WorldWideScience

Sample records for include electric utilities

  1. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  2. Utilities and Power - Sector Report. Malaysia: including electricity, gas, water, sewerage, telecommunications and information technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market. The Seventh Malaysia Plan, covering the five year period, 1996-2000, contains an ambitious menu of infrastructure projects. Total expenditure under the Plan is envisaged at RM450 billion, of which around RM380 billion will be sourced from the private sector. This is an indication of the wealth accumulated within the Malaysian economy. The infrastructure developments identified are designed to take the country towards Vision 2020. These infrastructure developments will continue to make the country highly attractive to foreign investors, who were the catalyst for Malaysia`s explosive growth over the last few years. Malaysian Corporations have also grown rapidly and are becoming international investors and traders in their own right, including in the United Kingdom. As they expand, seeking new markets, they are looking also for partners with whom they can share technology and jointly develop projects. Such companies are often ideal partners for UK companies wishing to enter the Malaysian and Asian market. Malaysia offers opportunities to companies prepared to make the small effort to know and understand the country and its people. This report will assist companies to develop a useful understanding of the market. (author)

  3. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  4. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  5. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  6. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  7. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  8. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  9. Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

    1995-08-01

    This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

  10. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-01-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  11. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  12. The choice of primary energy source including PV installation for providing electric energy to a public utility building - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Bartosz; Ćwiek, Barbara; Mróz, Tomasz M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents multicriteria decision aid analysis of the choice of PV installation providing electric energy to a public utility building. From the energy management point of view electricity obtained by solar radiation has become crucial renewable energy source. Application of PV installations may occur a profitable solution from energy, economic and ecologic point of view for both existing and newly erected buildings. Featured variants of PV installations have been assessed by multicriteria analysis based on ANP (Analytic Network Process) method. Technical, economical, energy and environmental criteria have been identified as main decision criteria. Defined set of decision criteria has an open character and can be modified in the dialog process between the decision-maker and the expert - in the present case, an expert in planning of development of energy supply systems. The proposed approach has been used to evaluate three variants of PV installation acceptable for existing educational building located in Poznań, Poland - the building of Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology. Multi-criteria analysis based on ANP method and the calculation software Super Decisions has proven to be an effective tool for energy planning, leading to the indication of the recommended variant of PV installation in existing and newly erected public buildings. Achieved results show prospects and possibilities of rational renewable energy usage as complex solution to public utility buildings.

  13. Electric vehicle utilization for ancillary grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicle has been developed through several decades as transportation mean, without paying sufficient attention of its utilization for other purposes. Recently, the utilization of electric vehicle to support the grid electricity has been proposed and studied intensively. This utilization covers several possible services including electricity storage, spinning reserve, frequency and voltage regulation, and emergency energy supply. This study focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of utilization of electric vehicles and their used batteries to support a small-scale energy management system. Charging rate of electric vehicle under different ambient temperature (seasonal condition) is initially analyzed to measure the correlation of charging rate, charging time, and state-of-charge. It is confirmed that charging under warmer condition (such as in summer or warmer region) shows higher charging rate than one in colder condition, therefore, shorter charging time can be achieved. In addition, in the demonstration test, each five electric vehicles and used batteries from the same electric vehicles are employed and controlled to support the electricity of the office building. The performance of the system is evaluated throughout a year to measure the load leveling effect during peak-load time. The results show that the targeted peak-load can be shaved well under certain calculated peak-shaving threshold. The finding confirms that the utilization of electric vehicle for supporting the electricity of grid or certain energy management system is feasible and deployable in the future.

  14. Turmoil and transition: Electric utility industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    In a review of electric utility industry trends, focusing on North America, it is noted that four critical influences are dominant: competition in the electricity supply business; technological advances; the recognized need for environmental protection; and a favoring of market economics and customer choice. As energy costs rose in the 1970s and 1980s, electricity usage growth rates decreased and demand side management became an accepted alternative to building new power plants. In large areas of Canada and the USA, substantial surplus generation capacity arose, transmission linkages improved, and regional electricity markets developed. Privatization measures in the British electric sector were closely studied in North America and electric markets in the USA were pushed toward more competition with the 1992 Energy Policy Act. Non-utility generators have entered the market, including industrial companies, pipeline companies, independent renewable-energy providers, and power companies set up by the utilities themselves. Power pools may evolve into regional transmission grids in which the transmission owning utilities would exchange their lines for an interest in the grid. California is likely to lead in opening access to transmission on a regional scale. Distribution systems are likely to remain a regulated monopoly as before. Substantial change is expected in customer services as functions such as power purchase and conservation are being performed by independent companies. Other possible developments in the industry include emissions trading and spot markets for power. The implications of these trends for British Columbia Hydro are discussed

  15. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  16. Electric utilities and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In 1970, Congress passed the comprehensive Clean Air Act which established a national program to protect the nation's air quality. In 1977, additional strict regulations were passed, which mandated even more stringent emission controls for factories, power plants and auto emissions. Prior to passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, utilities were required to adhere to three major types of clean air regulations: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) review. NAAQS established limits for the maximum concentration levels of specific air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. For example, for an area to be in compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), its annual average SO 2 concentration must not exceed 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and a peak 24 hour level of 0.14 ppm of SO 2 must not be exceeded more than once per year

  17. Electric utility deregulation - A nuclear opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMella, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    influenced and ultimately determined the price or tariffs for electricity to customers, were generally the same. Utilities revenue requirements were founded upon complex 'cost of service' formulas which emphasized and allowed the recovery of all 'reasonable' costs including operating expenses, taxes, depreciation of investments and additionally assured a reasonable rate or return on all outstanding investments. The consequence was that, through regulation of electric rate design, the ultimate price of electricity was determined by the aggregate of costs to produce it, independent of the forces of supply and demand. Through the examination of the major principles and features of regulated compared to unregulated electric markets such as the 'obligation to serve' and the 'cost of service', this presentation will address and discuss the economic opportunities and risks associated with nuclear power plants operating in deregulated, competitive electric generation markets. In transitioning to competitive markets, a number of key economic questions will be raised that will emphasize nuclear plant economic requirements for a profitable enterprise, addressing factors such as, plant operating performance, market conditions, energy price, key economic measures, investment opportunities, nuclear asset valuation and plant life extension. An economic analysis of a recent nuclear power plant valuation study will be presented including a discussion of key input variables, financial assumptions, economic results and a brief demonstration of an interactive, PC based computer model used for the analysis. A similar model, is currently being considered by the IAEA to evaluate the economics of nuclear power plant life extension along with alternative generation approaches. In closing, a number of short and long term prospects for the future of nuclear power will be discussed including plant life extension and the prognostication of a new electric generation business model concept

  18. Acid rain and electric utilities 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This proceedings contains more than 100 technical presentations dealing with a variety of topics concerning the Title IV acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Some of the major topics addressed include: emerging environmental issues impacting electric utilities (proposed revisions to the ozone and particulate matter NAAQS), acid rain program overview, continuous emissions monitoring rule revisions, global climate change and CO 2 , emissions data management, Clean Air Power Initiative and regional issues, compliance/designated representative, flow monitoring, emissions control technology, allowance and trading, emission reductions, NO x control issues, hazardous air pollutants, and CEMS advances

  19. Bring real capitalism to electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, B.F.

    1991-01-15

    This article examines the reasons that the electric utilities are price regulated and makes an argument for market-based economics to regulate prices and stimulate revolutionary improvements in the industry. The author examines and refutes the arguments that: The industry is a natural monopoly; Competition leads to unnecessary duplication of facilities; and The industry is so vital to the economy and security of the US that it cannot be trusted to the risks inherent in capitalism, including the success and failure of companies.

  20. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  1. Survey of current electric utility research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Information on the research programs of eight Canadian electrical utilities and the Canadian Electrical Association has been compiled. Work done by the National Research Council of Canada is included, but the research done by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. is excluded. Projects in the area of nuclear power include work on heat transfer and fluid flow, waste management, materials, and corrosion. (L.L.)

  2. Inter-utility trade in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penman, A.

    1992-01-01

    Enhanced inter-utility cooperation could have a profound effect on the future of the electricity supply industry. Coordinated planning, development, and operations of electric power systems have the potential to reduce the cost of electricity to consumers and to lessen the impact of electricity supply on the environment. These effects could be achieved by being able to supply electricity from lower cost and more environmentally benign sources located over wider geographic areas, and having to install less new generating capacity. Access to transmission and wheeling services would be an important factor in allowing increased inter-utility cooperation to occur. Canada's National Energy Board conducted a review to identify measures that can be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity, to encourage greater cooperation between electric utilities in the areas of systems planning and development, and to enable buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain access to available transmission capacity through intervening provinces for wheeling purposes. The work undertaken by the Board during that review is described. A total estimated economic benefit of $23-32.5 billion was identified, mainly from long-term firm sales and from seasonal diversity exchanges. Four options were developed that appear to be available to encourage and achieve enhanced inter-utility cooperation. These are continuation of voluntary cooperation, voluntary cooperation with federal monitoring, establishing voluntary regional planning entities, and establishing regional planning entities with mandated federal power

  3. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  4. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches [it

  5. The electric utilities during the 1970s and 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews the financial performance of electric utilities during the 1970s and 1980s and the factors which have affected their performance. Topics include the effects of the energy crisis in 1973, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island in 1979, the widespread use of imprudence disallowances by regulators after 1984, and the gradual extension of the nation's deregulation movement to the electric utilities

  6. Association of Swiss Electrical Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report, reproduced in full, discusses Swiss energy policy in 1986, paying particular attention to the fall in confidence with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident. Statistical data on primary and secondary energy consumption and power generation are presented. Other sections include imports/exports, construction of power stations, transmission/distribution links, finance, constitution of council, committees and public relations. (G.T.H.)

  7. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  8. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  9. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ''business as usual,'' ''technotopia future,'' and ''fortress state'' -and three electric utility scenarios- ''frozen in headlights,'' ''megaelectric,'' and ''discomania.'' The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest

  10. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  11. Shaping the future of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byus, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    On December 14, 1992, Cincinnati Gas ampersand Electric Company (CG ampersand E) and PSI Resources, Inc. announced an agreement to merge the two companies into a newly formed company, CINergy Corp. In announcing the proposed merger, James E. Rogers Jr., chairman, president, and chief executive officer of PSI said, Our companies have chosen to shape our future and our industry. This is an ideal partnership, since our strengths complement each other and our vision of the future is the same. Will this merger be the first of many that will shape the future of the electric utility in the United States? What is the vision of the future for the industry? About five years ago, a well-known Wall Street utility analyst traveled around the country talking about the anticipated consolidation of electric utility companies in the US His motto was Fifty in Five, meaning widespread consolidation that would reduce the number of independent investor-owned utilities from more than 100 to 50 within a five-year period. He even developed a map showing the mergers/consolidations he looked for and actually named names. More than five years have passed, and only a handful of utility mergers have taken place. But, looking forward from 1992, restructuring of the utility industry is very much a vision of the future. What is the driving force? The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 provides the legislative framework for the electric utility industry in the US in future years. While the specific rules that will govern the industry are yet to be promulgated, the intent to allow (even promote) competition is evident in the Act itself. But it appears the vision of the future is market driven

  12. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  13. Evaluation of the electric utility missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, J.

    2000-01-01

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  14. DSM and electric utility competitiveness: An Illinois perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    A predominant theme in the current electric utility industry literature is that competitive forces have emerged and may become more prominent. The wholesale bulk power market is alreadly competitive, as non-utility energy service providers already have had a significant impact on that market; this trend was accelerated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Although competition at the retail level is much less pervasive, electric utility customers increasingly have greater choice in selecting energy services. These choices may include, depending on the customer, the ability to self-generate, switch fuels, move to a new location, or rely more heavily on demand-side management as a means of controlling electric energy use. This paper explores the subject of how demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are often developed by a utility to satisfy resource requirements as a part of its least-cost planning process, can affect the utility`s ability to compete in the energy services marketplace. In this context, the term `DSM` is used in this paper to refer to those demand-side services and programs which provide resources to the utility`s system. Depending on one`s perspective, DSM programs (so defined) can be viewed either as an enhancement to the competitive position of a utility by enabling it to provide its customers with a broader menu of energy services, simultaneously satisfying the objectives of the utility as well as those of the customers, or as a detractor to a utility`s ability to compete. In the latter case, the concern is with respect to the potential for adverse rate impacts on customers who are not participants in DSM programs. The paper consists of an identification of the pros and cons of DSM as a competitive strategy, the tradeoff which can occur between the cost impacts and rate impacts of DSM, and an examination of alternative strategies for maximizing the utilization of DSM both as a resource and as a competitive strategy.

  15. Favourability towards electric utilities jumps 10 per cent in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A recent survey of public opinion has shown that 85 per cent of the public view their electric utility company favourably. This represents a 10 per cent increase over last year. A survey of 4,090 Canadians was conducted which looked at the perceptions of the value of electricity services compared to telephone, natural gas, banking, and home insurance services. The study showed that Canadian electric utility companies are viewed as positively as the telephone companies and almost as favourably as the banks. Some 71 per cent of respondents reported that the value they receive from their electric utility is excellent or good. Lower prices, better customer services and increased research into alternative power sources were among the benefits that Canadians perceive would result from a more competitive electricity sector. Some misgivings about deregulation included a belief that there would be less attention to environmental concerns and more outages. Four per cent of the respondents said they would 'definitely' switch to an alternative supplier of electricity, while 25 per cent said they would 'probably' switch to an alternative supplier of electricity. 2 tabs

  16. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  17. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  18. Maximizing your ability to compete as a municipal electrical utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacOdrum, B.

    1996-01-01

    The implications of the MacDonald Committee's recommendations on introducing competition to Ontario's electricity industry were reviewed from the point of view of Toronto Hydro, the largest municipal utility and Ontario Hydro's largest customer. Issues examined included (1) the consequences of unbundling Ontario Hydro's generating, transmission and distribution functions, (2) the structural change option of phasing-in competition among Ontario Hydro and municipal and other private generators, (3) enhancing the efficiency of the distribution sector, and (4) the relative benefits and consequences of private equity as a means of enhancing competition through the sale of Ontario Hydro's generating assets, or the sale of non-essential business operations. Recommendations to the Committee included the need for the transmission grid to remain under public control, for electricity pricing to take into account the variable environmental impact of different generating types, and the need for transferring regulatory authority over municipal electric utilities from Ontario Hydro to the Ontario Energy Board

  19. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 290 - Nonexempt Electric Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonexempt Electric... 1978 Pt. 290, App. A Appendix A to Part 290—Nonexempt Electric Utilities Electric utilities that are... follows: Department of Water and Power of the City of Los Angeles, California. Pacific Gas & Electric Co...

  20. IT use in electric utilities - today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Maria

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the present and future use of IT-systems in British electric utilities is presented. Systems for Asset Management, Reliability Centered Maintenance, Customer Databases etc are discussed. A few utilities are studied more closely (Eastern Electricity, London Electricity, Scottish Power and Yorkshire Electricity)

  1. Building a winning electric utility organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farha, G.; Silverman, L. [McKinsey & Co., Washington, DC (United States); Keough, K. [McKinsey & Co., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The key factor that will differentiate the winners and losers is the speed with which they build their skills and enhance their performance focus. Setting the {open_quote}right{close_quote} aspirations, then effectively managing the change process, will be critical for winning power companies. Historically, only certain dimensions of organizational performance have been critical to an electric utility`s financial success. As a result, utilities understandably focused on achieving high levels of customer satisfaction and reliability, excellent regulatory relationships, and safe and environmentally acceptable operations. However, as the power industry undergoes fundamental change, obtaining superior organizational performance will become much more crucial and difficult. Given the importance of meeting these organizational challenges head on, the authors believe CEOs can only address them by taking an important step back from day-to-day activities to define what high performance really means in the future competitive world and what steps should be taken to achieve their aspirations. To facilitate this rethink - which senior managers should view as a multiyear process - utilities need to do three things in an iterative way: (1) energize the transformation with the right performance aspirations. (2) Tailor a coherent change program to the company`s unique starting position. (3) Manage the change process to build a skill-based and performance-focused organization.

  2. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues

  3. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

  4. Financial statistics of major investor-owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of major Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues

  5. Legislative aspects of RAPS supply by Australian electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Regan, S.; Watt, M. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

    1995-11-01

    The supply of power to residents of remote areas is an increasingly difficult issue for electricity utilities. The pressure on utilities to take a more commercial orientation rests uneasily with the significant losses many make on their rural networks. At the same time, recent developments in stand-alone power supply systems (RAPS) have made them a technically and economically viable alternative to remote grid extensions connections that are often both costly for the customer and uneconomic for the distributors. This paper reports on a recent review of electricity legislation in all Australian States and Territories which focused on issues relating to utility supply via RAPS systems, rather than grid connection. A study undertaken for NSW in 1994 indicated a number of impediments to the supply of electricity by alternative means, including existing regulations, pricing structures, lack of information and the culture and structure of the electricity distribution industry. However, the situation differs from State to State, both in the scope for grid alternatives and in the legislative framework under which supply authorities operate. Clarifying the situation in each State will facilitate the use of alternative means of supply, where these are appropriate. It will also assist the Australian electricity industry to diversify its functions and modes of operation to meet the rapid changes occurring in its marketplace, including industry restructuring, environmental constraints and changing customer service requirements. (author). 1 tab., 2 photos., 1 ref.

  6. DSM and electric utility competitiveness: An Illinois perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    A predominant theme in the current electric utility industry literature is that competitive forces have emerged and may become more prominent. The wholesale bulk power market is alreadly competitive, as non-utility energy service providers already have had a significant impact on that market; this trend was accelerated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Although competition at the retail level is much less pervasive, electric utility customers increasingly have greater choice in selecting energy services. These choices may include, depending on the customer, the ability to self-generate, switch fuels, move to a new location, or rely more heavily on demand-side management as a means of controlling electric energy use. This paper explores the subject of how demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are often developed by a utility to satisfy resource requirements as a part of its least-cost planning process, can affect the utility's ability to compete in the energy services marketplace. In this context, the term 'DSM' is used in this paper to refer to those demand-side services and programs which provide resources to the utility's system. Depending on one's perspective, DSM programs (so defined) can be viewed either as an enhancement to the competitive position of a utility by enabling it to provide its customers with a broader menu of energy services, simultaneously satisfying the objectives of the utility as well as those of the customers, or as a detractor to a utility's ability to compete. In the latter case, the concern is with respect to the potential for adverse rate impacts on customers who are not participants in DSM programs. The paper consists of an identification of the pros and cons of DSM as a competitive strategy, the tradeoff which can occur between the cost impacts and rate impacts of DSM, and an examination of alternative strategies for maximizing the utilization of DSM both as a resource and as a competitive strategy

  7. Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

  8. Opportunities for electric utilities in telecommunications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities for utility participation in the telecommunications market on private microwave systems and hybrid microwave and fiber systems. The topics of the article include entering the market, national information infrastructure, business opportunities and considerations, levels of participation in telecommunications market, and regulatory objectives

  9. Commercial statistical bulletin of the Brazilian electric utility Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Statistical data concerning the Brazilian Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. utility relative to April 1996 are presented. They include, among other things, electricity consumption, number and class of consumers and electricity rates

  10. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-15

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data.

  11. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data

  12. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1985-05-01

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  13. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  14. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  15. Financial statistics of selected investor-owned electric utilities, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  16. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

  17. 78 FR 20313 - PPL Electric Utilities Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AC13-65-000] PPL Electric Utilities Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 26, 2013, PPL Electric Utilities Corporation (PPL) submitted to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) a request for waiver of...

  18. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  19. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-02

    This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  20. Transformers and the Electric Utility System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

  1. The role of utilities in developing low carbon, electric megacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Chris; Stewart, Iain D.; Facchini, Angelo; Mele, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Development of electric cities, with low carbon power supply, is a key strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions. We analyze the role of electric utilities as important actors to catalyze the transition to electric cites, drawing upon data for the world's 27 megacities. Progress towards the ideal electric city is most advanced for Paris, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires for low carbon electricity, while Indian megacities have relatively high use of carbon-intensive electricity as a percentage of total energy use. There is wide variety in the structure of markets for electricity provision in megacities, with a dominant, public utility being the most common model. We review literature on electricity sector business models and broadly propose future models dependent on the predominance of locally dispersed generation and the nature of the ownership of the electric grid within the city. Where a high proportion of electricity can be provided by locally distributed supply within a city, the role of utilities could predominantly become that of enabler of exchange with the grid, but new pricing structures are required. A further challenge for utilities in enabling the electric city is to provide a higher level of resilience to events that disrupt power supply. - Highlights: • Amongst 27 megacities, Paris, Rio, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires are most progressed low carbon electric cities. • Indian megacities have relatively high use of electricity as a percentage of total energy use. • Wide variety in electricity market structure in megacities; dominant, public utility the most common model. • Utilities could become enablers of exchange with the grid, but new pricing models required.

  2. Growth strategies of electric utilities in context of deregulation and liberalization of electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Đogić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the growth strategies adopted by the electric utilities sector in the context of changes resulting from the deregulation and liberalization of the electricity market. Strategies pursued by the electric utilities sector were rarely the subject of research in the field of strategic management despite the fact that electricity is an indispensable element of everyday life and the economy as a whole. Therefore, a case study of the largest incumbent electric utilities in the Republic of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia has been conducted, and differences in the degree of market liberalization and core features of these companies have been noted. Research findings have shown that the degree of deregulation can affect the growth strategies of electric utilities. In those countries where the degree of deregulation is lower, electric utilities focus on the domestic market. On the other hand, a higher level of deregulation enables electric utilities to achieve their growth through diversification or innovation. Given the fact that the analyzed electric utilities are operating within relatively small economies, they cannot compete with electric utilities in developed countries, and, apart from international electricity trading, are mostly focused on their domestic markets.

  3. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ''Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management'', presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs

  4. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-28

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

  6. Utilization of low temperature heat for environmentally friendly electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    and industrial processes orfrom geothermal and solar heat sources. Utilization of such heat sources makes it possible to produce electricity with no additional burning of fossil fuel, and does therefore represent an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel based electricity production. Utilization......The focus on reduction of fossil fuelled electricity generation has increased the attention on exploitation of low grade heat as the energy source for electricity producing power plants. Low grade heat is heat, which isavailable at a low temperature, e.g. from waste heat from marine diesel engines...

  7. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The 1992 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 4 years (1989 through 1992) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Four years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, {open_quotes}Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.{close_quotes} Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year, rather than a calendar year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. In previous editions of this publication, data were aggregated by the two most commonly reported fiscal years, June 30 and December 31. This omitted approximately 20 percent of the respondents who operate on fiscal years ending in other months. Accordingly, the EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents.

  8. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

  9. Electric utility preferred stock financing - twilight or new dawn?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.

