and conference participation is presented at the end. (Auth.)

  1. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    The Annual report 1974 of the Association EURATOM-ITAL describes the results obtained in 1974 in the following sections: Radiation effects; Genetic studies; Soil-plants studies; Methodology; Practical applications, services, courses. The radiation effects studies are concerned with: primary radiation effects, mutation breeding, preservation of food by means of radiation, radiation genetics of insect pests. In the soil-plant studies, the following topics are dealt with: uptake of specific elements by plants, behavior of specific elements in the soil and water environment, heavy metals in plants and soils. The methodology part of the programme is concerned with: methodology related to dosimetric, other physical and instrumental studies; methodology related to studies on biological material; methodology related to soil-studies. Practical applications, services, courses include: mutation breeding of economically important crops, food preservation by irradiation, services to other institutions mainly in the Netherlands, courses, newsletters. The report also lists publications issued and not yet issued

  2. Estimation of energy potential of agricultural enterprise biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lypchuk Vasyl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergetics (obtaining of energy from biomass is one of innovative directions in energy branch of Ukraine. Correct and reliable estimation of biomass potential is essential for efficient use of it. The article reveals the issue of estimation of potential of biomass, obtained from byproducts of crop production and animal breeding, which can be used for power supply of agricultural enterprises. The given analysis was carried with application of common methodological fundamentals, revealed in the estimation of production structure of agricultural enterprises, structure of land employment, efficiency of crops growing, indicators of output of main and by-products, as well as normative (standard parameters of power output of energy raw material in relation to the chosen technology of its utilization. Results of the research prove high energy potential of byproducts of crop production and animal breeding at all of the studied enterprises, which should force its practical use.

  3. Agriculture and Energy 2030. How will farming adapt to future energy challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portet, Fabienne; Herault, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    Energy is a major element in the competitiveness and sustainability of the French farming sector. It stands at the heart of a new model for productive and ecologically responsible agriculture. In this regard, it has been a central focus for various programmes and action plans conducted by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries: among others, the Energy Performance Plan (PPE) launched in 2009. The Agriculture and Energy 2030 exercise is part of this process and is directed at highlighting opportunities and risks for the agricultural sector where energy is concerned over the next twenty years. The present note describes the main links between agricultural activities and energy-related issues, in addition to the approach to strategic foresight that has been adopted. Strategic foresight is neither totally scientific nor pure imagination; it starts out from past and present facts in order to anticipate probable futures and prepare the way for decisions capable of facilitating or preventing the advent of those futures. (authors)

  4. Agricultural programs for energy: High margin coproducts strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villet, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The research program bias is toward crop production, the historical focus of agricultural research. There is, however, an existing realization that, in order to maintain and strengthen the competitiveness of the United States in global agriculture, new uses must be found, developed, and commercialized for raw bulk agricultural commodities such as maize (corn), soybeans, and wheat. Biofuels such as ethanol from cornstarch, and biodiesel from soybean oil are being promoted strongly as a way of utilizing agricultural commodities more profitably to the farmer. Over the years, ARS has maintained a bioenergy program which has had fluctuating support, and thus a variation in dimensions. At present, there is strong political and departmental backing; in fact there is a fruitful collaboration being developed between the USDA and the U.S. Department of Energy through a Memorandum of Understanding. Ethanol from starch and other less tractable forms of biomass have been subjected to a barrage of economic evaluations, not exactly overoptimistic. In these studies, the large contribution by feedstock cost to the overall cost of production is pointed out. This has led to research programs on biomass production and also attempts at lowering costs of ethanol production by improved pretreatment, conversion, and product recovery. Progress toward lowering production costs has been undeniable, but slow

  5. Biomass energy production in agriculture: A weighted goal programming analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarin, A.; Vecchiato, D.; Tempesta, T.; Marangon, F.; Troiano, S.

    2011-01-01

    Energy production from biomasses can be an important resource that, when combined with other green energies such as wind power and solar plants, can contribute to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. A multi-period Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied to identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production under three concurrent constraints: water, labour and soil availability. Alternative scenarios are considered that take into account the effect of climate change and social change. The MpWGP model was tested with data from the Rovigo county area (Italy) over a 15-year time period. Our findings show that trade-off exists between the two optimisation targets considered. Although the optimisation of the first target requires traditional agricultural crops, which are characterised by high revenue and a low production of biomass energy, the latter would be achievable with intensive wood production, namely, high-energy production and low income. Our results also show the importance of the constraints imposed, particularly water availability; water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production. - Research Highlights: → The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. → A multi-period (15-year) Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied. → We identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production. → Three concurrent constraints have been considered: water, labour and soil availability.→ Water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production.

  6. Information about the CENA: Agriculture Nuclear Energy Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The purposes of the CENA-Brazil is described in this paper such as to develop and absorb techniques and nuclear methods of research interest and agricultural applications; to spread the methods and techniques through the courses, scientific exchange and publications; to develop in permanent character, researches, studies and works of nuclear energy application in agricultural problems and transfer the technology to the public; cooperation programs with the others units and USP-Sao Paulo University in graduation and post-graduation courses. (L.M.J.)

  7. Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks for Precision Agriculture: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Haider Mahmood; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Gharghan, Sadik Kamel; Jawad, Aqeel Mahmood; Ismail, Mahamod

    2017-08-03

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be used in agriculture to provide farmers with a large amount of information. Precision agriculture (PA) is a management strategy that employs information technology to improve quality and production. Utilizing wireless sensor technologies and management tools can lead to a highly effective, green agriculture. Based on PA management, the same routine to a crop regardless of site environments can be avoided. From several perspectives, field management can improve PA, including the provision of adequate nutrients for crops and the wastage of pesticides for the effective control of weeds, pests, and diseases. This review outlines the recent applications of WSNs in agriculture research as well as classifies and compares various wireless communication protocols, the taxonomy of energy-efficient and energy harvesting techniques for WSNs that can be used in agricultural monitoring systems, and comparison between early research works on agriculture-based WSNs. The challenges and limitations of WSNs in the agricultural domain are explored, and several power reduction and agricultural management techniques for long-term monitoring are highlighted. These approaches may also increase the number of opportunities for processing Internet of Things (IoT) data.

  8. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  9. Energy policy turnaround and agriculture. Proceedings; Energiewende und Landwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendl, Georg (ed.)

    2012-11-15

    Within the land-technical annual meeting at 22nd November, 2012 in the training centre of the Banz monastery (Bad Staffelstein, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Opportunities and potentials of renewable energies in Bavaria (Rupert Schaefer); (2) Consumption of electricity and energy efficiency in agricultural operation (Stefan Neser); (3) Short-rotation plantations - Processes, efficiency and ecologic balance (Frank Burger); (4) Bavarian pilot plants for the production of biogas - Results from five years of monitoring (Mathias Effenberger); (5) Farm biomass conversion plants up to 75 kW - Opportunities and limits (Andreas Weber); (6) Photovoltaic power plants and wind power plants in the Bavarian agriculture - Where is it all going? (Johannes Graf); (7) Wind energy - Regional value creation by an area model and citizen's participation using an example in Creussen (district Bayreuth) (Harald Mild); (8) Regional power connecting using Hollfeld as an example (Markus Pirkelmann).

  10. Energy for agriculture: a computerized information retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, B A; Myers, C A [comp.

    1979-12-01

    This bibliography contains 2613 citations to the literature for 1973 through May 1979. Some of the subjects covered include: accounting, agriculture, animal production, conservation, drying, fertilizer, food processing, greenhouses, home, international, irrigation, organic, solar, storage, tillage, and wind. Author and keyword indexes are included. (MHR)

  11. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm

  12. Review of energy use in New Zealand agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D J; McChesney, I G

    1979-01-01

    New Zealand's agricultural system shows a net return of energy at the farm gate, but the ratio of food energy returned to auxiliary energy invested is so small that there is a need to be seriously concerned on two counts. First, the rest of the food production system, comprising processing, distribution and preparation, consumes sufficient additional energy that the overall energy ratio is less than 1:1. Counter to the trend towards increased energy consumption in agriculture will be those savings that may result from the development of animal breeds, crop varieties, and cultural practices that make more efficient use of the solar and auxiliary energy inputs. In all production systems involving the harvesting of biological materials, several critical parameters (energy ratio, energy intensity, energy productivity, and net energy yield) describe energy use. The consideration of these parameters along with socio-economic criteria should be incorporated into planning for the future development of such production systems. The changes which would most favorably alter the food-production system as a whole, i.e., alteration of diet, changes in product mix in favor of grains and pulses, and increased emphasis on genetic research, are unfortunately those least likely to receive attention. Dietary patterns change only slowly, farmers are reluctant to modify traditional methods of farming and to grow new crops, and the development of new breeds of animals and varieties of crops is time-consuming and costly. Nevertheless, such changes will have to be made if the food-production system is to adapt effectively to the challenges ahead.

  13. Sustainability Assessment of the Agricultural and Energy Systems of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrke Gaudreau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve decision-making, sustainability-based approaches to assessment of options and undertakings demand that we move beyond narrowly defined considerations to address the full suite of requirements for progress towards sustainability. This paper reports on a sustainability assessment exercise that originally focused on burning agricultural residues, primarily peanut shells, for cooking applications in Senegal. The scope of assessment had to be expanded to address the agricultural and energy systems of Senegal, when closer examination revealed a complex set of energy and agricultural system interactions that could undermine the anticipated positive effects of initiatives centred primarily on peanut residue cookstoves. The case highlights the need to be open to expanding the scope of assessment to address underlying and/or unexpected issues that cannot be addressed appropriately at the project scale. In particular, the case illustrates how the assessment of an energy system may serve as an entry point into a deeper exploration of the context in which the energy system is embedded. The analysis also illustrates a situation in which different paths that may be followed, each with its own degree of uncertainty, path dependence, feasibility, fairness, cultural sensitivity, trade-off acceptability and possibilities for public judgement of overall desirability.

  14. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  15. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reductions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Hermansen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: → GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. → Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. → Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. → A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. → Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO 2 reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  16. Agrification: Agriculture for the industry and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new aspect of agrification is the production of alternative products, which can replace fossil sources. This substitution is necessary in order to replace hazardous materials and to find a solution for the problem of depletion of conventional energy sources and basic materials. Attention is paid to some developments in Germany: agricultural products for the production of energy, and new industrial applications for vegetable filaments. With regard to energy production from agricultrual products one should distinguish between (a) solid energy sources (biomass), f.e. straw, fast-growing wood, elephant's grass, hay and rapeseed, and (b) fluid and gaseous energy sources, f.e. purified and partly refined rapeseed oil, rapeseed oil methyl-ester (RME), ethanol from sugar beet, methanol from straw and hydrogen from straw and/or elephant's grass. 4 figs., 7 refs

  17. Conflicts on Use of Agricultural Biomass for Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Christensen, Bent T.

    1997-01-01

    The use of biomass for energy puposes may conflict with the need to maintain soil quality of arable fields. Concerned ecological farmers claim that crop residues and animal manure should all be returned to the fields with as small a loss in carbon and nutrients content as possible. If a large part...... of Danish agriculture is tranformed into ecological farming, some complicated ecological, technical and systems problems will have to be solved....

  18. Wind energy in the agricultural sector. Tailwind or head wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Knijff, A.

    1999-06-01

    The state of the art in the use of wind energy in the agricultural sector in the Netherlands is given in order to map opportunities. Obstacles to expansion of wind capacity in that sector in the short term are described, as well as the most important developments with respect to wind energy. An estimated 275 wind turbines with a capacity of 50 MW are in use in the Netherlands. This means that the agricultural sector accounts for approximately 14% of the total wind capacity in the Netherlands (363 MW in 1998). Most of the agricultural businesses supply all the electricity generated to the public networks. Only a small number of farmers use some of the generated electricity themselves. The most important obstacles for the agrarian sector are the proposed policies of provinces and municipalities, the limited capacity of the public electricity network, and the lack of clarity regarding the liberalisation of the electricity market. In particular, provincial and municipal policies (solitary wind turbines versus wind farms) will determine the prospects for the future of wind energy in the agrarian sector. Despite possible adversities, there are good prospects for the future for the sector because farmers own land in windy locations. 33 refs

  19. Biogas production from energy crops and agriculture residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.

    2010-12-15

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential in term of ml CH4 produced per g of VS-added and (b) the amount of methane produced per m3 of reactor volume. (Author)

  20. Hierarchical Energy Management of Microgrids including Storage and Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songli Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage (BES and demand response (DR are considered to be promising technologies to cope with the uncertainty of renewable energy sources (RES and the load in the microgrid (MG. Considering the distinct prediction accuracies of the RES and load at different timescales, it is essential to incorporate the multi-timescale characteristics of BES and DR in MG energy management. Under this background, a hierarchical energy management framework is put forward for an MG including multi-timescale BES and DR to optimize operation with the uncertainty of RES as well as load. This framework comprises three stages of scheduling: day-ahead scheduling (DAS, hour-ahead scheduling (HAS, and real-time scheduling (RTS. In DAS, a scenario-based stochastic optimization model is established to minimize the expected operating cost of MG, while ensuring its safe operation. The HAS is utilized to bridge DAS and RTS. In RTS, a control strategy is proposed to eliminate the imbalanced power owing to the fluctuations of RES and load. Then, a decomposition-based algorithm is adopted to settle the models in DAS and HAS. Simulation results on a seven-bus MG validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  1. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  2. Agriculture, exportation and energy: a brazilian situation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, S.M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article aims at verifying if according to the point of view of Final Energy Consumption in the agricultural sector, the Brazilian exports were beneficial to the country or not. Stimulated by a series of incentives it has been made a great effort with the purpose of mainly exporting primary products, and this effort may have been in conflict with the ever increasing indirect costs. And, it is in this point that there is the doubt as to the validity of energy consumption in the sector. (author)

  3. EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alluvione, Francesco; Moretti, Barbara; Sacco, Dario; Grignani, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency of agriculture needs improvement to reduce the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. We estimated the energy flows of a wheat-maize-soybean-maize rotation of three different cropping systems: (i) low-input integrated farming (LI), (ii) integrated farming following European Regulations (IFS), and (iii) conventional farming (CONV). Balancing N fertilization with actual crop requirements and adopting minimum tillage proved the most efficient techniques to reduce energy inputs, contributing 64.7% and 11.2% respectively to the total reduction. Large differences among crops in energy efficiency (maize: 2.2 MJ kg -1 grain; wheat: 2.6 MJ kg -1 grain; soybean: 4.1 MJ kg -1 grain) suggest that crop rotation and crop management can be equally important in determining cropping system energy efficiency. Integrated farming techniques improved energy efficiency by reducing energy inputs without affecting energy outputs. Compared with CONV, energy use efficiency increased 31.4% and 32.7% in IFS and LI, respectively, while obtaining similar net energy values. Including SOM evolution in the energy analysis greatly enhanced the energy performance of IFS and, even more dramatically, LI compared to CONV. Improved energy efficiency suggests the adoption of alternative farming systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. However, a thorough evaluation should include net global warming potential assessment. -- Highlights: → We evaluated the energy flows of integrated as alternative to conventional Farming. → Energy flows, soil organic matter evolution included, were analyzed following process analysis. → Energy flows were compared using indicators. → Integrated farming improved energy efficiency without affecting net energy. → Inclusion of soil organic matter in energy analysis accrue environmental evaluation.

  4. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Food And Agriculture during the period 1980-1994. The major subjects covered include: food irradiation, insect and pest control, mutation plant breeding, plant biotechnology, soil fertility and irrigation, agrochemicals animal production and health

  5. Fuel and power resources based on energy-saving technologies and technical means in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tikhomirov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The state and efficiency of the use of the energy supply systems in agriculture were analyzed. It is demonstrated that grids and power equipment deterioration exceeds 30 percent, and fuel volume-efficiency ratio is not more than 35 percent in this sector. A considerable part of the country territory (mainly the northern one does not have centralized power supply. Decentralized cogeneration systems with extensive use of renewable energy sources and local energy recourses are highly efficient for this part. A necessity of development of methodology and recommendations for the selection of efficient systems and technical means of power supply to agricultural enterprises was substantiated with due consideration of their location, load intensity and distance from centralized grids. The most important indication of energy efficiency is energy intensity of products and energy inputs share in the production cost. Reserves for energy saving including the development of energy-efficient technologies and technical means, some of which have already been developed (equipment for lighting, microclimate, primary treatment and storage of products, disinfection or are at the completion stage were presented. Their implementation in agricultural production will make it possible to raise considerably the efficiency of the use of fuel and power resources and to reduce energy consumption. The conditions in which the use of decentralized power supply systems is most efficient were educed. The characteristics of related equipment and the specifics of its use at agricultural enterprises are described. The proposal and priority actions for the development and upgrading of power supply systems for agriculture have been elaborated.

  6. Energy Profiles of an Agricultural Frontier: The American Great Plains, 1860-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunfer, Geoff; Watson, Andrew; MacFadyen, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    Agro-ecosystem energy profiles reveal energy flows into, within, and out of U.S. Great Plains farm communities across 140 years. This study evaluates external energy inputs such as human labor, machinery, fuel, and fertilizers. It tracks the energy content of land produce, including crops, grazed pasture, and firewood, and also accounts unharvested energy that remains available for wildlife. It estimates energy redirected through livestock feed into draft power, meat, and milk, and estimates the energy content of final produce available for local consumption or market sale. The article presents energy profiles for three case studies in Kansas in 1880, 1930, 1954, and 1997. Two energy transformations occurred during that time. The first, agricultural colonization , saw farm communities remake the landscape, turning native grassland into a mosaic of cropland and pasture, a process that reduced overall landscape energy productivity. A second energy transition occurred in the mid-twentieth century, characterized by fossil fuel energy imports. That outside energy raised harvested and unharvested energy flows, reused biomass energy, and also final produce. This socio-ecological transition increased landscape energy productivity by 33 to 45 percent above pre-settlement conditions in grain-growing regions. These energy developments were not uniform across the plains. Variations in rainfall and soil quality constrained or favored energy productivity in different places. The case studies reveal the spatial variation of energy profiles in Great Plains agro-ecosystems, while the longitudinal approach tracks temporal change.

  7. Study of energy consumption in agriculture. An project commissioned by the Board of Agriculture; Kartlaeggning av jordbrukets energianvaendning. Ett projekt utfoert paa uppdrag av Jordbruksverket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Sundberg, Martin; Brown, Nils

    2010-07-01

    JTI has, on behalf of the Swedish Board of Agriculture, conducted a study on energy consumption in agriculture. The study also proposes measures to reduce the energy use and includes an outlook towards the future of the Swedish agricultural development. The study is limited to the use of fuel and electricity used for field-work and in farm work and energy for heating. Energy for heating of residential buildings and drying is not included in the mandate. The Swedish agricultural uses about 3.11 TWh of energy in the form of gas, electricity, oil and biofuels, not including drying and greenhouses. In addition, approx. 3.64 TWh of energy are consumed indirectly, 2.31 TWh of which from fertilizer use. The Swedish agriculture is moving towards fewer but larger farms. The number of enterprises has decreased from 26000 in year 2005 to 21700 in 2009. Increased energy production, both as a supplier of raw materials and recipients of products means that energy use is affected. In the future energy use will probably be affected by an increase in farm-based production of energy, primarily biogas for cogeneration. The variations in estimates of energy use are large, and agriculture's total energy use can vary between 1.64 TWh to 4.04 TWh, depending on the data sets used. Since the use of diesel dominate over the use of electricity, it is interesting to focus on reducing diesel consumption. Field work and harvest are the activities where the largest consumption of diesel is made. Measures can be taken are primarily farmers are running in a more energy efficient way. Other measures are: Reduced tillage; Replacing transport with tractor-trailer by truck; Transport of manure with other equipment than their own spreader; Livestock use of energy is primarily electricity for lighting, ventilation, distribution, cleaning, feeding, etc. The largest variations in energy use are associated with animal husbandry. It is difficult to generally comment on actions in order to reduce energy

  8. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  9. Integrated food–energy systems for climate-smart agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanski Anne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food production needs to increase by 70%, mostly through yield increases, to feed the world in 2050. Increases in productivity achieved in the past are attributed in part to the significant use of fossil fuels. Energy use in agriculture is therefore also expected to rise in the future, further contributing to greenhouse emissions. At the same time, more than two-fifths of the world’s population still depends on unsustainably harvested wood energy for cooking and heating. Both types of energy use have detrimental impacts on the climate and natural resources. Continuing on this path is not an option as it will put additional pressure on the already stressed natural resource base and local livelihoods, while climate change is further reducing the resilience of agro-ecosystems and smallholder farmers. Ecosystem approaches that combine both food and energy production, such as agroforestry or integrated crop–livestock–biogas systems, could substantially mitigate these risks while providing both food and energy to rural and urban populations. Information and understanding on how to change course through the implementation of the practices outlined in this paper are urgently needed. Yet the scientific basis of such integrated systems, which is essential to inform decision-makers and to secure policy support, is still relatively scarce. The author therefore argues that new assessment methodologies based on a systems-oriented analysis are needed for analyzing these complex, multidisciplinary and large-scale phenomena.

  10. Energy Optimized Envelope for Cold Climate Indoor Agricultural Growing Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hachem-Vermette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the development of building envelope design for improved energy performance of a controlled indoor agricultural growing center in a cold climate zone (Canada, 54° N. A parametric study is applied to analyze the effects of envelope parameters on the building energy loads for heating, cooling and lighting, required for maintaining growing requirement as obtained in the literature. A base case building of rectangular layout, incorporating conventionally applied insulation and glazing components, is initially analyzed, employing the EnergyPlus simulation program. Insulation and glazing parameters are then modified to minimize energy loads under assumed minimal lighting requirement. This enhanced design forms a base case for analyzing effects of additional design parameters—solar radiation control, air infiltration rate, sky-lighting and the addition of phase change materials—to obtain an enhanced design that minimizes energy loads. A second stage of the investigation applies a high lighting level to the enhanced design and modifies the design parameters to improve performance. A final part of the study is an investigation of the mechanical systems and renewable energy generation. Through the enhancement of building envelope components and day-lighting design, combined heating and cooling load of the low level lighting configuration is reduced by 65% and lighting load by 10%, relative to the base case design. Employing building integrated PV (BIPV system, this optimized model can achieve energy positive status. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC, are discussed, as potential means to offset increased energy consumption associated with the high-level lighting model.

  11. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  12. The greenhouse effect - conclusions for agricultural-, energy- and tax policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultkrantz, L.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility to use forests as carbon sinks to reduce the greenhouse effect is discussed in this report. In the medium time perspective (30-50 years), reforestation in order to create new carbon sinks will give extra time for the transition from fossil fuels. Furthermore, the reforestation may be valuable as future fuel. Sweden has good possibilities for assisting developing countries in a reforestation effort. Swedish wood reserves will probably have to be used extensively for heat and power production during the same period, due to the planned phasing out of nuclear power. Economic and climatic arguments for subsidizing short rotation energy crops on agricultural land are discussed and, largely, refuted. 51 refs

  13. Survey of Public Understanding on Energy Resources including Nuclear Energy (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se-Moon; Song, Sun-Ja

    2007-01-01

    Women in Nuclear-Korea (WINK) surveyed the public understanding on various energy resources in early September 2006 to offer the result for establishment of the nuclear communication policy. The reason why this survey includes other energy resources is because the previous works are only limited on nuclear energy, and also aimed to know the public's opinion on the present communication skill of nuclear energy for the public understanding. The present study is purposed of having data how public understands nuclear energy compared to other energies, such as fossil fuels, hydro power, and other sustainable energies. The data obtained from this survey have shown different results according to the responded group; age, gender, residential area, etc. Responded numbers are more than 2,000 of general public and university students. The survey result shows that nuclear understanding is more negative in women than in men, and is more negative in young than older age

  14. Track structure for low energy ions including charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Nikjoo, H.

    2002-01-01

    The model and development is described of a new generation of Monte Carlo track structure codes. The code LEAHIST simulates full slowing down of low-energy proton history tracks in the range 1 keV-1 MeV and the code LEAHIST simulates low-energy alpha particle history tracks in the range 1 keV-8 MeV in water. All primary ion interactions are followed down to 1 keV and all electrons to 1 eV. Tracks of secondary electrons ejected by ions were traced using the electron code KURBUC. Microdosimetric parameters derived by analysis of generated tracks are presented. (author)

  15. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  16. Analyzing Agricultural Sustainability Indicators,Under Energy Subsidy Reduction Policy(Case Study of Qorveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balali

    2016-03-01

    region, situated in the West of Iran. Materials and Methods: The statistical sample of this research includes all irrigated land of Qorveh as the studied area. A partial equilibrium model has been applied by mathematic programming approach in order to analyze the economic and environmental effects of reduction of energy subsidies for the agriculture sector in the studied area. For this purpose, through a survey, questionnaires were used in order to identify production coefficients of agriculture products and farmers' behavior during 2012-2013. Then relevant equations were used in mathematical programming framework with the aim of maximizing gross margin of agriculture activities in planning horizon by using GAMS 22.9. Results and Discussion: The results showed that by increasing energy price in policy scenarios of ES1 to ES7 the gross margin of agriculture activities decreases. Also, the results indicate that by implementation of scenarios SE1 and SE2, most economical and environmental indicators of agricultural sustainability will be improved and increasing energy prices as the mentioned policy scenarios has the most effect on GM_ELEC , GM_GAS, and NIT_H indicators and reduces them by 10.7%, 0.97% and 1.48%, respectively. In scenarios ES3 to ES5 with respect to scenarios ES1 and ES2, there is only 7% decrease in the NIT_H index. In scenario ES6, which grows electricity cost by 2.25 times and diesel fuel cost by 1.98 times, GM_ELEC, and GM_WA have the maximum decrease, namely 12.66% and 14.47%, respectively and WA_H has reached 9010 which shows an increase of 6.47%. In scenario ES7, with the exception of WA_H, GM_ELEC and GM_GAS other indicators decreased and this shows that the closer we keep to real energy prices, the more improvement we observe in the environmental indicators. Conclusions: Consequently, results showed that the reduction of energy subsidies leads to reductions in economic indicators of the study area, as total gross margins. Also, the results showed

  17. Biomass Residues from Agriculture and Potential Contribution towards Modern Energy Supply in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Access to modern energy services especially in developing countries is an urgent issue. Globally, 1.3 billion people do not have access to modern energy and the services associated with it. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions have profound lack of modern energy access. The objective of this ......Access to modern energy services especially in developing countries is an urgent issue. Globally, 1.3 billion people do not have access to modern energy and the services associated with it. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions have profound lack of modern energy access. The objective...... of this paper is to understand the role that residues obtained from agricultural practices could be utilised in providing electricity for use in West African countries. Selected countries include: Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo. The study utilized methods developed by Mendu et. al. 2012, Mabeeet. al. 2010...

  18. Energy secretary's priorities include San Francisco area research projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Widener, A

    2003-01-01

    "Bay Area research labs got a big boost Monday when the Secretary of Energy unveiled his priorities for major research projects his agency hopes to fund over the next two decades. Among the agency's 28 top priorities are a major computer expansion and an experiment examining the expanding universe that could be housed at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and a powerful X-ray laser planned for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center" (1 page).

  19. Agricultural and forestry residues for decentralized energy generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missagia, Bruna

    2011-10-11

    Regular electricity access is a key element for the economic development and social welfare of rural areas. Decentralized energy generation has the advantage of using local resources, increasing employment and reducing transmission and distribution losses. Brazil is a tropical country, endowed with vast arable land, plentiful precipitation levels, and a large supply of human labour. Furthermore, it has strong regional distinctions with geographical, cultural and economical differences. Forestry and agriculture, important activities in the Brazilian economy, are dependent on local people and are deeply connected to traditions, nature and culture. Furthermore, these activities generate a significant amount of residues that could be used in conversion technologies for biomass, based on type, availability and market demand. When biomass were used to generate energy locally, community members could have business opportunities, improving local economy and life quality of individuals while diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix, which is mostly based on hydropower. Alternatives for implementing small-scale decentralized biomass schemes are dependent on the screening of the existing biomass supply chains, the implementation of adapted technologies for local conditions and the exploration of local resources. The present research carried out a detailed field work in order to evaluate the potential of Brazilian biomass in different regions. The author identified crucial needs, usual constraints and possible challenges of rural electrification and economic development in Brazil. Several case studies and social groups were investigated in the Federal States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Para to identify different resource management strategies, which biomass technology was applied and the needs of the local population. It was concluded that the compaction of biomass to generate solid biofuels with uniform properties could be a cost-effective alternative for communities

  20. Save production: a bottom-up energy model for Dutch industry and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.W.; Dril, A.W.N. van

    2007-01-01

    A new version of the model Save production simulates the development of energy use in the Dutch industry and agriculture, including combined heat and power generation. The model disaggregates national energy consumption into fuel types, industrial sectors, energy functions and energy technologies. Simulation is based on microeconomic investment behavior. Examples of model application show results on the penetration of combined heat and power in relation to policy instruments such as CO 2 prices, electricity price support and investment subsidies. Policies that discriminate on CO 2 emissions result in a slightly more efficient heat and power generation. Tailored to the Dutch situation, Save production is well equipped to generate outlooks for the Dutch industrial and agricultural energy use, and for analyzing the role of policies in detail. Its main strength lies in the middle term simulation of decision-making on energy saving technologies and analysis of policy effects. Specific precautions are required when the model is used for analysis on the longer-term, for simulating extreme policies or for the analysis of extremely fluctuating energy prices. (author)

  1. Energy prices and agricultural commodity prices: Testing correlation using copulas method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koirala, Krishna H.; Mishra, Ashok K.; D'Antoni, Jeremy M.; Mehlhorn, Joey E.

    2015-01-01

    The linear relationships between energy prices and prices for agricultural commodities such as corn and soybeans may have been affected, over the last several years, by policy legislations in the farm sector, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and the Renewable Fuel Standard Program for 2014. Using high-frequency data and newer methodology, this study investigates dependence between agricultural commodity futures prices and energy futures prices. Results reveal that agricultural commodity and energy future prices are highly correlated and exhibit positive and significant relationship. Findings from this study highlight that an increase in energy price increases the price of agricultural commodities. - Highlights: • Energy policy mandates production of 15 billion gallons of corn ethanol by 2015. • Energy-intensive agriculture has a link between energy sector and crop production costs. • We investigate correlation between energy prices and agricultural commodity prices. • Agricultural commodity and energy future prices are highly correlated. • Increase in energy price increases the price of agricultural commodity

  2. Ab initio calculation of molecular energies including parity violating interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakasov, A.; Ha Taekyu; Quack, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new approach, RHF-CIS, based on the perturbation of the ground state RHF wave function by the CIS excitations, has been implemented for evaluation of energy of parity violating interaction in molecules, E pv . The earlier approach, RHF-SDE, was based on the perturbation of the RHF ground states by the single-determinant ''excitations'' (SDE). The results obtained show the dramatic difference between E pv values in the RHF-CIS framework and those in the RHF-SDE framework: the E pv values of the RHF-CIS formalism are more than one order of magnitude greater compared to the RHF-SDE formalism as well as the corresponding tensor components. The maximal total value obtained for hydrogen peroxide in the RHF-CIS framework is 3.661 X 10 -19 E H (DZ ** basis set) while the maximal E pv value for the RHF-SDE formalism is just 3.635 X 10 -20 E H (TZ basis set). It is remarkable that both in the RFH-CIS and in the RHF-SDE approaches the diagonal tensor components of E pv strictly follow the geometry of a molecule and are always different from zero at chiral conformations. The zeros of the total E pv at chiral geometries are now found to be the results of the interplay between the diagonal tensor components values. We have carried out exhaustive analysis of the RHF-SDE formalism and found that it is not sufficiently accurate for studies of E pv . To this end, we have completely reproduced the previous work, which has been done in the RHF-SDE frame-work, and developed it further, studying how the RHF-SDE results vary when changing size and quality of basis sets. This last resource does not save the RHF-SDE formalism for evaluations of E pv from the general failure. Packages of FORTRAN routines called ENWEAK/RHFSDE-93 and ENWEAK/RHFCIS-94 have been developed which run on top of an ab initio MO package. We used 6-31G and 6-31G**, DZ and DZ**, TZ and TZ**, and (10s, 6p,**) basis sets. We will discuss the importance of the present results for possible measurement of the parity

  3. Agriculture expansion, wood energy and woody encroachment in the Miombo woodlands: striving towards sustainability in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural expansion is mostly done at the expense of forests and woodlands in the tropics. In Sub-Saharan Africa, forests are also critical as providers of wood energy for domestic consumption with a clear majority of households depending on firewood and charcoal as primary source of energy. Using Zambia as a case study, we look at the link between agricultural expansion, wood energy and the sustainability of forest resources. Zambia has been identified as having one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world, but there is large uncertainty in these estimates. The government of Zambia has identified charcoal production as one of the main of drivers of forest cover loss and is targeting this practice in their national strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Other assessment however indicate that agricultural expansion is by far the main driver of deforestation and charcoal production is sustainable in Zambia. These competing evaluations call for a better understanding of the drivers of change. Using two national-scale vegetation surveys and remote sensing data, we compare and validate historical forest cover loss estimates to improve their accuracy. We attribute the change and their associated emissions to specific drivers of deforestation. The ecological properties of areas under change are compared to stable areas over time. Our results from national permanent plots indicate a woody encroachment process in Zambia, a potential ecological response to rising CO2 levels. We found that despite large emissions from deforestation, forests and woodlands have been acting as a carbon sink. This research addresses directly the potential feedbacks and responses to competing demands on forests coming from different sectors, including for agriculture and energy, to set the baseline on which to evaluate forest sustainability now and in the future given potentially new ecological conditions. It provides policy relevant

  4. The availability of biomass for energy in the agricultural industry; De beschikbaarheid van biomassa voor energie in de Agro-industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbersen, W. [Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research, Wageningen (Netherlands); Janssens, B. [Wageningen UR LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Koppejan, J. [Procede Biomass, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    The Dutch Agricultural Covenant included a target for sustainable energy of 200 PJ. The agricultural industry is expected to contribute 75 to 125 PJ (bio-energy). The sector is wondering whether this target is realistic. The aim of this project was to map the quality and quantity of residual flows in the agricultural industry that exist and are available or are already deployed for bio-energy (in the Netherlands), both today and in 2020. [Dutch] In het Agroconvenant is een doelstelling opgenomen voor duurzame energie van 200 PJ. Van de agro-industrie wordt een bijdrage van 75 tot 125 PJ (bio-energie) verwacht. De sector vraagt zich af of deze doelstelling wel realistisch is. Het doel van dit project was het in kaart brengen van de kwaliteit en kwantiteit van reststromen uit de agro-industrie die aanwezig of beschikbaar zijn of reeds (in Nederland) ingezet worden voor bio-energie nu en in 2020.

  5. Potential and impacts of renewable energy production from agricultural biomass in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tingting; McConkey, Brian; Huffman, Ted; Smith, Stephen; MacGregor, Bob; Yemshanov, Denys; Kulshreshtha, Suren

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study quantifies the bioenergy production potential in the Canadian agricultural sector. • Two presented scenarios included the mix of market and non-market policy targets and the market-only drivers. • The scenario that used mix of market and policy drivers had the largest impact on the production of bioenergy. • The production of biomass-based ethanol and electricity could cause moderate land use changes up to 0.32 Mha. • Overall, agricultural sector has a considerable potential to generate renewable energy from biomass. - Abstract: Agriculture has the potential to supply considerable amounts of biomass for renewable energy production from dedicated energy crops as well as from crop residues of existing production. Bioenergy production can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by using ethanol and biodiesel to displace petroleum-based fuels and through direct burning of biomass to offset coal use for generating electricity. We used the Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture to estimate the potential for renewable energy production from biomass, the impacts on agricultural production, land use change and greenhouse gas emissions. We explored two scenarios: the first considers a combination of market incentives and policy mandates (crude oil price of $120 bbl −1 ; carbon offset price of $50 Mg −1 CO 2 equivalent and policy targets of a substitution of 20% of gasoline by biomass-based ethanol; 8% of petroleum diesel by biodiesel and 20% of coal-based electricity by direct biomass combustion), and a second scenario considers only carbon offset market incentives priced at $50 Mg −1 CO 2 equivalent. The results show that under the combination of market incentives and policy mandates scenario, the production of biomass-based ethanol and electricity increases considerably and could potentially cause substantial changes in land use practices. Overall, agriculture has considerable potential to

  6. Agrice 1994-2000 - Activity report. Agriculture for chemicals and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of new energy, chemicals and materials markets for agricultural products calls for an ongoing commitment to significant and stable funding for research. Even more importantly, these new markets also necessitate better coordination between the actors across the field, ranging from multidisciplinary research teams and agro-industrial companies to users in the petrochemicals, chemicals and materials sectors, and agricultural production. The need for this coordination is even greater today, in light of the key role that 'non-food' supply chains play in environmental protection: efforts to mitigate the greenhouse effect, reduction of VOC emissions, product safety and biodegradability, rational farming practices, etc. With these ends in mind the scientific interest group AGRICE- Agriculture for Chemicals and Energy- was created in France in 1994 by government bodies and eight partners. Today AGRICE includes the following members: the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), the Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA), the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME), professional organisations in oilseeds (ONIDOL), grains (AGPB) and beets (CGB), AVENTIS, TOTAL FINA ELF, LIMAGRAIN and EDF, the French ministries of Agriculture, Industry, Research, and Environment. AGRICE was founded for a six-year renewable term, and its management entrusted to ADEME. The group has worked to develop significant collaborative efforts across Europe, notably through the European Renewable Resources and Materials Association (ERRMA). AGRICE is due to be renewed with a broader base of partners in 2001. This report presents: 1 - the AGRICE profile, scope of activity (Biofuels vehicles (Ester/Oils, Ethanol/Ether) and non-vehicles (Energy crops, Processes), Biomolecules (Lubricants, Surfactants, Solvents, Other biomolecules), Biomaterials (Biopolymers, Agro-materials)), Financial report 1994

  7. Agriculture and renewable energies: contribution and opportunities for farming exploitation - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Benjamin; Hajjar, Ali; Noirot-Cosson, Paul-Emile; Oudin, Bertrand; Meiffren, Olivia; Khamlich, Ali; Varchavsky, Marc; Lapierre, Aline; Brinon, Alain; Nguyen, Elodie; Mhiri, Tarek; Bonnard, Philippe; Gagnepain, Bruno; Cardona Maestro, Astrid; Berthomieu, Nadine; Theobald, Olivier; Bardinal, Marc; Mousset, Jerome; Thual, Julien; Fautrad, Alice; Bastide, Guillaume; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Dubilly, Anne-Laure; Bellini, Robert; Gerson, Raphael; Mehl, Celine; Mainsant, Armand; Carrere, Tristan; Marchal, David; Duval, Joakim; Huet, Sebastien; Herrera, Joanna; Hascuet, Isabelle; Rousselon, Nicolas; Ollivier, Denis; Lemaignan, Benoit; Jager, Florian; Porcheyre, Edwige; Bealu, Christophe; Denninger, F.; Guggemos, Fabien; Richard, Axel; Duclos, Paul; Flajollet-Millan, Johanna; Roesner, Sven; Begue, Marie; Furois, Timothee; Oriol, Louise; Denoyer, Gerard; Pagnac-Farbiaz, Elisabeth; Guibert, Olivier de; Parisse, Sandrine; Bozonnat, Cedric; Liger, Davy; Molinie, Lea; Jarrige, Leonard; Mery, Yoann; Charrier, Virginie; Ait Amar, Samy

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed at assessing direct and indirect contributions of agriculture to renewable energy production in France from now until 2023, 2030 and 2050. It notably aims at a better knowledge of the economic contribution of renewable energies for the agriculture sector, and of the contribution of this sector to energy transition for the country. Technical, economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of each renewable energy have been studied in order to identify levers and brakes for the development of renewable energies in this sector. A first part proposes methods of assessment and results for the contribution to renewable energy production. The second part reports an economic analysis of the impact of renewable energies on the agriculture sector. The third part evokes the diversity of business models in relationship with exploitation type. The next part reports a prospective study, while the last one reports main lessons already learned through the deployment of renewable energies in agriculture

  8. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO{sub 2} reductions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, T., E-mail: tommy.dalgaard@agrsci.dk [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Gyldenkaerne, S. [Aarhus University, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hermansen, J.E. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: > GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. > Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. > Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. > A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. > Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO{sub 2} reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  9. A regression analysis of the effect of energy use in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkacier, Osman; Gokalp Goktolga, Z.; Cicek, Adnan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of energy use on productivity of Turkey's agriculture. It reports the results of a regression analysis of the relationship between energy use and agricultural productivity. The study is based on the analysis of the yearbook data for the period 1971-2003. Agricultural productivity was specified as a function of its energy consumption (TOE) and gross additions of fixed assets during the year. Least square (LS) was employed to estimate equation parameters. The data of this study comes from the State Institute of Statistics (SIS) and The Ministry of Energy of Turkey

  10. Factors Affecting The Use and Development of Solar Energy in Iran's Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2017-03-01

    Keywords: Agriculture, Renewable Energy, Fossil, Fuel, Sustainability Article History: Received Nov 16th 2016; Received in revised form January 12nd 2017; Accepted 3rd February 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohammadi, M and Yavari, G. (2017 Factors affecting the use and development of solar energy in Iran's agricultural sector. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(1,45-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.45-53

  11. In Pursuit of Energy Efficiency in India's Agriculture: Fighting 'Free Power' or Working with it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Ashwini; Charnoz, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    through a broader approach to the water-energy nexus. This would include massive state investments to improve surface irrigation, groundwater table management, irrigation technologies, agricultural practices (including organic agriculture and crop diversification) as well as India's food procurement policies. The support of the international community, we believe, should be rethought in this light. (authors)

  12. Alternative energy from agriculture: biological conversion and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massantini, F.; Caporali, F.; Masoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    A review on producing methanol and ethanol from agricultural products (sugar beet, sweet sorghum sugar cane, etc.) and biogas from aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes) and algae (Azolla, Chlorella) is given. Anaerobic fermentation of liquid manure and sewage, straw, distillery residues, and other organic wastes is also covered. (Refs. 42).