    1991-01-01

    The tax laws have greatly diminished the importance of utility preferred stock. But with utility construction programs expected to rise, it is an opportune time to see if preferreds can be an attractive option again. As recently as 1980, preferred stock financing by electric utilities comprised 55% of all U.S. corporate preferred stock issued. By 1989, this percentage had declined to under 12%. In dollar amounts, electric utility preferred stock financing had decreased by two-thirds over the same time period. The author analyzes just why this decline occurred and what it portends for the future

  10. The Municipal Electrical Utilities' role in buying and selling power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    Ontario's Municipal Electrical Utilities (MEUs) are the front-line providers of electricity services for most of the consumers in Ontario. MEUs serve 2.8 million customers (about 70 per cent of all power sold in Ontario). The new regulatory regime resulting from Ontario's Energy Competition Act (1998) will significantly impact MEUs. The changes aim to consolidate and rationalize the point of sale provision of power to Ontario customers and increase the efficiency of the sector. The Energy Competition Act (1998) creates a competitive electricity marketplace and provides mechanisms for its operation, but it is the MEUs which will bear the risk of market failures. Some of the changes which will be most important to MEUs are: (1) incorporation, (2) default supplier, and (3) oversight by the OEB. It is the author's view that the move towards open markets in electricity is unlikely to enlarge the decision making power of MEUs. On the contrary, the legislative scheme creates a complex regulatory environment wherein the distribution corporation must strictly comply with the OEB's requirements and public policy concerns in exercising its functions. As the MEUs essentially serve as a buffer in the newly opened retail markets, they must find ways to minimize their risk of market failures or spread the cost so as to remain viable commercial entities. They must also devise new information systems prior to the opening of the new market to deal with customer and default consumer pricing, billing and transfer of customers to and from retailers. Municipal utilities will also have to consider restructuring of their own operations, including determining which businesses should be pursued through competitive affiliates

  11. Digest of current research in the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-05-01

    A major objective of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is to be a prime resource for information on scientific research and development activities in the field of electric energy. In response to this objective, EPRI has developed the Research and Development Information System (RDIS), which is a computerized data base of research projects sponsored by the Institute and by individual electric utilities throughout the United States. RDIS provides the utility industry with a single, authoritative source of continuously updated information concerning in-progress, unpublished R and D projects. The program was initiated in 1974 and developed with the assistance of the EPRI Research Advisory Committee. This Digest is generated from the RDIS program. Contributors to this pilot volume were Consolidated Edison, EPRI, Pacific Gas and Electric, Philadelphia Electric, Southern California Edison, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Union Electric. The Digest will be issued annually. (auth)

  12. Electric-utility DSM programs in a competitive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1994-04-01

    During the past few years, the costs and effects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs have grown sharply. In 1989, US electric utilities spent 0.5% of revenues on such programs and cut total electricity consumption by 0.6%. By 1992, these numbers had increased to 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Utility projections, as of early 1993, of DSM expenditures and energy savings for 1997 were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Whether this projected growth comes to pass may depend on current debates about deregulation of, and increased competition in, the electric-utility industry. This report examines the factors likely to affect utility DSM programs in a more competitive environment. The electric-utility industry faces two forces that may conflict with each other. One is the pressure to open up both wholesale and retail markets for competition. The net effect of such competition, especially at the retail level, would have much greater emphasis on electricity prices and less emphasis on energy services. Such an outcome would force a sharp reduction in the scale of DSM programs that are funded by customers in general. The second force is increased concern about environmental quality and global warming. Because utilities are major contributors to US carbon dioxide emissions, the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan calls on utilities to reduce such emissions. DSM programs are one key way to do that and, in the process, to cut customer electric bills and improve economic productivity. This report discusses the forms of competition and how they might affect DSM programs. It examines the important roles that state regulatory commissions could play to affect retail competition and utility DSM programs. The report also considers the effects of DSM programs on retail electricity prices.

  13. Electric-utility oil and gas use in the eighties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, C D; Abbey, D S; Martinez, A J; Williams, D S; Wolak, Jr, F A; Yeamans, M K

    1982-04-01

    This report forecasts possible levels of oil and gas use by electric utilities in the US through 1990. The analysis is done at a regional level. High and low levels of electricity demand as well as nominal and diminished availability of new generating capacity are assumed. Projected oil and gas use for 1990 ranges from 1000 to 3200 barrels per day.

  14. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  15. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

  16. Acute work injuries among electric utility meter readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahl, J D; Kelsh, M A; Haines, K D; Sands, F K; Kraus, J

    1997-05-01

    This report provides estimates of incidence rates for acute work injuries for a well defined cohort of electric utility meter readers. Specifically, person-time rates by sex, age, and job experience are evaluated by part of body injured and type of injury. Meter readers experienced 731 acute lost time [11.1 per 100 person-work years; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.3-11.9] and 4,401 acute non-lost time (66.5 per 100 person-work years; 95% CI = 64.6-68.5) work injuries over the study period, 1980-1992. Women had nearly twice the lost time injury rate as men (17.5 vs 9.6 per 100 person-work years). There is an inverse relation between job experience and both lost time and non-lost time injuries. Although these data are limited to the electric utility industry, they may be relevant to occupations with similar tasks and environments, including residential gas and water supply industry meter readers and postal carriers.

  17. US electric utility demand-side management, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-26

    The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

  18. Shedding new light on the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1995-10-01

    This book presents an overview of two decades of change in the electric utility industry both in the USA and globally. Among the issues explored are the rise of independent (not-utility) power producers; the roles of energy efficiency and demand side management; and advances in fossil and renewable generation technologies.

  19. Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular

  2. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Data for 1991 and 1990 receipts and costs for fossil fuels discussed in the Executive Summary are displayed in Tables ES1 through ES7. These data are for electric generating plants with a total steam-electric and combined-cycle nameplate capacity of 50 or more megawatts. Data presented in the Executive Summary on generation, consumption, and stocks of fossil fuels at electric utilities are based on data collected on the Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-759, ''Monthly Power Plant Report.'' These data cover all electric generating plants. The average delivered cost of coal, petroleum, and gas each decreased in 1991 from 1990 levels. Overall, the average annual cost of fossil fuels delivered to electric utilities in 1991 was $1.60 per million Btu, a decrease of $0.09 per million Btu from 1990. This was the lowest average annual cost since 1978 and was the result of the abundant supply of coal, petroleum, and gas available to electric utilities. US net generation of electricity by all electric utilities in 1991 increased by less than I percent--the smallest increase since the decline that occurred in 1982.3 Coal and gas-fired steam net generation, each, decreased by less than I percent and petroleum-fired steam net generation by nearly 5 percent. Nuclear-powered net generation, however, increased by 6 percent. Fossil fuels accounted for 68 percent of all generation; nuclear, 22 percent; and hydroelectric, 10 percent. Sales of electricity to ultimate consumers in 1991 were 2 percent higher than during 1990

  3. Outsourcing decision factors in publicly owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, James Edward

    Purpose. The outsourcing of services in publicly owned electric utilities has generated some controversy. The purpose of this study was to explore this controversy by investigating the relationships between eight key independent variables and a dependent variable, "manager perceptions of overall value of outsourced services." The intent was to provide data so that utilities could make better decisions regarding outsourcing efforts. Theoretical framework. Decision theory was used as the framework for analyzing variables and alternatives used to support the outsourcing decision-making process. By reviewing these eight variables and the projected outputs and outcomes, a more predictive and potentially successful outsourcing effort can be realized. Methodology. A survey was distributed to a sample of 323 publicly owned electric utilities randomly selected from a population of 2,020 in the United States. Analysis of the data was made using statistical techniques including the Chi-Square, Lambda, Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, as well as the Hypothesis Test, Rank Correlation, to test for relationships among the variables. Findings. Relationships among the eight key variables and perceptions of the overall value of outsourced services were generally weak. The notable exception was with the driving force (reason) for outsourcing decisions where the relationship was strongly positive. Conclusions and recommendations. The data in support of the research questions suggest that seven of the eight key variables may be weakly predictive of perceptions of the overall value of outsourced services. However, the primary driving force for outsourcing was strongly predictive. The data also suggest that many of the sampled utilities did not formally address these variables and alternatives, and therefore may not be achieving maximal results. Further studies utilizing customer perceptions rather than those of outsourcing service managers are recommended. In addition, it is

  4. Review of inter-utility trade in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, Canada's National Energy Board released two discussion papers on inter-utility trade. Responses to the papers were received from utilities, government agencies, and other interested parties with regard to questions concerning measures that could be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity and to enable buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain commercial access to available transmission capacity through intermediate provinces for wheeling purposes. The Board's review had estimated long-term net benefits from enhanced inter-utility cooperation at $23-32.5 billion by the year 2000 from such types of transactions as seasonal diversity exchanges and long-term firm sales. Seven types of options to achieve enhanced inter-utility trade were identified. Most of the respondent utilities and provinces that have direct access to external markets tended to prefer the status quo, opposing mandated solutions but supporting (or at least not opposing) federal monitoring of progress on enhanced inter-utility cooperation. Provinces and utilities without direct access to external markets tended to support (as a last resort) mandated solutions to disputes concerning electricity trade. Since the Board review, important events in the North American electricity supply industry have occurred; these are described, focusing on the US Energy Policy Act that gives powers to order transmission access. The formation by US utilities of regional transmission groups (RTGs) with federal encouragement is discussed, along with the implications for Canadian utilities that may want to become members of particular RTGs. The advantages and drawbacks of selecting the various options for enhancing inter-utility trade are then summarized. 1 tab

  5. Profile of the electric utilities in the Brazilian Southeast and Center west regions, 1989-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The characteristics and performance of the electric utilities operating in the south-east and center-west regions of Brazil are presented. These regions consume 70% of all the electric power produced in the country. The informations supplied in this report include for each regions the characteristics of the system, the demand and growth rate and the electricity consumed by the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. 44 figs., 134 tabs

  6. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  7. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  8. Activities of electric utilities in alternative energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Reis Neto, J.L. dos

    1990-01-01

    Since oil crisis, in 1973 and 1979, some electrical utilities in Brazil begun investments in alternative projects for example production of electrolytic hydrogen, peats with energetics goals, steam from electric boiler, and methanol from wood gasification. With oil substitution goals, these projects have not success actually, after attenuated the crisis. However, the results acquired is experience for the development of the brazilian energy patterns. (author)

  9. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Research and development into thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines is reviewed critically. The type of coating systems developed for aircraft applications are found to be preferred for clear fuel electric utility applications. These coating systems consists of a layer of plasma sprayed zirconia-yttria ceramic over a layer of MCrAly bond coat. They are not recommended for use when molten salts are presented. Efforts to understand coating degradation in dirty environments and to develop corrosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are discussed.

  10. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.Rose

    2000-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift om the traditional business model of utilities. This paper will focus on deregulation in thc United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  11. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift from the traditional utility business model. This paper will focus on deregulation in the United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  12. Air toxic issues for the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, L.

    2000-01-01

    Improved control devices, advances in fuel stack measurements and ambient sampling techniques have clarified some of the issues associated with the release of trace substance emissions into the atmosphere, particularly mercury emissions, from electric utilities. It has been determined that mercury emissions to the atmosphere from all sources globally, including utilities, has an approximate lifetime of 1-2 years before deposition, but 30 -70 per cent of mercury emissions are deposited locally within hours to days. Recent and continual field studies are being conducted to determine how much mercury is actually emitted from background sources and how this mercury enters general atmospheric circulations. The issue of how much mercury deposits locally versus being transported regionally or globally is also under study along with how mercury enters the food chain for fish in lakes and ultimately the consumer. Current health effects studies have indicated that there are slight differences in some of the earlier estimates of mercury's health effects. More studies are underway to help determine the degree of health threat to U.S. consumers of fish and to determine if mercury emissions are carried beyond U.S. borders to global dispersion. Some studies have also indicated a net reduction of mercury in clouds

  13. The rural utility response to Colorado's electricity mandates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When Colorado voters passed Amendment 37 in 2004, it became the first state to pass a renewable portfolio standard at the ballet box, suggesting broad appeal to harness and pay for renewable energy. While large urban utilities are prepared to make this transition, smaller cities and rural areas, for various financial and scale issues are severely disadvantaged in trying to incorporate more renewable energy sources into their electricity mix. This was evident by the state's support for Amendment 37, which was passed due to strong support in the Denver metro area-representing nearly half of the state's population. Support for the bill was poor in the rest of the state. Nevertheless, in 2007, the state expanded up Amendment 37 by forcing the utilities in rural communities to diversify their electricity mix. This study surveyed the managers at the state's various rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in an effort to gage their attitudes concerning: carbon legislation, conservation and efficiency programs, and their plans for making the transition away from fossil fuel generation. - Highlights: → Communities served by rural utilities opposed Colorado's state-wide RPS, but were forced to adhere anyway. → Most rural utilities are very concerned about the economic impacts of trying to diversify their energy portfolios. → Many of these unregulated utilities were already pushing DSM programs to promote conservation and improve efficiency.

  14. The EU's major electricity and gas utilities since market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, Christian

    2011-06-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. Contents: Executive Summary. Introduction. Seven Case Studies of Changing Strategies of Major European Energy Utilities since Market Liberalization (E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, RWE, Iberdrola, Vattenfall, Other European Utilities). Overview of Major National and Regional Electricity and Gas Market in the EU (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Nordic, Belgium and the Netherlands, Central and Eastern Europe). Conclusions. Annex. Bibliography

  15. Industrial production, capacity utilization, and electric power tape. Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The industrial production index is a measure of the physical output of the nation's factories, mines, and electric and gas utilities expressed as a percentage of production in a base period, currently 1987. Capacity indexes, based on the Federal Reserve's industrial production indexes, are estimated for total industry, which covers manufacturing, mining, and utilities industries. Both the capacity and output indexes are expressed as a percentage of 1987 output. Utilization rates are then derived by dividing the capacity index into the associated production indexes.

  16. Electric power bidding model for practical utility system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabavathi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitive open market environment has been created due to the restructuring in the electricity market. In the new competitive market, mostly a centrally operated pool with a power exchange has been introduced to meet the offers from the competing suppliers with the bids of the customers. In such an open access environment, the formation of bidding strategy is one of the most challenging and important tasks for electricity participants to maximize their profit. To build bidding strategies for power suppliers and consumers in the restructured electricity market, a new mathematical framework is proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each participant submits several blocks of real power quantities along with their bidding prices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on Indian Utility-62 bus system and IEEE-118 bus system. Keywords: Bidding strategy, Day ahead electricity market, Market clearing price, Market clearing volume, Block bid, Intermediate value theorem

  17. An analysis of electric utility embedded power supply costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, M.; Brown, D.

    1998-01-01

    There is little doubt that for the vast majority of electric utilities the embedded costs of power supply exceed market prices, giving rise to the stranded cost problem. Beyond that simple generalization, there are a number of crucial questions, which this study attempts to answer. What are the regional patterns of embedded cost differences? To what extent is the cost problem attributable to nuclear power? How does the cost of purchased power compare to the cost of utility self-generation? What is the breakdown of utility embedded generation costs between operating costs - which are potentially avoidable--and ownership costs, which by definition are ''sunk'' and therefore not avoidable? How will embedded generation costs and market prices compare over time? These are the crucial questions for states as they address retail-restructuring proposal. This study presents an analysis of generation costs, which addresses these key questions. A computerized costing model was developed and applied using FERC Form 1 data for 1995. The model analyzed embedded power supply costs (i.e.; self-generation plus purchased power) for two groups of investor-owned utilities, 49 non-nuclear vs. 63 nuclear. These two subsamples represent substantially the entire US investor-owned electric utility industry. For each utility, embedded cost is estimated both at busbar and at meter

  18. Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

  19. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  20. Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building/electric utility interface. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.L.; Wirtshafter, R.M.; Abrash, M.; Anderson, B.; Sullivan, P.; Kohler, J.

    1978-10-01

    An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load curves for several utilities, to assess the effect of present utility pricing policies, and to examine alternative pricing schemes, as well as Federal and state tax credits, as they may affect the optimal sizing and configuration of active solar and passive solar building components. The methodology, the systems model, an overall building design, building cost determination, and a description of TRNSYS are presented. The major parameters discussed that distinguish variation in the cost-effectiveness of particular building design fall into 5 categories: the weather, building configurations, building costs, utility costs and rates, and financial parameters (inclusive of tax credits for solar and energy conservation investment). Five utilities are studied: Colorado Springs Department of Public Utilities; Public Service Co. of New Mexico; New England Electric System; Pacific Gas and Electric; and Georgia Power Co.

  1. Evolving electric utility information systems to leverage the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Chuck; Mullins, Steven [Siemens Industry (United States). Siemens Smart Grid Services - Metering and Communication Solutions

    2012-07-01

    With limited IT/IS budgets and staff, Electric Distribution Utilities are forced to choose which information systems to upgrade, replace and add to obtain Smart Grid benefits as they upgrade their distribution networks. This paper presents a recommended road map of Smart Grid projects many utilities have followed to evolve their information systems to maximize the benefits of their smart grid investment as well as minimize risk and cost. The paper defines Smart Grid and proceeds to present a Utility's typical infomation systems landscape at the beginning of a Smart Grid deployment together with a collection of what the industry considers Smart Grid ''Applications'' that need to be purchased and deployed. The paper illustrates a recommended deployment roadmap for utilities interested in evolving their information system landscape to support the Smart Grid. (orig.)

  2. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Phil

    1994-05-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  3. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  4. Structure of the electric utility industry, 1990. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, P.S.

    1980-04-01

    A vector of normalized inputs to a hypothetical 1990 electric-utility industry is created. Inputs and outputs from the industry are all considered as homogeneous components of Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) economic sectors at approximately the 2-digit (83-sector) level of aggregation. While the sector definitions are BEA-compatible, the vector is created at a 90-sector level of detail for use within the Energy Research Group (ERG) energy input-output model. The vector is listed as ERGELIN. The normalized vector of depreciation capital inputs is stored as ELINDEP. The sum of the two is the final depreciation-corrected vector of 1990 electric-utility industry inputs and is stored as EGELIND. All vectors have units Btu/Btue (1st five sectors) and $1967 per million Btue.

  5. Repeated regulatory failures: British electric utilities, 1919--1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Ysbrand John

    This dissertation uses previously unexamined firm-level data to look at British electric utilities during the 1919--1937 period. The persistent influence of the 1882 and 1888 Electric Lighting Acts had a significant role in perpetuating the inefficient market structure and high costs of the industry. First, I examine factors that influence costs in 1919 and compare the relative cost efficiency of municipally-owned and investor-owned utilities (munis and IOUs). Scale and load factor are found to be more important than ownership in influencing costs, although IOUs enjoy a scale advantage. Given costs, there is no difference in prices between IOUs and munis, and on average prices were 20 percent below monopoly prices. Looking at the 1919--1928 period and examining changes in the industry as measured by the firms' choices in frequency, current, and interconnections with other utilities shows evidence for a great deal of change, which occurred in statistically predictable ways. Utilities are standardizing the type of current produced, and the eventual localized standard frequencies were selected by 1907. There is little in the way of market rivalry between mum's and IOUs but large munis are less likely to build networks and sell in the wholesale market. Finally, I compare the changes that occurred during the 1919--1928 period, under the weak intervention of the Electricity Commissioners, with those of the 1928--1937 period, under the strong intervention of the Central Electricity Board. Without the CEB localized frequency standards would likely have remained in place. The CEB intervened directly in the wholesale market, but contrary to common perceptions, this strong intervention had relatively little impact on trends observed in the industry under the weak intervention of the 1919--1928 period: the CEB reduced prices and costs by no more than about 15 percent and was responsible for at most a quarter of their decline during the 1928--37 period.

  6. How EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] helps utilities save money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A number of case studies are presented which illustrate how the work of the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA has enabled nuclear utilities to save money. The areas covered by the examples are: steam generator tube repair; streamlining of reliability centred maintenance; cost effective instrumentation and control maintenance; reducing the frequency of instrument calibration; optimising the engineering change process; detecting and reducing fuel failure; extending the qualified life of equipment. (U.K.)

  7. Strategic rigidity and foresight for technology adoption among electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Arsalan Nisar; Palacios, Miguel; Ruiz, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The variation in the adoption of a technology as a major source of competitive advantage has been attributed to the wide-ranging strategic foresight and the integrative capability of a firm. These possible areas of competitive advantage can exist in the periphery of the firm's strategic vision and can get easily blurred as a result of rigidness and can permeate in the decision-making process of the firm. This article explores how electric utility firms with a renewable energy portfolio can become strategically rigid in terms of adoption of newer technologies. The reluctance or delay in the adoption of new technology can be characterized as strategic rigidness, brought upon as a result of a firm's core competence or core capability in the other, more conventional technology arrangement. This paper explores the implications of such rigidness on the performance of a firm and consequently on the energy eco-system. The paper substantiates the results by emphasizing the case of Iberdrola S.A., an incumbent firm as a wind energy developer and its adoption decision behavior. We illustrate that the very routines that create competitive advantage for firms in the electric utility industry are vulnerable as they might also develop as sources of competitive disadvantage, when firms confront environmental change and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Present a firm-level perspective on technology adoption behavior among electric utilities. • Firms with mature technology can become rigid towards newer technologies. • Case study analysis of a major electric utility firm. • Implications of ‘technology rigidness’ on the energy eco-system

  8. Survey of electric utility demand for coal. [1972-1992; by utility and state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, J.G.; Caruso, J.V.; Kouvalis, A.; Maslowski, C.S.

    1979-08-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of electric utility demand for coal in the United States. The sources of survey information are: (1) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form 423 data on utility coal purchases during the period July 1972 through December 1978 and (2) direct telephone survey data on utility coal-purchase intentions for power plants to be constructed by 1992. Price and quantity data for coal used in existing plants are presented to illustrate price and market-share trends in individual coal-consuming states during recent years. Coal source, quality, quantity, and transportation data are reported for existing and planned generating plants.

  9. Liberalisation and green patent registrations of electric utilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens; Nesta, Lionel

    2010-10-01

    The authors report a study of the influence of reforms which introduce a liberalisation of energy markets on the innovation behaviour of electric utilities in some countries. Within a context of concentration of this sector, the hypothesis of a negative impact on patent registration by electric utilities is tested by the authors. They first define the notion of environmental innovation and its evolution in the electric energy sector as the climate and environment issues are nowadays extremely important for the energy sector. R and D here addresses micro-generation, fuel cells, tidal turbine systems, energy production by using solar energy, and biomass gasification. They discuss numbers of pattern registrations by European utilities before and after laws on energy market reform. They present an econometric model and data used to test the hypothesis and comment the obtained results. The model comprises a knowledge production function, and various explicative variables (firm size and R and D, reforms, technological opportunities, energy mix, and influence of demand)

  10. How to develop a world class electrical utility for the free markets of electrical energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, J.E.; Takala, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The electricity distribution in Finland is going to the new stage where the electrical energy market will be gradually free from competition. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of the world class utility. A feasibility study was made to research the condition in logistics and suitable methods for the implementation. Some ideas have been piloted to verify and find acceptable approaches of the implementation to practice. Utilities improved the cost efficiency and strategical business logistics in a customer oriented and flexible way. The methods and findings can be used on other public and industrial areas, too

  11. The EU's Major Electricity and Gas Utilities since Market Liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulke, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. (author)

  12. Electrical equipment distributors assuming greater role as suppliers to electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A survey was conducted of Canada's largest distributors of electrical equipment to the utility market. Summaries are presented of the views of the major respondents concerning market trends and future challenges. Distributors have emerged as a supply source to utilities over the past two decades. Before then, electric utilities did virtually all their business directly with the manufacturers and rarely with distributors. One reason for this situation was that direct dealing with manufacturers was perceived by the utilites as providing better access to technical advice. Distributors have grown significantly since then and many have their own expert technical staff and provide full support for their products. Various advantages for utilities in dealing with distributors are noted: ability to supply most needs relatively rapidly from stock, simplification of ordering, improved inventory management, and savings in brokerage and other costs associated with imported equipment

  13. Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

  14. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-25

    In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

  15. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  16. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Remi

    2011-01-01

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: → The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. → The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. → The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. → The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  17. An electric utility program to address global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.; Fair, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation believes that despite the incomplete and uncertain state of scientific knowledge concerning global atmospheric change, the plausible negative effects of accelerated global warming, known as open-quotes the Greenhouse Effect,close quotes are so large that purdent actions can and should be taken now to reduce so-called greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the corporation has adopted a Greenhouse Warming Action Program based on strategies recommended by the National Academy of Sciences and the corporation's Integrated Electric Resource Plan. The program is a logical outgrowth of the company's policy statement on protection of the environment and is designed to surpass the Rio Earth Summit's goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Central to the Action Program are increased use of natural gas, aggressive expansion of energy efficiency programs, and maximized generation from hydroelectric and nuclear energy sources. Additional elements include preventing releases of CFC's through customer incentive recycling programs; a forest conservation program of managing lands on a sustainable yield basis, environmentally-conscious use of paper products, and waste paper and cardboard recycling; promoting commercialization of low emitting vehicles; and developing and demonstrating low-CO 2 technologies such as wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells. Niagara Mohawk believes that acting now to implement such a policy is a responsible step that makes sense from both scientific and business perspectives. Moreover, voluntary action now by utilities and other segments of the private sector is the best way to avoid the need for future regulation by government designed to achieve the same end. We intend to do our part to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while recognizing that our contribution is only a small fraction of total global greenhouse gas emissions

  18. State Regulatory responses to acid rain: Implications for electric utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagelhout, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the state regulatory responses to acid rain legislation and how this will affect electric utility operations. Topics discusses include planning and fuel procurement practices, least-cost planning, long-term supply contracts, fuel mix, cogeneration and small power production, qualifying facility contracts, avoided costs, environmental impact, lobbying expense, bill inserts, and forecasting models

  19. Environmental exposures in the US electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, R.; Henderson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of 47 US investor-owned electric utilities' environmental exposures to impending air quality and climate policies shows potentially material and highly differentiated financial impacts. For many companies the minimized compliance costs of a four-pollutant cap-and-trade regulatory regime would be less than those of a three-pollutant regime that omitted controls on carbon dioxide emissions. Fragmented regulatory requirements would have the highest compliance costs. The companies studied vary considerably in the adequacy of their financial reporting of these potential impacts. Greater transparency would benefit investors and the most favorably positioned companies. (author)

  20. Citizen Advisory Council use in the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElfresh, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Many electric utility companies have come to realize the Importance of seeking public input before launching corporate resources into major construction projects. One way to organize this input is to establish a Citizen Advisory Council (CAC). This paper describes the purpose of such a group, its advantages and limitations, and how it might be organized. This paper also describes the results of a survey of CAC use for facility siting purposes. Fifty large utility companies were contacted, eleven of which use CACs for siting purposes. Six of these were questioned in greater detail as to their success in using CACs on specific projects. All companies were positive about the use of CACs for public participation because the groups were able to bring valuable information to light and company credibility was enhanced. Most importantly, the responding companies believed they were able to save time in the siting and licensing process

  1. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  2. Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues. The US electric power industry is a combination of electric utilities (investor-owned, publicly owned, Federal, and cooperatives) and nonutility power producers. Investor-owned electric utilities account for over three-fourths of electric sales and revenue. Historically, the investor-owned electric utilities have served the large consolidated markets. There is substantial diversity among the investor-owned electric utilities in terms of services, size, fuel usage, and prices charged. Most investor-owned electric utilities generate, transmit, and distribute electric power. Investor-owned electric utilities operate in all States except Nebraska; Hawaii is the only State in which all electricity is supplied by investor-owned electric utilities. 5 figs., 57 tabs.

  3. Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-06

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

  4. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired... 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities. 921150 Fossil...

  5. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

  6. Overview of U.S. electric utilities: Transmission and distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    I hope this brief description of the US electric utility industry has been interesting and informative. No doubt many characteristics, concerns, and research efforts mirror those of the electric utility industry in South Korea. It is hoped that through workshops such as this that electric utilities, manufacturers and consultants may learn from each other for the mutual benefit of all

  7. Unit commitment and system reliability in electric utility systems with independent wind and solar generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, David Christopher

    Concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels and changes in government regulations concerning electric utilities are likely to lead to increased use of wind and solar energy in the generation mix. In many cases, the wind and solar energy conversion systems will be owned by small, independent power producers that sell power to electric utilities. The output of wind and solar energy conversion systems is highly random; therefore, a method is necessary to determine the effects of these sources on the system reliability. This dissertation discusses a method of integrating the behavior of small power producing facilities (SPPFS) into the generation mix. The research method integrates models of wind and solar energy conversion systems with a model of the small power producers. The SPPF model is then integrated into the electric utility unit commitment procedure. System reliability indices such as the loss of load expectation (LOLE ) and the expected unserved energy (EUE) can be calculated once the SPPFs have been integrated into the generation mix. This dissertation demonstrates the procedure and provides results for a large electric utility with SPPFS located in Atlanta, Georgia; Bismark, North Dakota; and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Various combinations of wind and/or solar energy conversion systems are studied. The results include comparisons of the effective utilization of the wind and solar energy conversion systems at the different sites and of the effects on the system reliability.

  8. Tacit Knowledge Capture and the Brain-Drain at Electrical Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perjanik, Nicholas Steven

    As a consequence of an aging workforce, electric utilities are at risk of losing their most experienced and knowledgeable electrical engineers. In this research, the problem was a lack of understanding of what electric utilities were doing to capture the tacit knowledge or know-how of these engineers. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the tacit knowledge capture strategies currently used in the industry by conducting a case study of 7 U.S. electrical utilities that have demonstrated an industry commitment to improving operational standards. The research question addressed the implemented strategies to capture the tacit knowledge of retiring electrical engineers and technical personnel. The research methodology involved a qualitative embedded case study. The theories used in this study included knowledge creation theory, resource-based theory, and organizational learning theory. Data were collected through one time interviews of a senior electrical engineer or technician within each utility and a workforce planning or training professional within 2 of the 7 utilities. The analysis included the use of triangulation and content analysis strategies. Ten tacit knowledge capture strategies were identified: (a) formal and informal on-boarding mentorship and apprenticeship programs, (b) formal and informal off-boarding mentorship programs, (c) formal and informal training programs, (d) using lessons learned during training sessions, (e) communities of practice, (f) technology enabled tools, (g) storytelling, (h) exit interviews, (i) rehiring of retirees as consultants, and (j) knowledge risk assessments. This research contributes to social change by offering strategies to capture the know-how needed to ensure operational continuity in the delivery of safe, reliable, and sustainable power.

  9. Utilization of excess wind power in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Wilfried; Mischinger, Stefan; Linssen, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assessment of future wind power utilization for charging electric vehicles (EVs) in Germany. The potential wind power production in the model years 2020 and 2030 is derived by extrapolating onshore wind power generation and offshore wind speeds measured in 2007 and 2010 to the installed onshore and offshore wind turbine capacities assumed for 2020 and 2030. The energy consumption of an assumed fleet of 1 million EVs in 2020 and 6 million in 2030 is assessed using detailed models of electric vehicles, real world driving cycles and car usage. It is shown that a substantial part of the charging demand of EVs can be met by otherwise unused wind power, depending on the amount of conventional power required for stabilizing the grid. The utilization of wind power is limited by the charging demand of the cars and the bottlenecks in the transmission grid. -- Highlights: •Wind power available for charging depends on minimum required conventional power (must-run). •With 20 GW must-run power, 50% of charging can be met by excess wind power. •Grid bottlenecks decrease charging met by wind power from 50 % to 30 %. •With zero must-run power, only very little wind power is available for charging

  10. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  11. Utilization of oil wells for electricity generation: Performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Al-Khawaja, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2015-01-01

    There is a general agreement that the climate change, which is the most important challenge facing humanity, is anthropogenic and attributed to fossil fuel consumption. Therefore, deploying more renewable energy resources is an urgent issue to be addressed. Geothermal refers to existing heat energy in deep rock and sedimentary basins. Traditionally, geothermal energy has been exploited in places with plentiful hot water at relatively shallow depth. Unfortunately, the high exploration and drilling costs of boreholes is the main barrier to the commerciality of geothermal worldwide. In oil producing countries, such problems can be overcome by utilizing oil or gas wells. The current study presents thermodynamic and economic analyses of a binary geothermal power generation system for commercial electricity generation. Two different source temperatures (100 and 120 °C) and constant sink temperature (29 °C) were considered. The optimal working fluid and optimal design that improve the performance of the plant are determined. For the current costs in Qatar, the economical analysis of 5 MW geothermal plant shows that the levelized cost of electricity for the plant varies from 5.6 to 5.2 ¢/kW. Whereas, the payback period of such plants lies between 5.8 and 4.8 years. - Highlights: • Utilizing oil well makes geothermal plant competitive with other resources. • R32 seems to be the best working fluid. • The levelized cost of electricity for geothermal plant is less than 5.6 ¢/kWh. • The payback time of geothermal plant is less than 6 years.

  12. Electric rate shock and the future of utility construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogee, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    How state regulators spread the costs of overbudget and, in some cases, unneeded new power plants looms as a major political and economic issue directly affecting more than a third of the nation's households and businesses. Today's local battles over rate shock have an even greater national significance because they will shape investment incentives for decades to come. In addition to mismanaged nuclear projects, most nuclear and coal plants being finished today represent excess generating capacity. Utility reserve margins averaged 34% last year instead of the 15-20% above peak demand that analysts agree is desirable. State regulators are increasingly refusing to allow utilities to include new plants in the rate base, and utilities are responding with warnings about future shortages. They may also try to reform or repeal the Holding Company Act. Utility critics point to alternatives to central plant construction with cogeneration and small power generation. 2 figures

  13. How integrated resource planning for US electric utilities affects shareholder interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) seeks to identify the mix of resources that can best meet the future energy-service needs of customers. These resources include new sources, types, and owners of power plants plus demand-side management (DSM) programs. However, little explicit attention is given to utility shareholders in the typical resource-planning proceeding. Because of the complexity of state regulatory practices and tax policies, it seems unlikely that different resources that provide comparable services to customers will yield comparable returns to shareholders. This study examines a typical US investor-owned utility's financial operations and performance using a spreadsheet model we developed for this project. The model simulates an electric utility's financial operations, and produces an annual income statement, balance sheet, and cash-flow statement. We calculated the net present value of realized (cash) return on equity as the primary factor used to represent shareholder interests. We examined shareholder returns for these resources as functions of public utility commission regulation, taxes, and the utility's operating environment. Given the increasingly competitive nature of electricity markets, we examined shareholder returns for these resources in an environment where the utility competes with other suppliers solely on the basis of electricity price. (author)

  14. Communications architecture for an electric company, European utility communications architecture, EURUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is integration and interoperability of various information systems and data communications for electric utilities. Utility Communication Architecture refers to an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties

  15. Regulation and competition in public utilities: Electric utility management in Italy and other industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, G.

    1992-01-01

    In industrialized countries, electric power has become a vital energy resource requiring significant efforts on the part of national institutions to establish and maintain sound management and energy supply strategies. The situation in Italy reflects world trends in that electric power in this country now accounts for over one-third of total energy consumption and this percentage is expected to increase steadily through to the year 2000. This endorsement of electric power is having a strong impact on quality of life and on international relations as Italy, in order to ensure security of energy supplies, is actively pursuing of strategy of energy source and supplier diversification. With reference to recent proposals, in line with European Communities free market strategies, to deregulate the Italian electric power industry, this paper briefly analyzes the current institutional nature of ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) and compares the Italian electric power industry and market situation with that of Japan and the USA. The various aspects taken into consideration include investment, rate structure, quality of service, management methods and competition. An analysis is made of the most pressing difficulties currently troubling ENEL and suggestions are made as to the best courses of action to be taken

  16. Reducing uncertainty - responses for electricity utilities to severe solar storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Charles Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, electricity utilities in mid- and low-latitude regions believed that solar storms had no (or only insignificant) effect on their power systems. Then it was noticed that the onset of damage in several large transformers, leading to their failure, correlated very closely with the Halloween storm of 2003. Since then engineers have started to appreciate that a very severe storm could have serious consequences outside the high-latitude regions. There are many uncertainties in predicting the effects of solar storms on electrical systems. The severity and time of arrival of a storm are difficult to model; so are the geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) expected to flow in the power networks. Published information about the responses of different types of transformers to GICs is contradictory. Measurements of the abnormal power flows in networks during solar storms generally do not take into account the effects of the current distortion and unbalance, potentially giving misleading signals to the operators. The normal requirement for optimum system management, while allowing for the possibility of faults caused by lightning, birds and other causes, limits the capacity of system operators to respond to the threats of GICs, which are not assessed easily by the N - 1 reliability criterion. A utility's response to the threat of damage by GICs depends on the expected frequency and magnitude of solar storms. Approaches to formulating a response are located in a system model incorporating space physics, network analysis, transformer engineering, network reliability and decision support and the benefits are identified. Approaches adopted in high-latitude regions might not be appropriate where fewer storms are expected to reach damaging levels. The risks of an extreme storm cannot be ignored, and understanding the response mechanisms suitable for low-latitude regions has the capacity to inform and reduce the uncertainty for power systems planners and operators

  17. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacaster, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Deregulation and restructuring of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, Hal [Utility Workers Union of America (UWUA), AFL-CIO, (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Federal and state policy makers are currently faced with the rapidly evolving issue of the restructuring and potential deregulation of the electric utility industry, a sector of the economy of huge importance through its sheer size and its impact on the daily life and livelihood of everyone. This paper describes eleven principles that must be adhered to in any restructuring of the electric industry. Adherence to the principle and positions outlined can help assure that the transition in this industry benefits all, not just a few, and that the general health and welfare of the people is protected and enhanced [Espanol] Los legisladores estatales y federales se estan enfrentando con el rapido y envolvente aspecto de la reestructuracion y desregulacion potencial de la industria electrica, un sector de la economia de enorme importancia por su tamano y su impacto en la vida diaria y los medios de vida. En esta ponencia se describen once principios y posiciones que deben ser considerados en cualquier reestructuracion de la industria electrica. El apego a los principios y posiciones comentados puede ayudar a asegurar que la transicion en esta industria deneficie a todos, no solo a unos cuantos, y que la salud general y bienestar de la gente sea protegida y mejorada

  19. Performance evaluation and improvement directions for an Indian electric utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar, E-mail: vinod@gbu.ac.in [Electrical Engineering Department, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida 201310 (India); Padhy, N.P.; Gupta, H.O. [Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2011-11-15

    This study evaluates the performance of 29 Electricity Distribution Divisions (EDDs) of an Indian state - Uttarakhand - deploying Input oriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The results indicate that the performance of several EDDs is sub-optimal, suggesting the potential for cost reductions and possible reduction in employees number. In the DEA method more than one unit are identified as efficient. Therefore, this study suggests a method for ranking the efficient units by their importance as benchmarks for the inefficient units through benchmark share measure. The bigger the benchmark share, the more important an efficient division is in benchmarking for inefficient ones. Result reveals that plain area divisions are relatively efficient and have higher potential to influence the performance of inefficient EDDs. This study is envisaged to be instrumental to policy makers and managers to increase the operational efficiency of inefficient EDDs and thereby increase the competitiveness in the face of restructuring and liberalization of Indian electricity sector. - Highlights: > Plain area divisions are more effective in integrating resources than hilly divisions. > For prevalent inefficiency two models are developed to varying environmental conditions. > Benchmark share identifies the variable that is influential in increasing the efficiency. > Savings in terms of reduction in O and M cost and number of Employees. > Findings of research work redefine the view point of the utility planners.

  20. Managing the GPS/GIS function in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, M.W. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A new period of higher significance has arrived for the GPS/GIS function at electric utilities such that to a degree never seen before, utility managers are looking to their GIS programs, filled with increasingly accurate data collected by GPS technology, before making many decisions. With this capability comes an expectation for GPS/GIS professionals to provide higher levels of planning and management of their data collection process. At Duke Power in Charlotte, North Carolina, managers rely on GPS mapping to fill their data collection equipment needs. When the city of Charlotte requested a more detailed billing system, Duke Power co-sponsored the street lighting inventory project, a comprehensive program implemented to fully account for street lighting facilities within the billing area. One of the key projects to be kept in mind was the creation of a common data base viewable by GIS from which a bill could be created and as well reveal data. A billing calculation routine can be run against the data base to generate a bill or use MapInfo to see a graphical picture. Prior to the creation of this data base capability, the difference between the data base as a display tool and billing system was a potential source of discrepancy, which is eliminated now. Creating the data base allows more than just creating a bill for the city, it allows Duke Power to work better with the city by improving its billing accountability and provides better service as well

  1. A new international role for large electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Population pressures leading to changes in India, China, and South America during the next twenty-five years and the resulting revolutionary shifts in the world's major economic axes, such as growth in populations, in demand for consumer goods, in production capacities, and in energy demand, will demand greater international cooperation according to a former premier of the province of Quebec. He stressed in particular, the contributions that large electrical utilities can play in this world-wide transformation. He predicted the possibility of privatization and an extended role in international energy activities for Hydro-Quebec as a result of these major demographic and economic changes in Asia and South America, and the consequent decline in the economies of the G7 countries. Major capital investments abroad, and the formation of networks of domestic and foreign partnerships in the developing world were predicted to be the key to the survival and continuing success not only of Hydro-Quebec, but all major utility companies

  2. 77 FR 35374 - Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1926-000] Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... Electricity's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such...

  3. Electrical machines and assemblies including a yokeless stator with modular lamination stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ronghai; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Lopez, Fulton Jose

    2010-04-06

    An electrical machine includes a rotor with an inner rotor portion and an outer rotor portion, and a double-sided yokeless stator. The yokeless stator includes modular lamination stacks and is configured for radial magnetic flux flow. The double-sided yokeless stator is concentrically disposed between the inner rotor portion and the outer rotor portion of the electrical machine. Examples of particularly useful embodiments for the electrical machine include wind turbine generators, ship propulsion motors, switch reluctance machines and double-sided synchronous machines.

  4. Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

  5. User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

    1982-05-01

    SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

  6. Major electric utilities, licensees, and others. Annual report (Form 1), 1990 (field definition of record layout). Data tape documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Data are tabulated from annual reports filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by 182 major electric utilities. Major electric utilities are defined as those utilities which have had, in the last three consecutive calendar years, sales or transmission services that exceeded one of the following: one million megawatthours of total annual sales, 100 megawatthours of annual sales for resales, 600 megawatthours of gross interchange out, or 500 megawatthours of wheeling for others. Data included: financial and operational balance sheets; income and retained earnings statements; statements of changes in financial position; capital stock and long-term debt; electric operating revenues, customers, and sales by classes of service; electric operation and maintenance expenses; data per type of utility rate base and rates of return on common equity; research, development, and demonstration; and environmental protection facilities and expenses

  7. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  8. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motupalli, S.

    1991-01-01

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably

  9. Load Forecasting in Electric Utility Integrated Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sanstad, Alan H [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is a process used by many vertically-integrated U.S. electric utilities to determine least-cost/risk supply and demand-side resources that meet government policy objectives and future obligations to customers and, in many cases, shareholders. Forecasts of energy and peak demand are a critical component of the IRP process. There have been few, if any, quantitative studies of IRP long-run (planning horizons of two decades) load forecast performance and its relationship to resource planning and actual procurement decisions. In this paper, we evaluate load forecasting methods, assumptions, and outcomes for 12 Western U.S. utilities by examining and comparing plans filed in the early 2000s against recent plans, up to year 2014. We find a convergence in the methods and data sources used. We also find that forecasts in more recent IRPs generally took account of new information, but that there continued to be a systematic over-estimation of load growth rates during the period studied. We compare planned and procured resource expansion against customer load and year-to-year load growth rates, but do not find a direct relationship. Load sensitivities performed in resource plans do not appear to be related to later procurement strategies even in the presence of large forecast errors. These findings suggest that resource procurement decisions may be driven by other factors than customer load growth. Our results have important implications for the integrated resource planning process, namely that load forecast accuracy may not be as important for resource procurement as is generally believed, that load forecast sensitivities could be used to improve the procurement process, and that management of load uncertainty should be prioritized over more complex forecasting techniques.

  10. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State Governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  11. Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  12. Why do electricity utilities cooperate with coal suppliers? A theoretical and empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Lyon, Thomas P.; Wang Feng; Song Cui

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetry of Chinese coal and electricity pricing reforms leads to serious conflict between coal suppliers and electricity utilities. Electricity utilities experience significant losses as a result of conflict: severe coal price fluctuations, and uncertainty in the quantity and quality of coal supplies. This paper explores whether establishing cooperative relationships between coal suppliers and electricity utilities can resolve conflicts. We begin with a discussion of the history of coal and electricity pricing reforms, and then conduct a theoretical analysis of relational contracting to provide a new perspective on the drivers behind the establishment of cooperative relationships between the two parties. Finally, we empirically investigate the role of cooperative relationships and the establishment of mine-mouth power plants on the performance of electricity utilities. The results show that relational contracting between electricity utilities and coal suppliers improves the market performance of electricity utilities; meanwhile, the transportation cost savings derived from mine-mouth power plants are of importance in improving the performance of electricity utilities. - Highlights: ► We discuss the history of coal and electricity pricing reforms. ► The roots of conflicts between electricity and coal firms are presented. ► We conduct a theoretical analysis of relational contracting. ► The role of mine-mouth power plants on the performance of power firms is examined.