  13. Solar energy applications in different agricultural and industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Florez, Sergio; Pineda Rios, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Solar thermal technology can offer so much more than just domestic hot water, in this paper it is shown some solar system that can provide process heat for many industrial and agricultural requirements, for example can dry crops, extract potable water from brackish or saline supplies, destroy hazardous contaminants and be used in the manufacture of advanced material

  14. Sustainable energy, environmental and agricultural policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly and heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions have grown along with its energy-consumption. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources.

  15. Renewable energy sources from the agriculture; Erneuerbare Energien aus der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaul, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The sustainable and efficient production of renewable energy from agricultural resources is an active contribution to the climate protection. This is a serious issue for farmers, particularly as the climatic change affects the production of the farmers. The brochure under consideration shows how farmers can not only produce energy efficiently, but also use energy at their own farms. With this, not only an independence from the energy suppliers is achieved, but also the energy supply is supplied.

  16. Energy embodiment in Brazilian agriculture: an overview of 23 crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Soto Veiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount of energy required to produce a commodity or to supply a service varies from one production system to another and consequently giving rise to differing levels of environmental efficiency. Moreover, since energy prices have been continuously increasing over time, this energy amount may be a factor that has economic worth. Biomass production has a variety of end-products such as food, energy, and fiber; thus, taking into account the similarity in end-product of different crops (e.g.: sunflower, peanuts, or soybean for oil it is possible to evaluate which crops require less energy per functional unit, such as starch, oil, and protein. This information can be used in decision-making about policies for food safety or bioenergy. In this study, 23 crops were evaluated allowing for a comparison in terms of energy embodied per functional unit. Crops were grouped as follows: starch, oil, horticultural, perennial and fiber, to provide for a deeper analysis of alternatives for the groups, and subsidize further studies comparing conventional and alternative production systems such as organic or genetically modified organisms, in terms of energy. The best energy balance observed was whole sugarcane (juice, bagasse and straw with a surplus of 268 GJ ha−1 yr−1; palm shows the highest energy return on investment with a ratio of approximately 30:1. For carbohydrates and protein production, cassava and soybean, respectively, emerged as the crops offering the greatest energy savings in the production of these functional foods.

  17. Agriculture and Energy: Implications for Food Security, Water, and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokgoz, S.; Zhang, W.; Msangi, S.; Bhandary, P.

    2011-12-01

    Sustainable production of agricultural commodities and growth of international trade in these goods are challenged as never before by supply-side constraints (such as climate change, water and land scarcity, and environmental degradation) and by demand-side dynamics (volatility in food and energy markets, the strengthening food-energy linkage, population growth, and income growth). On the one hand, the rapidly expanding demand can potentially create new market opportunities for agriculture. On the other hand, there are many threats to a sufficient response by the supply side to meet this growing and changing demand. Agricultural production systems in many countries are neither resource-efficient, nor producing according to their full potential. The stock of natural resources such as land, water, nutrients, energy, and genetic diversity is shrinking relative to demand, and their use must become increasingly efficient in order to reduce environmental impacts and preserve the planet's productive capacity. World energy prices have increased rapidly in recent years. At the same time, agriculture has become more energy-intensive. Higher energy costs have pushed up the cost of producing, transporting and processing agricultural commodities, driving up commodity prices. Higher energy costs have also affected water use and availability through increased costs of water extraction, conveyance and desalinization, higher demand for hydroelectric power, and increased cost of subsidizing water services. In the meantime, the development of biofuels has diverted increasing amounts of agricultural land and water resources to the production of biomass-based renewable energy. This more "intensified" linkage between agriculture and energy comes at a time when there are other pressures on the world's limited resources. The related high food prices, especially those in the developing countries, have led to setbacks in the poverty alleviation effort among the global community with more

  18. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    An instructional aid is provided for home economics teachers who wish to integrate the subject of solar energy into their classroom activities. This teacher's guide was produced along with the student activities book for home economics by the US Department of Energy Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  19. Rising energy prices and the economics of water in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilberman, D.; Sproul, T.; Rajagopal, D.; Sexton, S.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rising energy prices will alter water allocation and distribution. Water extraction and conveyance will become more costly and demand for hydroelectric power will grow. The higher cost of energy will substantially increase the cost of groundwater, whereas increasing demand for hydroelectric power

  20. Economic Potential of Biomass from Unused Agriculture Land for Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, A.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice (SRC) on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia was examined. At present, SRC is not completely recognized in Croatian legislative and considerations in energy strategy and action plans. The paper aspires...... to contribute to better understanding of the role SRC can take in national and local energy planning. The methodology is provided for regional analysis of biomass energy potential on unused agricultural land and for assessing the cost of the biomass at the power plant (PP) location considering transport...... plants and appropriate size of seasonal heat storage is discussed for each case study. Case studies have shown the potential for use of previously unused agricultural land to help achieve national targets for renewable energy sources as well as reducing carbon dioxide emissions, help diversify...

  1. The Assessment of Climatological Impacts on Agricultural Production and Residential Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooter, Ellen Jean

    The assessment of climatological impacts on selected economic activities is presented as a multi-step, inter -disciplinary problem. The assessment process which is addressed explicitly in this report focuses on (1) user identification, (2) direct impact model selection, (3) methodological development, (4) product development and (5) product communication. Two user groups of major economic importance were selected for study; agriculture and gas utilities. The broad agricultural sector is further defined as U.S.A. corn production. The general category of utilities is narrowed to Oklahoma residential gas heating demand. The CERES physiological growth model was selected as the process model for corn production. The statistical analysis for corn production suggests that (1) although this is a statistically complex model, it can yield useful impact information, (2) as a result of output distributional biases, traditional statistical techniques are not adequate analytical tools, (3) the model yield distribution as a whole is probably non-Gausian, particularly in the tails and (4) there appears to be identifiable weekly patterns of forecasted yields throughout the growing season. Agricultural quantities developed include point yield impact estimates and distributional characteristics, geographic corn weather distributions, return period estimates, decision making criteria (confidence limits) and time series of indices. These products were communicated in economic terms through the use of a Bayesian decision example and an econometric model. The NBSLD energy load model was selected to represent residential gas heating consumption. A cursory statistical analysis suggests relationships among weather variables across the Oklahoma study sites. No linear trend in "technology -free" modeled energy demand or input weather variables which would correspond to that contained in observed state -level residential energy use was detected. It is suggested that this trend is largely the

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING SOLAR ENERGY TO POWER SELECTED MEASURING DRIVES IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marian Kolano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mankind’s misgivings caused by the depletion of fossil fuels have accelerated research on obtaining energy from unconventional sources. One such source is the Sun. The present article reviews the possibility of using solar energy, converted in batteries of photovoltaic cells into electricity, in agriculture and farming. It should also be emphasized that it is energy friendly to the environment, whose acquisition on agricultural land, which often lacks access to the power grid, is now legitimate and profitable. This study presents the results of computer simulations in tabular and graphical form, using the PVSYST program, for a pasture water pumping system for watering grazing cattle.

  3. Climate, Agriculture, Energy and the Optimal Allocation of Global Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbuks, J.; Hertel, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    The allocation of the world's land resources over the course of the next century has become a pressing research question. Continuing population increases, improving, land-intensive diets amongst the poorest populations in the world, increasing production of biofuels and rapid urbanization in developing countries are all competing for land even as the world looks to land resources to supply more environmental services. The latter include biodiversity and natural lands, as well as forests and grasslands devoted to carbon sequestration. And all of this is taking place in the context of faster than expected climate change which is altering the biophysical environment for land-related activities. The goal of the paper is to determine the optimal profile for global land use in the context of growing commercial demands for food and forest products, increasing non-market demands for ecosystem services, and more stringent GHG mitigation targets. We then seek to assess how the uncertainty associated with the underlying biophysical and economic processes influences this optimal profile of land use, in light of potential irreversibility in these decisions. We develop a dynamic long-run, forward-looking partial equilibrium framework in which the societal objective function being maximized places value on food production, liquid fuels (including biofuels), timber production, forest carbon and biodiversity. Given the importance of land-based emissions to any GHG mitigation strategy, as well as the potential impacts of climate change itself on the productivity of land in agriculture, forestry and ecosystem services, we aim to identify the optimal allocation of the world's land resources, over the course of the next century, in the face of alternative GHG constraints. The forestry sector is characterized by multiple forest vintages which add considerable computational complexity in the context of this dynamic analysis. In order to solve this model efficiently, we have employed the

  4. Energy savings Measures in Agriculture - Overview on the Basis of National Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Buisonjé, de F.E.; Ellen, H.H.; Stanghellini, C.; Voort, van der M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of energy inputs in agricultural production is a process of practical implementation of a set of energy saving (ES) measures associated with a given type of production, farm infrastructure and managerial or organizational activities. In six national reports from Finland, Germany,

  5. Planning Energy Sector Development in Croatian Agricultural Sector Following Guidelines of the European Energy Policy 20-20-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirac, M.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.

    2009-01-01

    Energy system planning is among the most important tasks of any society. A stable energy system is a foundation for economic growth, growing living standard and general prosperity of the society. Agriculture represents an important factor in overall Croatian economy; therefore, planning of the agriculture's energy system is a major task. To foresee the trend of consumption and to ensure reasonable economic energy supply in accordance with this trend is a process which should be continuously optimised so that the planned scenario could reflect actual situation. The agriculture, thanks to natural resources, land features and climate advantages represents a major economic sector. This activity has significant impact on food industry, trade, tourism, transport, chemical industry, etc. The relevance of agriculture is also visible in the present number of employees, future potential for employment and foreign trade balance. According to numerous parameters, agricultural activities in Croatia lag behind the EU countries. Great potential can be achieved by implementation of measures for energy intensity reduction and productivity increase.(author).

  6. Including Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policies in Electricity Demand Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find more information on how state and local air agencies can identify on-the-books EE/RE policies, develop a methodology for projecting a jurisdiction's energy demand, and estimate the change in power sector emissions.

  7. Water, agriculture, energy: a growing interweaving. Towards an extended water security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taithe, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author first notices that the definition of water security according to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is a rather restrictive one. Thus, the search for a global security takes all forms of insufficiencies and (military or not) instabilities into account, and is then related to strategic stakes of State stability such as agriculture production, water or energy. He discusses the determining factors and vulnerabilities of a renewed water security and its implications. He highlights how internal political and social constraints are sources of local and regional tensions. In this respect, agriculture is at the heart of use conflicts (difficult and necessary reform of the sector, rivalries between rural and urban users), and water stress directly affects daily domestic uses. The author then outlines the necessary integration stakes related to water, food and energy by discussing the use of water in energy production, the use of energy to produce drinkable water, the relationship between agriculture and energy, and, of course between agriculture and water as agriculture is the main water consumer

  8. Economic analysis of potential uses of geothermal energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.

    1978-02-01

    The economic feasibility and water quality considerations of the cultural practice of soil warming was evaluated using existing technical, agronomic, and economic data. It was hypothesized that it is technically and economically feasible to use geothermal energy in the cultural practice of soil warming for specific crops. The analysis attempted to reject the hypothesis. Since the hypothesis could not be rejected, the results are presented as a profit equation suitable for inclusion in the GEOCOST computer program. This determination of economic feasibility utilized heterogeneous crop yield data by comparing the elasticity of response with a normalized product-factor price ratio. Soil warming was determined to be feasible when the elasticity of production was equal to or greater than the normalized product-factor price ratio. A farm enterprise was determined profitable if net returns were positive. An empirical model in which the energy dissipation rate is a function of the difference between heat source temperature and mean monthly air temperature was transformed to utilize data describing the total heat applied during the growing season. Heat input was then measured as the total number of calories per square centimeter applied during the growing season.

  9. Renewable energy from pyrolysis using crops and agricultural residuals: An economic and environmental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    This study examines pyrolysis-based electricity generation and ethanol production using various crops and agricultural residuals in Taiwan. It analyzes the net economic and environmental effects within the framework of the Extended Taiwanese Agricultural Sector Model by incorporating ongoing and potential gasoline, coal and GHG (greenhouse gas) prices. The study discusses the effects of agricultural shifts, which have several important implications for the Taiwanese bioenergy development. First, the cost of collecting rice straw is much lower than the production cost of other energy crops, implying that the efficient use of agricultural waste may eventually result in positive social effects in terms of farmers' revenue, the renewable energy supply and GHG emissions offset. Second, farmers with idle land usually suffer a lower steady income. Encouraging the development of the renewable energy industry increases the demand of raw feedstocks, which involves converting the idle land into cultivation and increasing farmers' revenue. Third, agricultural waste is usually burned and emits CO_2, which accelerates the global climate shift. Approximately one third of emissions could be offset by rice straw-based bioenergy in certain cases. Turning this waste into bioenergy, which offsets net GHG emissions, has positive effects on the climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • Pyrolyzing rice straw provides considerable energy supply (max 4.68 billion kWh). • High emission offset when combined with rice straw (max 2.73 million tons). • Affordable government subsidy ($204 million a year). • Collection and transportation costs of wastes could impact the result significantly.

  10. An application of energy and exergy analysis in agricultural sector of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamed, J.U.; Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mekhilef, S.; Ali, M.B.; Furqon, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic losses usually take place in machineries used for agricultural activities. Therefore, it is important to identify and quantify the losses in order to devise strategies or policies to reduce them. An exergy analysis is a tool that can identify the losses occurred in any sector. In this study, an analysis has been carried out to estimate energy and exergy consumption of the agricultural sector in Malaysia. Energy and exergy efficiencies have been determined for the devices used in the agricultural sector of Malaysia, where petrol, diesel and fuel oil are used to run the machineries. Energy and exergy flow diagrams for the overall efficiencies of Malaysian agricultural sector are presented as well. The average overall energy and exergy efficiencies of this sector were found to be 22% and 20.728%, respectively, within the period from 1991 to 2009. These figures were found to be lower than those of Norway but higher than Turkey. - Highlights: ► Highest exergy efficiency was found about 20.7% for the year 2007. ► The exergy efficiency of the agro-sector in Malaysia was lower than that of energy efficiency. ► It was also found that this sector of Malaysia is less efficient than Saudi Arabia and Norway. ► Energy and exergy losses were identified through this analysis. ► Part of the losses can be reduced using appropriate technology, management and policy.

  11. Linking Energy- and Land-Use Systems: Energy Potentials and Environmental Risks of Using Agricultural Residues in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Terrapon-Pfaff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to assess whether renewable energy self-sufficiency can be achieved in the crop production and processing sector in Tanzania and if this could be accomplished in an environmentally sustainable manner. In order to answer these questions the theoretical energy potential of process residues from commercially produced agricultural crops in Tanzania is evaluated. Furthermore, a set of sustainability indicators with focus on environmental criteria is applied to identify risks and opportunities of using these residues for energy generation. In particular, the positive and negative effects on the land-use-system (soil fertility, water use and quality, biodiversity, etc. are evaluated. The results show that energy generation with certain agricultural process residues could not only improve and secure the energy supply but could also improve the sustainability of current land-use practices.

  12. Conflicts between Ecological Farming and Energy Use of Biomass from Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Christensen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating nature of several renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and waves, new methodologies are needed for planning of sustainable energy supply systems. As Denmark has no hydro power, biomass plays an important role in this connection. Especially surplus straw and animal...... manure (for biogas) from agriculture. In the official Danish energy plans biomass is supposed to cover more than 20% of the Danish energy demand by year 2030. However, the use of biomass for energy purposes may conflict with the need to maintain soil quality of arable fields. Concerned ecological farmers...

  13. Seawater/Saline Agriculture for Energy, Warming, Water, Rainfall, Land, Food and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The combination of the incipient demise of cheap oil and increasing evidence of Global Warming due to anthropogenic fossil carbon release has reinvigorated the need for and efforts on Renewable energy sources, especially for transportation applications. Biomass/Bio-diesel appears to have many benefits compared to Hydrogen, the only other major renewable transportation fuel candidate. Biomass Production is currently limited by available arable land and fresh water. Halophyte Plants and seawater irrigation proffer a wholly new biomass production mantra using wastelands and very plentiful seawater. Such an approach addresses many-to-most of the major emerging Societal Problems including Land, Water, Food, Warming and Energy. For many reasons, including seawater agriculture, portions of the Sahara appear to be viable candidates for future Biomass Production. The apparent nonlinearity between vegetation cover and atmospheric conditions over North Africa necessitates serious coupled boundary layer Meteorology and Global Circulation Modeling to ensure that this form of Terra Forming is Favorable and to avoid adverse Unintended Consequences.

  14. Bioenergy from Low-Intensity Agricultural Systems: An Energy Efficiency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludunsin Arodudu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of possible future restrictions on the use of fossil fuel, due to climate change obligations and continuous depletion of global fossil fuel reserves, the search for alternative renewable energy sources is expected to be an issue of great concern for policy stakeholders. This study assessed the feasibility of bioenergy production under relatively low-intensity conservative, eco-agricultural settings (as opposed to those produced under high-intensity, fossil fuel based industrialized agriculture. Estimates of the net energy gain (NEG and the energy return on energy invested (EROEI obtained from a life cycle inventory of the energy inputs and outputs involved reveal that the energy efficiency of bioenergy produced in low-intensity eco-agricultural systems could be as much as much as 448.5–488.3 GJ·ha−1 of NEG and an EROEI of 5.4–5.9 for maize ethanol production systems, and as much as 155.0–283.9 GJ·ha−1 of NEG and an EROEI of 14.7–22.4 for maize biogas production systems. This is substantially higher than for industrialized agriculture with a NEG of 2.8–52.5 GJ·ha−1 and an EROEI of 1.2–1.7 for maize ethanol production systems, as well as a NEG of 59.3–188.7 GJ·ha−1 and an EROEI of 2.2–10.2 for maize biogas production systems. Bioenergy produced in low-intensity eco-agricultural systems could therefore be an important source of energy with immense net benefits for local and regional end-users, provided a more efficient use of the co-products is ensured.

  15. Conserving energy in smallholder agriculture. A multi-objective programming case-study of northwest India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thankappan, Samarthia; Midmore, Peter; Jenkins, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In semi-arid conditions in Northwest India, smallholder agriculture has made increasing use of subsidised mechanisation and energy inputs to reduce short-term risks. However, detrimental environmental consequences have occurred, not least a rapidly falling water table, and energy-intensive production is threatened by the prospect of increasing scarcity and expense of energy supplies, especially as urban demands are forecast to grow rapidly. This paper describes the energy flows through four subsystems of smallholder agricultural villages: the crop system; non-crop land uses; livestock systems; and households. It employs a multi-objective programming model to demonstrate choices available for maximands either of net solar energy capture or financial surpluses. Applied to three villages selected to represent major settlement types in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, the results demonstrate that both energy conservation and financial performance can be improved. Although these results need qualifying because of the reductionist, linear character of the model used, they do provide important insights into the cultural role of mechanisation and the influence of traditional agricultural practices. They also underline the need for local energy conservation strategies as part of an overall approach to improved self-determination in progress towards rural sustainability. (author)

  16. Economic Dispatch for Power System Included Wind and Solar Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen BRINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of technologies of alternative energy, the electric power network can be composed of several renewable energy resources. The energy resources have various characteristics in terms of operational costs and reliability. In this study, the problem is the Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind and solar thermal energies. Renewable energy resources depend on the data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for solar thermal energy. In this article it proposes a methodology to solve this problem. The resolution takes account of the fuel costs and reducing of the emissions of the polluting gases. The resolution is done by the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA method and the simulations have been made on an IEEE network test (30 nodes, 8 machines and 41 lines.

  17. Sustainability of energy crops. Four papers by the Centre for Agriculture and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Van Kuik, M.; Van Zeijts, H.

    1998-07-01

    Between 1994 and 1996 CLM developed a method for assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of producing and using energy from agricultural and forest biomass. The method has much in common with environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). CLM has also co-ordinated a concerted action called 'Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'. LCA is at present the best available instrument for assessing the ecological sustainability of energy crops. CLM focused on three topics disseminating the results of the concerted action; updating the work on bioethanol, and proposals for new financial instruments. The results are presented in this report. First, the results from the concerted action and work carried out by CLM were disseminated. Papers were presented at the international conference on 'Implementation of solid biofuels for carbon dioxide mitigation', 29-30 September 1997, Uppsala, Sweden, and at the international workshop on 'Environmental aspects of energy crop production', 9-10 October 1997, Brasimone, Italy. In addition, a paper was written on the need to co-ordinate policy options to stimulate the production and use of energy crops from an energy, agricultural and environmental point of view. Second, a study on bioethanol was carried out in which data obtained elsewhere on the use of bioethanol as a transport fuel were revised and updated. The sustainability of bioethanol production from sugar beet was compared with that of bioethanol from winter wheat. Using bioethanol from sugar beet replaces more fossil energy than bioethanol from winter wheat. For both crops, the costs per ton avoided CO2 decrease over time to 2010, but are still higher than electricity routes. The third action was the development of proposals for new financial instruments to stimulate energy production from biomass in the agricultural and forestry sector. This proposal was presented at the ALTENER Seminar on 'Financial incentives for

  18. Novel Agricultural Conservation System with Sustained Yield and Decreased Water, Nutrient, Energy, and Carbon Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Shukla, S.; Holt, N.; Hendricks, G.; Sishodia, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are conventionally grown in raised bed plasticulture (RBP), a high intensity, high input, and high output production system. In 2016, the fresh market plasticulture industry covered 680,000 ha in the US, producing crops (e.g. tomato, peppers, melons, and strawberries) valued at ten billion dollars. To meet the increasing future demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and sustain the production potential of croplands, a transformation of the conventional food-water-energy nexus is essential. A novel agricultural conservation system, compact bed geometry, has been proposed to shift the paradigm in RBP, sustaining yield and decreasing inputs (e.g. water, nutrients, energy, and carbon). Compact bed geometries fit the shape of the wetting front created when water is applied through drip irrigation on the production soil, creating a taller (23-30 cm) and thinner bed (66-41 cm). Two seasons of tomato (single row) and pepper (double row) production, in the environmentally fragile watershed of the Florida Everglades, highlight the potential impact of compact bed geometry on environmental sustainability in agricultural production. No difference in plant growth or yield was detected, with a reduction of 5-50% in irrigation water, up to 20% less N application, 12% less P, 20% less K, and 5-15% less carbon dioxide emissions. The hydrologic benefits of compact bed geometry include 26% less runoff generation, decreased need for active drainage pumping, and increased residence time for irrigation water within the bed, overall decreasing instances of nutrient leaching. A water related co-benefit observed was a reduction in the occurrences of Phytophthora capsici in pepper, which has the potential to reduce yield by as much as 70%. Non-water co-benefits include up to a 250/ ha reduction in production cost, with the potential to save the industry 200 million dollars annually. This economic benefit has led to rapid industry adoption, with more than 20

  19. Report of the Advisory Committee on Agriculturally Derived Fuels to the Texas Energy and Natural Resources Advisory Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Reagan V.; Clayton, Bill; Armstrong, Bob; Walton, Bill; Baen, Jr., Spencer; Carmichael, Jack; Cowley, Raymond; Quick, Joe; King, Carl; Harp, Elbert; Nelson, Bill; Wagoner, Ed; McDonald, Dr., Richard; Swanson, Stan

    1979-09-03

    For the purpose of the Committee, biomass was defined as the volume of living material or residues of living material (organic material) available in Texas for conversion into energy. Statistical reports from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and other sources indicate that in addition to surplus and distressed grains and certain other crops, there are roughly 27 million tons of agricultural residues currently being left in the fields or at the processing plants after harvest. The average annual residue from five crops - sorghum, corn, wheat, rice and cotton - is more than 20 million tons with a theoretical heat value of 270 trillion Btus. This represents 64 percent of the total energy input for Texas agriculture in 1973. Additionally, 4.1 million tons of dry manure is economically recoverable from Texas feedlots which could be converted into 14 trillion Btus of energy each year in the form of methane gas. Municipal solid waste, much of which is comprised of residues of living materials, currently amounts to about 13 million tons annually. The principal processes for converting the referenced resources into energy include: (1) direct combustion; (2) fermentation; (3) gasification/pyrolysis; (4) anaerobic digestion; and (5) petroculture - the production of certain non-traditional plants. Texas produces huge quantities of biomass, and has the potential of producing even more, which can be converted through various processes into significant quantities of usable energy to help meet the needs of the agricultural industry and the general public. Some of the technology required for the conversion processes is already sufficiently advanced to support immediate production and use while others will require additional research and development. The report discusses the current level of development of the relevant technologies.

  20. Second biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry which was held August 21-24, 1995. The volume contains copies of full papers as provided by the researchers. Individual papers were separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  1. Volatility Spillovers for Spot, Futures, and ETF Prices in Energy and Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-P. Liu (Chia-Ping); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe agricultural and energy industries are closely related, both biologically and financially. The paper discusses the relationship and the interactions on price and volatility, with special focus on the covolatility spillover effects for these two industries. The interaction and

  2. The use of agricultural biomass for energy purposes: EU and national policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Giuca

    2008-01-01

    The implementation in 2020 of binding national targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and use of renewable energy has increased the interest in biomass as a viable alternative to fossil fuels. Thus agriculture acquires a primary role for the reduction of CO2 but raises many issues: CBA, food vs fuel, subsidies, tax measures and investments. After outlining the framework for the exploitation of biomass energy, the analysis carried out on the prospects of development of agroenergy chains...

  3. Energy-related CO_2 emission in European Union agriculture: Driving forces and possibilities for reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tianxiang; Baležentis, Tomas; Makutėnienė, Daiva; Streimikiene, Dalia; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The research focuses on agricultural sectors of the eighteen European countries. • The main drivers of energy-related CO_2 emission are quantified by means of IDA. • The slack-based DEA model is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency. • Shadow prices of carbon emission are analysed. • Energy efficiency remains the primary means for increasing environmental efficiency. - Abstract: Climate change mitigation is a key issue in formulating global environmental policies. Energy production and consumption are the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Energy consumption and energy-related GHG emissions from agriculture are an important concern for policymakers, as the agricultural activities should meet food security goals along with proper economic, environmental, and social impacts. Carbon dioxide (CO_2) emission is the most significant among energy-related GHG emissions. This paper analyses the main drivers behind energy-related CO_2 emission across agricultural sectors of European countries. The analysis is based on aggregate data from the World Input-Output Database. The research explores two main directions. Firstly, Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), facilitated by the Shapley index, is used to identify the main drivers of CO_2 emission. Secondly, the Slack-based Model (SBM) is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency of European agricultural sectors. By applying frontier techniques, we also derive the measures of environmental efficiency and shadow prices, thereby contributing to a discussion on CO_2 emission mitigation in agriculture. Therefore, the paper devises an integrated approach towards analysis of CO_2 emission based upon advanced decomposition and efficiency analysis models. The research covers eighteen European countries and the applied methodology decomposes contributions to CO_2 emission across of regions and factors. Results of IDA suggest that decreasing energy intensity is the main factor

  4. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  5. Climate change mitigation: the potential of agriculture as a renewable energy source in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elum, Z A; Modise, D M; Nhamo, G

    2017-02-01

    Energy is pivotal to the economic development of every nation. However, its production and utilization leads to undesirable carbon emissions that aggravate global warming which results in climate change. The agriculture sector is a significant user of energy. However, it has the potential to be a major contributor to Nigeria's energy supply mix in meeting its energy deficit. More so, in the light of current and impending adverse effects of climate change, there is a need to contain GHG's emissions. This paper focuses on bioenergy utilization as a climate change mitigation strategy and one that can, through effective waste management, enhance sustainable economic development in Nigeria. The paper employed a critical discourse analysis to examine the potential of the agricultural sector to provide biofuels from energy crops and other biomass sources. We conclude that Nigeria can reduce its GHG emissions and greatly contribute to global climate change mitigation while also alleviating its energy supply deficit if the agricultural and municipal wastes readily available in its towns and cities are converted to bioenergy. Such engagements will not only promote a clean and healthy environment but also create jobs for economic empowerment and a better standard of living for the people.

  6. Issues of geothermal and biomass energy efficiency in agriculture, industry, transports and domestic consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy efficiency should be a concern for both the firm managers and any leader at any level, given that energy efficiency significantly reduce production costs. An important aspect of this is the use of renewable energy sources, in different types of activities, depending on the possibilities to produce it on favorable terms, to supply at relatively low costs and to efficiently consume it both in the producing units and the households. A skilful and powerful leader will seek and support, through its influence, all the means that determine the reduction of the production costs and obtain a profit as high as possible. Wider use of renewable energy promotes concern for the environment through clean energy, for reducing pollution and for facilitate, in some cases, even the increase of the production with the same costs or lower costs. In agriculture, industry, transports and household consumption, a high importance presents the geothermal energy and the biomass as source of energy.

  7. Study on High energy efficiency photovoltaic facility agricultural system in tropical area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhiwu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic facility agriculture is developing rapidly in recent years, but there are many problems brought out, even in some important demonstration projects, due to the lack of standards. In order to solve some of these problems, we set up a photovoltaic facilities agricultural system in Guilinyang University City, Haikou, China and make an in-depth study on the photovoltaic facility agricultural system and its related problems. In this paper we disclose some of the experimental results. We plant corianders under two kinds of solar cell panels and general double glass assembly already sold on the market. Experiments showed that the square format cell panels are much better than row type, and the next one is general double glass assembly sold on the market, the last is the case without any shelter. 30 days after planting, the height of coriander plants are 50mm, 30mm, 23mm and 20mm correspondingly. The two typical solar cell panels have gaps between cells, and can save much more energy and improve power generation efficiency, we arrange the panels at optimum tilted angle, and design the system as open structure to save more energy. The photovoltaic facilities agricultural system we set up in Guilinyang University City can achieve much high solar energy efficiency than others and has broad application prospects.

  8. Volatility Spillovers between Energy and Agricultural Markets: A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy and agricultural commodities and markets have been examined extensively, albeit separately, for a number of years. In the energy literature, the returns, volatility and volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one asset on the subsequent volatility or covolatility in another asset, among alternative energy commodities, such as oil, gasoline and ethanol across different markets, have been analysed using a variety of univariate and multivariate models, estimation techniques, data sets, and time frequencies. A similar comment applies to the separate theoretical and empirical analysis of a wide range of agricultural commodities and markets. Given the recent interest and emphasis in bio-fuels and green energy, especially bio-ethanol, which is derived from a range of agricultural products, it is not surprising that there is a topical and developing literature on the spillovers between energy and agricultural markets. Modelling and testing spillovers between the energy and agricultural markets has typically been based on estimating multivariate conditional volatility models, specifically the Baba, Engle, Kraft, and Kroner (BEKK and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC models. A serious technical deficiency is that the Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimates (QMLE of a Full BEKK matrix, which is typically estimated in examining volatility spillover effects, has no asymptotic properties, except by assumption, so that no valid statistical test of volatility spillovers is possible. Some papers in the literature have used the DCC model to test for volatility spillovers. However, it is well known in the financial econometrics literature that the DCC model has no regularity conditions, and that the QMLE of the parameters of DCC has no asymptotic properties, so that there is no valid statistical testing of volatility spillovers. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the theory and practice in testing for volatility spillovers

  9. Energy consumption across European Union farms: Efficiency in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption is a global concern, namely due to the limited availability of energy sources and the consequences in terms of gas emissions, with its implications upon greenhouse gas emissions. In the agricultural sector this question bears an additional concern, considering that it is an economic activity which is sensitive to the dimension of the costs associated with production factors. In this way, the objective of the study presented here is to analyze, the efficiency of energy consumption, for the twelve former European Union countries, at farm level, in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area, over the period 1989–2009 and for the years 2004–2012, with data available in the Farm Accountancy Data Network. On the other hand, the implications of energy consumption in farms' economic performance were analyzed, through econometric techniques (time series, panel data and generalized method of moments) and models based on the Kaldor developments. As a main conclusion, to stress the decrease in efficiency related with energy consumption by farms in the twelve former European Union countries. - Highlights: • It was analyzed the efficiency of energy consumption. • It was considered data for the twelve former European Union states at farm level. • They were evaluated the implications of energy consumption in farms performance. • The conclusions stress the decrease in efficiency of the farms energy consumption.

  10. Linking energy efficiency legislation and the agricultural sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. Lekunze

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are different ways of measuring energy efficiency. Although there is no generally agreed definition of the concept, it should, however, always be approached according to particular circumstances and contexts. As such, technological, operational, performance and equipment efficiencies should be taken into consideration. Generally, energy utilisation in most sectors of the South African economy is inefficient. This requires more energy needs to be generated in order to cater for losses. An increase in generation causes environmental problems at global, regional and local levels. A review of literature on energy efficiency was undertaken and a gap identified between legislation and efficiency in the agricultural sector. This article seeks to suggest ways of implementing an energy legislation in this sector in South Africa. Such implementation will address concerns in terms of harnessing, generating and utilising energy in different sectors in South Africa. Legislation is vital in reducing energy consumption in the agricultural sector. It also ensures efficient use of energy and the maintenance of current levels of production.

  11. Assessment of abandoned agricultural land resource for bio-energy production in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukk, Liia; Astover, Alar; Roostalu, Hugo; Suuster, Elsa; Noormets, Merrit; Sepp, Kalev (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tartu (Estonia)); Muiste, Peeter (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Tartu (Estonia))

    2010-03-15

    The current study locates and quantifies abandoned agricultural areas using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and evaluates the suitability of abandoned fields for bio-energy production in Tartumaa (Tartu County) in Estonia. Soils of abandoned areas are generally of low quality and thereby limited suitability for crop production; as a result soil-crop suitability analyses could form the basis of knowledge-based bio-energy planning. The study estimated suitable areas for bio-energy production using willow (Salix sp), grey alder [Alnus incana (L.) Moench], hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.Populus tremula L.), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and Caucasian goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.) in separate plantations. A combined land-use strategy is also presented as these crops are partially suitable to the same areas. Reed canary grass and grey alder have the highest energy potentials and each would re-use more than 80% of the available abandoned agricultural land. Energy grasses and short-rotation forestry in combined land-use strategy represents the opportunity of covering approximately a quarter of county's annual energy demand. The study estimates only agronomic potential, so further bio-energy analysis should take into account technical and economic limitations. Developed framework supports knowledge-based decision-making processes from field to regional scale to achieve sustainable bio-energy production

  12. Evapotranspiration and surface energy balance across an agricultural-urban landscape gradient in Southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiflett, S. A.; Anderson, R. G.; Jenerette, D.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization substantially affects energy, surface and air temperature, and hydrology due to extensive modifications in land surface properties such as vegetation, albedo, thermal capacity and soil moisture. The magnitude and direction of these alterations depends heavily on the type of urbanization that occurs. We investigated energy balance variation in a local network of agricultural and urban ecosystems using the eddy covariance method to better understand how vegetation fraction and degree of urbanization affects energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. We deployed eddy flux systems within a well-irrigated, agricultural citrus orchard, a moderately developed urban zone with a substantial amount of local vegetative cover, and an intensely developed urban zone with minimal vegetative cover and increased impervious surfaces relative to the other two sites. Latent energy (LE) fluxes in the agricultural area ranged from 7.9 ± 1.4 W m-2 (nighttime) to 168.7 ± 6.2 W m-2 (daytime) compared to 10.2 ± 3.5 W m-2 and 40.6 ± 4.1 W m-2, respectively, for the moderately developed urban area. Sensible energy (H) fluxes ranged from -9.1 ± 1.0 W m-2 (nighttime) to 119 ± 7.0 W m-2 (daytime) in the agricultural area compared to 9.6 ± 2.6 W m-2 and 134 ± 6.0 W m-2, respectively, for the moderately developed urban zone. Daytime LE is reduced with increasing urbanization; however, daily cycles of LE are less recognizable in urban areas compared to distinct daily cycles obtained above a mature citrus crop. In contrast, both daytime and nighttime H increases with increasing degree of urbanization. Reduction in vegetation and increases in impervious surfaces along an urbanization gradient leads to alterations in energy balance, which are associated with microclimate and water use changes.

  13. Integrating recycling, renewable energy and agriculture for commercial waste to wealth businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Khai Chung; Angeline Pang

    2010-01-01

    Recycling organic material to produce renewable energy and organic fertilizer is an attractive business model in waste to wealth business proposition. Azed Bina Sdn Bhd has developed an integrated recycling facility to recycle solid organic materials into energy and organic fertilizer, a project partially funded by MOSTI TechnoFund in 2008. The novel and innovative aspect is the water disassociation technology which separates the water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas economically using thermal heat from the burning of biomass which is a waste material. This system is modular, scalable, economical and environmental friendly. It has many applications in the field of, Environment and Solid Waste Management - recycling organic waste into energy and organic fertilizer rather than disposal at the landfill, hence preserving our environment. Green technology - economical biogas production consists of 50% hydrogen gas which is a clean and renewable energy source. The biogas has many applications in the food industry, manufacturing industry and agriculture sector. Agro-based industry - production of clean heat energy is useful for the drying of agriculture crops. Agriculture Sector - production of ash can be used to produce organic fertilizer by incorporating effective microbes. Reduce the dependence on chemical fertilizer which is bad for the environment Rural Development - developing rural area by integrating small scale industries, agro based industry, agriculture and rural area. The company commercial applications of recycling organic materials to produce energy for companies such as laundry business, agro based food drying and waste management recycling. The next project is to provide chilled water using organic waste. (author)

  14. Comparison of the potential for producing energy from agriculture in Brazil, India, and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, W E

    1980-04-01

    The energy supply and demand conditions and factor conditions are examined for Brazil, India, and the United States to compare energy development from agricultural programs. Each country is seen to be concentrating on an energy from biomass that is particularly suited: biogas from cow dung and crop residues in India; gasohol from corn or sugar cane in Brazil; and gasohol from grains in the US. Economic rationality, when viewed from a social perspective, appears to have prevailed in the policy decision in each of the countries. 6 references, 2 tables.

  15. Agriculture 2008. The critical agrarian report. Main topic 2008: Agriculture as an energy producer; Landwirtschaft 2008. Der kritische Agrarbericht. Schwerpunkt 2008: Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Fink-Kessler, A.; Stodieck, F. (comps.)

    2008-01-15

    The focus of the critical agrarian report in this year is the topic 'agriculture as an energy producer'. In 44 contributions, the agrarian events of the year 2007 are analyzed and the setting the points for the future are discussed. The topics of this report are: Agricultural policy and social situation, world trade and nutrition, ecological agriculture, production and market, regional market, regional development, nature and environment, forest, animal protection and animal husbandry, genetic engineering, agrarian culture, consumer and nourishing culture.

  16. The Role of Municipalities, Energy Companies and the Agricultural Sector in Denmark as Drivers for Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the barriers to implementing biogas plants in Denmark and highlights advantages and barriers of the technology with a focus on the environment, energy and the agriculture. The article is based on a detailed study of development trends within the Danish biogas sector and identi......This paper examines the barriers to implementing biogas plants in Denmark and highlights advantages and barriers of the technology with a focus on the environment, energy and the agriculture. The article is based on a detailed study of development trends within the Danish biogas sector...... and identifies the most important current barriers for the biogas technology namely, difficulties in providing organic industrial waste, unfavorable funding options and low plant profitability. An element in overcoming these barriers concerns the inclusion of stakeholders from the energy sector and engaging...... municipalities more actively in the biogas development. Based on the analysis of the current situation and of the challenges and opportunities for the Danish Biogas sector, we propose that municipalities, energy companies and the agricultural sector take renewed actions and become drivers for the biogas sector...

  17. Energy potential through agricultural biomass using geographical information system - A case study of Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jagtar; Panesar, B.S.; Sharma, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural biomass has immense potential for power production in an Indian state like Punjab. A judicious use of biomass energy could potentially play an important role in mitigating environmental impacts of non-renewable energy sources particularly global warming and acid rain. But the availability of agricultural biomass is spatially scattered. The spatial distribution of this resource and the associate costs of collection and transportation are major bottlenecks for the success of biomass energy conversion facilities. Biomass, being scattered and loose, has huge collection and transportation costs, which can be reduced by properly planning and locating the biomass collection centers for biomass-based power plants. Before planning the collection centers, it is necessary to evaluate the biomass, energy and collection cost of biomass in the field. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the spatial potential of biomass with geographical information system (GIS) and a mathematical model for collection of biomass in the field has been developed. The total amount of unused agricultural biomass is about 13.73 Mt year -1 . The total power generation capacity from unused biomass is approximately 900 MW. The collection cost in the field up to the carrier unit is US$3.90 t -1 . (author)

  18. Vulnerability of U.S. Agriculture and Energy Sectors to Changes in Climate and Socioeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Voisin, N.; Liu, L.; Bramer, L.; Fortin, D.; Huang, M.; Hathaway, J.; Kyle, P.; Leung, L. R.; Li, H. Y.; Liu, Y.; Patel, P.; Pulsipher, T.; Rice, J.; Tesfa, T. K.; Vernon, C. R.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A prominent integrated assessment model (IAM), the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), has been coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM) of the Community Earth system model (CESM) to assess the vulnerability of the US agriculture and energy sectors to future water shortages under changing climate and socioeconomics. This study utilizes the regionalized version of GCAM for the U.S. with 50-state. GCAM-USA includes a detailed representation of water demands and tracks them at multiple spatial scales and annual scale. A spatial and temporal disaggregation approach is developed to project the annual regional water demand simulations into a daily time step and 1/8o spatial resolution for input to CLM, which has been coupled to a river routing model and generic water management model applicable globally at 1/2o resolution and regionally at 1/8o resolution. The coupled modeling framework demonstrated reasonable ability to simulate the historical flow regulation and water supply over the continental U.S. The coupled modeling framework has been used to investigate: 1) Which water use sector (agriculture or energy) and subbasins in the conterminous U.S. will experience water deficits in future decades; 2) What are the drivers for the deficit (i.e., water availability, water demands, or both); 3) Will climate mitigation policies alleviate or exacerbate the situation; and lastly 4) How will the frequency , severity, and spatial extent of water deficits (hot spots) evolve under a non-mitigation scenario (RCP8.5) in which conventional fossil-fueled technologies prevail versus a mitigation scenario (RCP4.5) in which the carbon price causes a shift toward renewables and expansion of bioenergy productions. Results show that irrigation will face greater water deficit overall except in the northeastern U.S. Water deficit is greatest in the western U.S. except the Pacific Northwest. Human footprints on the regulated flows are most pronounced over the Rio Grande, Colorado, Great

  19. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  20. Renewable Energy Consumption and Agriculture: Evidence for Cointegration and Granger causality for Tunisian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses the vector error correction model (VECM) and Granger causality tests to investigate short and long-run relationships between per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, real gross domestic product (GDP), renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, trade openness ratio and agricultural value added (AVA) in Tunisia spanning the period 1980-2011. The Johansen-Juselius test shows that all our considered variables are cointegrated. Short-run Granger causality tests reveal the ex...

  1. The future of European agriculture: food, energy, paper and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, L.

    1994-01-01

    European agriculture must progress towards a more multi-faceted utilization of different types of land in order to conserve arable land and thereby food production. The simultaneous production of food, energy and fibres appears economically viable. This also provides a solution to environmental problems of the community. The utilization of waste products as fertilizer when cultivating biomass should be done in such a way that we remain able to return rapidly to full-scale food production if unexpected developments occur. (author)

  2. Environmental assessment of energy generation from agricultural and farm waste through anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayal, Figen Sisman; Mammadov, Aydin; Ciliz, Nilgun

    2016-12-15

    While Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of agricultural goods, it is also, at the same time a net importer of energy carriers. This dichotomy offers a strong incentive to generate energy from agricultural and farming waste; something which could provide energy security for rural areas. Combined with the enhanced energy security for farming areas, the production of energy in this manner could conceivably contribute to the overall national effort to reduce the Turkey's carbon footprint. This study explores the environmental benefits and burdens of one such option, that is, biogas production from a mixture of agricultural and animal waste through anaerobic digestion (AD), and its subsequent use for electricity and heat generation. A life-cycle assessment methodology was used, to measure the potential environmental impact of this option, in terms of global warming and total weighed impact, and to contrast it with the impact of producing the same amount of energy via an integrated gasification combined cycle process and a hard coal power plant. This study concentrates on an AD and cogeneration pilot plant, built in the Kocaeli province of Turkey and attempts to evaluate its potential environmental impacts. The study uses laboratory-scale studies, as well as literature and LCI databases to derive the operational parameters, yield and emissions of the plant. The potential impacts were calculated with EDIP 2003 methodology, using GaBi 5 LCA software. The results indicate that N 2 O emissions, resulting from the application of liquid and solid portions of digestate (a by-product of AD), as an organic fertilizer, are by far the largest contributors to global warming among all the life cycle stages. They constitute 68% of the total, whereas ammonia losses from the same process are the leading cause of terrestrial eutrophication. The photochemical ozone formation potential is significantly higher for the cogeneration phase, compared to other life

  3. Interactions of water with energy and materials in urban areas and agriculture. IWRM. Integrated water resources management. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steusloff, Hartwig (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The current rationale, range and significance of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) are subject to increasing dimensionality, such as systemic conflicts between water users, increasing regulatory influences, and the growing energy requirements for providing the appropriate water resources. The competition between urban and agricultural consumers for water is dealt with as are regulatory, technological and socio-economic aspects of IWRM. The conference proceedings of IWRM Karlsruhe 2012 impart knowledge and relate practical experience in three key areas of IWRM: 1. Challenges for Future Cities and Efficient Agricultural Production Satisfying the growing demand for fresh water for a growing population as well as for agriculture bears the risk of aggravating the conflict between economic and ecological needs. Providing a reliable and secure supply of water for our future cities requires appropriate technical infrastructure systems coupled with environmentally optimized management. In this context it is essential to have greater awareness of the relationship of water and energy and of the overall water usage including the re-use of water 2. Competing Water Uses Water must be shared between domestic/municipal, industrial, agricultural, and hydropower users as well as between regions. This competition is intensified by the vulnerability of supply and sanitation systems to increasing climate extremes and to terrorism. 3. Regulatory and Policy Framework Using water is associated with a great number of externalities. For this reason a proper legislative and regulatory framework is prerequisite for proper management of the water supply, sewerage and storm-water services as well as water usage, all of which are essential for public health, economic development and environmental protection.

  4. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret

    2010-07-01

    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  5. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  6. A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

  7. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the ΛCDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex s 2 ) and that of δ de /δ m with the variation of c-circumflex s 2 .

  8. Fabrication of Scalable Indoor Light Energy Harvester and Study for Agricultural IoT Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M; Nakamura, A; Kunii, A; Kusano, K; Futagawa, M

    2015-01-01

    A scalable indoor light energy harvester was fabricated by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and printing hybrid technology and evaluated for agricultural IoT applications under different environmental input power density conditions, such as outdoor farming under the sun, greenhouse farming under scattered lighting, and a plant factory under LEDs. We fabricated and evaluated a dye- sensitized-type solar cell (DSC) as a low cost and “scalable” optical harvester device. We developed a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-less process with a honeycomb metal mesh substrate fabricated by MEMS technology. In terms of the electrical and optical properties, we achieved scalable harvester output power by cell area sizing. Second, we evaluated the dependence of the input power scalable characteristics on the input light intensity, spectrum distribution, and light inlet direction angle, because harvested environmental input power is unstable. The TiO 2 fabrication relied on nanoimprint technology, which was designed for optical optimization and fabrication, and we confirmed that the harvesters are robust to a variety of environments. Finally, we studied optical energy harvesting applications for agricultural IoT systems. These scalable indoor light harvesters could be used in many applications and situations in smart agriculture. (paper)

  9. THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN THE DESALINATION SEA WATER IN AGRICULTURAL GREENHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tahri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited resources of fresh water in arid areas like the Middle East and North Africa MENA have led to the use of poor quality water in irrigation agriculture. These can reduce crop yield and environmental damage. Agriculture accounts for 70% of overall consumption in freshwater. Given the evaporation phenomena that occur in arid regions, this figure rises to 90%. This study focuses on the concept of combining the greenhouse with the desalination of seawater This concept is intended for small scale applications in remote areas where only saline water and solar energy are available.  The main objective of this research work is to analyze the production of fresh water using solar energy in the desalination of sea water in the greenhouse. This operating system is in need of thorough study of evaporators, condensers and design of the greenhouse. Desalination, combining the greenhouse to the use of sea water while exploiting the phenomenon of condensation of water vapor in the air, seems to respond positively to the needs of agricultural irrigation.

  10. Fabrication of Scalable Indoor Light Energy Harvester and Study for Agricultural IoT Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M.; Nakamura, A.; Kunii, A.; Kusano, K.; Futagawa, M.

    2015-12-01

    A scalable indoor light energy harvester was fabricated by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and printing hybrid technology and evaluated for agricultural IoT applications under different environmental input power density conditions, such as outdoor farming under the sun, greenhouse farming under scattered lighting, and a plant factory under LEDs. We fabricated and evaluated a dye- sensitized-type solar cell (DSC) as a low cost and “scalable” optical harvester device. We developed a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-less process with a honeycomb metal mesh substrate fabricated by MEMS technology. In terms of the electrical and optical properties, we achieved scalable harvester output power by cell area sizing. Second, we evaluated the dependence of the input power scalable characteristics on the input light intensity, spectrum distribution, and light inlet direction angle, because harvested environmental input power is unstable. The TiO2 fabrication relied on nanoimprint technology, which was designed for optical optimization and fabrication, and we confirmed that the harvesters are robust to a variety of environments. Finally, we studied optical energy harvesting applications for agricultural IoT systems. These scalable indoor light harvesters could be used in many applications and situations in smart agriculture.

  11. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  12. Extending the input–output energy balance methodology in agriculture through cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojacá, Carlos Ricardo; Casilimas, Héctor Albeiro; Gil, Rodrigo; Schrevens, Eddie

    2012-01-01

    The input–output balance methodology has been applied to characterize the energy balance of agricultural systems. This study proposes to extend this methodology with the inclusion of multivariate analysis to reveal particular patterns in the energy use of a system. The objective was to demonstrate the usefulness of multivariate exploratory techniques to analyze the variability found in a farming system and, establish efficiency categories that can be used to improve the energy balance of the system. To this purpose an input–output analysis was applied to the major greenhouse tomato production area in Colombia. Individual energy profiles were built and the k-means clustering method was applied to the production factors. On average, the production system in the study zone consumes 141.8 GJ ha −1 to produce 96.4 GJ ha −1 , resulting in an energy efficiency of 0.68. With the k-means clustering analysis, three clusters of farmers were identified with energy efficiencies of 0.54, 0.67 and 0.78. The most energy efficient cluster grouped 56.3% of the farmers. It is possible to optimize the production system by improving the management practices of those with the lowest energy use efficiencies. Multivariate analysis techniques demonstrated to be a complementary pathway to improve the energy efficiency of a system. -- Highlights: ► An input–output energy balance was estimated for greenhouse tomatoes in Colombia. ► We used the k-means clustering method to classify growers based on their energy use. ► Three clusters of growers were found with energy efficiencies of 0.54, 0.67 and 0.78. ► Overall system optimization is possible by improving the energy use of the less efficient.

  13. [Energy flow characteristics of the compound agriculture-fruit farming system in Xipo Village, Shaanxi, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fa-Qi; Zhu, Li; Wang, Hong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Taking the crop-fruit farming system in Xipo Village in Chunhua, Shaanxi Province as a case, the energy flow path, input and output structure, and the indices of energy cycle for the agriculture, fruit, stockbreeding and human subsystems were compared between 2008 and 2010. Results showed that during the study period the total investment to the agriculture-fruit farming system (CAF) decreased by 1.6%, while the total output increased by 56.7%, which led to a 59.4% increase of the output/input ratio. Energy output/input ratio of the agriculture, fruit, stockbreeding, human subsystems increased by 36.6%, 21.0%, 10.0% and 3.8%, respectively. The Xipo Village still needed to stabilize the agriculture, develop stockbreeding and strengthen fruit to upgrade the compound agriculture-fruit farming system.

  14. Impacts of renewable fuel regulation and production on agriculture, energy, and welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Lihong Lu

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study the impact of U.S. federal renewable fuel regulations on energy and agriculture commodity markets and welfare. We consider two federal ethanol policies: the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) contained in the Energy Security and Independence Act of 2007 and tax credits to ethanol blenders contained in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. My first essay estimates the distribution of short-run impacts of changing federal ethanol policies on U.S. energy prices, agricultural commodity prices, and welfare through a stochastic partial equilibrium model of U.S. corn, ethanol, and gasoline markets. My second essay focuses on studying the price behavior of the renewable fuel credit (RFC) market, which is the mechanism developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet the RFS. RFCs are a tradable, bankable, and borrowable accounting mechanism to ensure that all obligated parties use a mandated level of renewable fuel. I first develop a conceptual framework to understand how the market works and then apply stochastic dynamic programming to simulate prices for RFCs, examine the sensitivity of prices to relevant shocks, and estimate RFC option premiums. My third essay assesses the impact of policy led U.S. ethanol on the markets of global crude oil and U.S. gasoline using a structural Vector Auto Regression model of global crude oil, U.S. gasoline and ethanol markets.

  15. Energy availability from livestock and agricultural productivity in Europe, 1815–1913: a new comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kander, Astrid; Warde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the proposition that a reason for high agricultural productivity in the early nineteenth century was relatively high energy availability from draught animals. The article is based on the collection of extensive new data indicating different trends in draught power availability and the efficiency of its use in different countries of Europe. This article shows that the proposition does not hold, and demonstrates that, although towards the end of the nineteenth century England had relatively high numbers of draught animals per agricultural worker, it also had low number of workers and animals per hectare, indicating the high efficiency of muscle power, rather than an abundance of such power. The higher efficiency was related to a specialization on less labour-intensive farming and a preference for horses over oxen.

  16. Water, energy and agricultural landuse trends at Shiroro hydropower station and environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegun, Olubunmi; Ajayi, Olalekan; Badru, Gbolahan; Odunuga, Shakirudeen

    2018-02-01

    The study examines the interplay among water resources, hydropower generation and agricultural landuse at the Shiroro hydropower station and its environs, in north-central Nigeria. Non-parametric trend analysis, hydropower footprint estimation, reservoir performance analysis, change detection analysis, and inferential statistics were combined to study the water-energy and food security nexus. Results of Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator for the period 1960 to 2013 showed a declining rainfall trend at Jos, around River Kaduna headwaters at -2.6 mm yr-1, while rainfall at Kaduna and Minna upstream and downstream of the reservoir respectively showed no trend. Estimates of hydropower footprint varied between 130.4 and 704.1 m3 GJ-1 between 1995 and 2013. Power generation reliability and resilience of the reservoir was 31.6 and 38.5 % respectively with year 2011 being the most vulnerable and least satisfactory. In addition to poor reliability and resilience indices, other challenges militating against good performance of hydropower generation includes population growth and climate change issues as exemplified in the downward trend observed at the headwaters. Water inflow and power generation shows a weak positive relationship with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.48, indicating less than optimal power generation. Total area of land cultivated increased from 884.59 km2 in 1986 prior to the commissioning of the hydropower station to 1730.83 km2 in 2016 which signifies an increased contribution of the dam to ensuring food security. The reality of reducing upstream rainfall amount coupled with high water footprint of electricity from the reservoir, therefore requires that a long term roadmap to improve operational coordination and management have to be put in place.

  17. Comparative energy analysis of agricultural crops used for producing ethanol and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.A. dos

    1997-01-01

    A variety of biomass sources can be used for producing ethanol. Among these are sugar cane (Brazil), corn (USA), sweet sorghum (USA and Europe), sugar beets (Europe) and wheat (USA and Europe). The production of fuel alcohol worldwide has been analyzed from various perspectives: productivity, the competition between food and energy crops, the social and economic aspects and, more recently, the environmental dimension. Another relevant study is aimed at calculating the energy costs of the production and use of alcohol from sugar cane as compared to other primary sources for this fuel. The present analysis employs the methodology of energy balance, highlighting local conditions that influence how biomass is transformed into ethanol: technology, agricultural productivity, environmental conditions and an estimate of the carbon dioxide emissions from these different processes. (author)

  18. Chapter 1: Solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture: back to the future?

    KAUST Repository

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Guangnan; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Hamawand, Ihsan; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn; Maraseni, Tek; Banhazi, Thomas; Mahmoudi, Hacene; Goosen, Mattheus; Antille, Diogenes L.

    2017-01-01

    The agri-food chain consumes about one third of the world’s energy production with about 12% for crop production and nearly 80% for processing, distribution, retail, preparation and cooking (Fig. 1.1) (FAO, 2011a). The agri-food chain also accounts for 80-90% of total global freshwater use (Hoff, 2011) where 70% is for irrigation alone. Additionally, on a global scale, freshwater production consumes nearly 15% of the entire energy production (IEA, 2012). It can therefore be argued that making agriculture and the agri-food supply chain independent from fossil fuel use has huge potential to contribute to global food security and climate protection not only for the next decades, but also for the coming century. Provision of secure, accessible and environmentally sustainable supplies of water, energy and food must thus be a priority.

  19. Changes in digestible energy values of some agricultural residues treated with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy) on gross energy (GE), in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and digestible energy (IVDE), have been evaluated in barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs. The results indicate that, there were significant (P<0.05) increases in IVOMD and IVDE values, especially, at the dose of 150 kGy. The increases in IVOMD were 22, 21 and 23% for barley straw, sorghum straw and wheat chaffs, respectively; whereas, such an increase was 12% for maize cobs. Digestible energy values increased over the control by 1165, 1621, 1540 and 1130 kJ/kg dry matter for barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs, respectively. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiation on GE values for the studied agricultural residues

  20. Changes in digestible energy values of some agricultural residues treated with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1997-07-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 20, 50, 100, 150 kGy) on gross energy (GE), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and digestible energy (IVDE), have been evaluated in barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs, and maize cobs. The results indicate that , there were significant increase in IVOMD and IVDE values, especially, at the dose of 150 kGy. compared with the control, the increase in IVOMD were 22, 21 and 23% for barley straw, sorghum straw, and wheat chaffs, respectively; whereas, the increase was only 12% for maize cobs. Digestible energy values increased by 1165, 1621, 1540, and 1130 MJ/kg dry matter, for barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs, and maize cobs, respectively. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiation on GE values for the studied agricultural residues. (author)

  1. Changes in digestible energy values of some agricultural residues treated with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 100 and 150 kGy) on gross energy (GE), in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and digestible energy (IVDE), have been evaluated in barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs. The results indicate that, there were significant increases in IVOMD and IVDE values, especially, at the dose of 150 kGy. The increases in IVOMD were 22, 21 and 23% for barley straw, sorghum straw, and wheat chaffs, respectively; whereas, such an increase was 12% for maize cobs. Digestible energy values increased over the control by 1165, 1621, 1540 and 1130 kJ/kg dry matter for barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs, respectively. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiation on GE values for the studied agricultural residues. (authors)

  2. Chapter 1: Solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture: back to the future?

    KAUST Repository

    Bundschuh, Jochen

    2017-09-13

    The agri-food chain consumes about one third of the world’s energy production with about 12% for crop production and nearly 80% for processing, distribution, retail, preparation and cooking (Fig. 1.1) (FAO, 2011a). The agri-food chain also accounts for 80-90% of total global freshwater use (Hoff, 2011) where 70% is for irrigation alone. Additionally, on a global scale, freshwater production consumes nearly 15% of the entire energy production (IEA, 2012). It can therefore be argued that making agriculture and the agri-food supply chain independent from fossil fuel use has huge potential to contribute to global food security and climate protection not only for the next decades, but also for the coming century. Provision of secure, accessible and environmentally sustainable supplies of water, energy and food must thus be a priority.

  3. Biogas in organic agriculture-effects on productivity, energy self-sufficiency and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    was obtained for all biogas scenarios, showing that biomass production for biogas on 10% of the farm area results in an energy surplus, provided that the heat from the electricity production is utilized. The energy surplus implies a displacement of fossil fuels and thereby reduced CO2 emission from the farm...... of anaerobic digestion and biogas production were analyzed on a 1000 ha model farm with combined dairy and cash crop production, representing organic agriculture in Denmark. The effects on crop rotation, nitrogen flows and losses, yield, energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were evaluated for four...... scenarios of biogas production on the farm. Animal manure was digested for biogas production in all scenarios and was supplemented with: (1) 100 ha grass–clover for biogas, (2) 100 ha maize for biogas, (3) 200 ha grass–clover for biogas and reduced number of livestock, and (4) 200 ha grass–clover for biogas...

  4. Fossil energy versus nuclear, wind, solar and agricultural biomass: Insights from an Italian national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicia, Gianni; Cembalo, Luigi; Del Giudice, Teresa; Palladino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In Italy there has been considerable political debate around the new energy policy, which is specifically designed to contribute to climate change mitigation. While there is renewed interest in nuclear energy generation, there has been heated debate concerning wind farms that have rapidly expanded and are dramatically changing the landscape in many rural areas. Finally, interest has also increased in biomass as an energy source. However, in this case, a significant part of the population is worried about landscape change and primary crop reduction. In this study we report the results from a nation-wide survey (=504 households) in Italy undertaken during summer 2009. A Latent Class Choice Experiment was used to quantify household preferences over different energy sources. Our results show that Italian households can be split into three segments with homogeneous preferences. The first segment (35% of the population) shows strong preference for wind and solar energy and dislikes both biomass and nuclear. The second (33% of the population) shows moderate preference for solar and wind energy and, as with the first segment, dislikes both nuclear and biomass. The third (32% of the population) shows a strong preference for green energy (solar, wind and biomass) and is very much against nuclear energy. The three segments were also characterized in terms of household socio-economic characteristics. - Highlights: ► We quantify Italian household preferences over different energy sources. ► Results come from a nation-wide survey undertaken during summer 2009. ► Energy sources tested: fossil fuel, nuclear, wind, solar and agricultural biomass. ► A latent class choice experiment was used. ► Italians can be split into three segments with different energy source preferences.

  5. Thermal oxidative degradation kinetics of agricultural residues using distributed activation energy model and global kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiu'e; Chen, Jianbiao; Li, Gang; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Fan, Shuanshi

    2018-08-01

    The study concerned the thermal oxidative degradation kinetics of agricultural residues, peanut shell (PS) and sunflower shell (SS). The thermal behaviors were evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis and the kinetic parameters were determined by using distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and global kinetic model (GKM). Results showed that thermal oxidative decomposition of two samples processed in three zones; the ignition, burnout, and comprehensive combustibility between two agricultural residues were of great difference; and the combustion performance could be improved by boosting heating rate. The activation energy ranges calculated by the DAEM for the thermal oxidative degradation of PS and SS were 88.94-145.30 kJ mol -1 and 94.86-169.18 kJ mol -1 , respectively. The activation energy obtained by the GKM for the oxidative decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose was obviously lower than that for the lignin oxidation at identical heating rate. To some degree, the determined kinetic parameters could acceptably simulate experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and Concept of an Energy System Based on Renewable Sources for Greenhouse Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Aschilean

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-organic greenhouses that are based on alternative resources for producing heat and electricity stand out as an efficient option for the sustainable development of agriculture, thus ensuring good growth and development of plants in all seasons, especially during the cold season. Greenhouses can be used with maximum efficiency in various agricultural lands, providing ideal conditions of temperature and humidity for short-term plant growing, thereby increasing the local production of fruit and vegetables. This paper presents the development of a durable greenhouse concept that is based on complex energy system integrating fuel cells and solar panels. Approaching this innovative concept encountered a major problem in terms of local implementation of this type of greenhouses because of the difficulty in providing electrical and thermal energy from conventional sources to ensure an optimal climate for plant growing. The project result consists in the design and implementation of a sustainable greenhouse energy system that is based on fuel cells and solar panels.

  7. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented

  8. Commodity Price Volatility in the Biofuel Era: An Examination of the Linkage Between Energy and Agricultural Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas W. Hertel; Jayson Beckman

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural and energy commodity prices have traditionally exhibited relatively low – even negative correlation. However, the recent increases in biofuel production have altered the agriculture-energy relationship in a fundamental way. The amount of corn utilized for ethanol production in the US has increased from 5% in 2001 to over one-third by the end of the decade. This increase has drawn corn previously sold to other uses (exports, food, feed), as well as acreage devoted to other crops (...

  9. Method for assessment of the technical potential of the plant agricultural waste suitable for energy purposes in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.

    2004-01-01

    A method for assessment of technical potential of quantitatively important plant agriculture waste; straw from wheat and barley; corn stalks; sunflower stalks and heads; tobacco stalks; orchard prunings and vineyard prunings suitable for energy purposes for Bulgarian conditions is developed. Data for assessment of the technical potential for 2002 using this method are presented. A comparison between technical potential of mentioned wastes, final energy consumption in agriculture and all branches of Bulgarian economy for 2002 is made. (author)

  10. A co-integration analysis of the price and income elasticities of energy demand in Turkish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkekul, Berna; Unakitan, Goekhan

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture has an important role in every country's development. Particularly, the contribution of agriculture to development and competitiveness is increasing with agricultural productivity growth. Productivity, in turn, is closely associated with direct and indirect use of energy as an input. Therefore, the importance of energy in agriculture cannot be denied as one of the basic inputs to the economic growth process. Following the importance of energy in Turkish agriculture, this study aims to estimate the long- and short-run relationship of energy consumption, agricultural GDP, and energy prices via co-integration and error correction (ECM) analysis. Annual data from 1970 to 2008 for diesel and electricity consumptions are utilized to estimate long-run and short-run elasticities. According to ECM analysis, for the diesel demand model, the long-run income and price elasticities were calculated as 1.47 and -0.38, respectively. For the electricity demand model, income and price elasticities were calculated at 0.19 and -0.72, respectively, in the long run. Briefly, in Turkey, support for energy use in agriculture should be continued in order to ensure sustainability in agriculture, increase competitiveness in international markets, and balance farmers' income. - Research highlights: → We estimate the long and short run elasticities for diesel and electricity demands in agriculture. → The long-run income and price elasticities calculated as 1.47 and 0.38, respectively for diesel. → The long run Income and price elasticities calculated as 0.19 and 0.72 for electricity.

  11. A co-integration analysis of the price and income elasticities of energy demand in Turkish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkekul, Berna, E-mail: berna.turkekul@ege.edu.t [Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Unakitan, Goekhan, E-mail: unakitan@nku.edu.t [Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Agriculture has an important role in every country's development. Particularly, the contribution of agriculture to development and competitiveness is increasing with agricultural productivity growth. Productivity, in turn, is closely associated with direct and indirect use of energy as an input. Therefore, the importance of energy in agriculture cannot be denied as one of the basic inputs to the economic growth process. Following the importance of energy in Turkish agriculture, this study aims to estimate the long- and short-run relationship of energy consumption, agricultural GDP, and energy prices via co-integration and error correction (ECM) analysis. Annual data from 1970 to 2008 for diesel and electricity consumptions are utilized to estimate long-run and short-run elasticities. According to ECM analysis, for the diesel demand model, the long-run income and price elasticities were calculated as 1.47 and -0.38, respectively. For the electricity demand model, income and price elasticities were calculated at 0.19 and -0.72, respectively, in the long run. Briefly, in Turkey, support for energy use in agriculture should be continued in order to ensure sustainability in agriculture, increase competitiveness in international markets, and balance farmers' income. - Research highlights: {yields} We estimate the long and short run elasticities for diesel and electricity demands in agriculture. {yields} The long-run income and price elasticities calculated as 1.47 and 0.38, respectively for diesel. {yields} The long run Income and price elasticities calculated as 0.19 and 0.72 for electricity.

  12. Trade and agriculture policy conditions for the use of plant oils in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerdens, R.

    1994-01-01

    Preservation of resources, ecology and agricultural policy supply the most important argument for an increased use of raw materials which grow again. Regenerative raw materials are at present grown on about 2.5% of the arable land area in Germany, where production for the chemical technical field is to the fore. Access to the energy field is, however, difficult due to the considerable economic deficit compared to fossil fuels. Possibilities of use exist mainly in heating plant and in Diesel engines. (BWI) [de

  13. Safe use of metal-contaminated agricultural land by cultivation of energy maize (Zea mays)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Slycken, S.; Witters, N.; Meers, E.; Peene, A.; Michels, E.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Vangronsveld, J.; Du Laing, G.; Wierinck, I.; Van Dael, M.; Van Passel, S.; Tack, F.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Production of food crops on trace element-contaminated agricultural lands in the Campine region (Belgium) can be problematic as legal threshold values for safe use of these crops can be exceeded. Conventional sanitation of vast areas is too expensive and alternatives need to be investigated. Zea mays on a trace element-contaminated soil in the region showed an average yield of 53 ± 10 Mg fresh or 20 ± 3 Mg dry biomass ha −1 . Whole plant Cd concentrations complied with legal threshold values for animal feed. Moreover, threshold values for use in anaerobic digestion were met. Biogas production potential did not differ between maize grown on contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Results suggested favorable perspectives for farmers to generate non-food crops profitably, although effective soil cleaning would be very slow. This demonstrates that a valuable and sustainable alternative use can be generated for moderately contaminated soils on which conventional agriculture is impaired. -- Highlights: •Zea mays on trace element-contaminated soil has an average yield of 20 ± 3 Mg DW ha −1 . •Whole plant Cd concentrations complied with legal threshold values for animal feed. •Biogas production did not differ from maize grown on non-contaminated soils. •Perspectives are favorable for farmers to generate non-food crops profitably. •Effective soil cleaning would be very slow. -- Energy maize cultivation constitutes a sustainable alternative use of trace element-contaminated agricultural soils

  14. Energy Savings from Optimised In-Field Route Planning for Agricultural Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios Rodias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors technologies, such as machine vision and global positioning system (GPS have been implemented in navigation of agricultural vehicles. Automated navigation systems have proved the potential for the execution of optimised route plans for field area coverage. This paper presents an assessment of the reduction of the energy requirements derived from the implementation of optimised field area coverage planning. The assessment regards the analysis of the energy requirements and the comparison between the non-optimised and optimised plans for field area coverage in the whole sequence of operations required in two different cropping systems: Miscanthus and Switchgrass production. An algorithmic approach for the simulation of the executed field operations by following both non-optimised and optimised field-work patterns was developed. As a result, the corresponding time requirements were estimated as the basis of the subsequent energy cost analysis. Based on the results, the optimised routes reduce the fuel energy consumption up to 8%, the embodied energy consumption up to 7%, and the total energy consumption from 3% up to 8%.

  15. Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

  16. Observational constraint on the interacting dark energy models including the Sandage-Loeb test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2014-05-01

    Two types of interacting dark energy models are investigated using the type Ia supernova (SNIa), observational data (OHD), cosmic microwave background shift parameter, and the secular Sandage-Loeb (SL) test. In the investigation, we have used two sets of parameter priors including WMAP-9 and Planck 2013. They have shown some interesting differences. We find that the inclusion of SL test can obviously provide a more stringent constraint on the parameters in both models. For the constant coupling model, the interaction term has been improved to be only a half of the original scale on corresponding errors. Comparing with only SNIa and OHD, we find that the inclusion of the SL test almost reduces the best-fit interaction to zero, which indicates that the higher-redshift observation including the SL test is necessary to track the evolution of the interaction. For the varying coupling model, data with the inclusion of the SL test show that the parameter at C.L. in Planck priors is , where the constant is characteristic for the severity of the coincidence problem. This indicates that the coincidence problem will be less severe. We then reconstruct the interaction , and we find that the best-fit interaction is also negative, similar to the constant coupling model. However, for a high redshift, the interaction generally vanishes at infinity. We also find that the phantom-like dark energy with is favored over the CDM model.

  17. Energy market as a non-food application for European agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1993-01-01

    Sustainable non-food cropping systems for arable land are being studied intensively both in Scandinavia and elsewhere in Europe to find alternatives, in which the need for economic subvention would be lower than the export subsidies for grain or other food products. The area of arable land available for non-food cultivation is about 1 million hectares in Finland and 20 - 30 million hectares in the European Communities. In addition to conventional crops and afforestatation, it is possible to grow energy plants (willow, poplar, miscanthus, etc.) and agrofibre plants in these areas. Cultivation of energy willows or other corresponding plants of less than 5 m in height is usually not considered afforestation, as a willow field can easily be retaken into agricultural use with certain reservations (e.g., covered drains can be clogged) This article gives a survey of the alternatives for the utilization of non-food cropping systems

  18. Regional analysis of potential energy production from agricultural wastes: technical and economic study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Have, H

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities for utilization of agricultural wastes for energy production are analyzed in two Danish counties, Ringkoebing and Vestsjaelland, which have different agricultural production patterns. The quantitative analysis shows that the major waste products, surplus straw, waste wood and animal waste, in total with present technique can cover about 28% of the demand for heat energy (mostly space heating) in both counties. The potential coverage from straw, wood and animal waste is about 3, 3 and 22% in Ringkoebing and 18, 2 and 8% in Vestsjaelland respectively. A technical analysis indicates that direct combustion is the most favorable conversion method for straw and wood while biological conversion at present is best suited for animal waste. An economic analysis based on costs of collection, storage, transport and conversion of wastes and costs of corresponding oil and oil conversion were made. From a community point of view only straw and wood are found to be competitive to the expensive gas fuel oil when burned in automatically stoked furnaces. From a heating station point of view waste utilization is more attractive because of the sales tax on oil products. Here straw and wood are competitive fuels to both gas and heavy fuel oil in all the analyzed systems except from the small manually stoked furnaces. Animal waste seems to be competitive only when replacing gas fuel oil in medium size (500 kW) well utilized aerobic fermenters.