  13. Spot markets vs. long-term contracts - modelling tools for regional electricity generating utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    A properly organised market for electricity requires that some information will be available for all market participants. Also a range of generally available modelling tools are necessary. This paper describes a set of simple models based on published data for analyses of the long-term revenues of regional utilities with combined heat and power generation (CHP), who will operate a competitive international electricity market and a local heat market. The future revenues from trade on the spot market is analysed using a load curve model, in which marginal costs are calculated on the basis of short-term costs of the available units and chronological hourly variations in the demands for electricity and heat. Assumptions on prices, marginal costs and electricity generation by the different types of generating units are studied for selected types of local electricity generators. The long-term revenue requirements to be met by long-term contracts are analysed using a traditional techno-economic optimisation model focusing on technology choice and competition among technologies over 20.30 years. A possible conclusion from this discussion is that it is important for the economic and environmental efficiency of the electricity market that local or regional generators of CHP, who are able to react on price signals, do not conclude long-term contracts that include fixed time-of-day tariff for sale of electricity. Optimisation results for a CHP region (represented by the structure of the Danish electricity and CHP market in 1995) also indicates that a market for CO 2 tradable permits is unlikely to attract major non-fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation, e.g. wind power. (au)

  14. Electric system reliability considerations in a changing utility environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The utility industry is presently experiencing a number of diverse factors which may alter the way that it operates and in many cases the way in which it is configured. These factors reflect a variety of circumstances including increased competitive pressures and political perception. While many of these changes may result in long term economic and service benefits to the industry and customer alike, it is important to recognize the desirability of orderly change. There is need to implement change in a reasoned manner. In this paper technical as well as economic and political considerations are addressed

  15. Analysis of electric vehicle impacts in New Mexico urban utility distribution infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, B. [Public Utility Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sena, Santiago [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lavrova, Olga [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stratton, S. [Public Utility Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdollahy, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hawkins, J. [Public Utility Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-06-16

    Modeling is going to play a crucial role for utilities as Electric Vehicle (EV) ownership percentage increases. Utilities anticipate new demand peaks due to EV charging loads, particularly at high penetration levels.

  16. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  17. Why electric utilities and affiliates are handicapped in a partly regulated and partly competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Marie, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    As the electric utility industry continues to go through the process of restructuring, utilities are finding themselves operating not only as regulated entities but also as firms that compete for customers and sales. Some services, including services associated with distribution, are being unbundled or peeled off from the core of operations and, where possible, are being opened to competition. But these partly regulated and partly competitive areas are treacherous for utilities and their affiliates, who will be handicapped in their competitive efforts and subject to constraints not placed on their competitors. There are good reasons why such difficulties should be expected. And there are guidelines for pricing and competitive positioning that can assist in avoiding the worst problems. The first step is to recognize the archetypes of the regulated electric distribution utility and the competitive firm. In plotting their deregulation strategies, utilities and their affiliates must recognize that they will continue to be disadvantaged by regulators who are more concerned with keeping them in check than freeing them to compete

  18. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices : Utilizing Hourly Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Raviv (Eran); K.E. Bouwman (Kees); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual

  19. Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

  20. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices: Utilizing Hourly Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Raviv, Eran; Bouwman, Kees E.; van Dijk, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in 'Energy Economics' , 2015, 50, 227-239. The daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual hours. This paper demonstrates that the disaggregated hourly prices contain useful predictive information for the daily average ...

  1. Security Vulnerability and Patch Management in Electric Utilities: A Data-Driven Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghua [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Zhang, Fengli [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States)

    2018-01-18

    This paper explores a real security vulnerability and patch management dataset from an electric utility in order to shed light on characteristics of the vulnerabilities that electric utility assets have and how they are remediated in practice. Specifically, it first analyzes the distribution of vulnerabilities over software, assets, and other metric. Then it analyzes how vulnerability features affect remediate actions.

  2. A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2002-06-03

    This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

  3. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  4. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities' cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  5. Technical and financial aspects of electric utility peak load reduction through solar space heating system controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, R.E.; Lorsch, H.G.; Oswald, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The use of electrical energy to back up solar space heating systems puts undesirable peak demands on electric utilities. Novel control systems were conceptualized that prevent on-peak electrical power use except for fan and/or pump power. These systems put electrical off-peak energy in storage for later use. Installation costs, hour-by-hour performance, and peak backup demands of these systems and of comparison conventional systems were calculated. Electric utility data were then obtained on the annual cost of providing service to houses equipped with these systems. For Philadelphia, the conventional electric heat pump is the system with the lowest annual cost, closely followed by a conventional system. For utilities with wider generation mixes than the Philadelphia Electric Company, off-peak storage systems will produce lower costs.

  6. Determining the Cost of Capital for Turkish Electricity Distribution Utilities: Analysis and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Gözen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Turkey has been transforming her electricity market to a competitive one since the electricity market law was approved by the parliament in 2001. As part of the new regime, electricity distribution activities are subject to incentive-based regulation by the energy regulator - EMRA. At the beginning of each implementation period, initial revenue is allowed by EMRA for a distribution utility in which a rate of return for investments in the utility is added. Setting a fair rate is relatively eas...

  7. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ''Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities'' publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ''Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.'' Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs

  8. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

  9. 75 FR 47644 - General Electric Company, Transportation Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Electric Company, Transportation Division, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Adecco Technical, Erie, PA; Notice of Revised Determination on Remand On April 15, 2010, the U.S. Court of International Trade ...

  10. Coping with nuclear power risks: the electric utility incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.; Whipple, C.

    1982-01-01

    The financial risks associated with nuclear power accidents are estimated by interpolating between frequency-vs.-severity data from routine outages and the frequency-vs.-severity estimates from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This analysis indicates that the expected costs of plant damage and lost power production are large compared to the public risks estimated in WASH-1400, using values from An Approach to Quantitative Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG-0739), prepared by the NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness of accident-prevention investments that include only anticipated public safety benefits will underestimate the value of such investments if reductions in power plant damage risk are not included. The analysis also suggests that utility self-interest and the public interest in safety are generally coincident. It is argued that greater use could be made of this self-interest in regulation if the relationship between the NRC and the industry were more cooperative, less adversary in nature

  11. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-01-01

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy

  12. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  13. The impact of cost recovery on electric utilities' Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensinger, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    By 1995, over 200 electric power plant units in twenty one states must comply with Phase I of the acid rain requirements in Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). By the year 2000, an additional 2200 units must comply with the Title IV. Compliance costs are expected to necessitate significant electricity rate increases. In order to recover their compliance costs, utilities must file rate increase requests with state public utility commissions (PUC's), and undergo a rate proceeding involving public heatings. Because of the magnitude of cost and the complexity of compliance options, including interaction with Titles I and III of the CAAA, extensive PUC reviews of compliance strategies are likely. These reviews could become as adversarial as the nuclear prudence reviews of the 1980's. A lack of understanding of air pollution and the CAA by much of the general public and the flexibility of compliance options creates an environment conducive to adverse public reaction to the cost of complying with the Clean Air Act. Public attitudes toward pollution control technologies will be greatly affected by these hearings, and the early plant hearings will shape the utility rate making process under the Clean Air Act. Inadequate cost recovery due to constrained compliance strategies or adverse hearings could significantly inhibit industry willingness to invest in certain control technologies or advanced combustion technologies. There are already signs that Clean Air Act compliance will be the prudence issue of the 1990's for utilities, even where state statutes mandate particular compliance approaches. Specific actions should be undertaken now by the utility industry to improve the probability of sound cost recovery decisions, preserve compliance options, including multimedia strategies, and avoid the social- and cost-acceptance problems of nuclear power

  14. Optimal utilization of electric power in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, G.; Gjelsvik, E.

    1992-01-01

    It is attempted to address the questions of which advantages the equilibrium solution would have for the energy market under free trade conditions, how Nordic electric power can be used optimally and what the trading pattern looks like, which kind of competition the transmission of electricity via cables to Iceland and other Nordic countries will meet in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Continent, how high the option values are of trading with electric power via cables from, for example, Iceland to the UK and how great the profit could be from a more effective use of electricity for aluminium production in Norway and Iceland. Data are given on consumer prices for 1990 in Scandinavia, Germany and the UK, and a few graphs and a map illustrate the text. (AB)

  15. Utilization of waste heat from electricity generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1977-06-01

    Historically the nuclear power station has been designed solely as an electricity producer. But in Canada today only 15 percent of our energy consumption is as electricity. The non-electrical needs today are supplied almost entirely by natural gas and oil. There is an incentive to see whether a nuclear station could supply energy for some of these non-electrical needs, thus freeing gas and oil for uses for which they may be more valuable and suitable, especially in transportation. A group located at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment undertook a series of studies to examine this problem. These studies were done in sufficient depth to provide technological and economic answers, and as a result several reports have been published on various topics. In this report, the findings from these studies are drawn together in an assessment of the potential in Canada for using waste heat. (author)

  16. Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

  17. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    road construction are the only utilization. This slag has been tried to be value added and utilized to ... aggregate in road constructions (Fallman and Kartlen. 1997; Lind et al 2000; Nagataki et al 2000). ..... furnace steel slag in road construction, in Characterization of residues release of contaminants from slag ash ashes (ed.).

  18. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  19. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  20. Prediction of energy balance and utilization for solar electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    Solar irradiation and ambient temperature are characterized by region, season and time-domain, which directly affects the performance of solar energy based car system. In this paper, the model of solar electric cars used was based in Xi’an. Firstly, the meteorological data are modelled to simulate the change of solar irradiation and ambient temperature, and then the temperature change of solar cell is calculated using the thermal equilibrium relation. The above work is based on the driving resistance and solar cell power generation model, which is simulated under the varying radiation conditions in a day. The daily power generation and solar electric car cruise mileage can be predicted by calculating solar cell efficiency and power. The above theoretical approach and research results can be used in the future for solar electric car program design and optimization for the future developments.

  1. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  2. Financing the electric power utilities, especially the nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1975-04-01

    Electric power demands in Japan have shown a remarkable growth at an annual rate of 12% since 1965. Nine electric power companies have invested large amounts of money so far, amounting to over 1 trillion yen every year since 1972. A survey of the electric power supply system and an estimation of the electric power demands in 1980 and in 1985 are given. It is expected that the main portion of electric power in the future will gradually be generated by nuclear plants. Financial features of the electrical power utilities, the credit risk of the electric power utilities, and the raising of funds by electric power utilities are discussed. It is concluded that it will be necessary (1) to expand the capital market, (2) to enable the electric power companies to issue a sufficient amount of bonds, (3) to make the Government financing institutions, such as the Japan Development Bank, provide the electric power companies with larger funds on a long-term and low-interest rate basis, and (4) even to take such drastic steps as subsidizing interest on private loans to the electric power companies. (B.P.)

  3. Exploring utility organization electricity generation, residential electricity consumption, and energy efficiency: A climatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study examined impact of electricity fuel sources and consumption on emissions. • 97.2% of variability in emissions explained by coal and residential electricity use. • Increasing cooling degree days significantly related to increased electricity use. • Effectiveness of state-level energy efficiency programs showed mixed results. - Abstract: This study examined the impact of electricity generation by fuel source type and electricity consumption on carbon emissions to assess the role of climatic variability and energy efficiency (EE) in the United States. Despite high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, residential electricity consumption continues to increase in the United States and fossil fuels are the primary fuel source of electricity generation. 97.2% of the variability in carbon emissions in the electricity industry was explained by electricity generation from coal and residential electricity consumption. The relationships between residential electricity consumption, short-term climatic variability, long-term climatic trends, short-term reduction in electricity from EE programs, and long-term trends in EE programs was examined. This is the first study of its nature to examine these relationships across the 48 contiguous United States. Inter-year and long-term trends in cooling degree days, or days above a baseline temperature, were the primary climatic drivers of residential electricity consumption. Cooling degree days increased across the majority of the United States during the study period, and shared a positive relationship with residential electricity consumption when findings were significant. The majority of electricity reduction from EE programs was negatively related to residential electricity consumption where findings were significant. However, the trend across the majority of states was a decrease in electricity reduction from EE while residential electricity consumption increased. States that successfully reduced consumption

  4. Assessment of health risks due to hazardous air pollutant emissions from electric utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, C; Peters, W; Maxwell, B; Rice, G; Colli, A; Bullock, R; Cole, J; Heath, E; Turner, J; Hetes, B; Brown, D C; Goldin, D; Behling, H; Loomis, D; Nelson, C

    1997-11-01

    Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from electric utilities were evaluated. Cancer risks, as well as noncancer effects, due to inhalation exposure were assessed for 67 HAPs. Also, cancer risks due to multipathway exposure to radionuclide emissions were assessed. In addition, an assessment of the fate of mercury (Hg) through various environmental media was included. Results suggest arsenic, chromium, and nickel are the HAPs that present the highest cancer risk due to inhalation exposure. For noncancer effects due to inhalation exposure, hydrogen chloride appears to present the greatest potential concern. The risks due to multipathway exposure to radionuclides are estimated to be of similar magnitude to the risks posed by inhalation of arsenic and nickel. Mercury is of potential concern for multipathway exposures because it persists in the environmental and bioaccumulates in the aquatic food web. The study suggests there is a plausible link between Hg emissions from utilities and the Hg found in soil, water, and freshwater fish.

  5. Optimal pricing of non-utility generated electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.N.; Baughman, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of an optimal pricing policy for pricing non-utility generated power is pointed out in this paper. An optimal pricing policy leads to benefits for all concerned: the utility, industry, and the utility's other customers. In this paper, it is shown that reliability differentiated real-time pricing provides an optimal non-utility generated power pricing policy, from a societal welfare point of view. Firm capacity purchase, and hence an optimal price for purchasing firm capacity, are an integral part of this pricing policy. A case study shows that real-time pricing without firm capacity purchase results in improper investment decisions and higher costs for the system as a whole. Without explicit firm capacity purchase, the utility makes greater investment in capacity addition in order to meet its reliability criteria than is socially optimal. It is concluded that the non-utility generated power pricing policy presented in this paper and implied by reliability differentiated pricing policy results in social welfare-maximizing investment and operation decisions

  6. 10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel... affiliate, division, or business unit, whose principal business is generating, transmitting, importing, or... regulation by acquiring electric motor vehicles. (b) If a covered person or its affiliate, division, or...

  7. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    % total sugar concentration of sugar ... 107 cfu/ml, pH was nearly constant at 6.0, and finally the H2 was drifted to fuel cell to generate electrical power until 4 V ..... hybrid system, reverse micelles and by metabolic engi- neering.

  8. Power marketers can serve the evolving electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, K.D.

    1996-06-01

    Power marketing has been around for a long time in one form or another, yet many traditional electric power industry participants argue that all a power marketer can do is to bring chaos to the market, and with that, a loss of control of the system and a future of unreliable electric service. However, electric power marketers not only can provide a wide range of new products and services, but they are also essential to the development of a more competitive and efficient industry. The paper defines the role of the power marketer. As one has seen in the telecommunications and natural gas industries, the framework of the industry will dramatically change; but, with that change will emerge a number of new competitors, each developing their own niches to create value and service for existing and future players in the marketplace. Power marketers will play a significant role in shaping the electric power industry of the future -- aggressively pursuing these opportunities and creating value through risk intermediation, marketing expertise, and application of new ways of thinking. In the end, one will see a more flexible, efficient, and reliable marketplace in which the driving forces will be competition and market forces rather than the regulatory forces of command and control.

  9. Demand-side management pricing options in electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardana, P.; Herman, P.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 Ontario Hydro implemented optional time-of-use (TOU) rates at the wholesale level for all municipal utilities in the province. At the same time, mandatory TOU rates were implemented for large users (customers with loads in excess of 5 MW) served by municipal utilities and Ontario Hydro's direct customers. To fully explore the potential of rate structures as demand-side management (DSM) tools, Ontario Hydro retained a consulting firm to carry out a survey of innovative rate structures in other jurisdications. The survey was intended to identify: the status quo of rate structures in other jurisdictions that were designed specifically to encourage DSM; a profile of the cost basis of the rate structures, for example whether traditional embedded cost of service analyses or contentious methods such as marginal cost pricing were used; whether innovative rates have been successful, and customer reactions and attitudes; and how innovative rates fit into the overall strategy of the utilities. It was found that TOU, interruptible and end-use targeted rates are the rate structures of choice for many utilities. Most are concerned with deferring capacity, reducing peak demand, and shifting load out of peak periods. Most utilities report success with their programs and satisfaction with the present form of the programs. 5 tabs

  10. An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.

    1996-07-01

    The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

  11. Core business concentration vs. corporate diversification in the US electric utility industry. Synergy and deregulation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika; Shang, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Many economists such as Wilson (2002) [Wilson, R., 2002. Architecture of power market, Econometrica, 70, 1299-1340] have considered that there are similarities between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. Hence, they expect a synergy effect between them. However, the two businesses do not have technology similarities at the level that the gas service produces a synergy effect with electricity. To examine whether there is a synergy effect of corporate diversification in the industry, we compare electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in terms of their financial performance and corporate value. The comparison indicates that core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification under the current US deregulation policy. (author)

  12. R and D options for demand side management in Japanese electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiko

    1996-01-01

    Japanese electric demand has been steadily increasing in accordance with the economic growth. However, Japanese electric utilities are facing several problems; increasing construction cost of power facilities, siting constraints and the environmental issue of greenhouse gas emissions. To overcome these problems, electric utilities have been promoting demand-side-management (DSM) activities as well as supplier-side measures, with some presently being carried out through promoting energy conservation technologies and introducing electric tariff options of specific contracts for residential/commercial and industrial consumers. Japanese electric utilities have been carrying out R and D for the future, in particular, energy storage and heat storage which contribute to the improvement of load factor. In this paper, I would like to outline the R and D options for DSM in Japan. (author)

  13. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity? This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a ``base`` that is typical of US utilities; a ``surplus`` utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a ``deficit`` utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  14. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a base'' that is typical of US utilities; a surplus'' utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a deficit'' utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  15. Implementing energy efficiency: Challenges and opportunities for rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Plummer, Joseph; Fischlein, Miriam; Smith, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenges in implementing demand side management (DSM) programs in rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities are not well understood, yet these organizations sell roughly 15% of electricity in the US, many are more coal-intensive than investor-owned utilities (IOUs), and they are politically important-rural electric co-operatives cover about 75% of the US land area and municipal utilities are found in every state except Hawaii. We provide a background on rural co-operatives and municipal utilities in the context of the US electric sector and highlight the challenges and opportunities of implementing DSM programs in these institutions. Where past studies of utility DSM have mostly focused on IOUs or consisted of qualitative case studies of municipal utilities with exemplary DSM performance, this study makes a unique contribution to the DSM literature by systematically analyzing an entire co-operative and municipal utility population in Minnesota through the use of a survey. In doing so, we provide policy recommendations relevant to energy planners and policy makers to support DSM in rural electric co-operatives and municipal utilities

  16. 77 FR 47060 - Missouri Joint Municipal Electric Utility Commission; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Municipal Electric Utility Commission filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive supply service under... Room in Washington, DC. There is an ``eSubscription'' link on the web site that enables subscribers to...

  17. Value-Added Electricity Services: New Roles for Utilities and Third-Party Providers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blansfield, J. [Inst. for Electric Innovations, Washington, DC (United States); Wood, L. [Inst. for Electric Innovations, Washington, DC (United States); Katofsky, R. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Stafford, B. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Waggoner, D. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Schwartz, L. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    New energy generation, storage, delivery, and end-use technologies support a broad range of value-added electricity services for retail electricity customers. Sophisticated energy management services, distributed generation coupled with storage, and electric vehicle charging are just a few examples of emerging offerings. Who should provide value-added services — utilities or third parties, or both, and under what conditions? What policy and regulatory changes may be needed to promote competition and innovation, to account for utility costs to enable these services, and to protect consumers? The report approaches the issues from three perspectives: utilities, third-party service providers, and consumers: -Jonathan Blansfield and Lisa Wood, Institute for Electric Innovation -Ryan Katofsky, Benjamin Stafford and Danny Waggoner, Advanced Energy Economy -National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates

  18. Techniques of analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography provides documentation for use by state public utility commissions and major nonregulated utilities in evaluating the applicability of a wide range of electric utility rate design and regulatory concepts in light of certain regulatory objectives. Part I, Utility Regulatory Objectives, contains 2084 citations on conservation of energy and capital; efficient use of facilities and resources; and equitable rates to electricity consumers. Part II, Rate Design Concepts, contains 1238 citations on time-of-day rates; seasonally-varying rates; cost-of-service rates; interruptible rates (including the accompanying use of load management techniques); declining block rates; and lifeline rates. Part III, Regulatory Concepts, contains 1282 references on restrictions on master metering; procedures for review of automatic adjustment clauses; prohibitions of rate or regulatory discrimination against solar, wind, or other small energy systems; treatment of advertising expenses; and procedures to protect ratepayers from abrupt termination of service.

  19. Electric utility power plant construction costs, 1st Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    New UDI report combines historical construction costs for more than 1,000 coal, oil, gas, nuclear and geothermal units that have entered commercial operation since 1966 and projected power plant construction costs for about 400 utility-owned generating units scheduled to enter commercial operation during the next 20 years. Key design characteristics and equipment suppliers, A/E, constructor and original installed cost data. Direct construction costs without AFUDC are provided where known. Historical construction cost data are also provided for about 130 utility-owned hydroelectric, gas turbine, combined-cycle and diesel units (these data are generally for units entering service after 1980)

  20. Potential for increased wind-generated electricity utilization using heat pumps in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, Michael; Modi, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale wind power and increased electric heat pumps were evaluated. • A deterministic model of wind power and electricity demand was developed. • Sub-models for space heating and domestic hot water demand were developed. • Increased use of heat pumps can improve the viability of large-scale wind power. • Larger wind power capacity can meet a target utilization rate with more heat pumps. - Abstract: The U.S. has substantial wind power potential, but given wind’s intermittent availability and misalignment with electricity demand profiles, large-scale deployment of wind turbines could result in high electricity costs due to energy storage requirements or low utilization rates. While fuel switching and heat pumps have been proposed as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reduction strategies at the building scale, this paper shows that heat pump adoption could have additional system-wide benefits by increasing the utilization of wind-generated electricity. A model was developed to evaluate the effects of coupling large-scale wind power installations in New York State with increased use of electric heat pumps to meet a portion of space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands in New York City. The analysis showed significant increases in wind-generated electricity utilization with increased use of heat pumps, allowing for higher installed capacity of wind power. One scenario indicates that 78.5% annual wind-generated electricity utilization can be achieved with 3 GW of installed wind power capacity generated electricity equal to 20% of existing NYC annual electricity demand; if 20% of space heating and DHW demands are provided by heat pumps, the 78.5% utilization rate can be achieved with an increase of total wind power capacity to 5 GW. Therefore, this integrated supply–demand approach could provide additional system-wide emissions reductions

  1. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegler, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of 'bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, MICROMEGAS detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  2. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    batch of each composition was prepared by wet milling in a pot mill for 6 h at a speed of 35 rpm. The slurries were dried and disintegrated. Dry powders were thoroughly mixed with 5–6 ... Instron 5500 R machine was utilized to determine fle- xural strength. Acid and alkali resistance of the samples were tested as per Indian ...