  19. Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Nilsson, Mans; Finnveden, Goeran

    2008-01-01

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors

  20. The effect of gamma irradiation on in vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the effect of gamma irradiation on total energy, dry organic matter digestibility and on digestible energy of organic matter for some agricultural residues (maize straw, lentils straw, cottonwood, residues of apple-tree pruning, olive-cake first and second treatment). Sample were irradiated at 0, 50 and 100 KGy. Total energy was estimated by calorimeter. Digestibility was estimated in vitro by the method of Tilly and Terry (1963). Two sheep with rumen fistula were used as rumen liquor donating animals. Irradiation resulted in increasing the digestion of organic and dry matter and also the digestible energy of organic matter in all residues used except lentils straw and olive-cake first treatment. The increase in digestible energy values of organic matter (kJ) at dose of 100 KGy were: 155, 105, 71 and 25 for residue of apple-tree pruning, maize straw, cottonwood and olive-cake second treatment, respectively. (author).28 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Considerations for reducing food system energy demand while scaling up urban agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareb, Eugene; Heller, Martin; Novak, Paige; Goldstein, Benjamin; Fonoll, Xavier; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing global interest in scaling up urban agriculture (UA) in its various forms, from private gardens to sophisticated commercial operations. Much of this interest is in the spirit of environmental protection, with reduced waste and transportation energy highlighted as some of the proposed benefits of UA; however, explicit consideration of energy and resource requirements needs to be made in order to realize these anticipated environmental benefits. A literature review is undertaken here to provide new insight into the energy implications of scaling up UA in cities in high-income countries, considering UA classification, direct/indirect energy pressures, and interactions with other components of the food-energy-water nexus. This is followed by an exploration of ways in which these cities can plan for the exploitation of waste flows for resource-efficient UA. Given that it is estimated that the food system contributes nearly 15% of total US energy demand, optimization of resource use in food production, distribution, consumption, and waste systems may have a significant energy impact. There are limited data available that quantify resource demand implications directly associated with UA systems, highlighting that the literature is not yet sufficiently robust to make universal claims on benefits. This letter explores energy demand from conventional resource inputs, various production systems, water/energy trade-offs, alternative irrigation, packaging materials, and transportation/supply chains to shed light on UA-focused research needs. By analyzing data and cases from the existing literature, we propose that gains in energy efficiency could be realized through the co-location of UA operations with waste streams (e.g. heat, CO2, greywater, wastewater, compost), potentially increasing yields and offsetting life cycle energy demands relative to conventional approaches. This begs a number of energy-focused UA research questions that explore the

  2. Water-food-energy nexus with changing agricultural scenarios in India during recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Beas; Ghosh, Subimal; Saheer Sahana, A.; Pathak, Amey; Sekhar, Muddu

    2017-06-01

    Meeting the growing water and food demands in a densely populated country like India is a major challenge. It requires an extensive investigation into the changing patterns of the checks and balances behind the maintenance of food security at the expense of depleting groundwater, along with high energy consumption. Here we present a comprehensive set of analyses which assess the present status of the water-food-energy nexus in India, along with its changing pattern, in the last few decades. We find that with the growth of population and consequent increase in the food demands, the food production has also increased, and this has been made possible with the intensification of irrigation. However, during the recent decade (after 1996), the increase in food production has not been sufficient to meet its growing demands, precipitating a decline in the per-capita food availability. We also find a statistically significant declining trend of groundwater storage in India during the last decade, as derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite datasets. Regional studies reveal contrasting trends between northern and western-central India. North-western India and the middle Ganga basin show a decrease in the groundwater storage as opposed to an increasing storage over western-central India. Comparison with well data reveals that the highest consistency of GRACE-derived storage data with available well measurements is in the middle Ganga basin. After analysing the data for the last 2 decades, we further showcase that, after a drought, the groundwater storage drops but is unable to recover to its original condition even after good monsoon years. The groundwater storage reveals a very strong negative correlation with the electricity consumption for agricultural usage, which may also be considered as a proxy for groundwater pumped for irrigation in a region. The electricity usage for agricultural purposes has an increasing trend and, interestingly

  3. Water–food–energy nexus with changing agricultural scenarios in India during recent decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the growing water and food demands in a densely populated country like India is a major challenge. It requires an extensive investigation into the changing patterns of the checks and balances behind the maintenance of food security at the expense of depleting groundwater, along with high energy consumption. Here we present a comprehensive set of analyses which assess the present status of the water–food–energy nexus in India, along with its changing pattern, in the last few decades. We find that with the growth of population and consequent increase in the food demands, the food production has also increased, and this has been made possible with the intensification of irrigation. However, during the recent decade (after 1996, the increase in food production has not been sufficient to meet its growing demands, precipitating a decline in the per-capita food availability. We also find a statistically significant declining trend of groundwater storage in India during the last decade, as derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite datasets. Regional studies reveal contrasting trends between northern and western–central India. North-western India and the middle Ganga basin show a decrease in the groundwater storage as opposed to an increasing storage over western–central India. Comparison with well data reveals that the highest consistency of GRACE-derived storage data with available well measurements is in the middle Ganga basin. After analysing the data for the last 2 decades, we further showcase that, after a drought, the groundwater storage drops but is unable to recover to its original condition even after good monsoon years. The groundwater storage reveals a very strong negative correlation with the electricity consumption for agricultural usage, which may also be considered as a proxy for groundwater pumped for irrigation in a region. The electricity usage for agricultural purposes has an increasing

  4. Charge separation at nanoscale interfaces: energy-level alignment including two-quasiparticle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huashan; Lin, Zhibin; Lusk, Mark T; Wu, Zhigang

    2014-10-21

    The universal and fundamental criteria for charge separation at interfaces involving nanoscale materials are investigated. In addition to the single-quasiparticle excitation, all the two-quasiparticle effects including exciton binding, Coulomb stabilization, and exciton transfer are considered, which play critical roles on nanoscale interfaces for optoelectronic applications. We propose a scheme allowing adding these two-quasiparticle interactions on top of the single-quasiparticle energy level alignment for determining and illuminating charge separation at nanoscale interfaces. Employing the many-body perturbation theory based on Green's functions, we quantitatively demonstrate that neglecting or simplifying these crucial two-quasiparticle interactions using less accurate methods is likely to predict qualitatively incorrect charge separation behaviors at nanoscale interfaces where quantum confinement dominates.

  5. 78 FR 8511 - RPA Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-826-000] RPA Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of RPA Energy, Inc...

  6. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-33-000] Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  7. 77 FR 53884 - North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2444-000] North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... North Sky River Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  8. 75 FR 10244 - TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-792-000] TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of TC Energy Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  9. 75 FR 10245 - S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-735-000] S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  10. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1561-000] Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. 76 FR 43684 - Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4041-000] Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  12. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2166-000] Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (USA) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  13. 75 FR 61747 - Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... proceeding of Discount Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2803-000] Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  14. 78 FR 34372 - TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1586-000] TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of TGP Energy...

  15. 75 FR 37430 - Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1470-000] Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  16. 76 FR 19351 - Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3188-000] Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding Stream Energy...

  17. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-225-000] Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  18. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2311-000] Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  19. 76 FR 6614 - Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2765-000] Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Elk Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  20. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1400-000] Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  1. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2313-000] Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request For... Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  2. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2200-000] Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  3. 75 FR 82381 - Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2436-000] Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Oracle Energy Services, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2268-000] FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  5. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-468-000] Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  6. 77 FR 66976 - Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER13-281-000] Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Star Energy...

  7. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-956-000] Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  8. Privacy-preserving smart meter control strategy including energy storage losses

    OpenAIRE

    Avula, Chinni Venkata Ramana R.; Oechtering, Tobias J.; Månsson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Privacy-preserving smart meter control strategies proposed in the literature so far make some ideal assumptions such as instantaneous control without delay, lossless energy storage systems etc. In this paper, we present a one-step-ahead predictive control strategy using Bayesian risk to measure and control privacy leakage with an energy storage system. The controller estimates energy state using a three-circuit energy storage model to account for steady-state energy losses. With numerical exp...

  9. Land-Sparing Opportunities for Solar Energy Development in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study of the Great Central Valley, CA, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, Madison K; Allen, Michael F; Hernandez, Rebecca R

    2017-12-19

    Land-cover change from energy development, including solar energy, presents trade-offs for land used for the production of food and the conservation of ecosystems. Solar energy plays a critical role in contributing to the alternative energy mix to mitigate climate change and meet policy milestones; however, the extent that solar energy development on nonconventional surfaces can mitigate land scarcity is understudied. Here, we evaluate the land sparing potential of solar energy development across four nonconventional land-cover types: the built environment, salt-affected land, contaminated land, and water reservoirs (as floatovoltaics), within the Great Central Valley (CV, CA), a globally significant agricultural region where land for food production, urban development, and conservation collide. Furthermore, we calculate the technical potential (TWh year -1 ) of these land sparing sites and test the degree to which projected electricity needs for the state of California can be met therein. In total, the CV encompasses 15% of CA, 8415 km 2 of which was identified as potentially land-sparing for solar energy development. These areas comprise a capacity-based energy potential of at least 17 348 TWh year -1 for photovoltaic (PV) and 2213 TWh year -1 for concentrating solar power (CSP). Accounting for technology efficiencies, this exceeds California's 2025 projected electricity demands up to 13 and 2 times for PV and CSP, respectively. Our study underscores the potential of strategic renewable energy siting to mitigate environmental trade-offs typically coupled with energy sprawl in agricultural landscapes.

  10. Energy conservation in the Netherlands 1995-2006. Including decomposition of the energy consumption trend; Energiebesparing in Nederland 1995-2007. Inclusief decompositie energieverbruikstrend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, J.; Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Vreuls, H. [SenterNovem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verdonk, M. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Pouwelse, J.W. [Centraal Planbureau CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    Realized energy savings in the Netherlands for the period 1995-2007 are presented for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services, transport, refineries and electricity, and on a national level. The figures on energy savings are based on the 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Savings', a common methodology and database for calculating energy savings. Results are presented for savings on final energy use, conversion in end-use sectors (co-generation) and conversion in the energy sector. National savings for the period 1995-2007 equal 0.9% per year on average, with a decreasing tendency in recent years. Continuing the trends of last year, the highest figure for end-use sectors is found for agriculture (2.6%) and the lowest figure for transport (0.1%). An uncertainty analysis reveals that the margin for the national savings figure is {+-}0.3 percent-point. At the request of PBL, a decomposition of the change in energy use into 14 different factors has been conducted. This shows that the growth of energy use from 1995 to 2007, if no savings would have been achieved, would have been almost twice as high. [Dutch] In dit rapport worden de energiebesparingcijfers gepresenteerd voor de periode 1995-2007, berekend volgens het Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing (PME). De besparing wordt berekend voor de verbruiksectoren industrie, huishoudens, transport, land- en tuinbouw, diensten en raffinaderijen, de elektriciteitscentrales en het nationale niveau.

  11. Analysis of potency and development of renewable energy based on agricultural biomass waste in Jambi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devita, W. H.; Fauzi, A. M.; Purwanto, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has the big potency of biomass. The source of biomass energy is scattered all over the country. The big potential in concentrated scale is on the island of Sumatera. Jambi province which is located in Sumatra Island has the potency of biomass energy due to a huge area for estate crop and agriculture. The Indonesian government had issued several policies which put a higher priority on the utilization of renewable energy. This study aimed to identify the conditions and distribution of biomass waste potential in Jambi province. The potential biomass waste in Jambi province was 27,407,183 tons per year which dominated of oil palm residue (46.16%), rice husk and straw (3.52%), replanting rubberwood (50.32%). The total power generated from biomass waste was 129 GWhth per year which is consisted of palm oil residue (56 GWhth per year), rice husk and straw (3.22 GWhth per year), rubberwood (70.56 GWhth per year). Based on the potential of biomass waste, then the province of Jambi could obtain supplies of renewable energy from waste biomass with electricity generated amount to 32.34 GWhe per year.

  12. Low - energy Accelerator - based Nuclear Biotechnology for Applications in Agriculture and Biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Phanchaisri, B.; Wongkham, W.; Vilaithong, T.

    2014-01-01

    A novel biotechnology based on low-energy-accelerator nuclear technology has recently been rapidly developed internationally. Low-energy ion beams with energy in a range of 10-100 keV generated from ion accelerators bombard plant seeds or tissues for mutation induction and plant or mammalian cells for gene transfection induction to benefit to agriculture and biomedicine. In Thailand, centered at Chiang Mai University, this so-called low-energy ion beam biotechnology has been explored and developed for more than a decade. Bioengineering-specialized ion implanters have been constructed and utilized for both research and applications. Certain Thai local rice mutants have been induced and achieved with improved characters of dwarf, photo-insensitivity, enriched nutrients and higher yields. Mutants of other plants such as flowers, vegetables and microorganisms have also been induced with improved properties. DNA transfer into bacterial and mammalian cells has been induced by ion beams. Particularly, ion-beam-induced gene transfection into human cells succeeded to initiate a new non-viral gene transfection method for potential gene therapy.

  13. Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daccache, A.; Ciurana, J. S.; Rodriguez Diaz, J. A.; Knox, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region. Modelled outputs were linked with crop yield and water resources data to estimate water (m3 kg-1) and energy (CO2 kg-1) productivity and identify vulnerable areas or ‘hotspots’. For a selected key crops in the region, irrigation accounts for 61 km3 yr-1 of water abstraction and 1.78 Gt CO2 emissions yr-1, with most emissions from sunflower (73 kg CO2/t) and cotton (60 kg CO2/t) production. Wheat is a major strategic crop in the region and was estimated to have a water productivity of 1000 t Mm-3 and emissions of 31 kg CO2/t. Irrigation modernization would save around 8 km3 of water but would correspondingly increase CO2 emissions by around +135%. Shifting from rain-fed to irrigated production would increase irrigation demand to 166 km3 yr-1 (+137%) whilst CO2 emissions would rise by +270%. The study has major policy implications for understanding the water-energy-food nexus in the region and the trade-offs between strategies to save water, reduce CO2 emissions and/or intensify food production.

  14. Investigation the Effects of Operation Methods on Energy Consumption in Agricultural Water Pumping Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DelfanAzari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The energy crisis has led the world toward the reduction of energy consumption. More than 70 percent of the energy in agriculture sector is used by pumps. In our country, there is no clear standard and guideline and also no adequate supervision for the design, selection, installation and operation of pumping systems appropriate to the circumstances and needs. Consequently, these systems operate with low efficiency and high losses of energy. While more than 20 percent of the world's electricity is consumed by pumps, average pumping efficiency is less than 40%. So evaluation of pumping stations and providing some solutions to increase efficiency and pumping system’s life time and to reduce energy consumption can be an effective in optimization of energy consumption in the country. The main reasons for the low efficiency of pumping systems comparing to potential efficiency are using unsuitable techniques for flow control, hydraulic and physical changes of pumping system during the time, using pumps or motors with low efficiency and poor maintenance. Normally the amount of flow is not constant over the time in a pumping system and needed flow rate is changed at different times. Designing of pumping system should be responsible for peak requirements as well as it must suggest the suitable flow control method to achieve least energy losses for minimum flow requirements. Also one of the main capabilities to reduce energy consumption in pumping stations is improving the flow control method. Using the flow control valves and bypass line with high energy losses is very common. While the use of variable speed pumps (VSPs that supply water requirement with sufficient pressure and minimum amount of energy, is limited due to lack of awareness of designers and (or high initial costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the operation of the pumping stations under four scenarios (for discharge control in a drip irrigation system was analyzed

  15. Robust scaling laws for energy confinement time, including radiated fraction, in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the limitations of scalings in power-law form that are obtained from traditional log regression have become increasingly evident in many fields of research. Given the wide gap in operational space between present-day and next-generation devices, robustness of the obtained models in guaranteeing reasonable extrapolability is a major issue. In this paper, a new technique, called symbolic regression, is reviewed, refined, and applied to the ITPA database for extracting scaling laws of the energy-confinement time at different radiated fraction levels. The main advantage of this new methodology is its ability to determine the most appropriate mathematical form of the scaling laws to model the available databases without the restriction of their having to be power laws. In a completely new development, this technique is combined with the concept of geodesic distance on Gaussian manifolds so as to take into account the error bars in the measurements and provide more reliable models. Robust scaling laws, including radiated fractions as regressor, have been found; they are not in power-law form, and are significantly better than the traditional scalings. These scaling laws, including radiated fractions, extrapolate quite differently to ITER, and therefore they require serious consideration. On the other hand, given the limitations of the existing databases, dedicated experimental investigations will have to be carried out to fully understand the impact of radiated fractions on the confinement in metallic machines and in the next generation of devices.

  16. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

    2012-11-06

    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  17. A control method for agricultural greenhouses heating based on computational fluid dynamics and energy prediction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiaoliao; Xu, Fang; Tan, Dapeng; Shen, Zheng; Zhang, Libin; Ai, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel control method for the heating greenhouse with SWSHPS is proposed. • CFD is employed to predict the priorities of FCU loops for thermal performance. • EPM is act as an on-line tool to predict the total energy demand of greenhouse. • The CFD–EPM-based method can save energy and improve control accuracy. • The energy savings potential is between 8.7% and 15.1%. - Abstract: As energy heating is one of the main production costs, many efforts have been made to reduce the energy consumption of agricultural greenhouses. Herein, a novel control method of greenhouse heating using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and energy prediction model (EPM) is proposed for energy savings and system performance. Based on the low-Reynolds number k–ε turbulence principle, a CFD model of heating greenhouse is developed, applying the discrete ordinates model for the radiative heat transfers and porous medium approach for plants considering plants sensible and latent heat exchanges. The CFD simulations have been validated, and used to analyze the greenhouse thermal performance and the priority of fan coil units (FCU) loops under the various heating conditions. According to the heating efficiency and temperature uniformity, the priorities of each FCU loop can be predicted to generate a database with priorities for control system. EPM is built up based on the thermal balance, and used to predict and optimize the energy demand of the greenhouse online. Combined with the priorities of FCU loops from CFD simulations offline, we have developed the CFD–EPM-based heating control system of greenhouse with surface water source heat pumps system (SWSHPS). Compared with conventional multi-zone independent control (CMIC) method, the energy savings potential is between 8.7% and 15.1%, and the control temperature deviation is decreased to between 0.1 °C and 0.6 °C in the investigated greenhouse. These results show the CFD–EPM-based method can improve system

  18. Probing dark energy with cluster counts and cosmic shear power spectra: including the full covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Masahiro; Bridle, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Several dark energy experiments are available from a single large-area imaging survey and may be combined to improve cosmological parameter constraints and/or test inherent systematics. Two promising experiments are cosmic shear power spectra and counts of galaxy clusters. However, the two experiments probe the same cosmic mass density field in large-scale structure, therefore the combination may be less powerful than first thought. We investigate the cross-covariance between the cosmic shear power spectra and the cluster counts based on the halo model approach, where the cross-covariance arises from the three-point correlations of the underlying mass density field. Fully taking into account the cross-covariance, as well as non-Gaussian errors on the lensing power spectrum covariance, we find a significant cross-correlation between the lensing power spectrum signals at multipoles l∼10 3 and the cluster counts containing halos with masses M∼>10 14 M o-dot . Including the cross-covariance for the combined measurement degrades and in some cases improves the total signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios up to ∼±20% relative to when the two are independent. For cosmological parameter determination, the cross-covariance has a smaller effect as a result of working in a multi-dimensional parameter space, implying that the two observables can be considered independent to a good approximation. We also discuss the fact that cluster count experiments using lensing-selected mass peaks could be more complementary to cosmic shear tomography than mass-selected cluster counts of the corresponding mass threshold. Using lensing selected clusters with a realistic usable detection threshold ((S/N) cluster ∼6 for a ground-based survey), the uncertainty on each dark energy parameter may be roughly halved by the combined experiments, relative to using the power spectra alone

  19. Optimization of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesters including non-linear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R; McWilliam, S; Popov, A A

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a versatile non-linear model for predicting piezoelectric energy harvester performance. The presented model includes (i) material non-linearity, for both substrate and piezoelectric layers, and (ii) geometric non-linearity incorporated by assuming inextensibility and accurately representing beam curvature. The addition of a sub-model, which utilizes the transfer matrix method to predict eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors for segmented beams, allows for accurate optimization of piezoelectric layer coverage. A validation of the overall theoretical model is performed through experimental testing on both uniform and non-uniform samples manufactured in-house. For the harvester composition used in this work, the magnitude of material non-linearity exhibited by the piezoelectric layer is 35 times greater than that of the substrate layer. It is also observed that material non-linearity, responsible for reductions in resonant frequency with increases in base acceleration, is dominant over geometric non-linearity for standard piezoelectric harvesting devices. Finally, over the tested range, energy loss due to damping is found to increase in a quasi-linear fashion with base acceleration. During an optimization study on piezoelectric layer coverage, results from the developed model were compared with those from a linear model. Unbiased comparisons between harvesters were realized by using devices with identical natural frequencies—created by adjusting the device substrate thickness. Results from three studies, each with a different assumption on mechanical damping variations, are presented. Findings showed that, depending on damping variation, a non-linear model is essential for such optimization studies with each model predicting vastly differing optimum configurations. (paper)

  20. Analysis to develop a program for energy conservation in irrigated agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.; Brix, V.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Laughlin, B.M.

    1978-09-01

    It is estimated by the FEA that 0.26 quadrillion Btus of energy is annually required to irrigate crops in the USA. The development of a DOE program for energy conservation in irrigation is described. Information is included on: studies of how this energy consumption can be reduced and by how much; engineering and economic studies of irrigation equipment and methods; proposals for improving the efficiency of pumps and prime movers; projects selected for demonstrating irrigation energy conservation; and recommendations for further research. (LCL)

  1. A guide to the sources of energy use statistics for the industrial, commercial, agricultural and institutional sectors of the Canadian economy. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The intent of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive description of the current data available on energy consumption in selected sectors in Canada. These sectors are the industrial sector--mainly fishing/trapping, logging/forestry, mining, manufacturing, and construction--agriculture (including all types of farm operations and agricultural service industries) and the commerical/institutional sector (excluding government or public administration). Summaries of the sources of energy use information are presented according to source agency and individual energy commodity. Data bases are assessed according to the kinds of data collected, collection methods, availability, quality, coverage, format of presentation and units used, timeliness, and usefulness for analysis and forecasting. A separate section of the report discusses some of the problems with the data available, such as standardization of data codes, data gaps, lack of detail, and reconciliation of different data sources. 36 tabs.

  2. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  3. Investigating the interdependence between non-hydroelectric renewable energy, agricultural value added, and arable land use in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2017-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relationships between per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, real gross domestic product (GDP), non-hydroelectric renewable energy (NHRE) consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), and agricultural land (AGRL) use for the case of Argentina over the period 1980-2013 by employing the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests. The Wald test confirms the existence of a long-run cointegration between variables. T...

  4. The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: evidence for North Africa countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses panel cointegration techniques and Granger causality tests to investigate the dynamic causal links between per capita renewable energy consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and real gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of five North Africa countries spanning the period 1980-2011. In the short-run, the Granger causality tests show the existence of a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and agriculture, a unidirectional causali...

  5. Clever farmers give gas: model solutions for agricultural biogas systems. Results from the BMVEL (Federal Ministry for Consumers' Protection, Nutrition and Agriculture) model project 2004/2005: Moel solutions for environment-friendly and economical energy utilization with agricultural biogas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niebaum, A.; Jaeger, P.

    2005-01-01

    With the examples of biogas system concepts from practical agriculture, farmers, consultants, representatives of authorities and all those interested in biogas are shown successful and proved solutions concepts of generating energy from biogas. The project included agricultural enterprises with biogas systems who have implemented a biologically and technically efficient biomass utilization, who have optimized their operations by means of the biogas system, who have integrated their biogas system in their operational concept and who were able to harmonize the objectives of using a biogas system with the environment and the regional specificities

  6. Analysis of wind energy potential for agriculture pump in mountain area Aceh Besar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Fuadi, Zahrul

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the potential of wind power for agricultural pump driver in Saree mountainous area of Aceh Besar is analyzed. It is found that the average usable wind speed is 6.41 m/s, which is potential to produce 893.96 Watt of electricity with the wind turbine rotor diameter of 3 m. This energy can be used to drive up to 614 Watt of water pump with static head of 20 m to irrigate 19 hectare of land, 7 hours a day. HOMER analysis indicated the lowest simulated NPC value of USD 10.028 with CoE of USD 0.717 kWh. It is also indicated that the wind has potential to produce 3452 kWh/year with lifetime of 15 years.

  7. Energy saving in agricultural pumping equipment; Ahorro de energia en equipos de bombeo agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R Aracely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper analyses the current state of the pumping equipment for agricultural irrigation in Mexico. Because of being of the vertical centrifugal turbine type pumps, the most commonly utilized for this service, the study has been focussed into this equipment, obtaining efficiency and consumption scenarios, as well as the potential energy saving existing in this sector. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se analiza el estado actual de los equipos de bombeo para riego agricola en Mexico, al ser las bombas centrifugas verticales tipo turbina, las mas comunmente utilizadas para este servicio, el estudio ha sido enfocado a estos equipos, obteniendose los escenarios de eficiencias y consumos, asi como, el potencial de ahorro energetico existente en este sector.

  8. Energy saving in agricultural pumping equipment; Ahorro de energia en equipos de bombeo agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R. Aracely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper analyses the current state of the pumping equipment for agricultural irrigation in Mexico. Because of being of the vertical centrifugal turbine type pumps, the most commonly utilized for this service, the study has been focussed into this equipment, obtaining efficiency and consumption scenarios, as well as the potential energy saving existing in this sector. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se analiza el estado actual de los equipos de bombeo para riego agricola en Mexico, al ser las bombas centrifugas verticales tipo turbina, las mas comunmente utilizadas para este servicio, el estudio ha sido enfocado a estos equipos, obteniendose los escenarios de eficiencias y consumos, asi como, el potencial de ahorro energetico existente en este sector.

  9. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  10. Energy technology impacts on agriculture with a bibliography of models for impact assessment on crop ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, E.M.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1979-09-01

    Possible impacts of energy technologies on agriculture are evaluated, and some of the available simulation models that can be used for predictive purposes are identified. An overview of energy technologies and impacts on the environment is presented to provide a framework for the commentary on the models. Coal combustion is shown to have major impacts on the environment and these will continue into the next century according to current Department of Energy projections. Air pollution effects will thus remain as the major impacts on crop ecosystems. Two hundred reports were evaluated, representing a wide range of models increasing in complexity from mathematical functions (fitted to data) through parametric models (which represent phenomena without describing the mechanisms) to mechanistic models (based on physical, chemical, and physiological principles). Many models were viewed as suitable for adaptation to technology assessment through the incorporation of representative dose-response relationships. It is clear that in many cases available models cannot be taken and directly applied in technology assessment. Very few models of air pollutant-crop interactions were identified, even though there is a considerable data base of pollutant effects on crops.

  11. Use of renewable energy for desalination in urban agriculture in the GCC countries: Possibilities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Al-Jabri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current dependence of the GCC countries on fossil oil and gas is unwise in terms of economic and environmental sustainability. GCC countries must consider the use of renewable energy to cope with price fluctuations of oil and gas in the global market and to lower the emission of green house gases. The demand for food and water in the GCC countriesis increasing due to high growth rate of population. Given the weather conditions and available amounts of natural water resources, the demand on food and water cannot be met unless alternative sources of water are considered. Several studies pointed out that the desalination technology is probably the only option for producing ample amounts of water for food production in arid environments. This work explores the potential of use of desalination technology for producing irrigation water in GCC countries, with special emphasis on experience of the Sultanate of Oman compared with that of Spain. Desalination can always provide a tailored-quality irrigation water at any climatic conditions. The main challenge for considering desalination for agriculture is purely economic; where GCC countries could consider it only if intensive horticulture of high-value cash crops, such as vegetables and flowers in controlled environments, is considered. Disposal of brine water is also a challenge and must be done at an additional cost. Depending on the quality of desalinated water, several studies showed that solar-operated desalination technologies are in a mature stage and economically viable. Therefore, solar energy can make the desalination technology an attractive option to sustain agriculture and food supply in GCC countries.

  12. Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daccache, A; Ciurana, J S; Knox, J W; Rodriguez Diaz, J A

    2014-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region. Modelled outputs were linked with crop yield and water resources data to estimate water (m 3 kg −1 ) and energy (CO 2 kg −1 ) productivity and identify vulnerable areas or ‘hotspots’. For a selected key crops in the region, irrigation accounts for 61 km 3 yr −1 of water abstraction and 1.78 Gt CO 2 emissions yr −1 , with most emissions from sunflower (73 kg CO 2 /t) and cotton (60 kg CO 2 /t) production. Wheat is a major strategic crop in the region and was estimated to have a water productivity of 1000 t Mm −3 and emissions of 31 kg CO 2 /t. Irrigation modernization would save around 8 km 3 of water but would correspondingly increase CO 2 emissions by around +135%. Shifting from rain-fed to irrigated production would increase irrigation demand to 166 km 3 yr −1 (+137%) whilst CO 2 emissions would rise by +270%. The study has major policy implications for understanding the water–energy–food nexus in the region and the trade-offs between strategies to save water, reduce CO 2 emissions and/or intensify food production. (letter)

  13. Technicoeconomic optimization of a hybrid agricultural drier using supplement and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezbakhe, El Bouardi H.; Ajzoul, T.

    2006-01-01

    Solar energy installations are very expensive, what carries out to research the simple and economic means. However the real problem of the industrial utilization of the solar energy is not posed in these terms. Better adapted solutions are generally not simple, and are sometimes independent of prioritised research of the best reverent price, will that these considerations are only developed on few examples as the solar heating of building. The drying, in general, is one of processes that was thermally most studied, wasn't economically developed. In this research work, we are interested in evaluating the economic profitability of a hybrid drier installation while leading a comparative study between two total costs. -The first one is relative to hybrid installation (solar-fossil) where air collectors and stock, which are considered as a solar size, were modelled. -The second one, used as a reference, is relative to the fossil dryer installation. It must satisfy the same energy demand than the first one. For this, we must establish the general equation of assessment of values relative to the drying operation; the energy value is not necessarily currency, but it could be done by any unspecified scale of reference. We retained that of thermodynamic origin. The object of these methods, when it acts only on one optimisation constraint, is to minimize the function-objective, organized by the total cost of the project, expressed in a certain domains of value (currency, energy). This total cost being given by the balanced sum of the investments and exploitation costs, considering a certain mode of calculation of depreciation over a supposed lifespan. In this paper, we mention three economic methods, only one will be used to evaluate the optimal dimensions of a hybrid installation dryer destined to agricultural products.(Author)

  14. Prospects for dedicated energy crop production and attitudes towards agricultural straw use: The case of livestock farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.; Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Second generation biofuels utilising agricultural by-products (e.g. straw), or dedicated energy crops (DECs) produced on ‘marginal’ land, have been called for. A structured telephone survey of 263 livestock farmers, predominantly located in the west or ‘marginal’ upland areas of England captured data on attitudes towards straw use and DECs. Combined with farm physical and business data, the survey results show that 7.2% and 6.3% of farmers would respectively consider growing SRC and miscanthus, producing respective maximum potential English crop areas of 54,603 ha and 43,859 ha. If higher market prices for straw occurred, most livestock farmers would continue to buy straw. Reasons for not being willing to consider growing DECs include concerns over land quality, committing land for a long time period, lack of appropriate machinery, profitability, and time to financial return; a range of moral, land quality, production conflict and lack of crop knowledge factors were also cited. Results demonstrate limited potential for the production of DECs on livestock farms in England. Changes in policy support to address farmer concerns with respect to DECs will be required to incentivise farmers to increase energy crop production. Policy support for DEC production must be cognisant of farm-level economic, tenancy and personal objectives. - Highlights: • Survey of English livestock farms determining attitudes to dedicated energy crops. • 6.3% to 7.2% of surveyed farmers would consider growing energy crops. • Limited potential for dedicated energy crops on livestock farms in England. • Livestock farmers would continue to buy straw, even at higher market prices. • Wide range of reasons given for farmers’ decisions related to energy crops

  15. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A; Khayrullina, A; Khmelik, M; Sveshnikova, A; Borzenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia. (paper)

  16. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  17. Privacy aware energy management for a smart home including a battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmueller, Christoph; Charzinski, Joachim [Hochschule der Medien, Stuttgart (Germany); Grecos, Christos [University of the West of Scotland (UWS) (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Besides many benefits the intelligent power grid smart grid implies new security and privacy risks. The energy usage profiles recorded by smart meters could be used harmfully against energy customers, as they may reveal information on personal or business activity involving electric devices. Transmission of energy usage data over the internet and data mining techniques increase scalability and potential damage of possible attacks. Besides known measures of IT security, local energy storage capable of changing load profiles with its charging and discharging activity could be a fundamental privacy improvement for electricity customers. This paper shows a management algorithm for stationary electric storage with respect to information contained in energy usage profiles of housing units. A software simulation benchmarks parameters of a battery management algorithm by reference to privacy aspects and energy cost. (orig.)

  18. Calculations of environmental benefits from using geothermal energy must include the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    and energy production patterns are simulated using data from countries with similar environmental conditions but do not use geothermal or hydropower to the same extent as Iceland. Because of the rapid shift towards renewable energy and exclusion of external energy provision, the country is considered......When considering the environmental benefits from converting to renewable energy sources, the rebound effect is often omitted. In this study, the aim is to investigate greenhouse gas emission reduction inclusive of the rebound effect. We use Iceland as a case study where alternative consumption...

  19. 77 FR 6109 - Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-896-000] Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Mariposa...

  20. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-224-000] Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Stream...

  1. 77 FR 45349 - Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2301-000] Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Stream...

  2. 77 FR 28594 - Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1739-000] Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bethel Wind...

  3. 77 FR 28593 - Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1740-000] Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Rippey Wind...

  4. Evaluation of energy policy. [Including proposal by American Inst. of Architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windheim, L S

    1977-02-01

    It has been evident to some future-looking individuals for some time that both the availability of abundant cheap energy supplies and the exponential increasing use of unlimited amounts must change. However, official energy policy thinking in the U.S. either fails to believe that 'times have changed' or, if believing, is responding in a deleterious and counter-productive manner. This fantastically pervasive and interactive problem cannot be dealt with in the long run by any policy of 'normalizing', of trying to return to doing more with more. The more successful the U.S. is in maintaining or increasing its total energy consumption under conditions of declining net energy, or striving for simplistic first-law efficiencies without analyzing the second level or entropy effects or realizing that every energy exchange adds a minute but rapidly aggregating portion to the environmental pollution limit--doing more with more--the more rapidly inflation, unemployment, and general economic instability will increase. A small group of architectural professionals, the American Institute of Architects, has proposed an alternate energy strategy, essentially doing more with less which, if pursued, can provide more jobs, less inflation, less pollution, and the potential for better matching of energy task and source (entropy efficiency). This strategy exemplifies the characteristics of an appropriate technology response. It stresses capital and energy as well as labor productivity.

  5. Including Pressure Measurements in Supervision of Energy Efficiency of Wastewater Pump Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Arensman, Mareike; Nerup-Jensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    energy). This article presents a method for a continuous supervision of the performance of both the pump and the pipeline in order to maintain the initial specific energy consumption as close as possible to the original value from when the system was commissioned. The method is based on pressure...

  6. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  7. Investigation study for technological application of alternative methods for the energy exploitation of biomass/agricultural residues in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabaniotou Anastasia A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy potential is addressed to be the most promising among the renewable energy sources, due to its spread and availability worldwide. Apart form that, biomass has the unique advantage among the rest of renewable energy sources, to be able to provide solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels that can be stored, transported, and utilized, far away from the point of origin. For the northern region of Macedonia in Greece, biomass utilization is considered to be a major issue, due to the considerably intensive regional agricultural activities. Wood by-products, fruit cores, rice husk and cotton gin waste provide a promising energy source for the region. The energy potential of the available agricultural biomass produced in the region is much enough to cover the 10% of the annual oil consumption utilized for thermal applications. However, the cost of energy utilization of biomass is considerably high due to the high cost of the logistics concerning the collection, transport, and storage of biomass. The available utilization technologies developed, to handle efficiently all different species of biomass, cover a wide technological range. One of the most promising technologies involving thermal treatment of biomass and the production of a gaseous fuel (biogas for industrial heat applications and electricity production, is the thermo chemical conversion. In the present work, an investigation concerning biomass potential for energy production in the region of central Macedonia in Greece, utilizing several locally produced biomass species, is conducted. Emphasis is put on the energy utilization of agricultural by-products and residues. Agricultural sector is of great importance due to the considerably intensive agricultural activities in the region of Central Macedonia. .

  8. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  9. Constraining dark energy with Hubble parameter measurements: an analysis including future redshift-drift observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rui-Yun; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark energy affects the Hubble expansion rate (namely, the expansion history) H(z) by an integral over w(z). However, the usual observables are the luminosity distances or the angular diameter distances, which measure the distance.redshift relation. Actually, the property of dark energy affects the distances (and the growth factor) by a further integration over functions of H(z). Thus, the direct measurements of the Hubble parameter H(z) at different redshifts are of great importance for constraining the properties of dark energy. In this paper, we show how the typical dark energy models, for example, the ΛCDM, wCDM, CPL, and holographic dark energy models, can be constrained by the current direct measurements of H(z) (31 data used in total in this paper, covering the redshift range of z @ element of [0.07, 2.34]). In fact, the future redshift-drift observations (also referred to as the Sandage-Loeb test) can also directly measure H(z) at higher redshifts, covering the range of z @ element of [2, 5]. We thus discuss what role the redshift-drift observations can play in constraining dark energy with the Hubble parameter measurements. We show that the constraints on dark energy can be improved greatly with the H(z) data from only a 10-year observation of redshift drift. (orig.)

  10. China’s water–energy nexus: greenhouse-gas emissions from groundwater use for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinxia; Zhang Lijuan; Li Yumin; Rothausen, Sabrina G S A; Conway, Declan; Xiong Wei; Holman, Ian P

    2012-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the agricultural sector in China is responsible for 17–20% of annual emissions and 62% of total freshwater use. Groundwater abstraction in China has increased rapidly from 10 km 3 yr −1 in the 1950s to more than 100 km 3 yr −1 in the 2000s, such that roughly 70% of the irrigated area in northern China is now groundwater-fed. Pumping of water for irrigation is one of the most energy consuming on-farm processes; however, to date this source of GHG emissions in China and elsewhere has been relatively neglected. We derive the first detailed estimate of GHG emissions from groundwater pumping for irrigation in China, using extensive village survey data from 11 provinces, broadly representative of the situation during the mid-2000s. The 11 provinces cover roughly half of China’s irrigated cropland and we upscale to the national level using government statistics for the remaining 20 provinces. Our results show emissions of 33.1 MtCO 2 e, just over half a per cent of the national total. Groundwater abstraction represents an important source of GHG emissions that has been rapidly increasing and which at present is largely unregulated. Water scarcity in China is already driving policies to improve water conservation. These results suggest that significant potential exists to promote the co-benefits of water and energy saving in order to meet national planning targets. (letter)

  11. ADEME energy transition scenarios. Summary including a macro-economic evaluation 2030 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    ADEME, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency, is a public agency reporting to the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy and the Ministry of Higher Education and Research. In 2012 the agency drew up a long-term scenario entitled 'ADEME Energy Transition Scenarios 2030-2050'. This document presents a summary of the report. The full version can be viewed online on the ADEME web site. With this work ADEME offers a proactive energy vision for all stakeholders - experts, the general public, decision-makers, etc. - focusing on two main areas of expertise: managing energy conservation and developing renewable energy production using proven or demonstration-phase technologies. These scenarios identify a possible pathway for the energy transition in France. They are based on two time horizons and two separate methodologies. One projection, applicable from the present day, seeks to maximise potential energy savings and renewable energy production in an ambitious but realistic manner, up to 2030. The second exercise is a normative scenario that targets a fourfold reduction in greenhouse gas emissions generated in France by 2050, compared to 1990 levels. The analysis presented in this document is primarily based on an exploration of different scenarios that allow for the achievement of ambitious energy and environmental targets under technically, economically and socially feasible conditions. This analysis is supplemented by a macro-economic analysis. These projections, particularly for 2030, do not rely on radical changes in lifestyle, lower comfort levels or hypothetical major technological breakthroughs. They show that by using technologies and organisational changes that are currently within our reach, we have the means to achieve these long-term goals. The scenarios are based on assumptions of significant growth, both economic (1.8% per year) and demographic (0.4% a year). The 2050 scenario shows that with sustained growth, a

  12. Development and demonstration of energy saving technologies in agriculture; Udvikling og demonstration af energibesparende teknologi til landbruget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Joergen; Trenel, P.; Krogh Hansen, T.; Andersen, Mathias

    2010-07-01

    The energy consumption for agriculture is approx. 10% of the total corporate energy use in Denmark and is therefore a major source of total CO2 emission. This project aims to show that there is great potential for reducing energy use in agriculture. The project focused on saving energy in pig production, as this is the largest branch of production in farming and also the most energy consuming. The energy consumption in selected herds has been monitored with high accuracy making it possible to track down energy consumption, on system level, minute by minute. The energy consumption for light, ventilation and heating systems has been followed in various sections of different farms to compare the level of consumption. In the project 4 technologies were developed and tested. The results are: 1) Two new EC (electronically commuted) fans for livestock facilities makes it possible to reduce power consumption for ventilation with over 50% compared with frequency controlled fans; 2) An intelligent shelter for two climate stables was developed to regulate heat in the piglet pens. The system showed a 43% energy saving for heating compared to identical climate stables with normal floor heating; 3) An hour-based energy management system called Elspot was tested. The Elspot module can automatically activate and deactivate electrically powered equipment according to the energy price. The study found that farms can reduce their spending on electricity by 25% using the Elspot module on a feed mill; 4) A web interface for energy monitoring was designed specifically for farmers. This system makes it possible for farmers to monitor their energy consumption at and benchmark this against normative values or new technologies. The initial goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate solutions that could potentially reduce energy consumption in agriculture by 20%. Since the work was done only with energy saving technologies in livestock production, this corresponds to an energy

  13. Improving energy efficiency in agriculture - Proposal for the design of advisory systems; Energieffektivisering inom jordbruket - Foerslag till utformning av raadgivningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einarson, Elin; Hagerberg, Anna; Linder, Camilla; Sten, Roland; Vannesjoe, Binella; Holmberg, Rurik

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the results of a study that the Board of Agriculture has carried out after consultation with the Energy Agency. The aim is to give proposals for the design of a counseling system for improving energy efficiency in the agricultural sector. Such an advisory system should be designed as group counseling combined with a single advisors' visit on the farm. Board of Agriculture suggests that counseling is done within existing environmental counseling in the project 'Greppa Naeringen'. It is estimated that the counseling can reach 800-1500 participants during the period 2011-2013. The number of farmers that can be reached is limited by the budget available to the project but also by the number of active advisors

  14. Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Van Herpen, Alain; Zhang, Weihong

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well.