  3. Activities of the Technical Association of Electric Utilities (VGB) in Germany in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusteen, W.

    1993-01-01

    VGB aims at cooperation between electric power production and distribution companies in different countries. Also Dutch companies and institutes are members of VGB. Employees of the Dutch electric utilities, Sep (Netherlands Association for Electric Power Production Companies) and KEMA attended and contributed to several VGB working groups and congresses. An overview is given of the VGB activities, the VGB organization, its aim, the costs of the membership and the VGB working group activities in which the Netherlands participates

  4. Three essays on productivity and research and development in United States investor-owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Haru

    Although productivity of major U.S. investor-owned utilities is an oft researched topic, the impact of research and development (R&D) on productivity has not been explored. Using a data set spanning from 1983 to 1994 and gathered from FERC Form 1 and publications from EPRI, the U.S. Energy Information Administration, and investment banks, I estimate total factor productivity, efficiency, and the impacts of regulation and other utility characteristics on R&D. Throughout the analysis, R&D is disaggregated into two categories, R&D at the industry's research consortium, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRT) and R&D carried out by the utility itself. No published research on this industry has made such a distinction. In the first chapter, I use parametric methods to estimate an average production function and a production frontier that include both types of R&D as an input. The contributions of R&D of both types are small, which is expected given the low level of expenditures in the industry (about one percent of revenues). Total factor productivity is steady between 1984 and 1994. In chapter 2, I use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate measures of efficiency for each utility. DEA is a nonparametric, linear programming method, and I compute estimates under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scale (CRS and VRS, respectively). The VRS results are more plausible; under VRS, more utilities in a greater range of sizes are considered efficient than under CRS. The DEA efficiency measures are regressed on R&D, regulation (measured as investment bank Merrill Lynch's ratings of state commission's investor-friendliness), and other utility features, including the age of the generation plant and proportion of nuclear generation. Efficiency rises with both own R&D and spending at EPRI, and it decreases with the increasing age of the generation plant. Regulation has no effect. Finally, in chapter 3, I use a maximum likelihood Tobit to determine the

  5. The impact of range anxiety and home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure on simulated battery electric vehicle lifetime utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility due to factors including driver range anxiety and access to charging infrastructure. In this paper we apply NREL's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to range anxiety and different charging infrastructure scenarios, including variable time schedules, power levels, and locations (home, work, and public installations). We find that the effects of range anxiety can be significant, but are reduced with access to additional charging infrastructure. We also find that (1) increasing home charging power above that provided by a common 15 A, 120 V circuit offers little added utility, (2) workplace charging offers significant utility benefits to select high mileage commuters, and (3) broadly available public charging can bring many lower mileage drivers to near-100% utility while strongly increasing the achieved miles of high mileage drivers.

  6. The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

  7. Gross domestic product estimation based on electricity utilization by artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Mirjana; Vujičić, Slađana; Gajić, Aleksandar M.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the paper was to estimate gross domestic product (GDP) based on electricity estimation by artificial neural network (ANN). The electricity utilization was analyzed based on different sources like renewable, coal and nuclear sources. The ANN network was trained with two training algorithms namely extreme learning method and back-propagation algorithm in order to produce the best prediction results of the GDP. According to the results it can be concluded that the ANN model with extreme learning method could produce the acceptable prediction of the GDP based on the electricity utilization.

  8. Dealing with the paradox of energy efficiency promotion by electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, José Luís; Martins, António Gomes; Jorge, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Utility-based Demand-Side Management (DSM) programmes started after the oil crises of the 70's and were adopted by utilities as a standard practice. However, deregulation of the electricity industry threatened DSM. More recent concerns regarding energy dependence and environmental impact of energy use caused renewed attention on the utilities role in energy efficiency fostering. EE is presently a cross-cutting issue, influencing energy policy definition and regulatory activity worldwide. Some instruments for influencing the behaviour of electric utilities in the market are used by regulators, corresponding to both impositions and stimuli, such as defining savings targets or decoupling profits from energy sales. The paper addresses categories of regulatory instruments and refers to examples of countries and regions using these identified categories of instruments. Although some cases show voluntary involvement of utilities in EE promotion on the grounds of customer retention strategies, there is a clear prevalence of regulatory constrained markets where utilities rationally engage in energy efficiency promotion

  9. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

  10. Environmental assessment for the electric utility system distribution, replacements and upgrades at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the environmental effects resulting from the distribution of new electrical service, replacement of inadequate or aging equipment, and upgrade of the existing electrical utility system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The projects assessed herein do not impact cultural or historic resources, sensitive habitats or wetlands and are not a source of air emissions. The potential environmental effects that do result from the action are fugitive dust and noise from construction and the disposal of potentially contaminated soil removed from certain limited areas of the LLNL site as a result of trenching for underground transmission lines. The actions described in this assessment represent an improved safety and reliability to the existing utility system. Inherent in the increased reliability and upgrades is a net increase in electrical capacity, with future expansion reserve. As with any electrical device, the electrical utility system has associated electric and magnetic fields that present a potential source of personnel exposure. The potential is not increased, however, beyond that which already exists for the present electrical utility system

  11. Do acquisitions by electric utility companies create value? Evidence from deregulated markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Jo; Goto, Mika; Inoue, Kotaro

    2017-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the United Kingdom (the UK) initiated widespread reforms in the electricity industry through a series of market liberalization policies. Several other countries have subsequently followed the lead and restructured their electricity industry. A major outcome of the deregulation effort is the spate of takeovers, both domestic and global, by electric utility companies. With the entry of new players and increasing competition, the business environment of the electricity industry has changed dramatically. This study analyzes the economic impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in the electric utility industry after deregulation. We have examined acquisitions that took place between 1998 and 2013 in the United States, Canada, the UK, Germany, and France. Although previous studies showed no evidence of a positive effect on acquiring firms through M&As, we find that acquisitions by electric utility companies increased the acquiring firms’ share value and improved their operating performance, primarily through efficiency gains after the deregulation. These results are consistent with the empirical evidence and implications presented by Andrade et al. (2001) that M&A created value for the shareholders of the acquiring and target combined firms. - Highlights: • This study examined mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in electric utility industry. • The sample covered M&A between 1998 and 2013 in North America and Europe. • We found M&A significantly increased acquiring firms’ share value and operating performance. • Deregulation policy realized gains for shareholders without incurring costs for consumers.

  12. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs

  13. Computer model for estimating electric utility environmental noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplitzky, A.M.; Hahn, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a computer code for estimating environmental noise emissions from the operation and the construction of electric power plants that was developed based on algorithms. The computer code (Model) is used to predict octave band sound power levels for power plant operation and construction activities on the basis of the equipment operating characteristics and calculates off-site sound levels for each noise source and for an entire plant. Estimated noise levels are presented either as A-weighted sound level contours around the power plant or as octave band levels at user defined receptor locations. Calculated sound levels can be compared with user designated noise criteria, and the program can assist the user in analyzing alternative noise control strategies

  14. Presence and generation of AC and DC electric fields and small ions in closed rooms as a function of building materials, utilization, and electrical installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the discussion on possible biological effects of natural atmospheric electric fields or electromagnetic radiation it is frequently overlooked that man, under normal living and working conditions in closed rooms, is also exposed to considerable fields of various types and strengths. Therefore an extensive ''inventory'' has been made of such ac and dc fields as they occur in rooms of different construction, utilization, and electrical equipment. Results are presented and discussed, also with respect to biological conditions, including some typical examples from the relevant literature

  15. Fuel and Emissions Reduction in Electric Power Take-Off Equipped Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konan, Arnaud; Ragatz, Adam; Prohaska, Robert; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-06-22

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of Pacific Gas and Electric plug-in hybrid electric power take off (ePTO) utility trucks equipped with Altec, Inc.'s Jobsite Energy Management System. NREL collected on-road performance data from Class 5 utility 'trouble trucks' and Class 8 material handlers and developed representative drive cycles for chassis dynamometer testing. The drive cycles were analyzed and jobsite energy use was quantified for impacts and potential further hybridization for the utility truck vocation.

  16. Evolving electric utility regulatory policy: Internalizing the social costs of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelfelder, R.A. (Atlantic Electric, Pleasantville, NJ (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Current electric utility pricing methods understate the margin social costs of electricity. Electricity prices are set to cover the utility's average cost rather than the higher marginal social cost. This mispricing hides from consumers the true cost their consumption imposes on society and, thereby, encourages them to ignore efficient conservation opportunities. Additionally, the conservation market suffers from a number of imperfections such as barriers to the acquisition of information, high upfront capital costs and the lack of conservation equipment availability. The electricity and conservation multi-market equilibrium is not achieved. The result is that society overconsumes (excess demand) electricity, overinvests in electric generating plants and underinvests (excess supply) in conservation resources. The large, yet uncertain, level of foregone conservation investment offers new opportunities for regulator and electric utility managers to improve economic efficiency with regulatory and planning policies that appropriately encourage the cost-effective use of conservation resources. In the absence of the most efficient policy, marginal social cost pricing, integrated resource planning (IRP) is being adopted as a potential second-best regulatory policy and utility resource planning framework to improve energy efficiency. IRP uses mathematical optimization methods to search among many alternate resource portfolios of electricity-creating and -saving technologies. These methods identify the mix that best meets society's needs with the least social cost, where the social external costs and benefits of generating plant and conservation, respectively, are considered. Such a goal requires the choice of a resource portfolio that optimizes a complex objective function. As a result, the solution offers a resource action plan for electric utilities that may be Pareto-improving.

  17. Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday`s vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

  18. Fusion Energy from the electric utilities perspective: Fusion Innovation Industry Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagle, J. A.; Felipe, A.; Gomez, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Merino, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the different future energy scenarios envisaged and the so called Power Generation Fleet Transition in which Fusion Energy could play an important role. A review of the R and D and Innovation main drivers in the electric sector is outline, with a detail description of the main issues and strategic challenges in the medium and short term. The worldwide historical involvement of electric utilities in Fusion is presented and revised under the new USA Utilities technical assessment carried out by the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI. The paper also presents the work done in the last few years by the European Fusion Industry Innovation Forum FIIF-MB in order to to evaluate a wide range of fusion concepts from the utility standpoint, to enhance utilities perspective on fusion, to provide guidance to Government Bodies and national Energy strategies for fusion-utilities and finally to establish a basis for communication and cooperation in fusion for utilities standpoint. Finally the paper comments the utilities challenges pointed out by the Fusion electricity: a road map to the realization of fusion energy report issued this year by the European Fusion Development Agreement EFDA.

  19. Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday's vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price

  20. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T; Katashima, M; Maki, K

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  1. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...... controllers. Local controllers implement these functions, which include PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, battery charging/discharging control, voltage control of DC bus for high-frequency inverter, and onboard battery charging control. By optimizing and matching parameters of transmitting...

  2. Commercial statistical bulletin of the Brazilian electric utility Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A; Boletim estatistico comercial da CELESC: Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Statistical data concerning the Brazilian Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. utility relative to April 1996 are presented. They include, among other things, electricity consumption, number and class of consumers and electricity rates 6 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. Mechanical and Physical Performance of Concrete Including Waste Electrical Cable Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner Yildirim, Salih; Pelin Duygun, Nur

    2017-10-01

    Solid wastes are important environmental problem all over the World. Consumption of the plastic solid waste covers big portion within the total solid waste. Although a numerous plastic material is subjected to the recycling process, it is not easy to be destroyed by nature. One of the recommended way to prevent is to utilize as an aggregate in cement-based material. There are many researches on use of recycling rubber in concrete. However, studies on recycling of waste electrical cable rubber (WECR) in concrete is insufficient although there are many research on waste tyre rubbers in concrete. In this study, fine aggregate was replaced with WECR which were 5%, 10%, and 15 % of the total aggregate volume in the concrete and researched workability, unit weight, water absorption, compressive strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, modulus of elasticity, and abrasion resistance of concrete. As a result of experimental studies, increase of WECR amount in concrete increases workability due to lack of adherence between cement paste and WECR, and hydrophobic structure of WECR while it influences negatively mechanical properties of concrete. It is possible to use WECR in concrete taking into account the reduction in mechanical properties.

  4. Investigation into the risk perceptions of investors in the securities of nuclear-dependent electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spudeck, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Two weeks prior to the Three Mile Island accident, March 15, 1979, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered five operating nuclear plants shut down in order to reexamine safety standards in these plants. Reports in the popular and trade press during this time suggested that these events, particularly the accident at Three Mile Island, caused investors in the securities of electric utilities that had nuclear-generation facilities to revise their risk perceptions. This study was designed to examine the impact of both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission order and the accident at Three Mile Island on investor risk perceptions. Selected categories of electric utilities were chosen to examine any differential risk effects resulting from these events. An asset pricing model devoid of many of the restrictive assumptions of more familiar models was used to model investor behavior. The findings suggest that the events described did cause investors to revise upward their perceptions of systematic risk regarding different categories of electric utilities. More specifically, those electric utilities that were operating nuclear plants in 1979 experienced the largest and most sustained increase in systematic risk. However, electric utilities that in 1979 had no operating nuclear plants, but had planned and committed funds for nuclear plants in the future, also experienced increases in systematic risk

  5. Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Raman

    While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of

  6. Short term optimization of electric power plants production including pumped storage and nuclear modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourez, M.; Jussiant, C.; Roubens, M.; Trecat, J.

    1987-01-01

    Short term optimization, including start-up costs, pumped storage, constraints on shut-off time and run-time is a classical problem solved by dynamic programming. However when minimum base production is covered only by nuclear plants and is greater then minimum load demand, some sort of optimal modulation of these plants must be taken into account. The program developed deals with this constraint in a quasi-optimal way, and allows also energy exchanges based on short term contracts. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified at the Belgian utility where this program was developed

  7. Labor supply of engineers and scientists for nuclear electric utilities, 1987-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    An assessment of the adequacy of the supply of health physicists, nuclear engineers, and other engineers for the nuclear electric utility industry is based on job openings for scientists and engineers in broader nuclear-power-related fields, which include engineering and design, manufacturing, fabrication, supporting services, and government. In assessing the likely adequacy of labor supplies for commercial nuclear power job openings over the next 5 yr, consideration has been given to competing sources of labor demands, including nuclear energy research and development activities, nuclear defense, and the total US economy, and to the likely supply of new graduates. In particular, over the last 3 yr, the number of degrees awarded and enrollments in nuclear engineering programs have declined 12 and 14%, respectively, and in health physics programs, 5 and 14%, respectively. For health physics and nuclear engineers, tight labor market conditions (i.e. labor supplies and demand balanced at relatively high salaries) are expected over the next 5 yr because of declining enrollments and slowly growing employment levels plus job replacement needs. The commercial nuclear power field is expected to face tight labor markets for electrical and materials engineers because of strong competing demands in the economy. Other engineering occupations are likely to have adequate supplies for the nuclear power field but at salaries that continue to be relatively higher than salaries for other professional occupations

  8. Reducing Gridlock on the Grid: Utility Trends in Managing Peak Electric Load through Residential Demand Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betsy

    Utilities across the United States are piloting residential demand response programs to help manage peak electric demand. Using publicly available program evaluations, this thesis analyzes nine such programs to uncover and synthesize the range of program offerings, goals, enrollment strategies, and customer experiences. This review reveals that program participation, components, and results differ based on a variety of factors, including geographic characteristics, program goals, and implementation strategies. The diversity of program designs and evaluation findings suggests an underlying tension between the need to generate cost-effective program impacts and the desire to increase accessibility so that program benefits are not exclusive to certain segments of the population. For more significant and impactful engagement, program goals may need to shift. State level policy support could help shift program goals toward increasing program accessibility. Future research should explore creative strategies that target existing barriers and allow for more inclusive deployment.

  9. Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

  10. The politics of electric utility regulation: Explaining energy efficiency policy in the states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, John Arthur

    Even with broad societal pressures to alter the regulatory environment in the states with regard to the efficient use of electricity, many states have not made what some conservation advocates believe are adequate reforms for increasing levels of energy efficiency. While some states have comprehensive policies that require electric utilities to engage in integrated resource planning and demand-side management (DSM), along with providing utilities with a regulatory framework that allows for the recovery of energy efficiency program costs and lost revenues, other states have no such policies. The main purpose of this inquiry is twofold: first, it discusses some of the current regulatory issues being explored at the state level in an attempt to determine how states vary in their development and application of energy efficiency regulations; and second, it attempts to explain why the states differ in their development of energy efficiency regulations. The application of the analytical framework developed in this study proves useful for assessing the various elements that affect state regulatory policy development. Organized interests, state political culture, and various state economic variables tend to exert considerable influence over regulatory policy choice. However, other factors such as government institutions, including state legislatures and regulatory agencies, were not without effect. Though the directions of some of the relationships were unexpected, various logistic regression models show that each of the approaches to the study of regulation is useful in explaining the process of developing and adopting innovative energy efficiency policies. In the area of electric utility regulation, and more specifically energy efficiency regulation, this analysis finds that, in general, the likelihood of a state adopting DSM-related lost revenue recovery and/or sharehoider incentives on DSM programs, as well as stringent cost-effectiveness tests, is greater for states

  11. 21 CFR 200.10 - Contract facilities (including consulting laboratories) utilized as extramural facilities by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... laboratories) utilized as extramural facilities by pharmaceutical manufacturers. 200.10 Section 200.10 Food and... extramural facilities by pharmaceutical manufacturers. (a) Section 704(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and..., warehouse, or establishment in which prescription drugs are manufactured, processed, packed, or held. (b...

  12. Eddy current analysis by BEM utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    The surface integral equations whose unknowns are the surface electric and magnetic currents are widely used in eddy current analysis. However, when the skin depth is thick, computational error is increased especially in obtaining electromagnetic fields near the edge of the conductor. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field accurately, we propose an approach to solve surface integral equations utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns. (Author)

  13. Utilization of low temperature heat for environmentally friendly electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    of low grade heat is not feasible with conventional steam Rankine cycles (steam engines) due to undesirable properties of steam. Instead the organic Rankine cycle is typically used, since it enables thechoice of a working fluid, e.g. hydrocarbons or refrigerants, with desirable properties. One of the key...... issues for improving the performance of organic Rankine cycles is to optimize the heat transfer processes for adding and removing heat from the cycle, which can be achieved by employing a working fluid consisting of a mixture of two or a number of pure fluids.This project is aimed at quantifying...... the benefits of using mixtures compared to pure fluids as working fluids in organic Rankine cycles. In order to do so, thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out, first on an overall cycle level, and next on component level including detailed modelling of heat exchangers, pumps and expanders involving...

  14. Decision factors affecting transmission and distribution efficiency improvements by Northwest electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Darwin, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The principal objective of this report was to assess and document the attitude of Northwest electric utilities toward possible BPA conservation acquisition programs that may provide incentive(s) to reduce losses on T and D lines. Secondary objectives were to examine existing incentives for making such improvements, to categorize prior T and D efficiency improvements, and to examine factors affecting the decision-making process for system improvements. Much of the information presented in the report is derived from a survey administered during personal interviews at 29 Northwest electric utilities between November 1984 and January 1985.

  15. An analysis of the Spanish electrical utility industry. Economies of scale, technological progress and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, Angel; De Toledo, Pablo Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to explain the behaviour of the Spanish electrical utility industry during the period 1987-1997, under the then existing regulatory system (Marco Legal Estable). The paper will study the presence of economies of scale, the effect of technological progress and the differences in the efficiency of the different companies within the market. The paper concludes that the Spanish electrical utility industry was not, in fact, characterized by economies of scale during this period, but witnessed a great improvement in efficiency within that period. All the critical market factors remind stable. (author)

  16. Laminated wood as an alternative to wood poles : Engineered wood structures for electric utility and telecommunications industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisdorff, R. [Laminated Wood Systems Inc., Seward, NE (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In this PowerPoint presentation, the author discusses the major advantages of laminated structures, for both the electric and telecommunication industries. The advantages include economy, quick delivery, climbing and field modifications, dimensional uniformity and stability. A series of pictures was displayed which showed the manufacturing process. Laminated structures have a proven history. They were developed in Europe in 1890, and introduced to the United States in 1934. Framing members were introduced in the late 1940s, while poles were introduced in 1963, two years ahead of steel poles. Some of the electrical utility applications include: (1) distribution structures, (2) transmission structures such as single-pole, phase over phase switch structures, tangent structures, and H-Frame construction. The applications for the telecommunication industry consist of joint use structures, such as electric and telecommunication, lighting and telecommunication, overhead telephone and wireless; mono-pole applications; three-pole Bell Towers; and tree poles. Examples of each type were shown. figs.

  17. All Electric Passenger Vehicle Sales in India by 2030: Value proposition to Electric Utilities, Government, and Vehicle Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheppard, Colin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    In India, there is growing interest among policymakers, planners, and regulators for aggressive electrification of passenger vehicles. For example, Piyush Goyal, the Minister of State for India’s Ministry of Coal, Power, New and Renewable Energy, announced an aspirational goal of converting all vehicle sales in India to battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by 2030 (Economic Times, 2016). In 2012, India has already announced the National Mission on Electric Mobility (NMEM) sets a countrywide goal of deploying 6 to 7 million hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) by 2020 (DHI, 2012). A major policy motivation for transport electrification is to reduce India’s oil import dependency. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of full electrification of vehicle sales in India by 2030 on the key stakeholders such as BEV owners, electric utilities, and the government. Specifically, we attempt to answer the following questions: (a) How does the total vehicle ownership cost of BEVs compare with the conventional vehicles? (b) What is the additional load due BEV charging? (c) What is the impact on the power sector investments, costs, and utility revenue? (d) How can smart BEV charging help renewable energy grid integration? (e) What is the impact on the crude oil imports? (f) What is the impact on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions?

  18. Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Burton, E.

    2015-02-01

    The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, BLAST-V has been developed to include algorithms for estimating the available range of BEVs prior to the start of trips, for rerouting baseline travel to utilize public charging infrastructure when necessary, and for making driver travel decisions for those trips in the presence of available public charging infrastructure, all while conducting advanced vehicle simulations that account for battery electrical, thermal, and degradation response. Results from BLAST-V simulations on vehicle utility, frequency of inserted stops, duration of charging events, and additional time and distance necessary for rerouting travel are presented to illustrate how BEV utility and travel patterns can be affected by various fast charge deployments.

  19. Low-Income Community Solar: Utility Return Considerations for Electric Cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Alexandra Y [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this short report is to identify project structures that make low-income community solar projects more cost-effective, replicable, and scalable, for electric cooperative and municipal utilities. This report explores the tradeoffs between providing energy bill savings for low-income subscribers and utility project returns, as well as some of the key lessons learned from existing successful low-income community solar pilot projects.