  15. Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Zhang, Weihong; Van Herpen, Alain

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well. (paper)

  16. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr ≤ annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to cluster bean

  17. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H. E-mail: hsingh11@rediffmail.com; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M

    2004-09-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr {<=} annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to

  18. Introducing renewable energy in vineyards and agricultural machinery: A way to reduce emissions and provide sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carroquino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, depletion of nonrenewable resources in the current energies, pollution from them and the greater ecological awareness of the population, are factors that suggest the change of energy sources in business. The wine industry is concerned about sustainability and with a clear awareness of what climate change may mean for it. This sector is supposed to have a high receptivity to the implementation of clean energy, as this favours not only the environment but also the essence of its business. This work shows how the use of renewable energy, on a small scale, can be profitable in both vineyards and wineries. For this purpose, the European project LIFE REWIND (Renewable energy in the wine industry has developed several actions, including the installation and operation of a prototype in a Spanish winery. This paper shows how to introduce renewable energy in wineries and vineyards in a profitable way, reducing the emissions of CO2 associated to the activity and the product, without changing the processes of cultivation or production.

  19. Pyrolysis process of agricultural waste using CO2 for waste management, energy recovery, and biochar fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jechan; Yang, Xiao; Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Jae-Kon; Lee, Sang Soo; Tsang, Daniel C.W.; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO 2 reacts with VOCs enhancing syngas generation from pyrolysis of biomass. • CO 2 reduces tar formation by expediting thermal cracking of VOCs. • Properties of biochar can be easily modified using CO 2 as a pyrolysis agent. • A detailed mass balance for pyrolysis of red pepper stalk was provided. • Energy saving can be expected in pyrolysis of biomass using CO 2 . - Abstract: This study focused on the mechanistic understanding of CO 2 in pyrolysis process of agricultural waste to achieve waste management, energy recovery, and biochar fabrication. In order to scrutinize the genuine role of CO 2 in the biomass pyrolysis, all pyrogenic products such as syngas, pyrolytic oil (i.e., tar), and biochar generated from pyrolysis of red pepper stalk in N 2 and CO 2 were characterized. Thermo-gravimetric analysis confirmed that during the thermolysis of red pepper stalk, the magnitude of exothermic reaction in CO 2 from 220 to 400 °C was substantially different from that in N 2 , resulting in the different extents of carbonization. The physico-chemical properties of biochar produced in CO 2 were varied compared to biochar produced in N 2 . For example, the surface area of biochar produced in CO 2 was increased from 32.46 to 109.15 m 2 g −1 . This study validates the role of CO 2 not only as expediting agent for the thermal cracking of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) but also as reacting agent with VOCs. This genuine influence of CO 2 in pyrolysis of red pepper stalk led to enhanced generation of syngas, which consequently reduced tar production because VOCs evolving from devolatilization of biomass served as substrates for syngas via reaction between CO 2 and VOCs. The enhanced generation of CO reached up to 3000 and 6000% at 600 and 690 °C, respectively, whereas 33.8% tar reduction in CO 2 was identified at 600 °C.

  20. Evolution of α-particle distribution in burning plasmas including energy dependent α-transport effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamelander, G.; Sigmar, D.; Woloch, F.

    1991-09-01

    This report resumes the essential results of a common OEFZS/MIT (Plasma Fusion Center) project to investigate fusion alpha transport. A computer code has been developed going beyond standard FOKKER-PLANCK-codes assuming that the fusion products give their energy to the plasma on the place of their birth. The present transport code admits the calculation of the α-distribution function. By means of the distribution function the energy deposition rates are calculated. The time-evolution of the α-distribution function has been evaluated for an ignited plasma. A description of the transport code, of the subroutines and of the input data as well as a listing is enclosed to this report. (Authors)

  1. 4He binding energy calculation including full tensor-force effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A. C.

    1989-09-01

    The four-body equations of Alt, Grassberger, and Sandhas are solved in the version where the (2)+(2) subamplitudes are treated exactly by convolution, using one-term separable Yamaguchy nucleon-nucleon potentials in the 1S0 and 3S1-3D1 channels. The resulting jp=1/2+ and (3/2+ three-body subamplitudes are represented in a separable form using the energy-dependent pole expansion. Converged bound-state results are calculated for the first time using the full interaction, and are compared with those obtained from a simplified treatment of the tensor force. The Tjon line that correlates three-nucleon and four-nucleon binding energies is shown using different nucleon-nucleon potentials. In all calculations the Coulomb force has been neglected.

  2. Impact of changes in diet on the availability of land, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeni, Karin; Steinmueller, Horst [Johannes Kepler Univ. (JKU Linz), Linz (Austria). Energy Inst.

    2011-12-15

    Recent scientific investigations have revealed a correlation between nutrition habits and the environmental impacts of agriculture. So, it is obviously worthwhile to study what effects a change in diet has on land use patterns, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agricultural production. This study calculates the amount of energy and emission savings as well as changes in land use that would result from different scenarios underlying a change in diet. Based on the healthy eating recommendations of the German Nutrition Society, meat consumption in Austria should decrease by about 60%, and consumption of fruits and vegetables has to increase strongly. This investigation showed that compliance with healthy eating guidelines leads to lower energy demand and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions, largely due to a decrease in livestock numbers. Furthermore, arable land and grassland no longer needed for animal feed production becomes redundant and can possibly be used for the production of raw materials for renewable energy. The scenario examination shows that in the self-sufficiency scenario and in the import/export scenario, up to 443,100 ha and about 208,800 ha, respectively, of arable land and grassland are released for non-food uses. The cumulative energy demand of agriculture is lower by up to 38%, and the greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture decrease by up to 37% in these scenarios as against the reference situation. The land use patterns for the scenario demonstrate that animal feed production still takes up the largest share of agricultural land even though the extent of animal husbandry decreased considerably in the scenarios. (orig.)

  3. Residential building stocks and flows as dynamic systems: Chilean dwelling stock and energy modeling, including earthquakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The building sector comprises a very important part of each country s economy, playing an important role in the consumption of resources and energy. In practice there is little knowledge on how the building stock develops. It is useful then to understand the dynamics and the metabolism of the built environment. Research on building stocks, predominantly on the residential sector, has been performed mainly for developed countries. There is little or none research on building stock for developi...

  4. Total binding energy of heavy positive ions including density treatment of Darwin and Breit corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work on the relativistic Thomas-Fermi treatment of total energies of neutral atoms is first generalised to heavy positive ions. To facilitate quantitative contact with the numerical predictions of Dirac-Fock theory, Darwin and Breit corrections are expressed in terms of electron density, and computed using input again from relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory. These corrections significantly improve the agreement between the two seemingly very different theories. (author)

  5. 77 FR 30274 - Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  6. 77 FR 4368 - Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Mid Oregon Personnel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through PV Powered, Currently Known as AE Solar Energy, Inc... engaged in activities related to the production of solar invert subcomponents, including thin films processing power conversion and thermal instrumentation products and solar energy inverters. The notice was...

  7. Including crystal structure attributes in machine learning models of formation energies via Voronoi tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Logan; Liu, Ruoqian; Krishna, Amar; Hegde, Vinay I.; Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok; Wolverton, Chris

    2017-07-01

    While high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) has become a prevalent tool for materials discovery, it is limited by the relatively large computational cost. In this paper, we explore using DFT data from high-throughput calculations to create faster, surrogate models with machine learning (ML) that can be used to guide new searches. Our method works by using decision tree models to map DFT-calculated formation enthalpies to a set of attributes consisting of two distinct types: (i) composition-dependent attributes of elemental properties (as have been used in previous ML models of DFT formation energies), combined with (ii) attributes derived from the Voronoi tessellation of the compound's crystal structure. The ML models created using this method have half the cross-validation error and similar training and evaluation speeds to models created with the Coulomb matrix and partial radial distribution function methods. For a dataset of 435 000 formation energies taken from the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), our model achieves a mean absolute error of 80 meV/atom in cross validation, which is lower than the approximate error between DFT-computed and experimentally measured formation enthalpies and below 15% of the mean absolute deviation of the training set. We also demonstrate that our method can accurately estimate the formation energy of materials outside of the training set and be used to identify materials with especially large formation enthalpies. We propose that our models can be used to accelerate the discovery of new materials by identifying the most promising materials to study with DFT at little additional computational cost.

  8. Proof of the positive energy theorem including the angular momentum contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingfei; Chee, G.Y.; Guo Yongxin

    2005-01-01

    A proof of the positive energy theorem of general relativity is given. In this proof the gravitational Lagrangian is identified with that of Lau and is equivalent to the teleparallel Lagrangian modulo, a boundary term. The approach adopted in this proof uses the two-spinor method and the extended Witten identities and then combines the Brown-York and the Nester-Witten approaches. At the same time the proof is extended to the case involving the contribution of angular momentum by choosing a special shift vector

  9. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Microbial conversion of agriculture wastes as a source of energy for developing countries: a case study in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejike, C.; Okereke, G.U.

    1991-01-01

    The direct relationship between level of economic development of any nation and its consumption of energy show that there is improve standard of living with increase in the per capita consumption of energy. In Nigeria, the need to offset some of the economic set backs brought about by increasing fuel costs and chronic lack of foreign currency reserves has compelled her to search for alternative sources of energy. The continuous increase in concern over environmental pollution has also resulted in greater negative cost values of wastes and hence has increased their potential as substrates for bio-derived energy. Cellulosic agricultural wastes are available in Nigeria in large amounts, are ordinarily of little economic value and are non toxic. Nigeria produces about 227,500 tons of animal waste per day implying the bio gas production could be a feasible alternative source of energy. Conversion of agricultural waste to usable energy at commercially acceptable rates involves the availability of raw materials and conversion of same to suitable substrates for fermentation to alcohol and then to bio gas. Saccharomyces spp. produced from fermentation of alcoholic beverages in Northern Nigeria have been used in the production of ethanol from corn corp waste and grass straw. Chromolaena odorata a weed that has no economic value which grows luxuriantly in Nigeria has been used in the generation of bio gas. Drying procedure and pH are among other conditions the affect methane yield. The development of the biotechnology of bio-derivable energy from agricultural waste if effectively harnessed will help to aleviate the energy problems of developing countries. The climate for the promotion of this technology is favourable because of low cost of raw material, high cost of fuel energy, and poor foreign exchange earning capacity of developing countries. (author)

  11. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications, including technical documents (TECDOCs), of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all sales publications in alphabetical order by subject category whereas the second part lists all TECDOCs in alphabetical order by subject category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages

  12. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications, including technical documents (TECDOCs), of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all sales publications in alphabetical order by subject category whereas the second part lists all TECDOCs in alphabetical order by subject category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages.

  13. Automatic generation control with thyristor controlled series compensator including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Padhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the dynamic performance of Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area multi-units thermal–thermal power system with the consideration of Reheat turbine, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Time delay. Initially, the gains of the fuzzy PID controller are optimized using Differential Evolution (DE algorithm. The superiority of DE is demonstrated by comparing the results with Genetic Algorithm (GA. After that performance of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC has been investigated. Further, a TCSC is placed in the tie-line and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES units are considered in both areas. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters.

  14. Food security, agricultural subsidies, energy, and the environment: a process of 'glocalization' in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, P.

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay of policy dilemma in the areas of food security, agricultural subsidies, energy consumption, and the environment in the 'glocalization' process of Sri Lanka. It demonstrates that the domestic agricultural and food sector is intricately interconnected with the global economy and world market forces. While this paper gives a primary focus on domestic rice production and wheat import policies, it further examines the environmental consequences and public health issues that are associated with the process of 'glocalization' as part of globalization. This 'glocalization' has led to a series of intended and unintended externalities for Sri Lanka whose economic integration is irreversibly linked to agricultural and subsidy policies of other food exporting and producing countries of Asia and the United States. (author)

  15. Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of Distributed Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin Fogle

    Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch

  16. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  17. Frequency participation by using virtual inertia in wind turbines including energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Huang, Yu; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    With the increase of wind generation penetration, power fluctuations and weak inertia may attempt to the power system frequency stability. In this paper, in order to solve this problem, a hierarchical control strategy is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind turbine...... (WT) and battery unit (BU). A central controller forecasts wind speed and determines system operation states to be sent to the local controllers. These local controllers include MPPT, virtual inertia, and pitch control for the WT; and power control loops for the BU. The proposed approach achieve...

  18. Wastewater treatment and reuse in urban agriculture: exploring the food, energy, water, and health nexus in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Robbie, Leslie; Ramaswami, Anu; Amerasinghe, Priyanie

    2017-07-01

    Nutrients and water found in domestic treated wastewater are valuable and can be reutilized in urban agriculture as a potential strategy to provide communities with access to fresh produce. In this paper, this proposition is examined by conducting a field study in the rapidly developing city of Hyderabad, India. Urban agriculture trade-offs in water use, energy use and GHG emissions, nutrient uptake, and crop pathogen quality are evaluated, and irrigation waters of varying qualities (treated wastewater, versus untreated water and groundwater) are compared. The results are counter-intuitive, and illustrate potential synergies and key constraints relating to the food-energy-water-health (FEW-health) nexus in developing cities. First, when the impact of GHG emissions from untreated wastewater diluted in surface streams is compared with the life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment with reuse in agriculture, the treatment-plus-reuse case yields a 33% reduction in life cycle system-wide GHG emissions. Second, despite water cycling benefits in urban agriculture, only contamination and farmer behavior and harvesting practices. The study uncovers key physical, environmental, and behavioral factors that constrain benefits achievable at the FEW-health nexus in urban areas.

  19. Seasonal Evaporation and Surface Energy Budget Estimation Across an Arid Agricultural Region in Saudi Arabia: Quantifying Groundwater Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, B.; Huang, D.; Houborg, R.; Dasari, H. P.; Hoteit, I.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    In arid-land agricultural environments, knowledge of the water and energy budget is critical in order to sustainably manage the allocation and use of water resources. Using long-term weather reanalysis data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and a time-series record of Landsat 8 imagery, we apply the Priestly-Taylor Jet Propulsion Lab (PT-JPL) model to estimate the energy budget over the Al Jawf agricultural region in the north of Saudi Arabia. This zone generates a significant proportion of the agricultural production in Saudi Arabia and consumes an important fraction of the non-renewable water resources. This research contributes towards efforts seeking to quantify the precise amount of water that is used in agriculture - a difficult variable given that the overwhelming majority of supply comes from groundwater extraction. Results of this research can be used to improve crop management and to mitigate aquifer over-exploitation by monitoring the indiscriminate use of water and establishing bounds around the rates of groundwater withdrawal.

  20. Dynamic integrated assessment of bioenergy technologies for energy production utilizing agricultural residues: An input–output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic input–output model is developed with bioenergy technologies complemented. • Availability of agricultural residues for bioenergy technologies is evaluated. • Trends in electricity and biofuel production are simulated dynamically. • Net profit and GHG mitigation contribution of bioenergy technologies are assessed. • Combustion power generation and briquette fuel are more advantageous. - Abstract: In order to facilitate regional agricultural residue utilization for energy production through bioenergy technologies, a dynamic input–output model is developed to estimate and assess the energy, economic and environmental performances of industrialization of five bioenergy technologies within a 15-year time horizon. Electricity and solid, gaseous and liquid biofuels are energy products of bioenergy technologies. Bioenergy technologies are complemented into regional input–output framework and combined with socioeconomic activities aided by their bottom-up economic and energy parameters. The simulation results for the target area indicate that the agricultural residues available for bioenergy technologies could amount to 55.16 million t, facilitating to 8.38 million t coal-equivalent bioenergy production by 2025. A 3.1% net reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the “business as usual” case could be achieved owing to substitution of fossil energy with electricity and biofuels produced by bioenergy technologies. From energy production, economic benefits and greenhouse gas mitigation three aspects integratedly, direct-combustion power generation and briquette fuel are more advantageous in the target area. The quantified energy, economic and environmental performances of bioenergy technologies are expected to give recommendations for their industrial development.

  1. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  2. Assessing the potentials of agricultural residues for energy: What the CDM experience of India tells us about their availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhau, Antoine; Fallot, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The potential of agricultural residues has been assessed worldwide and at different scales. Interpreting results so as to determine the possible role of this biomass feedstock in energy supplies, requires a clearer understanding of the conditions in which residues can effectively be mobilized for energy production. The experience of India with hundreds of projects where agricultural residues are transformed to heat and power partially sold to the grid, is analyzed and checked against the residue potentials that have been assessed in this country. We find that, in the absence of technological improvements in biomass conversion, the apparent success of Indian bioenergy projects is not sustainable in the long run due to rapid exhaustion effects on residue availability, coupled with the increasing costs that would be difficult to compensate by higher electricity tariffs. We also identify there is a serious agricultural issue which needs to be addressed in regard to degraded soils; this could lead to the reallocation of all primary residues, as well as part of secondary residues to soil and livestock needs. Such perspectives are considered within three contrasted scenario storylines. - Highlights: • India generates 572.10 6 t crop residues, 15–25% are potentially available. • Registered CDM projects for electricity generation use 17% of this energy source. • Some residues will be exhausted before the implementation of planned projects. • Residue scarcity translates to new markets with rising prices. • Increased tariffs will be necessary to compensate biomass cost increase

  3. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  4. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  5. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, K; Carrillo, S; Gutierrez, L

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at ''La Primavera'' farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done

  6. Closing the Global Energy and Nutrient Cycles through Application of Biogas Residue to Agricultural Land – Potential Benefits and Drawback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Arthurson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an optimal way to treat organic waste matter, resulting in biogas and residue. Utilization of the residue as a crop fertilizer should enhance crop yield and soil fertility, promoting closure of the global energy and nutrient cycles. Consequently, the requirement for production of inorganic fertilizers will decrease, in turn saving significant amounts of energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, and indirectly leading to global economic benefits. However, application of this residue to agricultural land requires careful monitoring to detect amendments in soil quality at the early stages.

  7. Energy and greenhouse-gas emissions in irrigated agriculture of SE (southeast) Spain. Effects of alternative water supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Gorriz, B.; Soto-García, M.; Martínez-Alvarez, V.

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is leading to a water resources decrease in the Mediterranean basin, where future farming resilience depends on incorporating alternative water sources and improving water-energy use efficiency. This paper assesses water and energy consumption when natural water sources are partially replaced by desalinated sea water. Initially, energy consumption, water supply and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions were recorded for the current farming practices in SE (southeast) Spain. The results of our study indicate that citrus orchards have the lowest energy consumption and GHG emissions. Annual vegetables were the least energy efficient crops. Subsequently, two alternative water supply scenarios were analysed, in which the reduction of natural water resources associated to climate change was compensated with desalinated sea water. The use of 16.8% of desalinated seawater would increase energy consumption by 32.4% and GHG emissions by 19.6%, whereas for the use of 26.5% of desalinated seawater such increases would amount to 50.0% and 30.3%, respectively. Therefore maintaining irrigated agriculture in water-stressed regions by incorporating high energy demanding non-traditional water sources could negatively contribute to combat global warming. - Highlights: • Water supply, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in irrigated agriculture are very connected. • The use of desalinated sea water will increase the energy consumption, and GHG emissions will rise. • The use of non-traditional water resources enhances global warming processes. • Citrus orchards are the less sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios. • Artichoke is the most sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios

  8. EMPLOY: Step-by-step guidelines for calculating employment effects of renewable energy investments [including annex 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (Germany); Nathani, Carsten [Ruetter and Partner Socioeconomic Research and Consulting (Switzerland); Resch, Gustav [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Energy Economics Group (EEG) (Austria

    2012-07-15

    The EMPLOY project aimed to help achieve the IEA-RETD’s objective to 'empower policy makers and energy market actors through the provision of information, tools and resources' by underlining the economic and industrial impacts of renewable energy technology deployment and providing reliable methodological approaches for employment – similar to those available for the incumbent energy technologies. The EMPLOY project resulted in a comprehensive set of methodological guidelines for estimating the employment impacts of renewable energy deployment in a coherent, uniform and systematic way. Guidelines were prepared for four different methodological approaches. In the introduction section of the guidelines policy makers are guided in their choice for the most suited approach, depending on the policy questions to be answered, the data availability and budget. The guidelines were tested for the IEA-RETD member state countries and Tunisia. The results of these calculations are included in the annex to the guidelines.

  9. Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, J. (ed.) [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Young, B.A. (ed.) [The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343 (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Reports from interdisciplinary areas including microbiology, biochemistry, animal nutrition, agricultural engineering and economics are integrated in this proceedings. The major theme of this book is environmental preservation by controlling release of undesirable greenhouse gases to realize the sustainable development of animal agriculture. Technology exists for the effective collection of methane generated from anaerobic fermentation of animal effluent and its use as a biomass energy source. Fossil fuel consumption can be reduced and there can be increased use of locally available energy sources. In addition, promoting environmentally-conscious agriculture which does not rely on the chemical fertilizer can be realized by effective use of animal manure and compost products.

  10. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.; Antiohos, S.K.; Papadi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Definition of parameters characterising agricultural plastic waste (APW) quality. ► Analysis of samples to determine APW quality for recycling or energy recovery. ► Majority of APW samples from various countries have very good quality for recycling. ► Upper limit of 50% w/w soil contamination in APW acceptable for energy recovery. ► Chlorine and heavy metals content in APW below the lowest limit for energy recovery. - Abstract: A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a “very good quality” for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  11. Torrefaction of agricultural by-products: Effects of temperature and time on energy yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at different temperatures and times. Torrefaction of biomass involves heating in an inert atmosphere to remove volatile components for improved grindability and increased ene...

  12. Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to

  13. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  14. Co-digestion of agricultural and municipal waste to produce energy and soil amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In agriculture, manure and cotton gin waste are major environmental liabilities. Likewise, grass is an important organic component of municipal waste. These wastes were combined and used as substrates in a two-phase, pilot-scale anaerobic digester to evaluate the potential for biogas (methane) produ...

  15. Multi-Product Crops for Agricultural and Energy Production : an AGE Analysis for Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Dellink, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    By-products from agriculture and forestry can contribute to production of clean and cheap (bio)electricity. To assess the role of such multi-product crops in the response to climate policies, we present an applied general equilibrium model with special attention to biomass and multi-product crops

  16. Biomass or biomess? - a comment on the paper by Anders Lunnan (Agriculture-based biomass energy supply - a survey of economics issues)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, Olof

    1997-01-01

    A response to Lunnan's paper (Energy Policy, Vol. 25, No. 6, 1997), on economic issues surrounding agriculture-based biomass energy supplies is presented. This author argues that, despite Lunnan's gloomy forecasts for the economic prospects of agriculture-based bioenergy, the future of the industry will be decided in the political arena based on agricultural policy. Bioenergy production can best be promoted, it is argued, by reducing farmland prices. Caution is urged in placing too great a financial burden on farmers, however, and consumers of food or energy and tax-payers must share the risk of investment in these new technologies. (UK)

  17. Developing agricultural opportunities on mine tailings : the Green Mines green energy initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisch, B.; Spiers, G.; Beckett, P.; Lock, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-02-15

    The goal of the Green Mines green energy initiative is to advance mine reclamation through the beneficial use of organic residuals for the sustainable establishment of bioenergy crops and other productive land uses. Target organic residuals include: source separated organic compost; papermill biosolids; leaf and yard waste compost; and municipal wastewater biosolids. This presentation discussed the Green Mines green energy initiative with particular reference to potential uses; current participants; scope of the initiative; and progress to date. The presentation also discussed a column study that involved adding filter, filter fabric, silica sand and polyethylene beads to the base of columns. Unoxidized tailings were slurried and pumped into columns and then the oxidized tailings were dried and homogenized. The results of acidic copper/nickel tailings with lime and no lime were also discussed. A summary of findings from the column study was offered. It was found that nutrient management must be considered and organic covers appear to increase metal and arsenic leaching from unlimed tailings. The presentation also made reference to demonstration field plots; biosolids delivery; tilling; monitoring; biomass sampling; and harvesting. The presentation concluded with a discussion of next steps which involve completing construction of the current suite of field plots and implementing full monitoring. figs.

  18. The impact of energy, agriculture, macroeconomic and human-induced indicators on environmental pollution: evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the impact of energy, agriculture, macroeconomic and human-induced indicators on environmental pollution from 1971 to 2011 is investigated using the statistically inspired modification of partial least squares (SIMPLS) regression model. There was evidence of a linear relationship between energy, agriculture, macroeconomic and human-induced indicators and carbon dioxide emissions. Evidence from the SIMPLS regression shows that a 1% increase in crop production index will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 0.71%. Economic growth increased by 1% will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 0.46%, which means that an increase in Ghana's economic growth may lead to a reduction in environmental pollution. The increase in electricity production from hydroelectric sources by 1% will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 0.30%; thus, increasing renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy portfolio will help mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. Increasing enteric emissions by 1% will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 4.22%, and a 1% increase in the nitrogen content of manure management will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 6.69%. The SIMPLS regression forecasting exhibited a 5% MAPE from the prediction of carbon dioxide emissions.

  19. The effect of including tensor forces in nucleon-nucleon interaction on three-nucleon binding energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.; Ramadan, S.

    1986-01-01

    Separable two-body interactions are used in considering the three-nucleon problem. The nucleon-nucleon potentials are taken to include attraction and repulsion as well as tensor forces. The separable approximation is used in order to investigate the effect of the tensor forces. The separable expansion is introduced in the three-nucleon problem, by which the Faddeev equations are reduced to a well-behaved set of coupled integral equations. Numerical calculations are carried out for the obtained integral equations using potential functions of the Yamaguchi, Gaussian, Takabin, Mongan and Reid forms. The present calculated values of the binding energies of the 3 H and 3 He nuclei are in good agreement with the experimental values. The effect of including the tensor forces in the nucleon-nucleon interactions is found to improve the three-nucleon binding energy by about 4.490% to 8.324%. 37 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  20. Technical assessment of agricultural biogas plants. Utilization ratio and energy efficiency; Verfahrenstechnische Bewertung landwirtschaftlicher Biogasanlagen. Auslastung und energetische Effizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, Mathias; Kissel, Rainer; Lehner, Andreas; Gronauer, Andreas [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Freising (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Biogastechnologie und Reststoffmanagement

    2008-07-01

    Technical indicators of six selected modern agricultural biogas plants (BGP) were determined to evaluate utilization ratio and energy efficiency. In all of these plants, renewable raw materials were treated in combination with animal manure. At a specific installed electrical capacity between 0.09 and 0.25 kW per m{sup 3} usable digester volume, electrical utilization ratios between 88 and 98 % were achieved. The combination of these two characteristic values may be used as a first indicator of process stability and functionality of a BGP. The external utilization ratio for the off-heat from the combined-heat-and-power unit was between 0 and 46 %. (orig.)

  1. Food Energy Availability from Agriculture at the Farm-Level in Southeastern Nigeria: Level, Composition and Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the four pillars of ‘food security’ (i.e., ‘food availability’, ‘food accessibility’, ‘food stability’ and ‘food utilization’, ‘food availability (FA’ underpins the core concept because at the micro-level it is strongly related to the overall availability of food, which is determined by domestic food production, food imports and food aid. This paper examines the level of food energy availability (FEA at the farm level, relationships between farm size and FEA and the determinants of FEA based on a survey of 400 households from Ebonyi and Anambra States of Southeastern Nigeria. FEA in this study refers to Partial Food Energy Availability (PFEA because it excludes procurement of food from other sources, e.g., purchase from the market, borrow/exchange from others and/or receiving as food aid. Results show that the sample is dominated by small–scale farmers (81% of the total sample owning land <1.00 ha. The average farm size is small (1.27 ha. Farmers grow multiple food crops. Sixty-eight percent of the farmers produced at least two food crops. Average PFEA is estimated at 4492.78 kcals/capita/day produced from one ha of land area. Approximately 30.92% of the total food produced is set aside for home consumption. Among the food crops, 40.70% of cassava output is set aside for home consumption while most of yam and rice are mainly destined for the market. Inverse farm size–PFEA relationship exists amongst the sampled farmers. The regression results reveal that subsistence pressure, profit motive and share of yam in total output significantly reduces PFEA whereas an increase in the share of cassava in total output significantly increases PFEA. A one percent increase in the share of cassava output will increase PFEA by 0.14%. A one percent increase in subsistence pressure will reduce PFEA by 0.98%. Farmers identified a lack of agricultural extension agents, farm inputs and basic infrastructures as the main constraints

  2. Agricultural Business Strategy: Theory and Methods for Cost-Effectiveness Investment Analysis in Agro-Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Prestamburgo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change is currently considered a high-priority matter, both in the scientific community at large and at the institutional level of national and international governing bodies. Actually, an all-out effort seeks to investigate and advance viable solutions to deal with the global emergencies regarding to anthropic climate change; increasing demands for renewable sources of energy, technological innovation and energy-saving systems, ecological and environmental sustainability of natural resources and land. At the core of this worldwide endeavour an increasingly significant role seems destined to the agricultural sector and to agro-energy production systems for the potential benefits in terms of production costs. In fact, the interest in unconventional and low-impact energy sources mandates thorough investigation not only into the advantages, in terms of availability and affordability, but also into the impact on the environment and the quality of the landscape, as well as the aspects regarding the overall measures that need be adopted so as to enable the supply on the market. Given this scenario, the wide-ranging agro-energy question would be incomplete without extensive economic sustainability analyses, serving as operational decision-support tools to measure cost-effectiveness regarding investments in agro-energy production and its use.

  3. Considerations for reducing food system energy demand while scaling up urban agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohareb, Eugene; Heller, Martin; Novak, Paige

    2017-01-01

    -income countries, considering UA classification, direct/indirect energy pressures, and interactions with other components of the food-energy-water nexus. This is followed by an exploration of ways in which these cities can plan for the exploitation of waste flows for resource-efficient UA...... with UA systems, highlighting that the literature is not yet sufficiently robust to make universal claims on benefits. This letter explores energy demand from conventional resource inputs, various production systems, water/energy trade-offs, alternative irrigation, packaging materials, and transportation...... of the proposed benefits of UA; however, explicit consideration of energy and resource requirements needs to be made in order to realize these anticipated environmental benefits. A literature review is undertaken here to provide new insight into the energy implications of scaling up UA in cities in high...

  4. Development of a two-dimensional simulation code (koad) including atomic processes for beam direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshikawa, K.; Hattori, Y.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional simulation code for the beam direct energy conversion called KVAD (Kyoto University Advanced DART) including various loss mechanisms has been developed, and shown excellent agreement with the authors' experiments using the He + beams. The beam direct energy converter (BDC) is the device to recover the kinetic energy of unneutralized ions in the neutral beam injection (NBI) system directly into electricity. The BDC is very important and essential not only to the improvements of NBI system efficiency, but also to the relaxation of high heat flux problems on the beam dump with increase of injection energies. So far no simulation code could have successfully predicted BDC experimental results. The KUAD code applies, an optimized algorithm for vector processing, the finite element method (FEM) for potential calculation, and a semi-automatic method for spatial segmentations. Since particle trajectories in the KVAD code are analytically solved, very high speed tracings of the particle could be achieved by introducing an adjacent element matrix to identify the neighboring triangle elements and electrodes. Ion space charges are also analytically calculated by the Cloud in Cell (CIC) method, as well as electron space charges. Power losses due to atomic processes can be also evaluated in the KUAD code

  5. Solar energy use in U.S. agriculture. Overview and policy issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using solar energy on farms for livestock watering, electric fence charging, and building lighting is not new in the United States, but in the past five years, solar energy is now being used more for large scale irrigation, heating water in dairies, and running motors/appliances in farm houses and b...

  6. Dyadic design interface between energy and agriculture: the case of Pinthali micro hydro system in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regmi, A.

    2003-01-01

    Technology, like society, is heterogeneous. It mirrors the context in which it operates. Micro hydro development in Nepal is a rural energy strategy, which relies on technology and innovation and takes place in a specific social context. In designing this energy strategy, both technology and its

  7. Cost evaluation of energy crops at farm gate in different EU countries and related agricultural issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliope, P.; Dalianis, C.

    1996-01-01

    Interest on energy crops varies greatly among EU regions. Certain climatic conditions prevailing in the areas, determine the coice of the energy crop which is going to be used as raw material for energy production. Furthermore, energy markets, farm structure and set aside regulations as well as national policy play a critical role to biomass exploitation for energy purposes. A common methodology was developed (Moore, 1996) for comparing costs of different options for ''biomass-to-energy systems'' across six EU countries (figure 1). This methodology was developed in the framework of an AIR Concerted Action financed by DGXII of EU and entitled ''Development of a Standard Methodology for Integrating Non-Food Crops in Rural Areas with Niche Energy Markets''. Cost estimations were done form the first stage of raw material production till the final energy product (kWh of heat and electricity or lt of liquid biofuel. In this paper, only the raw material production cost estimation phase will be presented. (Author)

  8. Energy production from agricultural residues: High methane yields in pilot-scale two-stage anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parawira, W.; Read, J.S.; Mattiasson, B.; Bjoernsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    There is a large, unutilised energy potential in agricultural waste fractions. In this pilot-scale study, the efficiency of a simple two-stage anaerobic digestion process was investigated for stabilisation and biomethanation of solid potato waste and sugar beet leaves, both separately and in co-digestion. A good phase separation between hydrolysis/acidification and methanogenesis was achieved, as indicated by the high carbon dioxide production, high volatile fatty acid concentration and low pH in the acidogenic reactors. Digestion of the individual substrates gave gross energy yields of 2.1-3.4 kWh/kg VS in the form of methane. Co-digestion, however, gave up to 60% higher methane yield, indicating that co-digestion resulted in improved methane production due to the positive synergism established in the digestion liquor. The integrity of the methane filters (MFs) was maintained throughout the period of operation, producing biogas with 60-78% methane content. A stable effluent pH showed that the methanogenic reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that occurred in the two-stage process. The results of this pilot-scale study show that the two-stage anaerobic digestion system is suitable for effective conversion of semi-solid agricultural residues as potato waste and sugar beet leaves

  9. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E; Antiohos, S K; Papadi, C

    2012-06-01

    A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a "very good quality" for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTION OF WHEAT TO MODERN REQUIREMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE III. ENERGY PRODUCTIVITY OF CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Vasileva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to conclude on adaptation of modern varieties to the requirements of sustainable agriculture and hence the effectiveness of their methods of selection with respect to these requirements. The comparison between genotypes in two directions - by the selection methods by which they were established and according to the time of their creation. Energy assessment shows that the gross energy yield of grain is higher ( in average 5% over standard for varieties produced by the methods of the Intervarietal hybridization and during the period 1995 to 1999. While absolute maximum values of the energy productivity of grain (at N18 and maximum average total gross energy productivity of crops (4% above standard were detected in genotypes generated by the methods of mutagenesis by irradiation with gamma rays. Absolute maximum value of the energy productivity of crops were reported in cultivar Zdravko (at N18, which was established by the method of plant biotechnology by combining and somaclonal variation.

  11. The mission of the central commission of the Czechoslovak Academy of Agriculture for use of energy resources and nuclear methods in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using waste heat of nuclear power plants for the intensification of agricultural production. In France, protected agricultural areas are heated with warm water circulating in a polyethylene perforated blanket. Experiments with subirrigation using warm water or with heating using water circulating in subsurface piping yield good results. Heating water for fish husbandry appears prospective and a research project in this field is suggested. (H.S.)

  12. The Use of Analytic Network Process for Risk Assessment in Production of Renewable Energy from Agriculture Biomass in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandija Rivza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is an important factor for successful and sustainable entrepreneurship of bioenergy production that has become one of the priorities in energy sector of Latvia. Promotion of the use of renewable energy is included as one of the strategic goals for European Union (EU and Latvia. As this field of energy production in Latvia is rather new and scantily explored there are many risk factors arising in different stages of production, starting with planning and building of a bioreactor and ending with production and further use and distribution of energy. The present research focuses on risk assessment in renewable energy production form biomass as this kind of energy is seen as a perspective source for renewable energy under the conditions of Latvia. A risk assessment module for renewable energy production made by using the Analytic Network Process (ANP software is described in the paper.

  13. Impacts of the Federal Energy Acts and Other Influences on Prices of Agricultural Commodities and Food

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Most of the increase in ethanol production in the 2008-2012 period can be attributed to the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and earlier federal energy legislation. The expansion in U.S. biofuel production, particularly ethanol, was the predominant cause of the elevated commodity prices. Other influences documented were a weak dollar, speculation and an increasingly inelastic commodity demand function. The supply function displayed more elasticity as crop farmers responded ...

  14. Performance analysis on borehole energy storage system including utilization of solar thermal and photovoltaic energies; Taiyonetsu hikari riyo wo fukumu borehole energy chozo system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yamaguchi, A [Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A permanent borehole energy storage system utilizing solar energy and waste heat from coolers is simulated, to be used as an air conditioning system for super-tall buildings. A 100m-long pipe is buried vertically into the ground, and a heat medium is caused to circulate in the pipe for the exchange of heat with the soil. Thirty borehole units are used, each measuring 9m{times}9m (with the pipe pitch being 3m). Solar cells occupying half of the wall surface facing south and solar collectors installed on the roof supply electric power and heat for cooling and warming. Heat in the ground is transferred mainly by conduction but also is carried by water and gas in movement. So, an analysis is carried out using an equation in which heat and water move at the same time. Because waste heat from cooling and warming systems is accumulated in the ground and none is discharged into the air, big cities will be protected from warming (from developing heat islands). As compared with the conventional boiler-aided air conditioning system, a hybrid borehole system incorporating solar collectors and solar cells will bring about an 80% reduction in CO2 emission and annual energy consumption. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Transition towards Renewable Energy Production? Potential in Smallholder Agricultural Systems in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Winkler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy (RE production promotes the efficient and sustainable utilization of natural resources at the local level. This study assessed smallholder farmers’ perceptions of RE production in two villages in West Bengal, India. The availability and potential of renewable resources and livelihood characteristics of smallholders were explored. Relevant factors for the selection of appropriate RE technologies were identified, based on the participatory, bottom-up Integrated Renewable Energy Potential Assessment. The research area has abundant solar resources and substantial amounts of organic residues and waste suitable for biodigestion. Important factors for RE technology selection, as stated by farmers, are: ease of daily activities, government support, and limited land requirements. Solar-photovoltaic (PV systems providing sufficient electricity for household use and irrigation are considered the most appropriate. Key informants focus on initial investment costs, government support, and reduced energy expenditure. They favor solar-PV systems for household electrification. Second choice was an integrated food and energy system that combines solar-PV for irrigation and vermicomposting of organic residues/wastes for fertilizer production. Smallholder famers’ motivation to produce and use RE is high. Their perspective should be integrated in the design of RE-supporting policies and related programs to utilize local natural resources effectively and promote the transition towards renewable energy.

  16. Photovoltaic systems in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corba, Z.; Katic, V.; Milicevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the possibility of using one of the renewable energy resources in agriculture. Specifically, the paper shows the possibility of converting solar energy into electricity through photovoltaic panels. The paper includes the analysis of the energy potential of solar radiation in the AP Vojvodina (Serbia). The results of the analysis can be used for the design of photovoltaic energy systems. The amount of solar energy on the territory of the province is compared with the same data from some European countries, in order to obtain a clear picture of the possibilities of utilization of this type of renewable sources. Three examples of possible application of photovoltaic systems are presented. The first relates to the consumer who is away from the electric distribution network - photovoltaic system in island mode. The remaining two examples relate to the application of photovoltaic power sources in manufacturing plants, flowers or vegetables. Applying photovoltaic source of electrical energy to power pumps for irrigation is highlighted

  17. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: Agriculture, Energy, and Society, Grades 10, 11, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Phyllis; And Others

    This interdisciplinary instructional unit contains eleven lessons for grades 10-12 which focus on the energy component of food production. There are lessons which contrast food production systems in various cultures and also lessons which look at different systems and techniques in use in this country. There are lessons dealing with organic…

  18. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2013-11-13

    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces.

  19. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  1. Potential of anaerobic digestion for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and production of renewable energy from agriculture: barriers and incentives to widespread adoption in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, C J; Salter, A M; Chesshire, M

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers the role of anaerobic digestion in promoting good agricultural practice on farms and the contribution this would make to reducing the environmental impacts associated with manure management. There are no regulatory drivers to promote the use of digestion in Europe, and the technology has only been widely adopted where economic drivers and coherent policies have been implemented at a national level. These measures have included direct subsidy on the energy price paid for "green electricity", and exemption of tax when biogas is used as a vehicle fuel. In those countries where financial incentives are not available or where a financial penalty is incurred through the regulatory regime, the uptake of digestion has been poor. Even with subsidies, digestion of animal manures as a single substrate is not common, and countries with successful schemes have achieved this either by permitting the import of wastes onto the farm or offering bonus subsidies for the use of energy crops. Both of these measures improve the energy efficiency of the process by increasing the volumetric methane production, although concerns are expressed that attention could concentrate on energy production at the expense of improving manure management.

  2. Modeling a novel CCHP system including solar and wind renewable energy resources and sizing by a CC-MOPSO algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soheyli, Saman; Shafiei Mayam, Mohamad Hossein; Mehrjoo, Mehri

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Considering renewable energy resources as the main prime movers in CCHP systems. • Simultaneous application of FEL and FTL by optimizing two probability functions. • Simultaneous optimization the equipment and penalty factors by CC-MOPSO algorithm. • Reducing fuel consumption and pollution up to 263 and 353 times, respectively. - Abstract: Due to problems, such as, heat losses of equipment, low energy efficiency, increasing pollution and the fossil fuels consumption, combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems have attracted lots of attention during the last decade. In this paper, for minimizing fossil fuel consumption and pollution, a novel CCHP system including photovoltaic (PV) modules, wind turbines, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as the prime movers is considered. Moreover, in order to minimize the excess electrical and heat energy production of the CCHP system and so reducing the need for the local power grid and any auxiliary heat production system, following electrical load (FEL) and following thermal load (FTL) operation strategies are considered, simultaneously. In order to determine the optimal number of each system component and also set the penalty factors in the used penalty function, a co-constrained multi objective particle swarm optimization (CC-MOPSO) algorithm is applied. Utilization of the renewable energy resources, the annual total cost (ATC) and the CCHP system area are considered as the objective functions. It also includes constraints such as, loss of power supply probability (LPSP), loss of heat supply probability (LHSP), state of battery charge (SOC), and the number of each CCHP component. A hypothetical hotel in Kermanshah, Iran is conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. 10 wind turbines, 430 PV modules, 11 SOFCs, 106 batteries and 2 heat storage tanks (HST) are numerical results for the spring as the best season in terms of decreasing cost and fuel consumption. Comparing the results

  3. Assessment of commercially available energy-efficient room air conditioners including models with low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, N. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, W. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Improving the energy efficiency of room air conditioners (RACs) while transitioning to low global-warming-potential (GWP) refrigerants will be a critical step toward reducing the energy, peak load, and emissions impacts of RACs while keeping costs low. Previous research quantified the benefits of leapfrogging to high efficiency in tandem with the transition to low-GWP refrigerants for RACs (Shah et al., 2015) and identified opportunities for initial action to coordinate energy efficiency with refrigerant transition in economies constituting about 65% of the global RAC market (Shah et al., 2017). This report describes further research performed to identify the best-performing (i.e., most efficient and low-GWP-refrigerant using) RACs on the market, to support an understanding of the best available technology (BAT). Understanding BAT can help support market-transformation programs for high-efficiency and low-GWP equipment such as minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), labeling, procurement, and incentive programs. We studied RACs available in six economies—China, Europe, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States—that together account for about 70% of global RAC demand, as well as other emerging economies. The following are our key findings: • Highly efficient RACs using low-GWP refrigerants, e.g., HFC-32 (R-32) and HC-290 (R-290), are commercially available today at prices comparable to similar RACs using high-GWP HCFC-22 (R-22) or HFC-410A (R-410A). • High efficiency is typically a feature of high-end products. However, highly efficient, cost-competitive (less than 1,000 or 1,500 U.S. dollars in retail price, depending on size) RACs are available. • Where R-22 is being phased out, high GWP R-410A still dominates RAC sales in most mature markets except Japan, where R-32 dominates. • In all of the economies studied except Japan, only a few models are energy efficient and use low-GWP refrigerants. For example, in Europe, India, and Indonesia

  4. Amount, availability, and potential use of rice straw (agricultural residue) biomass as an energy resource in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Minowa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of agricultural residue in Japan as an energy resource, based on the amounts produced and availability. The main agricultural residues in Japan are rice straw and rice husk. Based on a scenario wherein these residues are collected as is the rice product, we evaluate the size, cost, and CO 2 emission for power generation. Rice residue has a production potential of 12 Mt-dry year -1 , and 1.7 kt of rice straw is collected for each storage location. As this is too small an amount even for the smallest scale of power plant available, 2-month operation per year is assumed. Assuming a steam boiler and turbine with an efficiency of 7%, power generation from rice straw biomass can supply 3.8 billion(kW)h of electricity per year, or 0.47% of the total electricity demand in Japan. The electricity generated from this source costs as much as 25 JPY (kW h) -1 (0.21 US$ (kW h) -1 , 1 US$=120 JPY), more than double the current price of electricity. With heat recovery at 80% efficiency, the simultaneous heat supplied via cogeneration reaches 10% of that supplied by heavy oil in Japan. Further cost incentives will be required if the rice residue utilization is to be introduced. It will also be important to develop effective technologies to achieve high efficiency even in small-scale processes. If Japanese technologies enable the effective use of agricultural residue abroad as a result of Japanese effort from the years after 2010, the resulting reduction of greenhouse gas emission can be counted under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol

  5. Bioenergy from Low-Intensity Agricultural Systems : An Energy Efficiency Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arodudu, Oludunsin; Helming, Katharina; Wiggering, Hubert; Voinov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    In light of possible future restrictions on the use of fossil fuel, due to climate change obligations and continuous depletion of global fossil fuel reserves, the search for alternative renewable energy sources is expected to be an issue of great concern for policy stakeholders. This study assessed

  6. Wood as Energy--Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Instructional materials are provided for a unit dealing with production and marketing of wood as an energy source. Unit objectives and a list of visual masters appear first. Content is arranged by six topics: introduction, pre-cutting activities (planning a fuelwood cutting, marketing, chain saw safety), cutting activities, post-cutting…

  7. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  8. The potential of intercropping food crops and energy crop to improve productivity of a degraded agriculture land in arid tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.D. Jaya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Degraded agricultural lands in the arid tropics have low soil organic carbon (SOC and hence low productivity. Poor farmers that their livelihoods depend highly on these types of lands are suffering. Cropping strategies that are able to improve the soil productivity are needed. In the present study, some intercropping models of food crops with bio-energy crop of castor (Ricinus communis L. were tested to assess their potential to improve the degraded land productivity. The intercropping models were: (1 castor - hybrid maize, (2 castor – short season maize, (3 castor – mungbean, and (4 castor –short season maize – mungbean. The results show that yields of the component crops in monoculture were relatively the same as in intercropping, resulted in a high Land Equivalent Ratio (LER. The highest LER (3.07 was calculated from intercropping castor plants with short season maize crops followed by mungbean with intercropping productivity of IDR 15,097,600.00 ha-1. Intercropping has a great potential to improve degraded agriculture land productivity and castor is a promising plant to improve biodiversity and area coverage on the land.

  9. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-752-000] Energy Storage... Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  10. Ab initio effective core potentials including relativistic effects. II. Potential energy curves for Xe2, Xe+2, and Xe*2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermler, W.C.; Lee, Y.S.; Pitzer, K.S.; Winter, N.W.

    1978-01-01

    Potential energy curves for the ground 1 Σ + /sub g/ state of Xe 2 , the first four states of the Xe + 2 ions, and the eight Xe* 2 excimer states corresponding to the addition of a 6ssigma/sub g/ Rydberg electron to these ion cores have been computed using averaged relativistic effective core potentials (AREP) and the self-consistent field approximation for the valence electrons. The calculations were carried out using the LS-coupling scheme with the effects of spin--orbit coupling included in the resulting potential energy curves using an empirical procedure. A comparison of nonrelativistic and averaged relativistic EP's and subsequent molecular calculations indicates that relativistic effects arising from the mass--velocity and Darwin terms are not important for these properties of Xe 2 molecules. Spectroscopic constants for Xe + 2 are in good agreement with all electron CI calculations suggesting that the computed values for Xe* 2 excimers should be reliable. The lifetime for the O/sub u/ + state of the Xe 2 * is computed to be 5.6 nsec which is in the range of the experimentally determined values

  11. Optimal fuzzy logic-based PID controller for load-frequency control including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiya, Saravuth; Ngamroo, Issarachai

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new optimal fuzzy logic-based-proportional-integral-derivative (FLPID) controller for load frequency control (LFC) including superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units. Conventionally, the membership functions and control rules of fuzzy logic control are obtained by trial and error method or experiences of designers. To overcome this problem, the multiple tabu search (MTS) algorithm is applied to simultaneously tune PID gains, membership functions and control rules of FLPID controller to minimize frequency deviations of the system against load disturbances. The MTS algorithm introduces additional techniques for improvement of search process such as initialization, adaptive search, multiple searches, crossover and restarting process. Simulation results explicitly show that the performance of the optimum FLPID controller is superior to the conventional PID controller and the non-optimum FLPID controller in terms of the overshoot, settling time and robustness against variations of system parameters

  12. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Mazal, A; Pouzoulet, F

    2016-01-01

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec , for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec . The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm −1 . These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. (paper)

  13. In vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues, as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the changes in the values of in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (WS), cotton seed shell (CSS), peanut shell (PS), soybean shell (SS), extracted olive cake (EOC) and extracted unpeeled sunflower seeds (ESS) after irradiation by various doses of gamma radiation (0, 100, 150, 200 kGy) or after spraying with different amounts of sodium hydroxide (NaOH): 0, 2, 4, and 6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g DM. The results indicate that there were significant increases in IVOMD and IVDE values for all irradiated samples and for sodium hydroxide treatments except for SS and ESS. Combined treatment of irradiation and sodium hydroxide resulted in a larger increase in the digestible energy than the individual treatments

  14. The role and significance of Salix plantations for energy in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsse, L.S.; Ledin, S.; Johansson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    Fifteen years of research and development of energy forestry with Salix species has lead to a firm basis of knowledge concerning the basic biology, stand ecology and production systems of fast growing willows in Sweden. The biology research program continues to emphasize studies of plant biology and diseases as well as areas such as clone/site interactions, mixed clonal plantations and breeding. The technological research and development concentrates on functional and effective machinery for planting, harvesting, etc. Recently Salix plantations for energy production in Sweden have been commercialized. Plantations start with 18,000 cuttings of willow clones per hectare. During the first summer weed control is the most important treatment. Fertilizers are applied to keep a high production level. Crops are harvested during winter at 3--5 year intervals. The average annual production is about 10--12 tonnes DM per hectare. The life of Salix plantations is estimated as 25--30 years. An estimated potential of 300,000 hectares of Salix plantations would result 5% of the energy needs in Sweden. Wood fuel from the conventional forest equals 60 TWh today, with a potential of being doubled within 10--20 years. The economic outcome for the farmer of growing Salix mainly depends on the price of chips and the level of production. A fundamental requirement for establishing plantations is that there is a wood fuel market within a reasonable distance (about 50 km). In a calculation stretching over a period of 24 years with a production level of 12 tonnes DM per hectare and year, and at an interest rate of 6%, the net return is about 1,000--1,500 SEK/ha/yr (about 7 SEK/US$) if simultaneous chipping is used. With separate harvest and chipping and enterprise in this calculation breaks even. Interest in the utilization of sludge, ash, waste water and leakage water as nutrients for energy forests is increasing from local and regional authorities.

  15. Exploring the adoption of renewable energy: the case of biogas plants in Greek agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kousis, M.

    1992-01-01

    With a focus on renewable energy, an evaluation of the current literature on the adoption of new technologies is given and a review of biogas options in Greece presented. A preliminary test of the significance of some factors that influence the acceptance of biogas technology by Greek hog farmers is constructed. Although the evidence appears to support a model which emphasises individual characteristics in the adoption process, the overall data qualify the position which stresses the institutional role to that end. (author)

  16. A fair green economy? Studies of agriculture, energy and waste initiatives in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hezri, Adnan; Ghazali, Rospidah

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes that a green economy needs also to be a fair economy. Following broader global trends, in 2009 the Malaysian government established the basic architecture for green economy by incorporating a green technology portfolio into the newly established Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. This was followed by a suite of interventionist policy instruments. However, Malaysia's approach raises the question whether the full range of social, economic and environmental goals...

  17. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  18. Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Finnveden, Goeran; Wadeskog, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector. (author)

  19. Piloting the use of accelerometry devices to capture energy expenditure in agricultural and rural livelihoods: Protocols and findings from northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Zanello

    Full Text Available In this study we report on the protocols adopted and the findings from a pilot study in northern Ghana involving 40 respondents wearing accelerometry devices for a week. We show how integrating energy expenditure data from wearable accelerometry devices with data on activity and time-use can provide a window into agricultural and rural livelihoods in developing country contexts that has not been previously available for empirical research. Our findings confirm some of the stylised facts of agricultural and rural livelihoods, but the study also provides several new insights that come from the triangulation of energy expenditure, time use, and activity data. We report findings and explore the potential applications of using accelerometry devices for a better understanding of agriculture-nutrition linkages in developing countries. Keywords: Energy expenditure, Wearable accelerometry devices, Time-use, Ghana

  20. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry; Proceedings, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this first volume deal with Resource Base and Power Production. The particular subjects within the Resource Base area are Biomass, Wastes and Residues, Feedstock Research, and Commercial Systems. The emphasized subjects within the Power Production area are Combustion, Thermal and Biological Gasification, Waste Generation and Waste Disposal and Waste Emissions, and Heat, Steam, and Fuels-Commercial Systems. Selected abstracts have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. ThermoEnergy Ammonia Recovery Process for Municipal and Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Fassbender

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ammonia Recovery Process (ARP is an award-winning, low-cost, environmentally responsible method of recovering nitrogen, in the form of ammonia, from various dilute waste streams and converting it into concentrated ammonium sulfate. The ThermoEnergy Biogas System utilizes the new chemisorption-based ARP to recover ammonia from anaerobically digested wastes. The process provides for optimal biogas production and significantly reduced nitrogen levels in the treated water discharge. Process flows for the ammonia recovery and ThermoEnergy biogas processes are presented and discussed. A comparison with other techniques such as biological nitrogen removal is made. The ARP technology uses reversible chemisorption and double salt crystal precipitation to recover and concentrate the ammonia. The ARP technology was successfully proven in a recent large-scale field demonstration at New York City’s Oakwood Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant, located on Staten Island. This project was a joint effort with Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, the Civil Engineering Research Foundation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Independent validated plant data show that ARP consistently recovers up to 99.9% of the ammonia from the city’s centrate waste stream (derived from dewatering of sewage sludge, as ammonium sulfate. ARP technology can reduce the nitrogen (ammonia discharged daily into local bodies of water by municipalities, concentrated animal farming operations, and industry. Recent advances to ARP enhance its performance and economic competitiveness in comparison to stripping or ammonia destruction technologies.

  2. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 2. Cooperation in Agriculture. R and D on High-Yielding Crop Varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon-Lebrun, F. [Global and Structural Policies Division, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Mitigating climate change and achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gas atmospheric concentrations will require deep reductions in global emissions of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Developing and disseminating new, low-carbon energy technology will thus be needed. Two previous AIXG papers have focused on possible drivers for such a profound technological change: Technology Innovation, Development and Diffusion, released in June 2003, and International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, released in June 2004. The first of these papers assesses a broad range of technical options for reducing energy-related CO2 emissions. It examines how technologies evolve and the role of research and development efforts, alternative policies, and short-term investment decisions in making long-term options available. It considers various policy tools that may induce technological change, some very specific, and others with broader expected effects. Its overall conclusion is that policies specifically designed to promote technical change, or 'technology push', could play a critical role in making available and affordable new energy technologies. However, such policies would not be sufficient to achieve the Convention's objective in the absence of broader policies. First, because there is a large potential for cuts that could be achieved in the short run with existing technologies; and second, the development of new technologies requires a market pull as much as a technology push. The second paper considers the potential advantages and disadvantages of international energy technology collaboration and transfer for promoting technological change. Advantages of collaboration may consist of lowering R and D costs and stimulating other countries to invest in R and D; disadvantage may include free-riding and the inefficiency of reaching agreement between many actors. This paper sets the context for further discussion on the role of

  3. Wood production for energy purposes in the agriculture. 4. rev. ed.; Energieholzproduktion in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Martin [Kompetenzzentrum HessenRohstoffe (HeRo) e.V., Witzenhausen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cultivation of fast growing tree species such as poplars or willows in short harvesting periods is an extensive form of land use which increasingly is interesting with respect to the climate protection and development of the prices for fossil energy sources. Cultivation concepts have to be oriented towards the existing agrarian structure and the possible lines of utilization. This requires an answer of the following questions: (a) What has to be considered with the cultivation?; (b) Which tree species are recommended?; (c) Which procedures of harvesting do exist?; (d) How does economy present itself? The contribution under consideration tries to give answers to these questions. The contribution summarizes the actual state of knowledge from research and first practical cultivations. The contribution under consideration also dedicates itself to the practical farmer.

  4. Project of renewable energy for agriculture; Proyecto de energia renovable para la agricultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montufar Avilez, Octavio [FIRCO (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The document presents a general design of the hydraulic system, a hydraulic design of cattle ranch and a hydraulic design by dripping. It also discusses the components of the energy project, which are: institutional fortification, promotion and diffusion, market development (studies), specifications and certification, investments, technical support and direction of the project. The objective of this project is to diminish ignorance in the sector, to reduce the investment costs and to obtain a long term-sustainable effect. [Spanish] En este documento se describe un diseno general del sistema hidraulico, un diseno hidraulico de ganaderia, un diseno hidraulico por goteo y los componentes del proyecto de energia que son: fortalecimiento institucional, promocion y difusion, desarrollo del mercado (estudios), especificaciones y certificacion, inversiones, asistencia tecnica y direccion del proyecto. El objetivo de este proyecto es minimizar el desconocimiento en el sector, reducir los costos de inversion y que el efecto sea sostenible a largo plazo.

  5. Analysis of agricultural soils by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos

    2000-03-01

    In this work, we describe an Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence System with a x-ray tube excitation for trace analysis of environmental samples (soil). The system was used to analyze the contamination of metals in treated soils with doses of 10, 20 and 30 ton/ha of compound organic of urban garbage of the type Fertilurb and 10 ton/ha of aviary bed (manure of birds). Samples of roots and foliages of plant radishes cultivated in these soils were also analyzed. The soil samples were collected in five different depths of 0,5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. The experimental set-up is composed by an OXFORD X-ray (30 kV, 50 μA and W anode), an ORTEC Si-Li detector, with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV and an ORTEC multichannel-analyser. The X-ray spectrum tube is quasi-monochromatic by using of Ti filter. Samples were prepared in pellet form with superficial density in the range of 100 mg/cm 2 . The fundamental parameter method was used in order to verify the elemental concentration. It was possible to determine the concentrations of thirteen elements: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb in the treated soils with compounds organic. The results indicate that the values found for K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb are significantly above the upper confidence limits for the control soil (α = 0.05). There is a real different between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, (α=0,05). There is a real difference between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, confirming the influence of the organic compounds in the soil. (author)

  6. Energy and CO{sub 2eq} analysis of the agricultural phase in the sunflower biodiesel chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spugnoli, C.P.; Dainelli, R.; D' avino, L.; Mazzoncini, M.; Lazzeri, L. [DEISTAF Univ. degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The suitability of the sunflower for biodiesel production was discussed in terms of the reference values on carbon dioxide equivalents (CO{sub 2eq}) emissions for every phase of the biofuels chain as indicated in the European Union (EU) Directive on renewable energies. A life cycle analysis performed on the agricultural phase of the sunflower showed that CO{sub 2eq} emissions from the cultivation phase exceeded the EU reference value. This paper highlighted the relevance of allocation methods to spread out energy consumption and CO{sub 2eq} emissions among sunflower biodiesel and oilcake. Allocation was made according to the principles of mass content, energy content and the economic value of co-products. The CO{sub 2eq} reductions obtained with the 3 methods were approximately 60, 50 and 25 per cent, respectively when compared to a case without allocation. Since these methods did not distinguish the different functionality of co-products in relation to their real use, this study also considered the method of system expansion and allocation by substitution. The considered equivalent functions of oilcake were animal feed, coal fuel and fertilizer. The results showed that while the substitution with coal gives rise to an emission credit, the others allow only minor improvements. A sensitivity analysis emphasized the significance of fossil fuels and fertilizers on energy depletion and CO{sub 2eq} emissions. It was concluded that only a major revision of farm practices aimed at reducing the use of N-fertilizer, can allow the sunflower to be suitable for biodiesel production in central Italy, given the EU constrains for CO{sub 2eq} emissions.

  7. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Olesen, Jørgen E; Petersen, Søren O

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG e...

  8. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  9. Three essays on the links between agriculture and energy policies in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whistance, Jarrett

    The first essay develops and applies a structural, partial equilibrium model of United States biomass supply and demand. The aim is to examine the biomass price and expenditure effects of domestic biofuel policies. The results indicate that the cellulosic biofuel sub-mandate alone could increase biomass prices by an average of 50% to 100% over the baseline values. Biomass expenditures by sectors competing with biofuel producers increase by an average of 26% relative to the baseline suggesting those sectors cannot fully shift away from biomass energy sources. A sensitivity analysis focusing on supply response indicates that the results are not very sensitive to the supply elasticity. This study contributes to the literature by providing policymakers and other energy policy stakeholders with a forward looking analysis of potential policy effects on the U.S. biomass market. The second essay develops a similar type of model applied toward the domestic and international petroleum and petroleum products markets as well as the domestic biofuel market and the domestic light-duty vehicle sector. The goal is to investigate the impact of CAFE standards and alternative-fuel vehicle production incentives on the biofuel market and RFS compliance, in particular. The results suggest that holding CAFE standards at the 2010 level could significantly reduce the blendwall problem in the U.S. ethanol market. Furthermore, the alternative fuel production incentives appear to have only minimal effects. However, there is much uncertainty surrounding the appropriate level of automaker response to those incentives, and a sensitivity analysis indicates the model is fairly sensitive to the assumed level of response. The third essay highlights a few of the theories put forth regarding the expected price behavior of Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs). The theories are tested both observationally and empirically with a dataset containing daily RIN price observations going back to January

  10. Loop-driven graphical unitary group approach to the electron correlation problem, including configuration interaction energy gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.R.

    1979-09-01

    The Graphical Unitary Group Approach (GUGA) was cast into an extraordinarily powerful form by restructuring the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. This restructuring allows the adoption of the loop-driven formulation which illuminates vast numbers of previously unappreciated relationships between otherwise distinct Hamiltonian matrix elements. The theoretical/methodological contributions made here include the development of the loop-driven formula generation algorithm, a solution of the upper walk problem used to develop a loop breakdown algorithm, the restriction of configuration space employed to the multireference interacting space, and the restructuring of the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. Several other developments are presented and discussed. Among these developments are the use of new segment coefficients, improvements in the loop-driven algorithm, implicit generation of loops wholly within the external space adapted within the framework of the loop-driven methodology, and comparisons of the diagonalization tape method to the direct method. It is also shown how it is possible to implement the GUGA method without the time-consuming full (m 5 ) four-index transformation. A particularly promising new direction presented here involves the use of the GUGA methodology to obtain one-electron and two-electron density matrices. Once these are known, analytical gradients (first derivatives) of the CI potential energy are easily obtained. Several test calculations are examined in detail to illustrate the unique features of the method. Also included is a calculation on the asymmetric 2 1 A' state of SO 2 with 23,613 configurations to demonstrate methods for the diagonalization of very large matrices on a minicomputer. 6 figures, 6 tables

  11. Producing energy while sequestering carbon? The relationship between biochar and agricultural productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, Nathan; Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Brown, Robert C.; Laird, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A partial solution to problems associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be the development and deployment of carbon-negative technologies, i.e., producing energy while reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Biofuels have been considered a possibility but have faced limitations due to competition with food production and GHG emissions through indirect land-use change (ILUC). In this article, we show how emissions from ILUC can potentially be reduced by producing food and bioenergy from biochar amended soils. The possibility of yield improvements from biochar would reduce the land requirement for crop production and thus, lead to a reduction in emissions from ILUC. In our application, biochar and bio-oil are produced via fast pyrolysis of corn stover. Bio-oil is subsequently upgraded into a fuel suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Applying the U.S. regulatory method used to determine biofuel life cycle emissions, our results show that a biochar-induced yield improvement in the U.S. Midwest ranging from 1% to 8% above trend can lead to an ILUC credit between 1.65 and 14.79 t CO 2 -equivalent ha −1  year −1 when future emissions are assessed over the next 30 years. The model is generalizable to other feedstocks and locations and illustrates the relationship between biochar and crop production. - Highlights: • If biochar leads to higher crop yields, a land-use change (LUC) credit applies. • Indirect LUC credit is applied to biofuel if biochar is produced as a by-product. • 1.65 to 14.79 t CO 2 -e ha −1  year −1 credit for 1%–8% yield increase in U.S. Midwest. • Life cycle analysis generalizable to other locations and feedstock

  12. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m...

  13. 78 FR 40508 - Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Mid Oregon Personnel and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Solar Energy, Inc., Bend, Oregon; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... (AEI). AEI is engaged in activities related to the production of solar invert subcomponents. The... Solar Energy, Inc. At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for...

  14. Atoms in the service of agriculture: 25 years of co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This film displays joint FAO/IAEA co-operation in developing nuclear technology to improve methods in agriculture. The goal of these methods is to help end world hunger without destroying the environment. Such technology includes: monitoring water levels beneath the earth's surface, improving plant varieties, enriching the soil, preserving foods, eradicating harmful insects, etc., by using isotopes and radiation techniques

  15. Atoms in the service of agriculture: 25 years of co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This film displays joint FAO/IAEA co-operation in developing nuclear technology to improve methods in agriculture. The goal of these methods is to help end world hunger without destroying the environment. Such technology includes: monitoring water levels beneath the earth`s surface, improving plant varieties, enriching the soil, preserving foods, eradicating harmful insects, etc., by using isotopes and radiation techniques

  16. Les débouchés énergétiques de l'agriculture de la Communauté Economique Européenne Energy Outlets for Agriculture in the European Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker J. J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'agriculture de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CEE connaît une crise profonde au niveau de ses débouchés. Ainsi, même dans un contexte où l'indépendance énergétique n'est plus une préoccupation majeure, une production massive d'énergie par l'agriculture reste un projet à priori digne d'intérêt. Cette étude précise les modalités d'application concrètes d'une telle politique et tente une évaluation économique permettant d'apprécier la viabilité d'un tel schéma. Elle présente, en particulier, un positionnement par rapport aux solutions agricoles plus classiques actuellement mises en oeuvre et qui pourtant ne sont guère satisfaisantes. Agriculture in the EEC is in the midst of a deep crisis concerning its outlets. Even in a context where energy independence is no longer a major preoccupation, massive energy production by agriculture is still a problem worthy of interest, a priori. This article specifies concrete procedures for applying such a policy and tries to make an economic evaluation to assess the viability of such a scheme. In particular, it describes a position in relation to the most conventional agricultural solutions now being implemented and that are proving not to be very satisfactory.

  17. Fugitive methane emissions from natural, urban, agricultural, and energy-production landscapes of eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-04-01

    that extended for 6 km where the concentration was greater than 1.80 ppm. The median concentration in this interval was 1.90 ppm, with a peak reading of 1.97 ppm. This high reading in an urban setting is most likely due to leaks from the domestic gas distribution system. Methane leaks were detected in all country towns. Our measurements show that at the point of resource extraction the methane emission footprint of CSG is smaller than that of open-cut coal mining. However, leaking gas from urban centers must be added to the fugitive emissions of CSG to calculate the total fugitive emission footprint of CSG, which may therefore not be as low as claimed in the national greenhouse gas accounts. Our results highlight the need for additional continuous monitoring of methane emissions from all sectors, and for the full life-cycle of energy resources to be considered.

  18. A Project to Develop an Associate of Science Degree Curriculum in Renewable Energy Resources and Applications in Agriculture. Final Report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith; Fielding, Marvin R.

    A project was conducted at State Fair Community College (SFCC) in Sedalia, Missouri, to develop an associate of science degree curriculum in renewable energy resources and their application in agriculture. A pilot study, designed to verify and rate the importance of 138 competencies in fuel alcohol production and to ascertain employment…

  19. LA MAITRISE DE LA DEMANDE EN EAU ET EN ENERGIE EN AGRICULTURE IRRIGUEE : DE L'EVALUATION DES ENJEUX A LA PROPOSITION D'ACTIONS CIBLEES

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens , Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Financement : Bourse ADEME; This work relies on field studies from Morocco, France, Egypt and India. Its purpose is to build an approach with a high capacity for preparation to field action. Food flows of energy, water and commercial energy implied in the irrigated agricultural production and feeding systems are evaluated using and combining constraints, functions and objectives of the studied systems. The approach uses knowledge and data from the nutrition and food fields, irrigated agricult...

  20. Production of Bioethanol from Agricultural Wastes Using Residual Thermal Energy of a Cogeneration Plant in the Distillation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Cutzu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic fermentations were performed, adapting the technology to exploit the residual thermal energy (hot water at 83–85 °C of a cogeneration plant and to valorize agricultural wastes. Substrates were apple, kiwifruit, and peaches wastes; and corn threshing residue (CTR. Saccharomyces bayanus was chosen as starter yeast. The fruits, fresh or blanched, were mashed; CTR was gelatinized and liquefied by adding Liquozyme® SC DS (Novozymes, Dittingen, Switzerland; saccharification simultaneous to fermentation was carried out using the enzyme Spirizyme® Ultra (Novozymes, Dittingen, Switzerland. Lab-scale static fermentations were carried out at 28 °C and 35 °C, using raw fruits, blanched fruits and CTR, monitoring the ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was reached with CTR (10.22% (v/v and among fruits with apple (8.71% (v/v. Distillations at low temperatures and under vacuum, to exploit warm water from a cogeneration plant, were tested. Vacuum simple batch distillation by rotary evaporation at lab scale at 80 °C (heating bath and 200 mbar or 400 mbar allowed to recover 93.35% (v/v and 89.59% (v/v of ethanol, respectively. These results support a fermentation process coupled to a cogeneration plant, fed with apple wastes and with CTR when apple wastes are not available, where hot water from cogeneration plant is used in blanching and distillation phases. The scale up in a pilot plant was also carried out.

  1. Integrating EO data for applying the Nexus of water, energy and agriculture to monitor SDG Indicators within transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalidis, G.; Kavvada, A.; Crisman, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NEXUS of water, energy and agriculture is widely recognized as an integrated approach for innovative management solutions and actions to protect natural resources. Soil Spectral Libraries (SSL) implement the NEXUS approach by combining Earth Observation (EO) and Geospatial Information (GI) data and tools to extract information on soil attributes rapidly, reliably and cost effectively. NEXUS approach for soil resources at large scales- across landscapes or regions- remains a challenge however, especially for stakeholders, and in regards to promoting the concept, disseminating the methodology, and discussing potential benefits at both local and transboundary river basin levels. The CEOS Data Cube is an excellent tool for collecting, processing and disseminating EO data, and providing `Analysis Ready Data' utilized both as a management tool for policy makers, and a tool boosting economic activity and supporting end-users. Thus, it helps supporting the tracking of, and reporting on, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and promoting targeted approaches to address specific SDG Indicators. Although several European projects in the Balkan transboundary river basin areas focus on existing/potential ties to specific SDG Indicators under the leadership of i-BEC, data are lacking for some regions, and there is an exigent need for country/region - specific case studies. A case study in Albania, the 3rd for CEOS and the 1st for Europe, will seek to build synergies between different sectors and activities (water, energy, food) and natural resources, while also accounting for ecosystem climate- regulating functions. This will contribute to the global expansion of the Data Cube initiative, while adding high quality datasets in GEOSS. Engagement of EO ecosystem stakeholders, together with National Statistical Offices, regionally and globally, should exploit the networking capacities of multipliers, maximizing the impact and reach of SSL. The H2020 project GEOCRADLE has

  2. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, P.J.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Graaf, de Kees; Higgs, S.; Lluch, A.; Ness, A.R.; Penfold, C.; Perry, R.; Putz, P.; Yeomans, M.R.; Mela, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a

  3. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Agricultural Sciences including Animal Production, Fisheries, Agronomy, Processing and Agricultural Mechanization. Related ...

  4. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar materials processing including photogeneration via concentrated solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, D. E.; Lynch, D. C.; Fozzolari, R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for photo generation of radicals is discussed that can be used in the recovery of oxygen and metals from extraterrestrial resources. The concept behind this work was to examine methods whereby radicals can be generated and used in the processing of refractory materials. In that regard, the focus is on the use of sunlight. Sunlight provides useful energy for processing in the forms of both thermal and quantum energy. A number of experiments were conducted in the chlorination of metals with and without the aid of UV and near UV light. The results of some of those experiments are discussed.

  5. Total cross-sections for reactions of high energy particles (including elastic, topological, inclusive and exclusive reactions). Subvol. b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation of cross-sections (i.e. reaction rates) of elementary particles at high energy. The data are presented in the form of tables, plots and some fits, which should be easy for the reader to use and may enable him to estimate cross-sections for presently unmeasured energies. We have analyzed all the data published in the major Journals and Reviews for momenta of the incoming particles larger than ≅ 50 MeV/c, since the early days of elementary particle physics and, for each reaction, we have selected the best cross-section data available. We have restricted our attention to integrated cross-sections, such as total cross-sections, exclusive and inclusive cross-sections etc., at various incident beam energies. We have disregarded data affected by geometrical and/or kinematical cuts which would make them not directly comparable to other data at different energies. Also, in the case of exclusive reactions, we have left out data where not all of the particles in the final state were unambiguously identified. This work contains reactions induced by neutrinos, gammas, charged pions, kaons, nucleons, antinucleons and hyperons. (orig./HSI)

  6. The Economy's Influence on Environmental Sustainability and Energy: Including the Top Ten Facilities Issues. APPA Thought Leaders Series, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunday, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, the APPA (Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers) Thought Leaders Series has brought together experts in higher education for two days of discussion about the challenges facing colleges and universities in North America. Energy and the environment were the focal points for the 2009 Thought Leaders Symposium, and the result…

  7. Nigeria Agricultural Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. NATURE OF PAPERS. Papers should be of agricultural interest and include: full reports of original research not previously elsewhere, research notes which consist of brief or new findings; techniques and equipment of importance to agricultural workers; evaluations of problems and trends in agricultural ...

  8. Stabilization and control of tie-line power flow of microgrid including wind generation by distributed energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, M.G.; Mercado, P.E. [CONICET, Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    High penetration of wind generation in electrical microgrids causes fluctuations of tie-line power flow and significantly affects the power system operation. This can lead to severe problems, such as system frequency oscillations, and/or violations of power lines capability. With proper control, a distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) integrated with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is able to significantly enhance the dynamic security of the power system. This paper proposes the use of a SMES system in combination with a DSTATCOM as effective distributed energy storage (DES) for stabilization and control of the tie-line power flow of microgrids incorporating wind generation. A new detailed model of the integrated DSTATCOM-SMES device is derived and a novel three-level control scheme is designed. The dynamic performance of the proposed control schemes is fully validated using MATLAB/Simulink. (author)

  9. Energy, The Storage Challenge. Better Batteries Included. Running Hot and Cold. A Tank-full of Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdet, Julien; Hait, Jean-Francois; Demarthon, Fabrice; Brault, Pascal; Dollet, Alain; Py, Olivier; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Gonbeau, Danielle; Simon, Patrice; Pourcelly, Gerald; Latroche, Michel; Rango, Patricia de; Miraglia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    To secure its future and that of the planet, humanity must find alternatives to oil. But this vital transition toward renewable energy (currently the subject of a national debate in France), is highly dependent on the development of efficient storage solutions. Today's technologies make it relatively easy to produce electricity, heat, and even hydrogen, but their long-term storage remains a daunting scientific and technical challenge-a high priority for CNRS researchers

  10. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemys?aw; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, s...