  20. Utilization and Predictors of Electrical Cardioversion in Patients Hospitalized for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita M. Rochlani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common arrhythmia in adults associated with thromboembolic complications. External electrical cardioversion (DCCV is a safe procedure used to convert AF to normal sinus rhythm. We sought to study factors that affect utilization of DCCV in hospitalized patients with AF. The study sample was drawn from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in the United States. Patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of AF that received DCCV during hospitalization in the years 2000–2010 were included. An estimated 2,810,530 patients with a primary diagnosis of AF were hospitalized between 2001 and 2010, of which 1,19,840 (4.26% received DCCV. The likelihood of receiving DCCV was higher in patients who were males, whites, privately insured, and aged < 40 years and those with fewer comorbid conditions. Higher CHADS2 score was found to have an inverse association with DCCV use. In-hospital stroke, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and cost for hospitalization were significantly lower for patients undergoing DCCV during AF related hospitalization. Further research is required to study the contribution of other disease and patient related factors affecting the use of this procedure as well as postprocedure outcomes.

  1. Decision E92111 re: Alberta Power Limited Edmonton Power TransAlta Utilities Corporation in the matter of a joint application to adjust the price or pricing formula in respect of each consumer group at which electric energy was sold to the Electric Energy Marketing Agency in 1991; and in the matter of the forecast price or pricing formula in respect of each consumer group at which electric energy will be sold to the Electric Energy Marketing Agency in 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-09

    Hearings were held before the Alberta Public Utilities Board to consider price adjustments and pricing formulas for electricity sales to various classes of customers by three Alberta utilities. These utilities (Alberta Power, Edmonton Power, and TransAlta Utilities) sell electricity to the Electric Energy Marketing Agency, which is responsible for ensuring uniform electricity prices across the province. The views of the applicants, the intervenors at the hearings, and the Board are summarized along with the Board decision. Issues considered at the hearings included the components of total electric utility costs of each utility, methods employed by the utilities in the functionalization of costs to upstream and downstream, classification of the upstream costs, allocation of generation and transmission costs to consumer groups, demand at the interface, and full-cost pricing and pricing guidelines for power produced by cogenerators. 6 tabs.

  2. Updated Value of Service Reliability Estimates for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schellenberg, Josh [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Blundell, Marshall [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report updates the 2009 meta-analysis that provides estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the United States (U.S.). The meta-dataset now includes 34 different datasets from surveys fielded by 10 different utility companies between 1989 and 2012. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods, it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-dataset describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the U.S. for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. This report focuses on the backwards stepwise selection process that was used to develop the final revised model for all customer classes. Across customer classes, the revised customer interruption cost model has improved significantly because it incorporates more data and does not include the many extraneous variables that were in the original specification from the 2009 meta-analysis. The backwards stepwise selection process led to a more parsimonious model that only included key variables, while still achieving comparable out-of-sample predictive performance. In turn, users of interruption cost estimation tools such as the Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator will have less customer characteristics information to provide and the associated inputs page will be far less cumbersome. The upcoming new version of the ICE Calculator is anticipated to be released in 2015.

  3. 76 FR 27669 - Penske Logistics LLC, a Subsidiary of General Electric/Penske Corporation Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,897] Penske Logistics LLC, a Subsidiary of General Electric/Penske Corporation Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Temporary... workers and former workers of Penske Logistics LLC, a subsidiary of General Electric/Penske Corporation...

  4. 76 FR 77815 - Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-543-000] Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Ethical Electric Benefit Co.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  5. 77 FR 62510 - C.N. Brown Electricity, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-20-000] C.N. Brown Electricity, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Electricity, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  6. 77 FR 73650 - Electricity NH, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-504-000] Electricity NH, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Electricity NH...

  7. 78 FR 29131 - Electricity MASS, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1440-000] Electricity MASS, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Electricity...

  8. Inactivation of Ricin Toxin by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Including Evidences from Cell and Animal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Gao, Shan; Ji, Bin; Zang, Yating; Su, Bo; Wang, Kaile; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Jinglin

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant protein toxin extracted from the castor oil plant, and it has been classified as a chemical warfare agent. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) at 30 kV/cm (pulse durations: 10 ns, 100 ns, and 300 ns) were applied to inactivating ricin up to 4.2 μg/mL. To investigate the efficacy, cells and mice were tested against the ricin treated by the nsPEFs via direct intraperitoneal injection and inhalation exposure. Results showed that nsPEFs treatments can effectively reduce the toxicity of the ricin. Without the nsPEFs treatment, 100% of mice were killed upon the 4 μg ricin injection on the first day, however 40% of the mice survived the ricin treated by the nsPEFs. Compared to injection, inhalation exposure even with higher ricin dose required longer time to observe mice fatality. Pathological observations revealed damages to heart, lung, kidney, and stomach after the ricin exposure, more pronounced for lung and kidney including severe bleeding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) analyses revealed that although the primary structure of ricin was not altered, its secondary structures (beta-sheet and beta-turn) underwent transition upon the nsPEFs treatment. PMID:26728251

  9. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  10. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  11. Survey of cost-effective photovoltaic applications at US electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastwood, C.D.

    1993-08-01

    A survey of 2909 electric utilities throughout the United States was conducted to determine the number of cost-effective photovoltaic (PV) systems currently owned and operated by electric utilities. In addition, information regarding the performance and reliability of these systems was collected and a list of utility contacts with PV experience was compiled. A total of 374 (13%) survey questionnaires were returned. The results revealed that over 1850 PV installations with an installed capacity of over 87 kW are owned and operated by 74 utilities across the country. Cost-effective PV systems are in use in virtually every state in the US and have been used by electric utilities since the late 1970's. The systems range in size from a few watts to 7.2 kW and typically service small, and frequently remote loads. Investor-owned utilities own over 1500 of the cost-effective PV systems in use, with an installed capacity of 56.5 kW; municipal utilities own over 170 systems, with an installed capacity of 7 kW; federally or state-owned agencies own over 100 systems, with an installed capacity of 8.7 kW; and rural electric cooperatives own over 80 systems, with an installed capacity of 14.8 kW. The devices were found to be highly reliable, with 97% of the utilities that operate PV reporting that they were either satisfied or very satisfied with the performance of their systems. Nearly 38% of these utilities reported that their PV devices required no preventive maintenance. 42.4% of the utilities with PV systems in use perform regularly scheduled maintenance; however, the level of maintenance required is minimal. The remainder of the utilities with PV devices perform unscheduled maintenance as required. Over 37% of the utilities operating cost-effective PV had experienced no downtime with their systems. Those that had experienced downtime cited component failure, vandalism, design problems, or improper installation as the cause

  12. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  13. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharovsky, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m 3 /s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m / s, pump flow 6 x 22 m 3 /s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m 3 , max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the most tolerable

  14. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  15. A case study of electric utility demand reduction with commerical solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewert, M.; Hoffner, J.E.; Panico, D. (City of Austin Electric Utility Dept., Austin, TX (US))

    1991-05-01

    The City of Austin, is studying the impact of solar water heaters on summer peak electric demand. One passive and two active solar water heating systems were installed on city owned commercial buildings which had electric water heaters in 1985 and have been monitored for two years. This paper reports on a method that has been developed to determine the peak demand reduction attributable to the solar systems. Results show that solar water heating systems are capable of large demand reductions as long as there is a large hot water demand to displace. The average noncoincident demand reduction (during the water heater's peak output) ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 kilowatts per system, however, the coincident demand reduction during the utility peak demand period was 0.3 to 0.8 kilowatts per system. Thus, a critical factor when assessing the benefit to the electric utility is the time of hot water demand.

  16. Implications of the Ontario government's white paper and competition strategies for Ontario's municipal electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The strategies that Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU) should follow to deal with competition were discussed. North Bay Hydro is the 34th largest MEU out of 300 in Ontario but it serves only 23,000 out of 4 million electrical customers in Ontario. Therefore, the main strategy for municipal utilities to ensure their future would be to become part of an alliance and association like the MEA and the SAC - the Strategic Alliance for Competition and Customer Choice. Strong criticism was voiced regarding the contents of the recent Ontario Government White Paper for being vague with regard to electrical distribution and the role of MEUs in Ontario. It was suggested that it is vitally important that MEUs ally themselves with other stakeholders, to resist an Ontario Hydro monopoly, to make sure that prices stay low, to avoid excessive debt and bureaucratic inefficiency, be innovative, and consumer oriented and be prepared to anticipate events and conditions. 3 figs

  17. Collaborative jurisdiction in the regulation of electric utilities: A new look at jurisdictional boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This conference is one of several activities initiated by FERC, DOE and NARUC to improve the dialogue between Federal and State regulators and policymakers. I am pleased to be here to participate in this conference and to address, with you, electricity issues of truly national significance. I would like to commend Ashley Brown and the NARUC Electricity Committee for its foresight in devising a conference on these issues at this critical juncture in the regulation of the electric utility industry. I also would like to commend Chairman Allday and the FERC for their efforts to improve communication between Federal and State electricity regulators; both through FERC`s Public Conference on Electricity Issues that was held last June, and through the FERC/NARUC workshops that are scheduled to follow this conference. These collaborative efforts are important and necessary steps in addressing successfully the many issues facing the electric utility industry those who regulate it, and those who depend upon it - in other words, about everyone.

  18. A Framework for Organizing Current and Future Electric Utility Regulatory and Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Many regulators, utilities, customer groups, and other stakeholders are reevaluating existing regulatory models and the roles and financial implications for electric utilities in the context of today’s environment of increasing distributed energy resource (DER) penetrations, forecasts of significant T&D investment, and relatively flat or negative utility sales growth. When this is coupled with predictions about fewer grid-connected customers (i.e., customer defection), there is growing concern about the potential for serious negative impacts on the regulated utility business model. Among states engaged in these issues, the range of topics under consideration is broad. Most of these states are considering whether approaches that have been applied historically to mitigate the impacts of previous “disruptions” to the regulated utility business model (e.g., energy efficiency) as well as to align utility financial interests with increased adoption of such “disruptive technologies” (e.g., shareholder incentive mechanisms, lost revenue mechanisms) are appropriate and effective in the present context. A handful of states are presently considering more fundamental changes to regulatory models and the role of regulated utilities in the ownership, management, and operation of electric delivery systems (e.g., New York “Reforming the Energy Vision” proceeding).

  19. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surapong Chirarattananon; Supattana Nirukkanaporn

    2006-01-01

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in the early 1990s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system, rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  20. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirarattananon, Surapong; Nirukkanaporn, Supattana

    2006-01-01

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in early the1990 s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system) rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  1. Take no prisoners? A price-war strategy for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, L.L.; Novak, E.W.

    1995-07-01

    This article is a review of pricing trends within the electric utility industry. It is felt that direct access will have major repercussions and that revenues will drop as supply options grow. Several factors will affect how much equity the utility owners will lose: (1) magnitude of the decline in prices, (2) how quickly customers gain access to new suppliers, and (3) the portion of retail customers that will participate in direct access. With the advent of retail wheeling, utilities may choose to sell power below cost, and as a result, the logic of a potential price war is discussed. In this environment, the independent power producers become the spoiler. Not only do the IPPs have more efficient operations, but they are often exempt from taxes charged the investor-owned utilities. Suggestions are offered that should allow utility managers to successfully compete in the retail wheeling market.

  2. Predictive Energy Management Strategy Including Traffic Flow Data for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, K.R.; Pham, T.H.; Wilkins, S.; Hofman, T.

    2017-01-01

    Within hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) predictive energy management strategies (EMSs) have the potential to reduce the fuel consumption compared to conventional EMSs, where the drive cycle is unknown. Typically, predictive EMSs require a future vehicle speed profile prediction. However, when

  3. Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1989 and Preceding Years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-06-01

    This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1989 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1989, and also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1989 time period. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell to consumers annually. Data is provided on each retail customer sector: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. The data specifically supports forecasting activities, rate development, conservation and market assessments, and conservation and market program development and delivery. All of these activities require a detailed look at electricity use. 25 figs., 34 tabs.

  4. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Villasenor, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  5. Utility regulation-The scope and structure of electrical safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, Malcolm; Cohen, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of policies in Australia and New Zealand to increase competition in the utilities sector, regulatory agencies have been created in each state to provide independent and authorative advice on matters such as electricity pricing, access to infrastructure, service quality and security of supply. In addition arrangements have been established to maintain safety standards in the industry. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the major issues that have arisen in the creation of regulatory agencies responsible for electrical safety standards in Australia and New Zealand, and how they have impacted on liberalised electricity markets. - Highlights: → Policies in Australia and New Zealand to increase competition have led to the creation of electrical safety agencies. → These agencies have been created in response to perceived market failures. → There is a variance in agencies in terms of their independence and industry coverage. → These agencies have been created at a time of falling fatalities.

  6. From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Keith Alan

    1997-09-01

    Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4

  7. Low-level radiation in coals utilized and ashes produced at New York State electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.

    1981-01-01

    Eight coal-fired power plants in New York State were sampled for coal, fly ash and bottom ash. Samples were analyzed for uranium 238, uranium 235, uranium 234, thorium 232, thorium 230, radium 226, lead 210, polonium 210, radon 222. The leachate of six fly ash samples was analyzed for all of the above except radon 222. Some data on fly ash analysis are included

  8. Photovoltaic cell electrical heating system for removing snow on panel including verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Agnes; Weiss, Helmut

    2017-11-16

    Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche. Following this proposal, snow removal can be arranged electrically at an extremely positive energy balance in a fast way. A photovoltaic cell is a large junction area diode inside with a threshold voltage of about 0.6 to 0.7 V (depending on temperature). This forward voltage drop created by an externally driven current through the modules can be efficiently used to provide well-distributed heat dissipation at the cell and further on at the glass surface of the whole panel. The adhesion of snow on glass is widely reduced through this heating in case a thin water film can be produced by this external short time heating. Laboratory experiments provided a temperature increase through rated panel current of more than 10 °C within about 10 min. This heating can initiate the avalanche for snow removal on intention as described before provided the clamping effect on snow at the edge of the panel frame is overcome by an additional heating foil. Basics of internal cell heat production, heating thermal effects in time course, thermographic measurements on temperature distribution, power circuit opportunities including battery storage elements and snow-removal under practical conditions are described.

  9. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  10. Trends in transmission, distribution, and administration costs for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Robert L.; King, Carey W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cost of transmission, distribution, and administration for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities. We analyze data reported to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) from 1994 to 2014 using linear regression to understand how the number of customers in a utility's territory, annual peak demand, and annual energy sales affect annual TD&A spending. Then, we use Edison Electric Institute data for 1960 to 1992 to show trends in TD&A spending between 1960 and 2014. We find that the number of customers in a utility's territory is the single best predictor for annual TD&A costs. Between 1994 and 2014, the average cost per customer was $119/Customer-Year for transmission, $291/Customer-Year for distribution, and $333/Customer-Year for utility administration. Total TD&A costs per customer have been approximately $700–$800/Customer-Year since 1960, but the cost per kWh of energy sold was significantly higher in the 1960s because the average customer used less than half as much energy annually versus 2014. Thus, TD&A costs per kWh are likely to increase if kWh energy sales decline in the future unless cost recovery is transitioned to a mechanism not based solely on kWh sales. - Highlights: • U.S. investor-owned electric utility delivery costs from 1960? 2014 are investigated. • Transmission, distribution, and utility administrative costs are analyzed separately. • The number of utility customers is the best predictor for annual delivery costs. • Delivery costs per kWh are likely to increase if kWh sales decrease in the future.

  11. A collaborative effort to apply ergonomics to electric utility workers at generating stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Amy; Marklin, Richard; Seeley, Patricia; Mezei, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    As part of a collaborative approach involving electric utility companies, university researchers, individual contractors and a not-for-profit research institute, two ergonomics teams consisting of skilled utility workers and trained ergonomists, were assembled. These teams were to identify tasks with risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers in fossil-fueled generating stations and and to propose ergonomic interventions for these tasks. One team focused on tasks of electricians and the other focused on tasks of plant operators and mechanics. Several of the tasks were tested in an ergonomics laboratory and at one of the utility's generating stations. We present a sample of the recommended interventions in this paper. An anthropometric analysis of electrical box height recommended the appropriate height for electrical boxes. The results of a field experiment showed that low rolling resistance wheels decreased the forces to initiate and sustain pushing a cart. The same experiment also demonstrated that the forces required to turn a cart with six wheels were lower than the forces equired to turn a cart with four wheels. A collaborative approach to ergonomics proved to be an effective method to identify and assess tasks that are problematic for workers and to develop best practices for these tasks in the electric power industry. This method could be used by other industries in their attempt to decrease the incidence, cost and severity of workplace MSDs. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  12. Electrolyte for a lithium/thionyl chloride electric cell, a method of preparing said electrolyte and an electric cell which includes said electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabano, J.

    1983-03-01

    An electrolyte for an electric cell whose negative active material is constituted by lithium and whose positive active material is constituted by thionyl chloride. The electrolyte contains at least one solvent and at least one solute, said solvent being thionyl chloride and said solute being chosen from the group which includes lithium tetrachloroaluminate and lithium hexachloroantimonate. According to the invention said electrolyte further includes a complex chosen from the group which includes AlCl/sub 3/,SO/sub 2/ and SbCl/sub 5/,SO/sub 2/. The voltage rise of electric cells which include such an electrolyte takes negligible time.

  13. State Performance-Based Regulation Using Multiyear Rate Plans for U.S. Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Mark Newton [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Makos, Matt [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Electric utilities today must contain costs at a time when many need to modernize aging systems and all face major changes in technologies, customer preferences and competitive pressures.Most U.S. electric utility facilities are investor-owned, subject to rate and service regulation by state public utility commissions. Regulatory systems under which these utilities operate affect their performance and ability to meet these challenges. In this business environment, multiyear rate plans have some advantages over traditional rate regulation.The report focuses on key design issues and provides case studies of the multiyear rate plan approach, applicable to both vertically integrated and restructured states. Mark Newton Lowry and Matt Makos of Pacific Energy Group Research and Jeff Deason of Berkeley Lab authored the report; Lisa Schwartz, Berkeley Lab, was project manager and technical editor.The report is aimed primarily at state utility regulators and stakeholders in the state regulatory process. The multiyear rate approach also provides ideas on how to streamline oversight of public power utilities and rural electric cooperatives for their governing boards.Two key provisions of multiyear rate plans strengthen cost containment incentives and streamline regulation: 1. Reducing frequency of rate cases, typically to every four or five years 2. Using an attrition relief mechanism to escalate rates or revenue between rate cases to address cost pressures such as inflation and growth in number of customers, independently of the utility’s own cost Better utility performance can be achieved under well-designed multiyear rate plans while achieving lower regulatory costs. Benefits can be shared between utilities and their customers. But plans can be complex and involve significant changes in the regulatory system. Designing plans that stimulate utility performance without undue risk and share benefits fairly can be challenging.This report discusses the rationale for multiyear

  14. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs

  15. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. European utility requirements: common rules to design next LWR plants in an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The major European electricity producers want to keep able to build new nuclear power plants and they believe 3. generation LWRs would be the most adapted response to their needs in the first decades of this century. Producing a common European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. In this common frame, standardized and competitive LWR NPPs could be developed and offered to the investors. This idea is now well supported by all the other actors on the European electricity market: vendors, regulators, grid managers, administrations although in the competitive and unified European electricity market that is emerging, the electricity producers' stakes are more and more different from the other electricity business actors'. The next term objectives of the electricity producers involved in EUR are focused on negotiating common rules of the game together with the regulators. This covers the nuclear safety approaches, the conditions requested to connect a plant to a HV grid, as well as the design standards. Discussions are going on between the EUR organization and all the corresponding bodies to develop stabilized and predictable design rules that would meet the constraints of nuclear electricity generation in this new environment. Finally there cannot be competition without competitors. The EUR organization has proven to be the right place to establish trustful relationship between the vendors and their potential customers, through fair assessment of the proposed designs performance vs. the utility needs. This will be continued and developed with the main vendors present in Europe, so as to keep alive a list of 4 to 6 designs 'qualified', i.e. showing an acceptable score of non-compliance vs. EUR. (authors)

  17. A Comparative Case Study of Electric Utility Companies’ Use of Energy Democracy in Strategic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan McKasy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial increase in distributed renewable energy resources is changing the face of the energy environment, leading to strategic communication efforts by key stakeholders. The energy democracy movement supports this transformation from fossil fuels to distributed renewable energy and aims for equitable involvement of publics in energy decision making. These tenets challenge utility company earnings as they are directly related to energy sales and infrastructure returns on investment. Proposals by electric utility companies to restructure net-metering policies as a solution to financial issues have been criticized as prohibitive to the success of renewable energy advancement. To address these disagreements, the Edison Electric Institute and a communication firm, Maslansky & Partners, created The Future of Energy: A Working Communication Guide for Discussion. This handbook provides utility companies with strategic communication guidelines to portray themselves as supportive of renewables within a dynamic energy industry. We posit that aspects of the energy democracy movement have been employed by electric utility companies, as shown through the use of the handbook, as a strategy for communicating with customers in discussions around net metering. We examine two case studies in states with recent controversial net-metering policy changes by analyzing utility company websites and press releases for the use of the communication handbook terminology. We found that, in both cases, the suggested language was used to position their companies as pro-renewable energy and their utility-scale projects as more equitable for their customers. In addition, we found differences between each company’s use of key terms from the handbook. We posit that this is due to the temporal context of each net-metering debate at the time of the handbook release. Conclusions and future directions for research in the growing area of energy democracy are discussed.

  18. The utility of including pathology reports in improving the computational identification of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD is a common autoimmune disorder. Efficient identification of patients may improve chronic management of the disease. Prior studies have shown searching International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9 codes alone is inaccurate for identifying patients with CD. In this study, we developed automated classification algorithms leveraging pathology reports and other clinical data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs to refine the subset population preselected using ICD-9 code (579.0. Materials and Methods: EHRs were searched for established ICD-9 code (579.0 suggesting CD, based on which an initial identification of cases was obtained. In addition, laboratory results for tissue transglutaminse were extracted. Using natural language processing we analyzed pathology reports from upper endoscopy. Twelve machine learning classifiers using different combinations of variables related to ICD-9 CD status, laboratory result status, and pathology reports were experimented to find the best possible CD classifier. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to assess the results. Results: A total of 1498 patient records were used including 363 confirmed cases and 1135 false positive cases that served as controls. Logistic model based on both clinical and pathology report features produced the best results: Kappa of 0.78, F1 of 0.92, and area under the curve (AUC of 0.94, whereas in contrast using ICD-9 only generated poor results: Kappa of 0.28, F1 of 0.75, and AUC of 0.63. Conclusion: Our automated classification system presented an efficient and reliable way to improve the performance of CD patient identification.

  19. Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure. PMID:24979234

  20. Public utilities regulatory policy act: Actual versus avoided costs of purchased cogenerated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.L.; McDowell, B.P.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter examines the actual cost of cogenerated electricity relative to the respective 'avoided costs' as set by the state regulatory commissions, and the cost of other utility purchased power. The chapter is based on 87 cogeneration facilities which have filed for qualifying status under PURPA (QFs). These 87 facilities, located throughout the US, have a combined capacity of nearly 5,700 megawatts - about one-fourth of the total filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and a much higher proportion of the capacity on line today. It should be noted that this chapter focuses on the avoided cost rate as established by the individual state PUCs relative to the rate paid for cogenerated electricity. No attempt was made to determine whether or not the avoided cost rates established accurately reflect the 'true' avoided cost of the individual utilities

  1. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated

  2. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  3. Moving from outsider to insider: peer status and partnerships between electricity utilities and residential consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure.

  4. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  5. Identification, definition and evaluation of potential impacts facing the US electric utility industry over the next decade. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grainger, J.J.; Lee, S.S.H.

    1993-11-26

    There are numerous conditions of the generation system that may ultimately develop into system states affecting system reliability and security. Such generation system conditions should also be considered when evaluating the potential impacts on system operations. The following five issues have been identified to impact system reliability and security to the greatest extent: transmission access/retail wheeling; non-utility generators and independent power producers; integration of dispersed storage and generation into utility distribution systems; EMF and right-of-way limitations; Clean Air Act Amendments. Strictly speaking, some issues are interrelated and one issue cannot be completely dissociated from the others. However, this report addresses individual issues separately in order to determine all major aspects of bulk power system operations affected by each issue. The impacts of the five issues on power system reliability and security are summarized. This report examines the five critical issues that the US electric utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility system reliability and security is limited to the system operation viewpoint. Those five issues will undoubtedly influence various planning aspects of the bulk transmission system. However, those subjects are beyond the scope of this report. While the issues will also influence the restructure and business of the utility industry politically, sociologically, environmentally, and economically, all discussion included in the report are focused only on technical ramifications.

  6. Electrical properties of transparent CNT and ITO coatings on PET substrate including nano-structural aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Man; Wang, Zuo-Jia; Kwon, Dong-Jun; Gu, Ga-Young; Lawrence DeVries, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra and surface resistance measurement were used to investigate optical transmittance and conductive properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Conductive CNT and ITO coatings were successfully fabricated on PET by a spray-coating method. Thin coatings of both materials exhibited good conductivity and transparency. Changes in electrical and optical properties of the coatings were studied as a function of the coating suspension concentration. Interfacial durability of the coatings on PET substrates was also investigated under fatigue and bending loads. CNT coated substrates, with high aspect ratios, exhibited no detectable change in surface resistance up to 2000 cyclic loadings, whereas the ITO coated substrates exhibited a substantial increase in surface resistance at 1000 loading cycles. This change in resistance is attributed to a reduction in the number and effectiveness of the electrical contact points due to the inherent brittle nature of ITO.

  7. Major aspects of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments relevant to the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lookman, A.A.; Bionda, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes those portions of the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act (referred to hereafter as the Act) that relate directly to electric utility operations. It describes the NO x emission standards and controls addressed in Title 1 to control ozone formation in the lower atmosphere, the air toxics controls proposed in Title 3 and the acid rain precursor controls promulgated in Title 4. The paper also describes the SO 2 allowance system and the emissions permitting and reporting process

  8. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  9. Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1990 and Preceding Years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-06-01

    This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1990 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. The report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1990 time period, and gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1990. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell annually to four sectors. Data is provided on each retail customer sector and also on the customers Bonneville serves directly: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. 21 figs., 40 tabs.

  10. An examination of electricity generation by utility organizations in the Southeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of climatic variability on electricity generation in the Southeast United States. The relationship cooling degree days (CDD) and heating degree days (HDD) shared with electricity generation by fuel source was explored. Using seasonal autoregressive integrated weighted average (ARIMA) and seasonal simple exponentially smoothed models, retrospective time series analysis was run. The hypothesized relationship between climatic variability and total electricity generation was supported, where an ARIMA model including CDDs as a predictor explained 57.6% of the variability. The hypothesis that climatic variability would be more predictive of fossil fuel electricity generation than electricity produced by clean energy sources was partially supported. The ARIMA model for natural gas indicated that CDDS were the only predictor for the fossil fuel source, and that 79.4% of the variability was explained. Climatic variability was not predictive of electricity generation from coal or petroleum, where simple seasonal exponentially smoothed models emerged. However, HDDs were a positive predictor of hydroelectric electricity production, where 48.9% of the variability in the clean energy source was explained by an ARIMA model. Implications related to base load electricity from fossil fuels, and future electricity generation projections relative to extremes and climate change are discussed. - Highlights: • Models run to examine impact of climatic variability on electricity generation. • Cooling degree days explained 57.6% of variability in total electricity generation. • Climatic variability was not predictive of coal or petroleum generation. • Cooling degree days explained 79.4% of natural gas generation. • Heating degree days were predictive of nuclear and hydroelectric generation.

  11. X - FACTOR EVALUATION UNDER RPI-X REGULATION FOR INDIAN ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION UTILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVAN KHETRAPAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With regulators’ growing interest in improving operational efficiency and quality supply, the time is nearing when performance based regulation will become norm for regulating the distribution tariff in Indian electricity distribution sector. In this context, the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions proposed replacing rate-of-return regulation with most commonly used performance based regulatory regime, i.e., Price Cap regulation also known as RPI-X (Retail Price Index - Productivity Offset regulatory framework. However, the potential problem associated with applying price cap regulation scheme in practice is the determination of productivity offset or X factor used in price caps setting. This paper proposed an approach to calculate the X-factor for 58 government-owned and privately-owned electricity distribution utilities in India during a five year period from 2007/08 to 2011/12. A Stochastic Frontier model through an input distance function is first applied to compute the Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (TFP and the estimated TFP is then used to calculate the utility-specific X-factor. With rely on calculated X-factor, the distribution utilities would be able to cap either on prices or revenues thus accounting the inflation in the tariff determination. This will be more realistic approach as compared to cost plus approach.

  12. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  13. Analytical Master Plan for the analysis of the data from the electric utility rate demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The Federal Energy Administration (now the US Department of Energy), in cooperation with state public utility commissions and participating utilities, has initiated 16 electric utility rate demonstration projects. The primary purpose of these projects was to evaluate experimentally the effects of time-of-use pricing of electricity for residential customers. The time-of-use rate most frequently employed was a time-of-day (TOD) rate. The method employed by the states to evaluate TOD rates was to select a subset of the residential population, place these people on TOD rates, and with special meters, monitor their temporal use of electricity. As might be expected, with the varying objectives of the states, available resources, and background in load management studies, a variety of approaches were employed, and a variety of data generated by the projects. Also, the received and expected analyses of the data vary considerably among the projects due to the differing interests of the states, available resources, and the composition of the project teams. The three purposes of this Analytical Master Plan (AMP) are: to ensure the data derived from the FEA projects and from related sources are subjected to econometric and statistical analysis that is both rigorous and as highly sophisticated as the state of the art will permit; to ensure that the results of the analysis are organized and displayed in a manner useful to utility and regulatory decision-makers; and to ensure that the analytical effort is conducted on a timely and professional basis. This report identifies the alternative analytical approaches, project specific analyses, project-pooled analyses and organization and management plan for completing the study. Synopses of all the demonstration projects are presented in the appendixes which are bound separately in Volume II.

  14. The regulatory treatment of adverse outcomes: Empirical evidence from the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two essays, both of them empirical studies using data from the US electric utility industry. Part I focuses on utilities' investment behavior, while Part II examines regulatory policy toward the industry. The first paper presents an analysis of utilities' decisions about whether to continue or cancel nuclear construction projects. During the seventies and eighties, changes in economic conditions and regulatory policy radically altered the costs and benefits of nuclear power. This study seeks to determine whether regulators pursued policies which induced utilities to employ socially efficient criteria in re-evaluating ongoing projects. The analysis also yields insights into regulators' distributional goals. Results based on data for 1978-84 are consistent with the capture theory hypothesis, which holds that regulators weigh industry interests more heavily than consumer interests. A test for structural change provides no support for the contention that the relative importance of consumer interests increased over this period. These empirical findings are inconsistent with a standard (and essential) assumption of theoretical principal-agent models of rate-of-return regulation, that regulators value consumers' payoffs more than utility profits. The second paper examines regulatory policy toward generating facilities that entered commercial service during the years 1983-88. In a significant departure from past practice, state public utility commissions often denied utilities full recovery of their investments in new plants. Although such ex post disallowances have an important efficiency rationale, they also provide a means for opportunistic regulators to effect transfers between utilities' ratepayers and shareholders. A probit model was used to assess the impact on the probability of a disallowance of firm and project characteristics as well as attributes of a state's political and institutional environment

  15. Modeling Interprovincial Cooperative Energy Saving in China: An Electricity Utilization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the world faces great challenges from climate change and environmental pollution, China urgently requires energy saving, emission reduction, and carbon reduction programmes. However, the non-cooperative energy saving model (NCESM, the simple regulation mode that is China’s main model for energy saving, is not beneficial for optimization of energy and resource distribution, and cannot effectively motivate energy saving at the provincial level. Therefore, we propose an interprovincial cooperative energy saving model (CESM from the perspective of electricity utilization, with the object of maximizing the benefits from electricity utilization of the cooperation union based on achieving the energy saving goals of the union as a whole. The CESM consists of two parts: (1 an optimization model that calculates the optimal quantities of electricity consumption for each participating province to meet the joint energy saving goal; and (2 a model that distributes the economic benefits of the cooperation among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. We applied the CESM to the case of an interprovincial union of Shanghai, Sichuan, Shanxi, and Gansu in China. The results, based on the data from 2001–2014, show that cooperation can significantly increase the benefits of electricity utilization for each province in the union. The total benefits of the union from utilization of electricity increased 38.38%, or 353.98 billion CNY, while the benefits to Shanghai, Sichuan, Shanxi, and Gansu were 200.28, 58.37, 57.11, and 38.22 billion CNY respectively greater under the CESM than the NCESM. The implementation of the CESM provides the provincial governments not only a flexible and incentive way to achieve short-term goals, but also a feasible and effective path to realize long-term energy saving strategies. To test the impact of different parameter values on the results of the CESM, a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Some policy

  16. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This document, Glossary, is the first in a series of reports to identify, describe, and apply techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric utility concepts. This report was developed with a focus on the currently evolving issues of ratemaking, especially as they might be expected to arise under Sections 101, 111, 113, 114, 131, 132, and 210 of the P.U.R.P.A. of 1978. Because the evolutionary process of ratemaking has led to multiple proceedings and changes of inference in some terms, the glossary attempts to delineate these changes where appropriate. Definitions not uniquely related to ratemaking are included if they are likely to be used in ratemaking proceedings. To avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and expense, the compilers relied heavily on previously developed, publicly available glossaries and definitions developed by organizations such as Edison Electric Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Existing definitions were revised and new ones were developed as appropriate.

  17. A Facile Approach to Tune the Electrical and Thermal Properties of Graphene Aerogels by Including Bulk MoS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphene aerogels (GAs have attracted extensive interest in diverse fields, owing to their ultrahigh surface area, low density and decent electrical conductivity. However, the undesirable thermal conductivity of GAs may limit their applications in energy storage devices. Here, we report a facile hydrothermal method to modulate both the electrical and thermal properties of GAs by including bulk molybdenum disulfide (MoS2. It was found that MoS2 can help to reduce the size of graphene sheets and improve their dispersion, leading to the uniform porous micro-structure of GAs. The electrical measurement showed that the electrical conductivity of GAs could be decreased by 87% by adding 0.132 vol % of MoS2. On the contrary, the thermal conductivity of GAs could be increased by ~51% by including 0.2 vol % of MoS2. The quantitative investigation demonstrated that the effective medium theories (EMTs could be applied to predict the thermal conductivity of composite GAs. Our findings indicated that the electrical and thermal properties of GAs can be tuned for the applications in various fields.

  18. A Facile Approach to Tune the Electrical and Thermal Properties of Graphene Aerogels by Including Bulk MoS₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feng; Liu, Xiongxiong; Yang, Yunlong; Xia, Dawei; Wang, Wenbin; Duong, Hai M; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V; Xu, Ziqiang; Liao, Jiaxuan; Wu, Mengqiang

    2017-12-01

    Graphene aerogels (GAs) have attracted extensive interest in diverse fields, owing to their ultrahigh surface area, low density and decent electrical conductivity. However, the undesirable thermal conductivity of GAs may limit their applications in energy storage devices. Here, we report a facile hydrothermal method to modulate both the electrical and thermal properties of GAs by including bulk molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂). It was found that MoS₂ can help to reduce the size of graphene sheets and improve their dispersion, leading to the uniform porous micro-structure of GAs. The electrical measurement showed that the electrical conductivity of GAs could be decreased by 87% by adding 0.132 vol % of MoS₂. On the contrary, the thermal conductivity of GAs could be increased by ~51% by including 0.2 vol % of MoS₂. The quantitative investigation demonstrated that the effective medium theories (EMTs) could be applied to predict the thermal conductivity of composite GAs. Our findings indicated that the electrical and thermal properties of GAs can be tuned for the applications in various fields.

  19. Overlapping Nuclear Safety Control Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act and Electric Utility Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gun-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Won; Koh, Jae-Dong; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Chang-Bum

    2007-01-01

    Before May 17, 2005, Korea's nuclear power plant (hereinafter referred to as 'NNP') regulation system was two-pronged. Every NPP system consists of primary or secondary system, and each type was respectively regulated by the Atomic Energy Act(hereinafter referred to as 'AEA') and the Electric Utility Act(hereinafter referred to as 'EUA'). This unusual regulatory regime gave rise to a number of problems with respect to operation and safety. For this reason, the Enforcement Regulation of AEA and applicable Notice were revised on May 17, 2005 to the effect that all regulation on NPPs subject to EUA was brought under the purview of AEA, except regulation on business license for nuclear power generation under Article 7 of EUA and approval of plan of works for setting up electric installations (hereinafter referred to as 'construction plan') (including approval of any changes; the same shall apply hereinafter) under Article 61 thereof. From the point of view of the Ministry of Science and Technology, the regulation of NPPs by a single law has enhanced their safety. However, the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy retains regulatory authority regarding NPPs. It reviews and approves construction plans for secondary system pursuant to Article 61 of EUA and Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation thereof. This situation arose because Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation of EUA continues to provide for matters related with nuclear power. Therefore, continued control of NPPs under EUA ignores the relationship and respective nature of AEA and EUA. There is also possibility of violation of a superseding law. Even if said provision is not in violation of a superseding law, Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation of EUA poses the possibility of overlapping regulation, which may violate the principle of prohibiting excessive regulation, one of the principles of the Korean Constitution. Assessment of the dual regulatory system for review of secondary system requires (i

  20. European Utility Requirements: leveling the European electricity producers' playing ground for new NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard Roche

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Since 1992, the European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been developed by the major European electricity producers. The main driver to this work has been the construction of a unified European market. The electricity producers have set out design requirements adapted to this new European environment, while keeping in mind experience feedback from operating NPPs worldwide. The EUR document is now fully operational and its set of generic requirements have been recently used as bid specification in Finland and in China. The EUR document keeps developing in two directions: 1- completing the assessment of the projects that could be proposed by the vendors for the European market. Five projects have been assessed between 1999 and 2002: BWR90, EPR, EP1000, ABWR and SWR1000. Two new projects are being assessed, the Westinghouse AP1000 and the Russian VVER AES92. It is currently planned to publish these two new assessments in the first half of 2006. Others may be undertaken meanwhile. 2- revision of the generic requirements. A revision C of the volume 4 dedicated to power generation plant is being completed. It includes responses to vendors comments and feedback from the TVO call for bid for Finland 5. A revision D of the volumes 1 and 2 dedicated to nuclear islands is foreseen. The main contributions to this revision are the harmonization actions going on in Europe about nuclear safety (WENRA study on reactor safety harmonization, EC works, evolution of the IAEA guides and requirements), the harmonization works on the conditions of connection to the European HV grid as well as harmonization works on other matters, like codes and standards. This has given a unified frame in which the future nuclear plants can be designed and built. In this frame development of standards designs usable throughout Europe without major design change is possible, thus helping to increase competition, and ultimately to save investment and operating costs

  1. Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 2: Scenarios and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, M.J.; Jeppesen, M.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Alpcan, T.; Dargaville, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second of a two part study that considers least cost, greenhouse gas abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 of this study formulated a model for determining these abatement pathways, and applied this model to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) for a single reference scenario. Part 2 of this study applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. These include cases where nuclear power generation and CCS (carbon capture and storage) are implemented in Australia, which is presently not the case, as well as a more detailed examination of how an extended, RPS (renewable portfolio standard) might perform. The effect of future fuel costs and different discount rates are also examined. Several results from this study are thought to be significant. Most importantly, this study suggests that Australia already has utility scale technologies, renewable and non-renewable resources, an electricity market design and an abatement policy that permit continued progress towards deep greenhouse gas abatement in its electricity sector. In particular, a RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears to be close to optimal as a greenhouse gas abatement policy for Australia's electricity sector for at least the next 10–15 years. - Highlights: • Considers scenarios and policy implications for Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). • An extended form of RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears near optimal until roughly 2030. • For up to 80% abatement, the inclusion of nuclear achieves only marginal benefit by 2050. • CCS (Carbon capture and storage) does not appear competitive with current cost estimates.

  2. Context analysis for a new regulatory model for electric utilities in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hage, Fabio S.; Rufín, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This article examines what would have to change in the Brazilian regulatory framework in order to make utilities profit from energy efficiency and the integration of resources, instead of doing so from traditional consumption growth, as it happens at present. We argue that the Brazilian integrated electric sector resembles a common-pool resources problem, and as such it should incorporate, in addition to the centralized operation for power dispatch already in place, demand side management, behavioral strategies, and smart grids, attained through a new business and regulatory model for utilities. The paper proposes several measures to attain a more sustainable and productive electricity distribution industry: decoupling revenues from volumetric sales through a fixed maximum load fee, which would completely offset current disincentives for energy efficiency; the creation of a market for negawatts (saved megawatts) using the current Brazilian mechanism of public auctions for the acquisition of wholesale energy; and the integration of technologies, especially through the growth of unregulated products and services. Through these measures, we believe that Brazil could improve both energy security and overall sustainability of its power sector in the long run. - Highlights: • Necessary changes in the Brazilian regulatory framework towards energy efficiency. • How to incorporate demand side management, behavioral strategies, and smart grids. • Proposition of a market for negawatts at public auctions. • Measures to attain a more sustainable electricity distribution industry in Brazil.

  3. 75 FR 11920 - General Electric Lighting-Ravenna Lamp Plant, Lighting Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Electric Lighting-Ravenna Lamp Plant, Lighting Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Devore Technologies, Ravenna, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment...

  4. 75 FR 11918 - General Electric Kentucky Glass Plant, Lighting, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,011] General Electric Kentucky Glass Plant, Lighting, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From the Patty Tipton Company, Aetna Building Maintenance, and Concentra, Lexington, KY; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordanc...

  5. Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery to avoid wind power deviation penalties in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turker, Burak; Arroyo Klein, Sebastian; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Trujillo, Juan José; Bremen, Lueder von; Kühn, Martin; Busse, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Vanadium redox flow battery utilized for wind power grid integration was studied. • Technical and financial analyses at single wind farm level were performed. • 2 MW/6 MW h VRFB is suitable for mitigating power deviations for a 10 MW wind farm. • Economic incentives might be required in the short-term until the VRFB prices drop. - Abstract: Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) for better market integration of wind power at a single wind farm level was evaluated. A model which combines a VRFB unit and a medium sized (10 MW) wind farm was developed and the battery was utilized to compensate for the deviations resulting from the forecast errors in an electricity market bidding structure. VRFB software model which was introduced in our previous paper was integrated with real wind power data, power forecasts and market data based on the Spanish electricity market. Economy of the system was evaluated by financial assessments which were done by considering the VRFB costs and the amount of deviation penalty payments resulting from forecast inaccuracies

  6. Business case for implementing two ergonomic interventions at an electric power utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Patricia A; Marklin, Richard W

    2003-09-01

    Ergonomics analysis of line workers in the electric power industry who work overhead on utility poles revealed some tasks for which less than 1% of the general population had sufficient strength to perform. During a 2-year study, a large Midwestern US electric utility provided a university with a team of represented workers and management. They evaluated, recommended, and monitored interventions for 32 common line worker tasks that were rated at medium to high magnitude of risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Two of the recommended ergonomic interventions-the battery-operated press and cutter-were selected by the team as having the greatest potential for reducing risk factors of MSDs. Only overhead distribution line worker tasks were evaluated. A business case was formulated that took into account medical injury and illness statistics, workers' compensation, replacement worker and retraining costs. An outline of a business case formulation and a sample intervention payback calculation is shown. Based on the business case, the utility committed over US dollars 300000 to purchase battery-operated presses and cutters for their overhead distribution line crews.

  7. Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

    2009-06-01

    Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

  8. Utilization of surplus electricity from wind power for dynamic biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The methanation of CO2 has been increasingly discussed for the potential long term storage of electricity and for facilitating grid load management. Using the regions of northern Germany as a case study, the feasibility of CO2 conversion from biogas plants and its integration in existing natural ...... that with 480 biogas plants in the region would be able to utilize up to 0.7 TWh surplus electricity could be used to produce 100 106 m3 at standard temperature and pressure of upgraded methane per year.......The methanation of CO2 has been increasingly discussed for the potential long term storage of electricity and for facilitating grid load management. Using the regions of northern Germany as a case study, the feasibility of CO2 conversion from biogas plants and its integration in existing natural...... gas grid was examined in this study. Furthermore the material and energy flows of in the methanation process, were evaluated to provide expression for the quantities of excess electrical energy which could be potentially stored using the biogas integrated systems. The study results showed...

  9. Identifying the changes of geo-engineering properties of dunites due to weathering utilizing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ündül, Ömer; Tuğrul, Atiye; Özyalın, Şenol; Halil Zarif, İ.

    2015-04-01

    Weathering phenomena have an important role in many construction facilities with varying depths and grades. Due to the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of weathering profiles of some rocks, uncertainities exist in determining the geo-engineering properties. Geo-electrical studies have been utilized to overcome such uncertainities for various subsurface conditions including the determination of boundaries between weathered and unweathered parts of different rock types. In this study, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) results were correlated with conventional methods in determining the effects of weathering on the geo-engineering properties of dunites. During the research, weathering grades were determined by field studies including discontinuity spacings, aperture and properties of fill materials. The detailed petrographical studies, determination of petrophysical properties (e.g. water absorption and effective porosity) and mechanical properties (e.g. unconfined compressive strength (UCS)) constitute the laboratory studies. ERT studies were carried out in a row of sixty electrodes with electrode spacings of 0.5 m utilizing a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. According to the comparison of the inversion model sections with the weathering profiles obtained by field and laboratory studies it is concluded that the use of ERT with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration supplies comparable data for wider subsurface areas from the view of weathering and its effect on geo-engineering properties of dunites. In addition, ERT techniques are very useful where conventional techniques are inadequate in determining the full weathering profile.