  11. Description of relevant scenarios in the field of agricultural, environmental and climate policy and energy prices for the preliminary study on a Roadmap for the 'SuikerUnie'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plomp, A.J.

    2011-11-01

    In the Dutch Long Term Agreements on energy efficiency (MJA3 and MEE)the Dutch government and industry agreed to strive for a 30% energy efficiency improvement in 2020 compared to 2005. To reach more than 30%, it is not enough to optimize; instead larger process changes will be needed. An important instrument is the realization of preliminary studies and roadmaps, which are supported by the government. This memo offers an overview of relevant developments and scenarios from Agricultural, climate and environmental policy and energy prices for the Dutch sugar industry. This memo serves as input for the Preliminary study Roadmap SuikerUnie. [nl

  12. The choice of primary energy source including PV installation for providing electric energy to a public utility building - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Bartosz; Ćwiek, Barbara; Mróz, Tomasz M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents multicriteria decision aid analysis of the choice of PV installation providing electric energy to a public utility building. From the energy management point of view electricity obtained by solar radiation has become crucial renewable energy source. Application of PV installations may occur a profitable solution from energy, economic and ecologic point of view for both existing and newly erected buildings. Featured variants of PV installations have been assessed by multicriteria analysis based on ANP (Analytic Network Process) method. Technical, economical, energy and environmental criteria have been identified as main decision criteria. Defined set of decision criteria has an open character and can be modified in the dialog process between the decision-maker and the expert - in the present case, an expert in planning of development of energy supply systems. The proposed approach has been used to evaluate three variants of PV installation acceptable for existing educational building located in Poznań, Poland - the building of Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology. Multi-criteria analysis based on ANP method and the calculation software Super Decisions has proven to be an effective tool for energy planning, leading to the indication of the recommended variant of PV installation in existing and newly erected public buildings. Achieved results show prospects and possibilities of rational renewable energy usage as complex solution to public utility buildings.

  13. A comprehensive economic evaluation of integrated desalination systems using fossil fuelled and nuclear energies and including their environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Benzarti, N.

    2008-01-01

    Seawater desalination is now widely accepted as an attractive alternative source of freshwater for domestic and industrial uses. Despite the considerable progress made in the relevant technologies desalination, however, remains an energy intensive process in which the energy cost is the paramount factor. This Study is a first of a kind in that we have integrated the environmental costs into the power and desalination costs. The study has focused on the seawater desalination cost evaluation of the following systems. It is supposed that they will be operating in the co-generation mode (Simultaneous production of electrical power and desalted water) in 2015: Fossil fuelled based systems such as the coal and oil fired plants and the gas turbine combined cycle plant, coupled to MED, and RO; Pressurised water reactors such as the PWR-900 and the AP-600, coupled to MED, and RO; High temperature reactors such as the GT-MHR, the PBMR, coupled to MED, with the utilisation of virtually free waste-heat provided by these reactors. The study is made in real site-specific conditions of a site In Southern Europe. Sensitivity studies for different parameters such as the fossil fuel prices, interest and discount rates, power costs etc., have also been undertaken. The results obtained are then used to evaluate the financial interest of selected integrated desalination systems in terms of a detailed cash flow analysis, providing the net present values, pay back periods and the internal rate of returns. Analysis of the results shows that among the fossil fuelled systems the power and desalination costs by circulating fluidized bed coal fired plant would be the lowest with current coal prices. Those by oil fired plants would be highest. In all cases, integrated nuclear energy systems would lead to considerably lower power and water costs than the corresponding coal based systems. When external costs for different energies are internalized in power and water costs, the relative cost

  14. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Awards Ceremony for 2011 Award Winners (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The winners for 2011 of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award were recognized in a ceremony held May 21, 2012. Dr. Steven Chu and others spoke of the importance of the accomplishments and the prestigious history of the award. The recipients of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award for 2011 are: Riccardo Betti (University of Rochester); Paul C. Canfield (Ames Laboratory); Mark B. Chadwick (Los Alamos National Laboratory); David E. Chavez (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Amit Goyal (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Thomas P. Guilderson (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Lois Curfman McInnes (Argonne National Laboratory); Bernard Matthew Poelker (Thomas Jeffereson National Accelerator Facility); and Barry F. Smith (Argonne National Laboratory).

  15. Understanding the economic, environmental and energy consequences of the Panama Canal expansion on Midwest grain and agricultural exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Panama Canal Authority (ACP) is currently building a third lock scheduled to open in 2014, significantly changing the capacity of the : canal for inter-ocean movements. Midwest specialty grain and agricultural product exporters will be directly a...

  16. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  17. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemysław; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-10-29

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, some of which is transported to the neurons. Thus, glycogen from astrocytes functions as a kind of protection against hypoglycemia, ensuring preservation of neuronal function. The neuroprotective effect of lactate during hypoglycemia or cerebral ischemia has been reported in literature. This review goes on to emphasize that while neurons and astrocytes differ in metabolic profile, they interact to form a common metabolic cooperation.

  18. Participation of the fossil energy in cotton agro-ecosystem in family agricultural explorations; Participacao da energia fossil no agroecossistema algodao em exploracoes agricolas familiares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Cabrera Romero, Maria Gloria [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2006-07-01

    With the objective of presenting the participation of the several energy sources employees in the cotton agro-ecosystem, this work is constituted in a contribution regarding the subject of the sustain grow.As the focal point of this research, family exploitation is analyzed, with the use of the categorization done by the National Program for Strengthening Family Agriculture - ('Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar - PRONAF). Use was made of primary and secondary data from three family exploitations in the municipality of Leme/SP, Brazil. To construct the energy expenditure structure of the cotton agro-ecosystem, the mean values obtained were considered, since these agriculturalists present the same technical itinerary and are within the typification proposed in this study. The results were presented by the energy expenditure structure by type, source, form of energy. Considering the cotton agro-ecosystem from the technical itinerary presented, the input energy equal to 51.961,63 MJ . ha{sup -1} was observed, with a participation of 34,21% and 65,79% of the direct and indirect energy respectively. The studied agro ecosystem fundamentally depended on the industrial source of energy, particularly insecticides (39,71%) and chemical fertilizers (19,88%) and fossil sources (33,80%). It was verified like this that the dependence of the industrial energy and of the fossil energy in the cotton agro ecosystem. In that way, we suggest himself the search of the use of another types of energy that they allow the energy sustainability of this agro-ecosystems in family agricultural systems. (author)

  19. Rethinking Bioenergy from an Agricultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shortall, Orla

    The aim of this project is to explore the social and ethical dimensions of the agricultural production of perennial energy crop and crop residues for energy. Biomass – any living or recently living matter – is being promoted in industrialised countries as part of the transition from fossil fuels...... agriculture including the biorefinery strategy; multifunctional perennial energy crop production on environmentally marginal land; and ecologically integrated multipurpose biomass production through agroforestry production. There is also an argument which cuts across the paradigms and maintains...

  20. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  1. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  2. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  3. Analysis of the energy consumption of the industry, agriculture and construction industry 1982-1996. Background document for the report `Monitoring energy consumption and energy policy in the Netherlands; Analyse energieverbruik industrie, landbouw en bouw 1982-1996. Achtergronddocument bij het rapport Monitoring Energieverbruik en Beleid Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dril, A.W.N. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    In this study energy consumption is related to economic and physical production of the manufacturing industry, agriculture and construction in the Netherlands from 1982-1996. Analysis of separate effects is performed and an attempt is made to explain the divergence found between energy consumption and production. These separate effects include developments in economic output, sectoral composition, product output and composition, energy technology, energy prices and policy regarding efficiency improvement. In manufacturing industry, energy intensity and efficiency improvements occur in all sectors with 1-1,5% annually on average. This effect mainly concerns fuel consumption, whereas electricity intensity slowly rises in most sectors. No clear price sensitivity was observed. Energy intensive sectors have gained a larger share in total production. Upgrading of products with respect to their physical content (dematerialization) was not clearly found on an aggregated level. Data problems occur in the chemical sector. Energy efficiency policy has modest effects. In greenhouse horticulture, energy price sensitivity was found and major efficiency improvements consequently occurred only in the early eighties. In refineries, also upgrading of products contributed to an intensity improvement of 4% on average. 9 refs.

  4. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. Use of spectrophotometric readout method for free radical dosimetry in radiation processing including low energy electrons and bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Our laboratory maintains standards for high doses in India. The glutamine powder dosimeter (spectrophotometric readout) is used for this purpose. Present studies show that 20 mg of unirradiated/irradiated glutamine dissolved in freshly prepared 10 ml of aerated aqueous acidic FX solution containing 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 ferrous ammonium sulphate and 10 -4 mol dm -3 xylenol orange in 0.033 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid is suitable for the dosimetry in the dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. Normally no corrections are required for the post-irradiation fading of the irradiated glutamine. The response of glutamine dosimeter is independent of irradiation temperature in the range of about 23-30 deg. C and at other temperatures, a correction is necessary. The dose intercomparison results for photon, electron and bremsstrahlung radiations show that glutamine can be used as a reference standard dosimeter. The use of flat polyethylene bags containing glutamine powder has proved very successful for electron dosimetry of wide energies. Several other amino acids like alanine, valine and threonine can also be used to cover wide range of doses using spectrophotometric readout method. (author)

  6. Characterization and comparison of a agricultural and forestry residues for energy purpose; Caracterizacao e comparacao de residuos agricolas e florestais para a producao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jofran Luiz de; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Pereira, Emanuele Graciosa; Machado, Cassio Silva; Bezerra, Maria da Conceicao Trindade [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: jofranluiz@yahoo.com.br, jadir@ufv.br

    2010-07-01

    The large volume of waste generated by the industry of wood processing and agriculture is a problem existing in almost all regions of Brazil. Several environmental problems occur as contamination of soil and groundwater due to the accumulation and improper disposal of residues from forestry and agriculture industries. Brazil has agricultural and economic conditions to develop and take advantage of technologies to use wood and other biomass for energy purposes, for being privileged in terms of territorial extension, sunlight and water, essential factors for biomass production on a large scale. The wood chips and coffee husks are low cost residues, renewable and sometimes under utilized, they are environmentally friendly and potentially capable of generating heat, steam and electric power, thus they can contribute as an alternative fuel for generation of energy. In this context, this study aims to characterize and compare residues from the production of coffee and furniture industry. The biomasses were characterized and analyzed for density, heating value, proximate analysis (volatiles, ash and fixed carbon) and elemental composition. Results indicates large energy potential for coffee husks, with HHV equals to 18,6 MJ/Kg slightly higher than the HHV of the eucalyptus chip (17,3 MJ/Kg). (author)

  7. Bio-energy utilizes surplusses at the agricultural commodity markets. Large potentials of the biomass; Bioenergie verwertet Ueberschuesse an den Agrarmaerkten. Grosse Potenziale der Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-19

    At the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere, the situation in agricultural markets relaxes visibly. After the year 2012 was characterized by periods of drought in the United States and some Eastern European countries, in recent months good harvests in major producing countries in the southern hemisphere have provided that the stocks of major agricultural commodities are grown again. Thus, enough resources are still available for the supply of food and energy. There still exists land potential in Europe and on other continents for the use of bio-energy. In addition to new power plant crops, known arable crop cultures contribute to the exploration of such a potential: An example of this is the sugar beet. The view on the global supply balance in agricultural goods inter alia the major staple food rice shows that there exist large surpluses on the food markets. However, these surpluses do not benefit the hungry persons in the world. Hunger is a problem of distribution which is not associated with the growth of bio-energy.

  8. Calculation on spectrum of direct DNA damage induced by low-energy electrons including dissociative electron attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Liming; Champion, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    In this work, direct DNA damage induced by low-energy electrons (sub-keV) is simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The characteristics of the present simulation are to consider the new mechanism of DNA damage due to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and to allow determining damage to specific bases (i.e., adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine). The electron track structure in liquid water is generated, based on the dielectric response model for describing electron inelastic scattering and on a free-parameter theoretical model and the NIST database for calculating electron elastic scattering. Ionization cross sections of DNA bases are used to generate base radicals, and available DEA cross sections of DNA components are applied for determining DNA-strand breaks and base damage induced by sub-ionization electrons. The electron elastic scattering from DNA components is simulated using cross sections from different theoretical calculations. The resulting yields of various strand breaks and base damage in cellular environment are given. Especially, the contributions of sub-ionization electrons to various strand breaks and base damage are quantitatively presented, and the correlation between complex clustered DNA damage and the corresponding damaged bases is explored. This work shows that the contribution of sub-ionization electrons to strand breaks is substantial, up to about 40-70%, and this contribution is mainly focused on single-strand break. In addition, the base damage induced by sub-ionization electrons contributes to about 20-40% of the total base damage, and there is an evident correlation between single-strand break and damaged base pair A-T.

  9. Potentialities of energy generation from waste and feedstock produced by the agricultural sector in Brazil: The case of the State of Paraná

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Maria de Fátima dos Santos; Raiher, Augusta Pelinski

    2013-01-01

    The State of Paraná contributes significantly for the Brazilian production of sugar cane, ethanol, soybeans and pigs. In addition to the current production of ethanol, the State has a huge potential for electricity, biodiesel and biogas production. This paper presents an overview of the current situation regarding energy generation from the agricultural sector in the State, an assessment of the potentialities of energy generation from sugar cane residues and pig agricultural chains, as well as an analysis of the socioeconomic factors underlying the availability of feedstock for biodiesel production. This study has shown that it is possible to expand the energy supply in the State using residual biomass from the sugar cane and pig production. On the other side, the biodiesel production increase in the State will depend on the expansion in the consumption of products that use the cake as raw material; the increase in the feedstock availability other than canola, castor beans and sunflower; the increase of the number of family farmers as feedstock providers, so as to ensure access for biodiesel producers to the Social Fuel Stamp. - Highlights: • Potentialities of energy generation from agriculture at Paraná State were assessed. • Energy offer from the sugar cane sector will triple if residual biomass is used. • The use of pig production wastes can increase energy offer up to 103 GW h. • Paraná produces 25% of oil seeds and only 3% of the biodiesel in Brazil. • Economic factors explaining the low share of biodiesel production are pointed out

  10. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sectors Industry, Agriculture and Horticulture; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening Energieakkoord. Sectoren industrie en land- en tuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    On September 4, 2013, representatives of employers' associations, trade union federations, environmental organizations, the Dutch government and civil society have signed an Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. ECN and PBL have been asked to evaluate this agreement. This report gives background information on the evaluation of the measures aimed at improving energy efficiency in industry and agriculture [Dutch] Op 4 september 2013 is het 'Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei' getekend. ECN en PBL zijn gevraagd het akkoord te beoordelen en door te rekenen. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de industrie en land- en tuinbouw.

  11. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: A consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow...... and Miscanthus co-firing, allowed for an improvement as compared with the reference (-82 and -45 t CO2-eq. ha-1, respectively). The indirect land use changes impact was quantified as 310 ± 170 t CO2-eq. ha-1, representing a paramount average of 41% of the induced greenhouse gas emissions. The uncertainty...... analysis confirmed the results robustness and highlighted the indirect land use changes uncertainty as the only uncertainty that can significantly change the outcome of the LCA results. © 2012 American Chemical Society....

  12. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: a consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-12-18

    In the endeavor of optimizing the sustainability of bioenergy production in Denmark, this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental impacts associated with the production of heat and electricity from one hectare of Danish arable land cultivated with three perennial crops: ryegrass (Lolium perenne), willow (Salix viminalis) and Miscanthus giganteus. For each, four conversion pathways were assessed against a fossil fuel reference: (I) anaerobic co-digestion with manure, (II) gasification, (III) combustion in small-to-medium scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow and Miscanthus co-firing, allowed for an improvement as compared with the reference (-82 and -45 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, respectively). The indirect land use changes impact was quantified as 310 ± 170 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, representing a paramount average of 41% of the induced greenhouse gas emissions. The uncertainty analysis confirmed the results robustness and highlighted the indirect land use changes uncertainty as the only uncertainty that can significantly change the outcome of the LCA results.

  13. Sustainable management of lakes in connection with mitigation of adverse effects of climate change, agriculture and development of green micro regions based on renewable energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Antal Nemethy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lake management is extremely complex and requires a coordinated effort of research institutions, community groups, individuals, landowners, and government. Lakes constitute an important group of natural resources due to their ecosystem services and often unique cultural environments. Climate change is a growing concern, which particularly strongly affects shallow lakes. The adverse impact of climate change is enhanced by extreme water level fluctuations and human factors such as environmental pollution from waste water discharge, large scale agriculture and shoreline constructions reducing or eliminating valuable wetlands. Since eutrophication is a leading cause of impairment of freshwater ecosystems, specific strategies to address a lake's nutrient enrichment must focus on activities in the watershed and, if needed, in-lake restoration techniques. Analyzing the key factors of sustainable local and regional development in the vicinity of lakes, assessing the environmental risks of pollution, large scale agriculture, waste management and energy production, we propose a complex, stakeholder based management system and holistic regional development in lake areas, which will preserve natural ecosystems without compromising the sustainable use of ecosystem services. There are available technologies to develop ecologically acceptable water level regulations, promote organic agriculture applying grey water irrigation, stop leachate from landfills and control invasive species. Regional and local production and use of renewable energy is essential both for environmental and economical sustainability. Renewable energy production should be well coordinated with agriculture, forestry, waste management and management of water resources of lakes and their watershed areas in a sustainable, holistic way through a participatory approach. This is particularly pronounced in connection with tourism as one of the main uses of lake-ecosystem services, but also an

  14. Enabling Web-Based GIS Tools for Internet and Mobile Devices To Improve and Expand NASA Data Accessibility and Analysis Functionality for the Renewable Energy and Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Tisdale, B.; Tisdale, M.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Kusterer, J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Science Directorate and Atmospheric Science Data Center have initiated a pilot program to utilize Geographic Information System (GIS) tools that enable, generate and store climatological averages using spatial queries and calculations in a spatial database resulting in greater accessibility of data for government agencies, industry and private sector individuals. The major objectives of this effort include the 1) Processing and reformulation of current data to be consistent with ESRI and openGIS tools, 2) Develop functions to improve capability and analysis that produce "on-the-fly" data products, extending these past the single location to regional and global scales. 3) Update the current web sites to enable both web-based and mobile application displays for optimization on mobile platforms, 4) Interact with user communities in government and industry to test formats and usage of optimization, and 5) develop a series of metrics that allow for monitoring of progressive performance. Significant project results will include the the development of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant web services (WMS, WCS, WFS, WPS) that serve renewable energy and agricultural application products to users using GIS software and tools. Each data product and OGC service will be registered within ECHO, the Common Metadata Repository, the Geospatial Platform, and Data.gov to ensure the data are easily discoverable and provide data users with enhanced access to SSE data, parameters, services, and applications. This effort supports cross agency, cross organization, and interoperability of SSE data products and services by collaborating with DOI, NRCan, NREL, NCAR, and HOMER for requirements vetting and test bed users before making available to the wider public.

  15. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  16. Energy consumption of an agricultural an agricultural tractor operating in dynamometer using with diesel and chicken oil biodiesel; Consumo energetico de um trator agricola operando em bancada dinamometrica com oleo diesel e biodiesel de oleo de frango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Diego Augusto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], email: dafiorese@yahoo.com.br; Dallmeyer, Arno Udo; Romano, Leonardo Nabaes; Schlosser, Jose Fernando [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of energy use in agricultural machinery is dependent on the efficiency of internal combustion diesel cycle, their genuine propellants. However, some biofuels may offer a better yield due to some peculiar characteristics such distinctions in calorific value. Many studies have demonstrated a better utilization of the energy content when operating with biodiesel and with binary mixtures with diesel oil. In this study, tests were conducted on a dynamometer bench to evaluate the energy consumption of a tractor engine with four cylinders and 53 kW (72 hp), operating with biodiesel and chicken oil mixture with diesel oil. In the tests were evaluated six ratios (B5, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100). The results showed that increasing the proportion of biodiesel was favorable to improve the utilization of the energy content, thus increasing the thermal efficiency of the engine. The best result was obtained with pure biodiesel (B100) with consumption of 395.47 MJ.h{sup -1}and efficiency of 32.35%. On the other hand the witness had the lowest use B5 with 428.20 MJ.h{sup -1} and thermal efficiency of 30.67%. (author)

  17. Assessment of agricultural crops and natural vegetation in Scotland for energy production by anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biller, Patrick; Lawson, David; Madsen, René Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    The current paper investigates the use of natural vegetation and agricultural crops commonly found in Scotland as a source of bioenergy. Such biomass is shown to have a high moisture content upon harvest (∼80%) which renders them suitable for wet conversion technologies such as anaerobic digestion...

  18. Radiation technology in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy through its research, development and deployment activities in nuclear science and technology, has been contributing towards enhancing the production of agricultural commodities and their preservation. Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to induce genetic variability in crop plants to develop improved varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate and persistence of pesticides, to study fertilizer use efficiency and plant micronutrient uptake and also to preserve agricultural produce. Use of radiation and radioisotopes in agriculture which is often referred to as nuclear agriculture is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit and BARC has contributed significantly in this area. 41 new crop varieties developed at BARC have been released and Gazette notified by the MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation and are popular among the farming community and grown through out the country

  19. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  20. Economical efficiency of bio energy as the level of prices in the agricultural sector rises; Wirtschaftlichkeit der Bioenergie bei steigendem Agrarpreisniveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, Hubert [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenproduktion und Betriebswirtschaft

    2013-10-01

    The food versus fuel debate is still of high social relevance. Changes to the framework conditions can have serious consequences for the profitability and the raw material supply of bioenergy plants. With the German Renewable Energy Act (EEG) economic incentives were created in the past to expand the growing of renewable raw materials on arable land for the production of biogas as well as for combined heat and power generation. In the meantime, agricultural prices have developed very dynamically; there can currently hardly be any talk of excessive promotion by the EEG. Taking into account the opportunity cost of agricultural/and use, from the perspective of the grower raw material prices which call into question the profitable supply of biogas plants are sometimes necessary - even for maize, the most important and efficient field fodder. The expiration of long-term supply agreements can lead to supply shortages, especially for biogas plants that do not belong to farms. (orig.)

  1. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  2. Agricultural Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bičanić, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses three different approaches to agricultural overpopulation: from the consumption side, from the production side and from the aspect of immobility of agricultural population. In the first approach agrarian overpopulation is defined from the consumption point of viewas the number of people living from agriculture that can live from aggregate agricultural income at a certain standard of consumption. In this connection the problem of measuring total agricultu...

  3. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  4. Opportunities for co-location of solar PV with agriculture for cost reductions and carbon, water, and energy footprint mitigation in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C. S.; Macknick, J.; Ravi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, co-locating the production of agricultural crops or biofuels with solar photovoltaics (PV) installations has been studied as a possible strategy to mitigate the environmental impacts and the high cost of solar PV in arid and semi-arid regions. Co-located PV and agricultural systems can provide multiple benefits in these areas related to water savings, erosion control, energy access, and rural economic development. However, such studies have been rare for water-rich, land-limited tropical countries, where ideal agricultural growing conditions can be substantially different from those in arid regions. We consider a case study in Indonesia to address this research gap. As the fourth most populous nation with an ever-growing energy demand and high vulnerability to the effects of climate change, Indonesia is being prompted to develop means to electrify approximately one-fifth of its population that still lacks access to the grid without incurring increases in its carbon footprint. We address the following questions to explore the feasibility and the benefits of co-location of solar PV with patchouli cultivation and essential oil production: i) How do the lifetime carbon, water, and energy footprints per unit land area of co-located solar PV/patchouli compare to those of standalone diesel microgrid, solar PV or patchouli cultivation? ii) Does energy production from standalone solar PV, diesel/solar PV microgrid, or co-located solar PV/patchouli systems satisfy energy demands of a typical rural Indonesian village? iii) How does the net economic return of the co-located system compare to each standalone land use? iv) How can surplus energy from the co-located system benefit rural socioeconomics? To answer these questions, life cycle assessment and economic analysis are performed for each of the standalone and the co-located land uses utilizing known values and data collected from a field visit to the island of Java in Indonesia. Then, sensitivity analyses and

  5. Technology choice and development in Brazil: An assessment of Brazil's alternative fuel program and the agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and service sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Lucy A.

    Technology choice profoundly affects a country's development process because capital-intensive and labor-intensive technologies have different socioeconomic linkages within the economy. This research examines the impacts of technology choice through the use of a social accounting matrix (SAM) framework. SAM-based modeling determines the direct and indirect effects of technology choice on development, particularly poverty alleviation in Brazil. Brazil's alternative fuel program was analyzed as a special example of technology choice. Two ethanol production technologies and the gasoline sector were compared; to make the study more robust, labor and capital intensive technologies were evaluated in the production of agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and services. Growth in these economic sectors was examined to assess the effects on employment, factor and household income, energy intensity, and carbon dioxide costs. Poverty alleviation was a focus, so income to unskilled agriculture labor, unskilled non-agriculture labor, and income to rural and urban households in poverty was also analyzed. The major research finding is that overall, labor-intensive technologies generate more employment, factor and household income, environmental and energy benefits to Brazil's economy than capital-intensive technologies. In addition, labor-intensive technologies make a particular contribution to poverty alleviation. The results suggest that policies to encourage the adoption of these technologies, especially in the agriculture and renewable energy sectors, are important because of their intersectoral linkages within the economy. Many studies have shown that Brazil's fuel ethanol program has helped to realize multiple macroeconomic objectives. However, this is the first empirical study to quantify its household income effects. The ethanol industry generated the most household income of the energy sectors. The research confirms a key finding of the appropriate technology literature

  6. Linking Remote Sensing Data and Energy Balance Models for a Scalable Agriculture Insurance System for sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Osgood, D. E.; McCarty, J. L.; Husak, G. J.; Hain, C.; Neigh, C. S. R.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most immediate and obvious impacts of climate change is on the weather-sensitive agriculture sector. Both local and global impacts on production of food will have a negative effect on the ability of humanity to meet its growing food demands. Agriculture has become more risky, particularly for farmers in the most vulnerable and food insecure regions of the world such as East Africa. Smallholders and low-income farmers need better financial tools to reduce the risk to food security while enabling productivity increases to meet the needs of a growing population. This paper will describe a recently funded project that brings together climate science, economics, and remote sensing expertise to focus on providing a scalable and sensor-independent remote sensing based product that can be used in developing regional rainfed agriculture insurance programs around the world. We will focus our efforts in Ethiopia and Kenya in East Africa and in Senegal and Burkina Faso in West Africa, where there are active index insurance pilots that can test the effectiveness of our remote sensing-based approach for use in the agriculture insurance industry. The paper will present the overall program, explain links to the insurance industry, and present comparisons of the four remote sensing datasets used to identify drought: the CHIRPS 30-year rainfall data product, the GIMMS 30-year vegetation data product from AVHRR, the ESA soil moisture ECV-30 year soil moisture data product, and a MODIS Evapotranspiration (ET) 15-year dataset. A summary of next year's plans for this project will be presented at the close of the presentation.

  7. Research report for fiscal 1998. Study of utilization of biomass including foods in energy industry; 1998 nendo shokubutsu nado no biomass no energy riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Rice being produced as food is taken up out of various types of biomass, and a feasibility study from the viewpoints of technology and economy is conducted as to its use in the energy industry. The production of ethanol from rice, though it has no past record worth discussion, is similar to the production of ethanol from other biomass resources in terms of technology and economy. The problem is that the production cost of rice is far higher than those of other materials. It is expected, however, that there will a large-scale production cost reduction and an increase in the yield when novel cultivation techniques are introduced in the future. It is also expected that alcohol from rice will be sufficiently competitive with alcohol from molasses or the like when the exploitation of cellulose-family by-products such as husks becomes feasible. The study on this occasion deals solely with the effective use of farmland and the surplus rice. A confrontation between rice as a biomass resource and rice as a food has to be avoided as much as possible in the long term because it may cause a price rise and compromise the security of food supply. That is, in discussing this matter, it is mandatory to draw a very definite line between rice as a food and rice as an alcohol production material. (NEDO)

  8. Energy efficiency in the agricultural and food industry illustrated with the example of the feed production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembicki Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is an indicator specifying the amount of saved electric energy thanks to implementation of suitable systems and solutions aimed at reducing the energy consumption in a production plant. Effective use of electric energy or heat energy is intended to reduce the amount of energy required to manufacture products and provide services. Decreased demand for electric energy in the production plant by only a few percent’s may result in considerable savings which in turn assure increased production profitability. If we reduce the energy consumption, it will translate into reduced pollution generated and emitted to the environment. Thanks to this, the plant may limit its negative impact on the surrounding. The feed industry is known to consume much amount of energy for the purposes of production. This energy is intended for pre-processing of substrates, actual production and preparation of ready product to be taken over by the customer. Farmers use fodders to feed their animals. Quality of fodders (feeds and their ingredients determine health of farm animals, which has a direct impact on the quality of products we consume, and consequently on our health. An thorough analysis of feed production plants and reduction of their energy consumption should translate into improved effectiveness. Saved energy allows producing high-quality products and using ingredients of higher quality, which in turn may influence competitiveness of prices of ready products.

  9. Options for sustainability improvement and biomass use in Malaysia : Palm oil production chain and biorefineries for non-food use of residues and by-products including other agricultural crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Division Biobased Products of the WUR institute A&F was approached by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality with a policy support question about the potential of Bio-based economic developments in Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the major international trade partners of the

  10. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio; Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax

  11. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonanno.giuseppe@unict.it [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy); Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio [Department of Agri-Food and Environmental Systems Management, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 100, 95123, Catania (Italy); Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax.

  12. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  13. Comparison of approaches to Total Quality Management. Including an examination of the Department of Energy`s position on quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of several qualitatively different approaches to Total Quality Management (TQM). The continuum ranges from management approaches that are primarily standards -- with specific guidelines, but few theoretical concepts -- to approaches that are primarily philosophical, with few specific guidelines. The approaches to TQM discussed in this paper include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 Standard, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Senge`s the Learning Organization, Watkins and Marsick`s approach to organizational learning, Covey`s Seven Habits of Highly Successful People, and Deming`s Fourteen Points for Management. Some of these approaches (Deming and ISO 9000) are then compared to the DOE`s official position on quality management and conduct of operations (DOE Orders 5700.6C and 5480.19). Using a tabular format, it is shown that while 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) maps well to many of the current approaches to TQM, DOE`s principle guide to management Order 5419.80 (Conduct of Operations) has many significant conflicts with some of the modern approaches to continuous quality improvement.

  14. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  15. Modelling the impact of mulching the soil with plant remains on water regime formation, crop yield and energy costs in agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy M.; Dzhogan, Larisa Y.; Nasonova, Olga N.

    2018-02-01

    The model MULCH, developed by authors previously for simulating the formation of water regime in an agricultural field covered by straw mulch layer, has been used for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of Russia and Ukraine. It simulates the dynamics of water budget components in a soil rooting zone at daily time step from the beginning of spring snowmelt to the beginning of the period with stable negative air temperatures. The model was designed for estimation of mulching efficiency in terms of increase in plant water supply and crop yield under climatic and soil conditions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones. It is used for studying the mulching effect on some characteristics of water regime and yield of winter wheat growing at specific sites located in semi-arid and arid regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the eastern and southern parts of the East-European (Russian) plain. In addition, a previously developed technique for estimating the energetic efficiency of various agricultural technologies with accounting for their impact on changes in soil energy is applied for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European Russia: (1) moldboard tillage of soil without irrigation, (2) moldboard tillage of soil with irrigation, (3) subsurface cultivation, and (4) subsurface cultivation with mulching the soil with plant remains.

  16. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  17. Impacts and uses of seasonal and intraseasonal predictions in the business community with an emphasis on the energy and agricultural industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, D.; Murnane, R.

    2003-04-01

    Almost any industry can benefit financially from accurate seasonal and intraseasonal predictions by determining threats to profits and taking out derivative insurance. However, the energy and agricultural industries stand to gain from these forecasts in many more ways and are therefore already using them in their decision support systems. Earth Satellite Corporation is one of the leading companies providing seasonal and intraseasonal forecasts to customers in these communities. The end users in both can be broadly divided into producers and traders, each with specific needs and applications. In this presentation, we describe those needs and applications based on our 30 years of experience. The basic difference between traders and producers in both groups is that traders will use a long-range forecast to define their overall trading strategy for a season, while producers will use the forecast more in a tactical sense to either cut their losses or maximize their profits. For example, agricultural producers will change the crops to be planted if they know a dry growing season is expected. In the energy industry, the amount of natural gas or heating oil stored by producers for the upcoming heating season is driven by forecasts. Traders in both industries will apply a more aggressive or cautious approach to the positions they take based on the forecasts. The rest of the presentation will describe other several other applications in retail, transportation, and the housing industry.

  18. Dynamics of renewable energy consumption and economic activities across the agriculture, industry, and service sectors: evidence in the perspective of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy; Apergis, Nicholas; Ummalla, Mallesh

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on the agriculture, industry, services, and overall economic activities (GDP) across a panel of G20 nations. The study makes use of annual data from 1980 to 2012 on 17 countries of the G20. To achieve the study objectives, we apply several robust panel econometric models which account for cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity in the analysis. The empirical findings confirm the significant long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables. The long-run elasticities indicate that both renewable and non-renewable energy consumptions have significant positive effect on the economic activities across the sectors and also on the overall economic output. These results also imply that the impact is more from renewable energy on economic activities than that of non-renewable energy. Given that, our results offer significant policy implications. We suggest that the policy makers should aim to initiate effective policies to turn domestic and foreign investments into renewable energy projects. This eventually ensures low carbon emissions and sustainable economic development across the G20 nations.

  19. The effectiveness of the microbiological radiation decontamination process of agricultural products with the use of low energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczka, Urszula; Migdał, Wojciech; Bułka, Sylwester

    2018-02-01

    The effectiveness of the radiation decontamination process was tested for electron beam of energy 200 keV and 300 keV. The energy of electrons was controlled by the measurements of its penetration ability in stack of B3 dosimetric film. In the presented work, the reduction of total aerobic bacteria count was observed, depending on time of irradiation for samples of dried black pepper, onion flakes and bay leaves. The results were compared with the effect observed for the process where high energy electron beam was used.

  20. Energy Recovery Hydropower: Prospects for Off-Setting Electricity Costs for Agricultural, Municipal, and Industrial Water Providers and Users; July 2017 - September 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Taylor L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy; Telluride, CO (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Energy recovery hydropower is one of the most cost-effective types of new hydropower development because it is constructed utilizing existing infrastructure, and it is typically able to complete Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) review in 60 days. Recent changes in federal and state policy have supported energy recovery hydropower. In addition, some states have developed programs and policies to support energy recovery hydropower, including resource assessments, regulatory streamlining initiatives, and grant and loan programs to reduce project development costs. This report examines current federal and state policy drivers for energy recovery hydropower, reviews market trends, and looks ahead at future federal resource assessments and hydropower reform legislation.

  1. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  2. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  3. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  4. Heat grids today and after the German Renewable Energies Act (EEG). A business segment for the agriculture?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, Dietrich; Billerbeck, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    The development of a centralised and sustainable heat supply through the construction of heat grids offers consumers numerous advantages compared to a decentralised energy supply of residential and commercial properties. Where the migration to centralised heat supply relegates fossil fuels through the long-term incorporation of sustainable renewable energy sources, the projects make an important contribution towards meeting the government's climate protection goals. Heat generation and heat sales from renewable energy sources should be ensured in the long term. In the countryside, biogas plant operators are frequently the initiators of heat grid investments, or they take on the role of supplier for the provision of low-cost CHP heat from cogeneration units. In view of the limited remuneration period under the terms of the German Renewable Energy Act, the clock is ticking for the establishment of a centralised heat supply. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of a centralised, sustainable heat supply and additionally considers the flexibi/isation of biogas plants in view of the construction of the heat grid and the associated infrastructure. A focus is placed on the security of supply for customers after the discontinuation of remuneration under the German Renewable Energy Act and on how a competitive heat price from alternative energy sources can continue to be ensured.

  5. Setting up fuel supply strategies for large-scale bio-energy projects using agricultural and forest residues. A methodology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a coherent methodology to set up fuel supply strategies for large-scale biomass-conversion units. This method will explicitly take risks and uncertainties regarding availability and costs in relation to time into account. This paper aims at providing general guidelines, which are not country-specific. These guidelines cannot provide 'perfect fit'-solutions, but aim to give general help to overcome barriers and to set up supply strategies. It will mainly focus on residues from the agricultural and forestry sector. This study focuses on electricity or both electricity and heat production (CHP) with plant scales between 1040 MWe. This range is chosen due to rules of economies of scale. In large-scale plants the benefits of increased efficiency outweigh increased transportation costs, allowing a lower price per kWh which in turn may allow higher biomass costs. However, fuel-supply risks tend to get higher with increasing plant size, which makes it more important to assess them for large(r) conversion plants. Although the methodology does not focus on a specific conversion technology, it should be stressed that the technology must be able to handle a wide variety of biomass fuels with different characteristics because many biomass residues are not available the year round and various fuels are needed for a constant supply. The methodology allows for comparing different technologies (with known investment and operational and maintenance costs from literature) and evaluation for different fuel supply scenarios. In order to demonstrate the methodology, a case study was carried out for the north-eastern part of Thailand (Isaan), an agricultural region. The research was conducted in collaboration with the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia (RWEDP), a project of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in Bangkok, Thailand. In Section 2 of this paper the methodology will be presented. In Section 3 the economic

  6. Options for sustainability improvement and biomass use in Malaysia : Palm oil production chain and biorefineries for non-food use of residues and by-products including other agricultural crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dam, van, J.E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Division Biobased Products of the WUR institute A&F was approached by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality with a policy support question about the potential of Bio-based economic developments in Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the major international trade partners of the Netherlands. Annually 4.500 – 5.000 million euro’s worth of goods are imported from Malaysia. The Netherlands are Malaysia’s most important trading partner within the EU. The volume of agricultura...

  7. Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Tilman, David

    2017-06-01

    Global agricultural feeds over 7 billion people, but is also a leading cause of environmental degradation. Understanding how alternative agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice drive environmental degradation is necessary for reducing agriculture’s environmental impacts. A meta-analysis of life cycle assessments that includes 742 agricultural systems and over 90 unique foods produced primarily in high-input systems shows that, per unit of food, organic systems require more land, cause more eutrophication, use less energy, but emit similar greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) as conventional systems; that grass-fed beef requires more land and emits similar GHG emissions as grain-feed beef; and that low-input aquaculture and non-trawling fisheries have much lower GHG emissions than trawling fisheries. In addition, our analyses show that increasing agricultural input efficiency (the amount of food produced per input of fertilizer or feed) would have environmental benefits for both crop and livestock systems. Further, for all environmental indicators and nutritional units examined, plant-based foods have the lowest environmental impacts; eggs, dairy, pork, poultry, non-trawling fisheries, and non-recirculating aquaculture have intermediate impacts; and ruminant meat has impacts ∼100 times those of plant-based foods. Our analyses show that dietary shifts towards low-impact foods and increases in agricultural input use efficiency would offer larger environmental benefits than would switches from conventional agricultural systems to alternatives such as organic agriculture or grass-fed beef.

  8. High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R and D resulted in 7 R and D 100 Awards including the 2010 R and D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

  9. Biomass and electricity: the agricultural biomass. Geothermal energy from fractured rocks: prospective scenarios and impact on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix, S.; Whitwham, M.

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains two articles. The first one aims at giving an assessment of energy production potential of biomass in France at a regional level. It gives estimates of volumes of breeding effluents in the different French regions and according to a low and a high hypothesis, presents various technologies used to produce energy from these effluents (examples in Denmark and in Great-Britain), gives estimates of quantities of wheat or barley straws which could be used for energy production in the different French regions and describes straw-based Danish cogeneration plants, gives estimates for other energetic crops (some trees and herbaceous crops) and reports the Belgium experience. The second text reports a middle-term or long-term prospective and economical feasibility study on the production of geothermal energy from fractured rocks. Some researches have already demonstrated the feasibility of a heat exchanger on very deep and cracked granitic rocks which could supply hot water that could be used for energy production. The study examines the different possibilities of evolution of this concept (deepness, increase in the number of wells, transformation into heat, electricity or cogeneration) and describes their technical and economical characteristics within an industrial development perspective on the long term

  10. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  11. Energy contents of frequently ordered restaurant meals and comparison with human energy requirements and US Department of Agriculture database information: a multisite randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Excess energy intake from meals consumed away from home is implicated as a major contributor to obesity, and ~50% of US restaurants are individual or small-chain (non-chain) establishments that do not provide nutrition information. OBJECTIVE: To measure the energy content of frequently o...

  12. The long-run impact of energy prices on world agricultural markets: The role of macro-economic linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohin, A.; Chantret, F.

    2010-01-01

    The world prices of some food and energy products have followed similar large swings in recent years. We investigate the long-run relationship between these prices using a world Computable General Equilibrium model with detailed representations of food and energy markets. Particular attention is paid to specifying macro-economic linkages which have often been overlooked in recent analysis and debate. We find that the omission of these macro-economic linkages has a substantial bearing on this relationship. A positive relationship due to the cost push effect has been identified in most analysis, but we find that the introduction of the real income effect may indeed imply a negative relationship between world food and energy prices.

  13. Rise of energy price, rise of agricultural prices: what medium- and long-term relations and implications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voituriez, T.

    2009-01-01

    We review in this study the different factors which have been presented by the scientific community as possible explanations of the sudden upsurge in commodity prices between 2006 and 2008. We examine whether scientific evidence validates any causal relationship, and particularly emphasize the role of explanatory variables underpinning the co-movement of energy and food price rises. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date understanding of food and energy market relationships, so as to better anticipate the possible changes in the evolution of prices in the coming years. (author)

  14. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.; Anderson, D.B.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing resrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  15. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  16. Energy Contents of Frequently Ordered Restaurant Meals and Comparison with Human Energy Requirements and US Department of Agriculture Database Information: A Multisite Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E.; Weber, Judith L.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Schichtl, Rachel L.; Verstraete, Sofia; Lowery, Nina S.; Das, Sai Krupa; Schleicher, Molly M.; Rogers, Gail; Economos, Christina; Masters, William A.; Roberts, Susan B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Excess energy intake from meals consumed away from home is implicated as a major contributor to obesity, and ~50% of US restaurants are individual or small-chain (non–chain) establishments that do not provide nutrition information. Objective To measure the energy content of frequently ordered meals in non–chain restaurants in three US locations, and compare with the energy content of meals from large-chain restaurants, energy requirements, and food database information. Design A multisite random-sampling protocol was used to measure the energy contents of the most frequently ordered meals from the most popular cuisines in non–chain restaurants, together with equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants. Setting Meals were obtained from restaurants in San Francisco, CA; Boston, MA; and Little Rock, AR, between 2011 and 2014. Main outcome measures Meal energy content determined by bomb calorimetry. Statistical analysis performed Regional and cuisine differences were assessed using a mixed model with restaurant nested within region×cuisine as the random factor. Paired t tests were used to evaluate differences between non–chain and chain meals, human energy requirements, and food database values. Results Meals from non–chain restaurants contained 1,205±465 kcal/meal, amounts that were not significantly different from equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants (+5.1%; P=0.41). There was a significant effect of cuisine on non–chain meal energy, and three of the four most popular cuisines (American, Italian, and Chinese) had the highest mean energy (1,495 kcal/meal). Ninety-two percent of meals exceeded typical energy requirements for a single eating occasion. Conclusions Non–chain restaurants lacking nutrition information serve amounts of energy that are typically far in excess of human energy requirements for single eating occasions, and are equivalent to amounts served by the large-chain restaurants that have previously been criticized

  17. Energy Contents of Frequently Ordered Restaurant Meals and Comparison with Human Energy Requirements and U.S. Department of Agriculture Database Information: A Multisite Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E; Weber, Judith L; Heyman, Melvin B; Schichtl, Rachel L; Verstraete, Sofia; Lowery, Nina S; Das, Sai Krupa; Schleicher, Molly M; Rogers, Gail; Economos, Christina; Masters, William A; Roberts, Susan B

    2016-04-01

    Excess energy intake from meals consumed away from home is implicated as a major contributor to obesity, and ∼50% of US restaurants are individual or small-chain (non-chain) establishments that do not provide nutrition information. To measure the energy content of frequently ordered meals in non-chain restaurants in three US locations, and compare with the energy content of meals from large-chain restaurants, energy requirements, and food database information. A multisite random-sampling protocol was used to measure the energy contents of the most frequently ordered meals from the most popular cuisines in non-chain restaurants, together with equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants. Meals were obtained from restaurants in San Francisco, CA; Boston, MA; and Little Rock, AR, between 2011 and 2014. Meal energy content determined by bomb calorimetry. Regional and cuisine differences were assessed using a mixed model with restaurant nested within region×cuisine as the random factor. Paired t tests were used to evaluate differences between non-chain and chain meals, human energy requirements, and food database values. Meals from non-chain restaurants contained 1,205±465 kcal/meal, amounts that were not significantly different from equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants (+5.1%; P=0.41). There was a significant effect of cuisine on non-chain meal energy, and three of the four most popular cuisines (American, Italian, and Chinese) had the highest mean energy (1,495 kcal/meal). Ninety-two percent of meals exceeded typical energy requirements for a single eating occasion. Non-chain restaurants lacking nutrition information serve amounts of energy that are typically far in excess of human energy requirements for single eating occasions, and are equivalent to amounts served by the large-chain restaurants that have previously been criticized for providing excess energy. Restaurants in general, rather than specific categories of restaurant, expose patrons to

  18. Documentation of greenhouse gas emission, energy consumption and energy resources in agriculture and food industry; Dokumentasjon av klimagassutslipp, energiforbruk og energiressurser i landbruk og naeringsmiddelindustri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillestad, Margaret Eide

    2008-07-01

    Emission from agriculture, forestry and food industry is approximately 5 million ton greenhouse gases measured in CO{sub 2} equivalent. This amount to approximately 10 % of the total greenhouse gas emission in Norway. The main source to increased CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is combustion of fossil fuel. It is fundamental differences between reducing submissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and removing carbon from the atmosphere by storing it in forests or in ground. The differences consists of that carbon storing in ground or for rests are parts of today's ecosystem and the plant's photosynthesis. When fossil carbon reserves from petroleum, gas and coal fields are released to the atmosphere through combustion, it is difficult to remove the carbon permanent and secure from cycle. (AG)

  19. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Forgács

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  20. Economic, Environmental and Moral Acceptance of Renewable Energy: A Case Study-The Agricultural Biogas Plant at Pěčín.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vochozka, Marek; Maroušková, Anna; Šuleř, Petr

    2018-02-01

    The production of renewable energy in agricultural biogas plants is being widely criticized because-among other things-most of the feedstock comes from purpose-grown crops like maize. These activities (generously subsidized in the Czech Republic) generate competitive pressure to other crops that are used for feeding or food production, worsening their affordability. Unique pretreatment technology that allows substitution of the purpose-grown crops by farming residues (such as husk or straw) was built 6 years ago on a commercial basis in Pěčín (Czech Republic) under modest funding and without publicity. The design of the concept; financial assessment and moral viewpoint were analyzed based on practical operating data. It showed that the apparatus improves economic, environmental and moral acceptance as well. However, according to the government's view, public funding for this type of processing was shortened, "because waste materials represent a lower cost". The impact of such governance was analyzed as well.

  1. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  2. A Comparative Density Functional Theory and Density Functional Tight Binding Study of Phases of Nitrogen Including a High Energy Density Material N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Capel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative dispersion-corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT and Density Functional Tight Binding (DFTB-D study of several phases of nitrogen, including the well-known alpha, beta, and gamma phases as well as recently discovered highly energetic phases: covalently bound cubic gauche (cg nitrogen and molecular (vdW-bound N8 crystals. Among several tested parametrizations of N–N interactions for DFTB, we identify only one that is suitable for modeling of all these phases. This work therefore establishes the applicability of DFTB-D to studies of phases, including highly metastable phases, of nitrogen, which will be of great use for modelling of dynamics of reactions involving these phases, which may not be practical with DFT due to large required space and time scales. We also derive a dispersion-corrected DFT (DFT-D setup (atom-centered basis parameters and Grimme dispersion parameters tuned for accurate description simultaneously of several nitrogen allotropes including covalently and vdW-bound crystals and including high-energy phases.

  3. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air

  4. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings[direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building[direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces[indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3[direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each

  5. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  6. In-vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues, as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of various doses of gamma irradiation (0,100,150,200 KGy) and different concentrations of sodium hydroxide on crude fibre (CF), Cell-wall constituents (NDF, ADF, ADL), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), gross energy (GE), in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (W.S) cotton seed shall (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (SB.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeeled seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that HaOH in the concentrations at (4 and 6%) had significant effects on the CF content of W.S and P.S, E.U.E, SB.S, C.S.S, O.C.E; respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaoH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the NDF level. Irradiation dose of 200 KGy decreased CF for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and SB.S. However, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S, P.S and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. The digestible energy values (kJ/Kg DM) increased by 1120,1 220, 2110 (W.S); 620, 830, 1000 for P.S; 240, 500, 580 for O.C.E; 500, 850, 870 for S.U.E; 550, 1060, 1200 for SB.S and 1260, 1710, 2070 for C.S.S using 100, 150, 200, KGy respectively, in comparison to unirradiated controls. Also, the IVDE values (Kj/Kg DM) increased by 560, 1050, 1590 for W.S; 310, 460, 650 for P.S; 170, 760, 1530 for C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, 4%, 6% NaOH respectively, in comparison to controls. No changes in the IVDE values for S.U.E and SB.S. Combined treatment resulted in an even better increase in the digestible energy, except S.U.E and SB.S. (Author)

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide of cell wall constituents and digestibility energy of some agricultural residues. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    The effect of various doses of gamma irradiation (0,100,150,200 KGy) and different concentrations of sodium hydroxide on crude fibre (CF), Cell-wall constituents (NDF, ADF, ADL), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), gross energy (GE), in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (W.S) cotton seed shall (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (SB.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeeled seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that HaOH in the concentrations at (4 and 6%) had significant effects on the CF content of W.S and P.S, E.U.E, SB.S, C.S.S, O.C.E; respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaoH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the NDF level. Irradiation dose of 200 KGy decreased CF for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and SB.S. However, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S, P.S and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. The digestible energy values (kJ/Kg DM) increased by 1120,1 220, 2110 (W.S); 620, 830, 1000 for P.S; 240, 500, 580 for O.C.E; 500, 850, 870 for S.U.E; 550, 1060, 1200 for SB.S and 1260, 1710, 2070 for C.S.S using 100, 150, 200, KGy respectively, in comparison to unirradiated controls. Also, the IVDE values (Kj/Kg DM) increased by 560, 1050, 1590 for W.S; 310, 460, 650 for P.S; 170, 760, 1530 for C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, 4%, 6% NaOH respectively, in comparison to controls. No changes in the IVDE values for S.U.E and SB.S. Combined treatment resulted in an even better increase in the digestible energy, except S.U.E and SB.S. (Author). 37 refs., 22 tabs., 18 figs

  8. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  9. Pilot project on low-energy ventilation in relation to agriculture. Explanation; Forprojekt om lavenergiventilation i landbruget. Udredning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guul-Simonsen, F.; Kierkegaard, P.; Pedersen, J.K.; Stroem, J.; Widell, K.E.

    1995-07-01

    The pilot project documents the current status of ventilation in animal shelters such as barns, cowsheds etc. with emphasis on the various ventilation systems and a definition of the problems and possible aims regarding energy savings. The decision as to whether to continue the project will be based on this information. This type of ventilation differs from that used in residential and industrial buildings in that larger volumes of air are moved and greater amounts of heat, humidity and gases are produced by the animals. The most significant improvements have so far been achieved by changing aerodynamic conditions and by control of the number of rotations within ventilation systems. Motors used today are mainly single-phased, with 100-400 W capacity and an efficiency of 50-55%. Suggestions for improving energy efficiency by 15% are given. An improved aerodynamic design in connection with air extraction could achieve a 35% optimization. In addition the climate within the buildings would be considerably improved. It may take some time, it is suggested, for Danish manufacturers of ventilation systems to further develop their products, unless they work together towards this aim. (AB) 46 refs.

  10. Investigation of agricultural residues gasification for electricity production in Sudan as an example for biomass energy utilization under arid climate conditions in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhiet, Arig G

    2008-05-15

    This study examines the possibility of electricity production through gasification of agricultural residues in Sudan. The study begins in Chapter 1, by providing general contextual analysis of the energy situation (production and consumption patterns) in Sudan with specific focus on electricity. It proceeded to study the potential of Petroleum, Biomass and other renewable sources for electricity production. Dramatic increase in electricity production was found to be essential especially through decentralised power plants as the current electricity production services cover {proportional_to} 13 % of the population of Sudan. Biomass potential in Sudan justifies the use of agricultural residues as energy source; its potential was estimated by {proportional_to} 350000 TJ/a. Further, the urban centres of arid regions in western Sudan were identified as the target group for this study. In chapter 2, specific investigations for selected study area through field work using statistical tools such as questionnaires, interviews and field observation show that income is highly correlated to electricity consumption. The flat rate system did not result in higher consumption thus the assumption that this consumption will not drastically change in the next 10 years could be accepted. As orientation value for BGPP, 8000 tons of GN.S are available annually, the average electricity consumption is {proportional_to} 4 kWh/day/family while acceptable price could be 40 SDD/kWh (0.15 Euro). In chapter 3, literature review was carried to spot out the comparative merits of the gasification technology and the most optimum gasifying and electricity production system. As a result downdraft gasifier and ICE were suggested as suitable systems. In chapter 4, fuel properties and fuel properties of agricultural residues were studied, different samples were tested and the results were presented. The main conclusions derived were: fuel properties of agricultural residues are modifiable properties, so

  11. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  12. Control of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The methods of using isotopes and radiation sources in agricultural entomology were discussed by experts from 11 countries at a scientific symposium held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Bombay from 5-9 December 1960. The scientists reviewed the techniques which have already been introduced, exchanged information on the results obtained and discussed the possibilities of further research in new directions

  13. Photovoltaic systems: A cost competitive option to supply energy to off-grid agricultural communities in arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qoaider, Louy; Steinbrecht, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the economic feasibility of photovoltaic technology to supply the entire energy demands to off-grid irrigated-farming-based communities in the arid regions. This aims at helping these communities to find practical solutions to cope with the rapid rising electricity generation costs, mainly by diesel generators (gensets). The genset electricity costs are typically affected by the high fossil fuel prices, the fuel transport costs and the intensive operation and maintenance (O and M) requirements. The work was conducted on a representative site from which conclusions could be drawn for similar regions. The case study was performed in the New Kalabsha Village in the Lake Nasser Region (LNR) in southern Egypt. The work involved the technical design and the calculation of the life cycle costs (LCC) of a PV system, which is able to supply the village with its entire energy demand. The PV generator was sized in such a way to daily pump 111 000 m 3 of lake water to irrigate 1260 ha acreage plots and to electrify the adjacent village's households. The required pumps were designed to pump the fluctuating lake's water for a maximum differential head of 17 m in four different locations. Consequently, water from the four pumping stations flows freely by gravity forces to the different plots through overhead open canals. The electricity generation costs and the performance of the designed PV generator were compared with those of an equivalent diesel generator (genset) in order to prove its competitiveness. With this regard, the real market value of the diesel fuel of 86.55 c Euro l -1 was considered for calculating the costs of genset generated electricity. The results showed that the genset electricity unit costs 39 c Euro kW h -1 while a unit of PV electricity costs only 13 c Euro kW h -1 for the equivalent system size and project lifetime. Furthermore, the subsidised genset electricity cost was calculated to be 12 c Euro kW h

  14. Agriculture applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas O, G.; Obando D, R.; Alvarez F, A.

    1989-01-01

    Since its beginnings, the Agricultural Area had a selected research team involved in the development of different agricultural techniques. Currently, there are two main branches engaged in the solution of agricultural problems: Soil fertility and induced mutations. Soil fertility: Within this branch, studies on soil nutrients and availability of water and light resources, have been made by using isotope methods. In the near future studies on nitrogen and potassium content in potato, rice and wheat plantations will be held. Induced mutations: The main objective of this team is to obtain through radioinduced mutations, as well as in vitro growth, improved rice and other cereal seeds to be used under hostile environmental conditions. The further goal will be to develop new genotypes straight from the mutants or by utilization of this material as breeding materials in interchange programs

  15. Standardization of the temperature of the drier of agricultural products using biomass energy; Padronizacao da temperatura de um secador de produtos agropecuarios utilizando energia de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardino, Cassiano Augusto Rolim; Valenca, David da Cunha [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Amorim, Elizete [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos; Barbosa Junior, Jose Lucena; Silva, Pedro Paulo de Oliveira [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (DTA/IT/UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of the mass and dimensions of wood (length and diameter) on the temperature variation in a drying system for agricultural products which use energy from the combustion of wood. In this system, the heat generated from burning wood is transferred by heat exchangers to a certain amount of water in a closed circuit, which returns the heat to the drying air (0,074 m{sup 3}.s{sup -1}). It was found that the addition to each hour of two pieces of 4,5 cm in diameter, 35 cm in length and the total weight of 1066 g, provided temperatures from 40,6 to 48,3 deg C in different positions of the dryer. When using three pieces of the same dimensions and mass of 1720 g, the temperature range obtained was from 77,6 to 80,2 deg C. The averages over all experiments had coefficients of variation below 5%, ensuring a drying system with controlled temperature from the energy obtained from combustion of biomass. The results showed the existence of a relationship between the amount of wood added and the temperature in the drier ant that the equipment can be used to obtain standardized dried products on small farms. (author)

  16. Australian agricultural quarantine - imports and exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpin, J.W.; Read, B.J.; Pinson, R.S.; Higgs, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Agricultural quarantine is administered by Government to protect all facets of agriculture and the environment from unwanted pests and diseases of animals and plants. Ionising energy would appear to have an excellent future as a quarantine treatment

  17. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  18. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  19. A Preliminary Review of U.S. Forest Service Business Practices To Authorize Special Uses, Including Energy Infrastructure Projects, on National Forest System Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wescott, K. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); May, J. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, H. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunner, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Special Uses-Lands Program is in jeopardy. Although this program, authorized in Title 36, Part 251, of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (36 CFR Part 251), ranks among the top four revenue-generating programs for use of National Forest System (NFS) lands, along with the Timber, Minerals, and Special Uses-Recreation Programs, the Special Uses-Lands Program is in a state of neglect. Repeated cuts in funding (a decrease of 26% from fiscal years 2010 to 2014) are adversely affecting staffing and training, which in turn is affecting timely permit processing and ultimately the public’s ability to use and benefit from NFS lands. In addition, highly experienced staff with valuable institutional knowledge of the program have begun to retire. The ability of the program to function under these dire circumstances can be attributed to the dedication of Special Uses staff to the program and their commitment to the public. The initial focus of this report was to identify opportunities for improving performance of permitting and review for large energy infrastructure-related projects. However, it became clear during this analysis that these projects are generally adequately staffed and managed. This is due in large part to the availability of cost-recovery dollars and the high-profile nature of these projects. However, it also became apparent that larger issues affecting the bulk of the work of the Special Uses-Lands Program need to be addressed immediately. This report is a preliminary examination of the state of the Special Uses-Lands Program and focuses on a few key items requiring immediate attention. Further investigation through case studies is recommended to dig deeper into the Special Uses-Lands Program business process to determine the most costeffective strategies for streamlining the overall process and the metrics by which performance can be evaluated, including for the permitting and tracking of energy infrastructure projects.

  20. Eficiência energética de tratores agrícolas fabricados no Brasil Energy efficiency of Brazilian agricultural tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastão M. da Silveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, cresce o interesse global na economia de combustível fóssil e na redução das emissões de gases, por motivos econômicos e ecológicos. Neste trabalho se aplicou um método para classificação de tratores agrícolas, com base na sua eficiência energética, usando-se o consumo específico (em L kWh-1 como termo de comparação. O fator energético mais importante para essa máquina é o seu motor, seguido da transmissão. O trabalho se baseia no resultado dos ensaios de tratores realizados segundo normas brasileiras, tendo como modelo o código OECD, além de ser uma classificação de modelos de tratores fabricados no País. Os tratores movidos a álcool apresentaram consumo elevado de combustível. A metodologia permite a idéia de como os tratores se comportam, no que diz respeito à eficiência energética.Nowadays there is a growing global interest in saving fossil fuel and reducing gas emissions for economical and ecological reasons. This research applied a method of classification of agricultural tractors depending on their energy efficiency, using the specific fuel consumption (in L kWh-1 as a comparison. The most important energy factor in these machines is the engine, followed by the transmission. This research is based on results of the OECD tractor test and classifies tractor models, which have been principally sold in Brazil. The tractors fueled by ethanol presented a high level of fuel consumption. The methodology allows us to understand how tractors perform in terms of energy efficiency.

  1. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Routing of biomass for sustainable agricultural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaimi Masduki; Aini Zakaria

    1998-01-01

    Photosynthetically derived biomass and residues, including waste products from food processing industries are renewable. They accumulate every year in large quantities, causing deterioration to the environment and loss of potentially valuable resources. The conserved energy is potentially convertible; thermodynamically the energy can be tapped into forms which are more amenable for value added agricultural applications or for other higher value products such as chemicals or their feedstocks. The forms and types in which this biomass has to be modified for the intended use depend on the costs or the respective alternatives. Under current situations, where chemical feedstocks are available in abundance at very competitive prices, biomass is obviously more suitably placed in the agro-industrial sector. Recycling of the biomass or residues into the soil as biofertilizers or for some other uses for agricultural applications requires less intense energy inputs for their improvements. Highly efficient biological processes with microorganisms as the primary movers in the production of the desired end products indeed require less capital costs than in most other industrial entities. In this paper, the various processes, which are potentially valuable and economically feasible in the conversion of biomass and residues for several products important in the agricultural sector, are described. Emphasis is given to the approach and the possible permutations of these processes to arrive at the desired good quality products for sustainable agricultural development. (Author)

  3. The expansion of ethanol in Brazil and some reflections on the agricultural and energy sectors; A expansao do etanol no Brasil e alguns reflexos no setor agricola e energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turdera, Mirko V. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Next years world and Brazilian ethanol demand will be grow of an eminent way, so players of economical activity must take a position. We know that energy and agriculture sectors that will feel more quickly the changes of the expansion due to ethanol production. Adjustments must come in both sectors, either for the imperious necessity of land losses by agricultural commodities or market losses of gasoline in the transportation sector. This paper presents an evaluation about the changes and challengers that will come in the energy and agricultural sectors as a consequence of voluminous Brazilian and American production of ethanol foreseen for the next years. In our analyse exogenous and endogenous factors are evaluated taking into account correlations between demand of the ethanol and the gasoline and, between the expansion cane crops and other cultures. (author)

  4. Energy evolution of the moments of the hadron distribution in QCD jets including NNLL resummation and NLO running-coupling corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Ramos, Redamy

    2014-01-01

    The moments of the single inclusive momentum distribution of hadrons in QCD jets, are studied in the next-to-modified-leading-log approximation (NMLLA) including next-to-leading-order (NLO) corrections to the alpha_s strong coupling. The evolution equations are solved using a distorted Gaussian parametrisation, which successfully reproduces the spectrum of charged hadrons of jets measured in e+e- collisions. The energy dependencies of the maximum peak, multiplicity, width, kurtosis and skewness of the jet hadron distribution are computed analytically. Comparisons of all the existing jet data measured in e+e- collisions in the range sqrt(s)~2-200 GeV to the NMLLA+NLO* predictions allow one to extract a value of the QCD parameter Lambda_QCD, and associated two-loop coupling constant at the Z resonance alpha_s(m_Z^2)= 0.1195 +/- 0.0022, in excellent numerical agreement with the current world average obtained using other methods.

  5. Development of an Integrated Wastewater Treatment System/water reuse/agriculture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C. H.; Schuler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Factors like increasing population, urbanization, and climate change have made the management of water resources a challenge for municipalities. By understanding wastewater recycling for agriculture in arid regions, we can expand the supply of water to agriculture and reduce energy use at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This can improve management decisions between WWTPs and water managers. The objective of this research is to develop a prototype integrated model of the wastewater treatment system and nearby agricultural areas linked by water and nutrients, using the Albuquerque Southeast Eastern Reclamation Facility (SWRF) and downstream agricultural system as a case study. Little work has been done to understand how such treatment technology decisions affect the potential for water ruse, nutrient recovery in agriculture, overall energy consumption and agriculture production and water quality. A holistic approach to understanding synergies and tradeoffs between treatment, reuse, and agriculture is needed. For example, critical wastewater treatment process decisions include options to nitrify (oxidize ammonia), which requires large amounts of energy, to operate at low dissolved oxygen concentrations, which requires much less energy, whether to recover nitrogen and phosphorus, chemically in biosolids, or in reuse water for agriculture, whether to generate energy from anaerobic digestion, and whether to develop infrastructure for agricultural reuse. The research first includes quantifying existing and feasible agricultural sites suitable for irrigation by reuse wastewater as well as existing infrastructure such as irrigation canals and piping by using GIS databases. Second, a nutrient and water requirement for common New Mexico crop is being determined. Third, a wastewater treatment model will be utilized to quantify energy usage and nutrient removal under various scenarios. Different agricultural reuse sensors and treatment technologies will be explored. The

  6. Agricultural transportation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The recommendations on the title subject are focused on the question whether advantages and disadvantages of agricultural fuels compared to fossil fuels justify the Dutch policy promotion of the use of agricultural products as basic materials for agricultural fuels. Attention is paid to energetic, environmental and economical aspects of both fuel types. Four options to apply agricultural transportation fuels are discussed: (1) 10% bio-ethanol in euro-unleaded gasoline for engines of passenger cars, equipped with a three-way catalyst; (2) the substitution of 15% methyl tertiair butyl ether (MTBE) by ethyl tertiair butyl ether (ETBE) as a substituent for lead in unleaded super plus gasoline (Sp 98) for engines of passenger cars, equipped with a three-way catalyst; (3) 50% KME (rapeseed oil ester) in low-sulfur diesel (0.05%S D) for engines of vans without a catalyst; and (4) the substitution of 0.05% S D by bio-ethanol or KME for buses with fuel-adjusted engines, equipped with a catalyst. Also the substitution by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or E 95 was investigated in option four. Each of the options investigated can contribute to a reduction of the use of fossil energy and the environmental effects of the use of fossil fuels, although some environmental effects from agricultural fuels must be taken into consideration. It is recommended to seriously pay attention to the promotion of agricultural fuels, not only in the Netherlands, but also in an international context. Policy instruments to be used in the stimulation of the use of such fuels are the existing European Community subsidies on fallow lands, exemption of the European Community energy levy, and the use of tax differentiation. Large-scale demonstration projects must be started to quantify hazardous emissions and to solve still existing technical problems. 8 figs., 3 tabs., refs., 4 appendices

  7. Using energy budget data to assess the most damaging life-stage of an agricultural pest Mocis latipes (Guenèe, 1982) (Lepidoptera--Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Albuquerque, F S

    2010-08-01

    There is much evidence to support that Mocis latipes larvae (Guenèe, 1852) are the most dangerous pasture pest and usually cause large environmental losses. However, no studies have been carried out to identify the instars during which this moth causes the most damage to the environment. Here we calculate M. latipes larval energy budget to assess its consumption across all instars and estimate the consumption/amount of plant biomass required to complete its larval development. Assimilation, respiration, consumption, excretion, gross growth efficiency and net growth efficiency were calculated. Pearson correlations were used to identify the best predictors that influenced larval growth and weight. Across all instars consumption increased exponentially, especially during the last phase. M. latipes larvae consumed ca 13.8% of total food from the first to the fifth instar, whereas during the sixth instars these larvae consumed ca 72.6%. Results also show that the best gross growth and net growth efficiency were obtained when larvae reached the fifth instar. The results also show that one larva of Mocis latipes consumes 1.02 g (dry weight) of Paspalum maritimum (Trin) in 19 days. Overall, our results indentified the sixth instar as the most destructive instar of this insect. Thus, once we know the most destructive instars of this pest, measures can be taken to disable M. latipes larval development and consequently stop their increase in plant consumption, reducing ecological and economic damage. This knowledge may eventually lead to reduced agricultural damage and contribute to sustainable farming strategies.

  8. Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments.

  9. Soil physics and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado Neto, Durval; Reichardt, K.; Sparovek, G.

    2004-01-01

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  10. African Journals Online: Agriculture & Food Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. The Journal publishes peer reviewed papers with the aim of sharing new developments in the agricultural and environmental sciences which include forestry, fisheries, livestock, crops, environment, biotechnology, agricultural economics, agricultural engineering. The readership of ...

  11. Impact of modern agriculture on environment-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S.K.; Behl, R.K.; Tauro, P.; Joshi, U.N.

    1995-11-01

    The present volume titled Impact of Modern Agriculture on Environment is the outcome of the Proceedings of the Indo-German Conference on Impact of Modern Agriculture on Environment, a seminar organized by Haryana Agricultural University in 1993 and deals with certain areas of the environmental aspects of agriculture including its radiological impacts. Paper relevant to INIS is indexed separately

  12. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  13. Agriculture/municipal/industrial waste management and resource recovery feasibility study : renewable energy clusters and improved end-use efficiency : a formula for sustainable development[Prepared for the North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-15

    The North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium initiated a study that evaluated the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of a proposed biomass to renewable energy eco-system, using the technologies of anaerobic digestion (AD), cogeneration and hydroponics in a centralized waste treatment and recovery facility. The Okanagan Valley is well suited for the demonstration plant because of its concentration of food producers and processors and abundance of rich organic waste stream. The agricultural, municipal and industrial waste management consortium consisted of a dairy farm, 5 municipalities and local waste handlers. The consortium proposed to combine several organic waste streams such as dairy manure, slaughterhouse offal and source separated municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas in an anaerobic digester. The methane would be processed into renewable energy (heat and electricity) for a hydroponics barley sprout operation. It is expected that the synergies resulting from this project would increase productivity, end-use efficiency and profitability. This study reviewed the basics of AD technology, technological options and evaluated several technology providers. The type and quantity of waste available in the area was determined through a waste audit and analysis. The potential to market the system by-products locally was also reviewed as well as the general economic viability of a centralized system. The study also evaluated site selection, preliminary design and costing, with reference to proximity to feedstock and markets, access to roads, impacts on neighbours and insurance of minimal environmental impact. 84 refs., 82 figs., 10 appendices.

  14. China Report, Agriculture 1982 Agricultural Yearbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-09

    Bureau Notice on Launching a Patriotic Enlightenment Campaign in Cherishing Trees, Flowers , and Grass (10 March 1981) 395 Ministry of Forestry and...Agriculture (a) Place (h) Pineapple S (b) Total Frui .t (i) Red Dates (c) Including (j) Persimmon S...agreement systems are manifested in the following major ways: 1. Marked increase in outputs. Whenever they have acted strictly in accor- dance with

  15. A survey of the Canadian public's attitudes towards the energy situation. Vol. 2. [Technical appendix included as a separate volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.; McDougall, D.H.G.

    1983-06-01

    Based on a telephone survey of ca 1,900 male and female heads-of-households in nine cities, a report was prepared in 1983 on the Canadian public's attitudes towards the energy situation. This report presents additional analyses of the 1983 data and provides some comparisons with the eight previous annual surveys conducted in this area. The major objective of this report is to provide an understanding of the relationship between Canadians' attitudes, behaviours, and program support with respect to the energy situation. Some conclusions were as follows. Energy shortage is not an issue, rising energy prices are. Surprisingly, in light of the perception of energy prices, self reported conservation actions and behaviours declined in 1983 compared to 1982. Awareness and participation levels in oil substitution and home insulation programs are high and continued government activity in these areas appears warranted. A detailed analysis of two conservation behaviors - adding insulation and weatherstripping/caulking - provided some interesting results. Those who had performed these behaviors tended to be knowledgeable about energy, were satisfied that the money was well spent, and planned to do mere. Those who didn't, felt they had sufficient insulation/weatherstipping and many did not plan to improve the energy efficiency of their home within the next year. There has been a modest trend towards downsizing cars between 1981 and 1983. However, multiple car households still remain as disproportionately heavy users of gasoline. 42 tabs.

  16. Review of nuclear techniques in South African agricultural research: 1963-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, P.G.; Kotze, W.A.G.; Joubert, M.E.; Huismans, H.; Brodrick, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques in agriculture research in the RSA was reviewed at a National Conference on Nuclear Energy in 1963. Since then, 573 publications on the use of nuclear techniques in agriculture have appeared, which can be classified as follows: zoology; botany; food irradiation; soil and plant relations; soil moisture and ground water studies; and other radiation and tracer applications. A survey of literature on the use of radioactive isotopes in agriculture published between 1973 and 1980, including South African publications, was compiled by the Atomic Energy Board in 1980 but did not include any review of the scientific material

  17. Contribution of Nuclear Science in Agriculture Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural systems employ natural processes to achieve acceptable levels of productivity and food quality while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. Sustainable agriculture must, by definition, be ecologically sound, economically viable, and socially responsible. Sustainable agriculture must nurture healthy co systems and support the sustainable management of land, water and natural resources, while ensuring world food security. To be sustainable, agriculture must meet the needs of present and future generations for its products and services, while ensuring profitability, environmental health and social and economic equity. The global transition to sustainable food and agriculture will require major improvements in the efficiency of resource use, in environmental protection and in systems resilience. In Mediterrane an environments, crops are grown mainly in the semiarid and sub-humid are as. In arid and semiarid are as dry land farming, techniques are of renewed interest in the view of sustain ability. They are aimed to increase water accumulation in the soil, reduce runoff and soil evaporation losses, choose species and varieties able to make better use of rainwater, and rationalize fertilization plans, sowing dates, and weed and pest control. Fertilization plans should be based on well-defined principles of plant nutrition, soil chemistry, and chemistry of the fertilizer elements. Starting from the calculation of nutrient crop uptake (based on the actually obtainable yield), dose calculation must be corrected by considering the relation ship between the availability of the trace elements in soil and the main physical and chemical parameters of the soil (ph, organic matter content, mineralization rate, C/N, ratio of solubilization of phosphorus, active lime content, presence of antagonist ions, etc.). In the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Soil and Water Research Department, nuclear techniques including radio and stable isotopes in addition to

  18. Towards an energy policy for the coming decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panranjpe, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an energy policy for India is discussed. Estimates of energy requirements and of energy reserves within the country are presented. The various options for the future are then described from both the technical and the economical points of view. Nuclear energy (including fast breeder reactor development), solar energy and energy from agricultural wastes are all considered. (U.K.)

  19. 以沼气为纽带的种养结合循环农业系统能值分析%Energy analysis on planting-breeding circulating agriculture ecosystem linked by biogas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟珍梅; 黄勤楼; 翁伯琦; 黄秀声; 冯德庆; 陈钟佃

    2012-01-01

    将沼气工程与种植业相结合,构建以沼气为纽带的种养结合的循环农业模式是当前处理猪场粪水的循环农业新模式.该文针对循环农业模式缺乏科学评价体系,以单纯的生猪养殖(模式Ⅰ)为参照,运用能值理论对福清星源畜牧场循环农业模式(模式Ⅱ)进行评价,结果表明模式Ⅱ整体效益优于模式Ⅰ,环境负载率比模式Ⅰ降低了15.00%,可持续发展指数提高15.71%,经济效益比模式Ⅰ提高18.96%,生产效益略低于模式Ⅰ.模式Ⅱ实现“资源减量化、物质再循环和再利用”,并提高生态效益、经济效益,该文为种养结合循环农业模式推广提供科学依据.%Based on combining biogas engineering with planting, constructing circular agriculture model including planting and culture linked by biogas project is used to dealing with pig slurry at present. Taking model Ⅰ (system with only pig-breeding )as a reference, cycle agricultural system of livestock farm in Xingyuan Fuqing (the model Ⅱ )was evaluated using energy theory. Results indicated that whole benefit of the model Ⅱ was better than the the model I ; Compared with the model Ⅰ, the model Ⅱ decreased environmental loading ratio by 15.00%, increased sustainable development index by 15.71% and increased economic benefits by 18.96%, however slightly lowered at production efficiency. It was concluded that the model Ⅱ realized the aim that "reduction of resource, material recycling and reuse", and then eco-efficiency and economic benefits had been improved. This paper provides a scientific basis for extension of cycle agricultural system with planting and breeding.

  20. Projection of energy demand of the agricultural sector of Mato Grosso using the model of structural decomposition; Projecao da demanda energetica do setor agropecuario de Mato Grosso utilizando o modelo de decomposicao estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    Agriculture in Mato Grosso is, currently, the main responsible for the high economic growth of the state's economy, sustaining population in rural areas and pushing industrialization. Around 30% of the state's GDP is provided by this sector. A retrospective analysis of the evolution of the economic and energy consumption related parameters involved in the structural decomposition forecasting model precedes, in this paper, a prospective analysis, up to the year 2012, using this model, of energy consumption in this sector in the State. The energy demand forecasts follow a structure of macro economic scenarios which correspond to several possibilities of the local GDP growth. (author)