  10. Possibilities and Barriers for Energy Conservation in a Liberalised Electricity Market: Danish Utility Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1999-01-01

    development.Commercial competition has a short time horizon and a goal function of profit maximizing. In contrast to this, creation of a sustainable development requires long time horizons and comprehensive societal planning and regulation.This paper analyses the possibilities and barriers for promoting...... a sustainable energy development in efficiency and energy conservation. The electric utilities play an important role in this relation, but their priority is of commercial nature rather than concern for the environment. This dilemma is analyzed in more detail in the paper....

  11. Electric Utility Rate Design Study: comments on two costing approaches for time-differentiated rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashburn, R.E.

    1977-03-08

    A critique of consultants' reports on Topic 4 (Costing for Peak-Load Pricing) of EEI/EPRI Electric Utility Rate Design Study is presented. Correlated areas of Topic 1.3 are identified. The first critique is of NERA's August 15, 1976 Draft Report on How to Quantify Marginal Costs. The second critique is of Ebasco Services, Inc., September 8, 1976 Draft Report on Costing for Peak-Load Pricing. References made to Topic 1.3 refer to the September 15, 1976 Ebasco draft of Topic 1.3. (MCW)

  12. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  13. The Effects of Rising Interest Rates on Electric Utility Stock Prices: Regulatory Considerations and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This technical brief identifies conditions under which utility regulators should consider implementing policy approaches that seek to mitigate negative outcomes due to an increase in interest rates. Interest rates are a key factor in determining a utility’s cost of equity and investors find value when returns exceed the cost of equity. Through historical observations of periods of rising and falling interest rates and application of a pro forma financial tool, we identify the key drivers of utility stock valuations and estimate the degree to which those valuations might be affected by increasing interest rates.3 We also analyze the efficacy of responses by utility regulators to mitigate potential negative financial impacts. We find that regulators have several possible approaches to mitigate a decline in value in an environment of increasing interest rates, though regulators must weigh the tradeoffs of improving investor value with potential increases in customer costs. Furthermore, the range of approaches reflects today’s many different electric utility regulatory models and regulatory responses to a decline in investor value will fit within state-specific models.

  14. 77 FR 134 - In the Matter of Yankee Atomic Electric Company; Northeast Utilities; NSTAR (Yankee Nuclear Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Yankee Atomic Electric Company; Northeast Utilities; NSTAR (Yankee Nuclear Power Station); Order Approving Application Regarding Proposed Merger I Yankee Atomic Electric Company (Yankee Atomic or the licensee) is the holder of...

  15. Electric Utility Rate Design Study: EBASCO'S responses to questions from Task Force 4, Topic 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-30

    Task Force 4 of the Electric Utility Rate Design Study generated questions for EBASCO dealing with the report, Costing for Peak Load Pricing: Topic 4, Results for Virginia Electric Power Company, June 6, 1977. Questions and answers are reported here and are for general information of the industry.

  16. Comfort and performance of power line maintainers' gloves during electrical utility work in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S; Boyle, C; Wells, R

    2014-01-01

    Electrical utility workers wear thick rubber gloves and often work in the cold. To document the challenge of working in the cold and the effectiveness of different glove/liner combinations in keeping workers' hands warm. Ten experienced male electrical utility employees worked in a controlled temperature walk-in chamber at -20 °C for 45 minutes for each of five glove conditions: standard five-finger rubber gloves with cotton liners and gauntlets, mitten style gloves, a prototype wool liner, and two heating options; glove or torso. Dependent measures were maximum grip force, skin temperatures, finger dexterity and sensitivity to touch, ratings of perceived effort and a rating of thermal sensation. Participants' hand skin temperatures decreased, they perceived their hands to be much colder, their finger sensitivity decreased and their ratings of perceived exertion increased, however their performance did not degrade over the 45 minute trials. The mitten-style gloves showed a smaller drop in skin temperature for the 3rd and 5th digits (pglove conditions. Mitten style gloves kept workers' hands warmer than the standard five finger glove.

  17. Broadband internet connection utilizing electric power cables, v. 16(61)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastinovski, Jovche

    2008-01-01

    Considering the introduction of wide spread communication, once again, pay our attention to the oldest network in Macedonia(and world wide)- the electrical network. Being widespread, it can make the broadband communication available from any place that has an electrical connection. This includes the rural areas, which the commercial companies are not interested in. Since the early 80-ties the big power companies have realized the potential of the use electric network for communication. its beginning had faced with difficulties, since in order to send data via the noisy interferes with other units such as the radio and military equipment. But nowadays these obstacles are more or lass overcame. Some of the companies are using BPL (broadband power lines) communication for their daily operations, while in the same time this relatively new technology for data transfer over power lines is under heavy developing. (Author)

  18. The evolution of the status of local electric and gas utilities in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivault, S.

    2004-06-01

    With the establishment of a common gas and electricity market, the early 21. century is marked by important transformations in the public energy service. Directives 96/92 and 98/30, and directives 2003/54 and 2003/55, make important changes in the regulations concerning gas and electricity activates. In France, the Electricity Act 2000 (10/02/2000) and the Gas Act 2003 (03/01/2003) partially opened the public sector power distribution system to competition. These new rules will drastically modify all operators situations, including that of french local distributors (such as the 'regies', the 'SEML', or the 'SICAE or other cooperatives') who have always been, since being left out of the nationalization process, in a monopolistic situation. In order to succeed in the transition towards a free market economy, french local distributors will have to evolve from their network operator status to that of market operator by renewing their structural organisation and diversifying their activities. (author)

  19. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine

  20. Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 1: Problem formulation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, M.; Brear, M.J.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Dargaville, R.; Alpcan, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first of a two part study that considers long term, least cost, GHG (greenhouse gas) abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 formulates a planning model to optimise these pathways and presents results for a single reference scenario. Part 2 applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. The planning model formulated has several constraints which are important when considering GHG abatement and widespread uptake of intermittent renewable generation. These constraints do not appear to have been integrated into a single planning model previously, and include constraints on annual GHG emissions, unit commitment, storage, plant dynamics and intermittent renewable generation. The model prioritises overall abatement, and therefore does not include a price on carbon or support for any particular technology. The model is applied to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) as an example. All model inputs – for technologies, demand, and meteorological data – are from the most current and authoritative public sources. As such, the results are transparently derived and both policy and technology neutral. For the reference scenario presented here, key technologies are wind from 2015, gas generation from 2030, and solar generation from 2040. - Highlights: • An electricity system planning model for least-cost long term abatement is presented. • The model has inter-temporal constraints (linearised commitment and utility storage). • The model is applied to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) as a case study. • Key technologies: wind from 2015, CCGT from 2030, and solar (PV & thermal) from 2040.

  1. DIAMOND: A model of incremental decision making for resource acquisition by electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.; Hirst, E.; Yourstone, E.

    1991-02-01

    Uncertainty is a major issue facing electric utilities in planning and decision making. Substantial uncertainties exist concerning future load growth; the lifetimes and performances of existing power plants; the construction times, costs, and performances of new resources being brought online; and the regulatory and economic environment in which utilities operate. This report describes a utility planning model that focuses on frequent and incremental decisions. The key features of this model are its explicit treatment of uncertainty, frequent user interaction with the model, and the ability to change prior decisions. The primary strength of this model is its representation of the planning and decision-making environment that utility planners and executives face. Users interact with the model after every year or two of simulation, which provides an opportunity to modify past decisions as well as to make new decisions. For example, construction of a power plant can be started one year, and if circumstances change, the plant can be accelerated, mothballed, canceled, or continued as originally planned. Similarly, the marketing and financial incentives for demand-side management programs can be changed from year to year, reflecting the short lead time and small unit size of these resources. This frequent user interaction with the model, an operational game, should build greater understanding and insights among utility planners about the risks associated with different types of resources. The model is called DIAMOND, Decision Impact Assessment Model. In consists of four submodels: FUTURES, FORECAST, SIMULATION, and DECISION. It runs on any IBM-compatible PC and requires no special software or hardware. 19 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Can we delay the replacement of this component?-an asset management approach to the question [for electric utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Jensen, A. Norsk

    2001-01-01

    Asset management is emerging as a new approach on how to exploit an electric utility physical asset in the most profitable way. One of the major questions to answer by the asset management staff is when to do replacements? This is a difficult question, which require weighting of several parameters...... of totally different nature-e.g. reliability data, operating cost and condition information. This paper presents an asset management approach which answer the question "When to replace a component?" The presented model address the problem in direct economic terms, and the model is capable of evaluating...... consequences of replacing today or later, so the most cost-efficient solutions can be reached. A software system, VefoNet, has been developed in a common Nordic project. The system includes the described model as well as other asset management models. The system also includes a data collection system based...

  3. Cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue method for ERDA/EPRI evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation and maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

  4. Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Allan

    This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an

  5. Factors that distinguish serious versus less severe strain and sprain injuries: an analysis of electric utility workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsh, Michael A; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Lau, Edmund C; Mink, Pamela J; Morimoto, Libby M; Lu, Elizabeth T; Yager, Janice W

    2009-03-01

    Occupational sprain and strain injuries are one of the most common types of nonfatal occupational injuries and a significant source of lost workdays. This study examines factors associated with severe work-related sprain/strain injuries to the back, shoulder, and knees. A synthetic case-control study was performed (controls were selected from the same pool of utility workers as cases). Cases included all electric utility workers who had experienced a severe work-related sprain/strain injury to the back, knee, or shoulder. Primary controls were selected from all workers who had sustained a minor injury. Secondary controls were selected from employees with a minor sprain/strain injury to the back, knee, or shoulder. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Workers 41 years and older were more likely to have experienced severe shoulder sprain/strain injuries [Age 41-50: OR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.71-7.65; age 51 and older: OR = 4.49, 95% CI: 1.89-10.67] and severe back sprain/strain injuries [Age 41-50: OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.06-2.33; age 51 and older: OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.90-2.52]. Line workers and maintenance workers had an increased risk of serious sprain/strain injuries. Gender and day of week were not significantly associated with sprain/strain injuries. Though this study is limited by available data, future studies may benefit from this preliminary examination of occupational and demographic characteristics associated with serious sprain/strain injuries among electric utility workers.

  6. Cost-Utility Analysis of Extending Public Health Insurance Coverage to Include Diabetic Retinopathy Screening by Optometrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwyk, Sasha; Jin, Ya-Ping; Trope, Graham E; Buys, Yvonne; Masucci, Lisa; Wedge, Richard; Flanagan, John; Brent, Michael H; El-Defrawy, Sherif; Tu, Hong Anh; Thavorn, Kednapa

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness in Canada. Eye examinations play an important role in early detection. However, DR screening by optometrists is not always universally covered by public or private health insurance plans. This study assessed whether expanding public health coverage to include diabetic eye examinations for retinopathy by optometrists is cost-effective from the perspective of the health care system. We conducted a cost-utility analysis of extended coverage for diabetic eye examinations in Prince Edward Island to include examinations by optometrists, not currently publicly covered. We used a Markov chain to simulate disease burden based on eye examination rates and DR progression over a 30-year time horizon. Results were presented as an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists was associated with higher costs ($9,908,543.32) and improved QALYs (156,862.44), over 30 years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1668.43/QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential determinants of the results were the cost of optometric screening and selected utility scores. At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that the new policy was cost-effective was 99.99%. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists is cost-effective based on a commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY. Findings from this study can inform the decision to expand public-insured optometric services for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  8. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  9. Electric power annual 1995. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

  10. Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

  11. The liberalization of the electric market from the view of a public utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, J.

    1999-01-01

    The competition associated with the liberalization of the electric power-supply markets and the altered customers behavior will require a fundamental reorientation in all commercial areas of the energy supply companies (ESC).The companies will only master these new challenges if they react promptly and in an appropriate flexible manner as well as with the demanded orientation attached to the market and to the customers. The strategy of reorientation of the ESC will be determined more and more by the customers and by demand less by supply and technology. The competition on the power-supply market will take predominately place in production and in commercialization. Thereby the commercialization of demand oriented products will be of increasing importance. On the partial markets of 'Industrial' and 'Contract'-customers and electric power trade the energy-suppliers must operate with different strategies. For the power-supplier the following results as consequences of the environment's change: trend to competition is irreversible, areas of creation of economic values are more important than supply stages, the net remains monopoly, new market participants will appear, the competition in the production will increase. The management-orientated way of the Grazer StadtwerkeAG as a public utility is to read as follows: increase the competence for competition, focus on the customer. (author)

  12. Design of a high-temperature superconductor current lead for electric utility SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Cha, Y.S.; Hull, J.R.; Rey, C.M.; Dixon, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Current leads that rely on high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to deliver power to devices operating at liquid helium temperature have the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements to levels significantly below those achievable with conventional leads. The design of HTS current leads suitable for use in near-term superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is in progress. The SMES system has an 0.5 MWh energy capacity and a discharge power of 30 MW. Lead-design considerations include safety and reliability, electrical and thermal performance, structural integrity, manufacturability, and cost. Available details of the design, including materials, configuration, and performance predictions, are presented

  13. Measuring the costs of photovoltaics in an electric utility planning framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awerbuch, Shimon

    1993-01-01

    Utility planning models evaluate alternative generating options using the revenue requirements method-an engineering-oriented, discounted cash-flow (DCF) methodology that has been widely used for over three decades. Discounted cash-flow techniques were conceived in the context of active expense-intensive technologies, such as conventional, fuel-intensive power generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology, by contrast, is passive and capital intensive-attributes that are similar to those of other new process technologies, such as computer-integrated manufacturing. Discounted cash-flow techniques have a dismal record for correctly valuing new technologies with these attributes, in part because their benefits cannot be easily measured using traditional accounting concepts. This paper examines how these issues affect cost measurement in both conventional and PV-based electricity, and presents kWh-cost estimates for three technologies (coal, gas and PV) using risk-adjusted approaches, which suggest that PV costs are generally equivalent to the gas/combined cycle and about twice the cost of base-load coal (environmental externalities are ignored). Finally, the paper evaluates independent power purchases for a typical US utility and finds that in such a setting the cost of PV-based power is comparable to the firm's published avoided costs. (author)

  14. Summary of the research and development effort on steam plants for electric-utility service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1981-06-01

    The development of steam power plants for electric utility service over the past century is reviewed with particular emphasis on the prime problems and their solution. Increases in steam pressure and temperature made possible by developments in metallurgy led to an increase in thermal efficiency by a factor of 8 between 1880 and 1955. Further improvements have not been made because the use of still more expensive alloys is not economically justified, even with the much higher fuel prices of the latter 1970's. In fact, EPA regulations on waste heat and sulfur emissions have led to the use of cooling towers and wet limestone stack gas scrubbers that cause a degradation in plant thermal efficiency. The various possibilities for further improvements in efficiency and their problems are examined. The development of steam power plants in the past has been carried out in sufficiently small steps that the utilities and the equipment manufacturers have been able to assume the financial risk involved; but the fluidized-bed combustion system, which appears to be the most promising area, presents such a large step with major uncertainties that U.S. government financial support of the research and development effort appears to be required. The potential benefits appear to justify the research and development cost many times over.

  15. Methodology for electrical studies in industrial networks including the study of electric arc; Metodologia para los estudios electricos en redes industriales incluyendo el estudio de arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasgado Casique, Jose Pepe; Silva Farias, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jrasgado@iie.org.mx; jlsilva@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents a methodology for conducting electrical studies in industrial networks. The methodology included the study of arc flash as a very important area of current basic electrical studies, such as power flow, short circuit and coordination. The aim of this study is to determine the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and flash protection boundary for personnel working with or near energized equipment, based on the IEEE Std 1584-2004 and NFPA-70E- 2004. Also included are criteria and recommendations to reduce incident energy level (cal/cm{sup 2}). At work we used a distribution network for industrial type test. The studies were carried out using a commercial program for the analysis of electrical networks. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para llevar a cabo los estudios electricos en redes industriales. En la metodologia se incluye al estudio de arco electrico como un area muy importante de los estudios electricos basicos actuales, como: flujos de potencia, cortocircuito y coordinacion de protecciones. El objetivo de dicho estudio es determinar el Equipo de Proteccion Personal (EPP) apropiado y los limites de proteccion para el personal que opera con o cerca de equipo energizado, con base en las normas IEEE Std. 1584-2004 y la NFPA-70E-2004. Ademas, se incluyen criterios y recomendaciones para disminuir el nivel de energia incidente (cal/cm{sup 2}). En el trabajo se utilizo una red de distribucion tipo industrial de prueba. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo utilizando un programa comercial para el analisis de redes electricas.

  16. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  17. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: financial history and future power requirements for the VACAR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Financial data for the period 1966 to 1981 are presented for the four investor-owned electric utilities in the VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas) region. This region was selected as representative for the purpose of assessing the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power for the future in the United States. The estimated demand for power and planned additions to generating capacity for the region through the year 2000 are also given.

  18. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: financial history and future power requirements for the VACAR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Financial data for the period 1966 to 1981 are presented for the four investor-owned electric utilities in the VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas) region. This region was selected as representative for the purpose of assessing the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power for the future in the United States. The estimated demand for power and planned additions to generating capacity for the region through the year 2000 are also given

  19. 78 FR 36768 - Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  20. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  1. The application of financial options theory to electric utility decision making in integrated resource planning and maintenance shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, F.

    1995-01-01

    Increased competition in wholesale power generation will allow electric utilities to use financial models to improve their decision making. This competition will result in the creation of electricity spot, futures, and forward markets, which will provide necessary information for utility executives to used advance financial tools, such as random walk models and options theory. These models will allow executives to place a value on risk. Once this value is known, executives can determine how best to manage that risk, whether by entering into financial transactions, adjusting their operational and planning decisions, or both

  2. A critical assessment of the Hong Kong Government's proposed post-2008 regulatory regime for local electricity utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Chi-Keung; Horowitz, Ira; Tishler, Asher

    2006-01-01

    In December 2005, the Hong Kong Government issued a 'Consultation Paper on Future Development of the Electricity Markets in Hong Kong: Stage II Consultation,' proposing a post-2008 regulatory regime upon the expiration of the existing regulatory contract between the Hong Kong Government and each of the two local electricity utilities. We assess the proposal using the criteria of safe, reliable, and environmentally friendly service at the lowest rates that will allow the utilities reasonable returns on their investments. We caution that if fully adopted, the highly risky proposal may lead to less-reliable service without the compensating benefits to the environment

  3. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  4. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  5. How many years should I be married: Long-term power contracts in the electric utility industry in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Ferre, Alberto

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation deals with the effects of long-term power contracts in the electric utility in Texas on consumer welfare, investigating economic and legal aspects of price formation. The study focuses on the institutions---vertical integration and contractual arrangements---that govern the transactions between the different links in the electricity provision chain and its effects on retail electricity prices for residential, commercial and industrial customers. The main hypothesis is that long-term power contracts serve as an uncertainty reduction mechanism to the buyer by clearly defining the conditions of the exchange for a significant period of time. In turn, this reduction of uncertainty is compensated by a premium to the seller in the form of higher prices. It is found that long-term wholesale power contracts present varying levels of flexibility in the terms of the exchange that are directly translated into prices and bills, providing support to the main hypothesis. Control variables include the role of new technologies, degree of competition and population demographics. Each control variable has differing impacts of different customer classes, depending on their demand elasticity. The study poses several interesting policy implications. First, the institutions that will govern and supervise the functioning of the market have an important weight in its success. The results indicate that competition cannot be a policy objective in itself There is a balancing act between the additional needs of a functional market in terms of infrastructure, information and coordination, and the inefficiencies that occur for lack of consumer options. Second, all customers are not equal. Some customer classes have fewer alternatives than others do, their consumption patterns differ and their dependence on electricity varies. Therefore, a policy that treats all customer classes the same will produce an inferior outcome. Third, the relevant environment matters. Legislative

  6. Reducing uncertainty – responses for electricity utilities to severe solar storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaunt Charles Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, electricity utilities in mid- and low-latitude regions believed that solar storms had no (or only insignificant effect on their power systems. Then it was noticed that the onset of damage in several large transformers, leading to their failure, correlated very closely with the Halloween storm of 2003. Since then engineers have started to appreciate that a very severe storm could have serious consequences outside the high-latitude regions. There are many uncertainties in predicting the effects of solar storms on electrical systems. The severity and time of arrival of a storm are difficult to model; so are the geomagnetically induced currents (GICs expected to flow in the power networks. Published information about the responses of different types of transformers to GICs is contradictory. Measurements of the abnormal power flows in networks during solar storms generally do not take into account the effects of the current distortion and unbalance, potentially giving misleading signals to the operators. The normal requirement for optimum system management, while allowing for the possibility of faults caused by lightning, birds and other causes, limits the capacity of system operators to respond to the threats of GICs, which are not assessed easily by the N − 1 reliability criterion. A utility’s response to the threat of damage by GICs depends on the expected frequency and magnitude of solar storms. Approaches to formulating a response are located in a system model incorporating space physics, network analysis, transformer engineering, network reliability and decision support and the benefits are identified. Approaches adopted in high-latitude regions might not be appropriate where fewer storms are expected to reach damaging levels. The risks of an extreme storm cannot be ignored, and understanding the response mechanisms suitable for low-latitude regions has the capacity to inform and reduce the uncertainty for power systems

  7. Variables contributing to an excellent customer service management profile within the regulated electric utility industry: A comparison of self-concept with customer satisfaction for customer service management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    This research sought to address the relationship between self-concept and customer satisfaction: can customer satisfaction with a major electric utility be explained in terms of the self-reported, self-concept of the utility's managers The population to which the results of this study were generalized consisted of customer service managers in public electric utilities across the United States. In order to represent this population, a sample was selected consisting of customer service managers at a midwestern electric utility based in a large metropolitan area. Participants in this study were managers of four direct customer contact service organizations within six geographic division organizations. The methodology included comparisons of these four customer contact service organizations on twelve independent, self-concept variables and six customer satisfaction dependent variables using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Scheffe' tests, Chi-Square, and Stepwise multiple regression. The groups were found not to be significantly different and knowledge of the self-concept scores for managers will not increase the ability to predict customer satisfaction over no knowledge of self-concept scores.

  8. Exploring the relationship between planning and procurement in Western U.S. electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Sanstad, Alan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division

    2017-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an important regulatory process used in many U.S. states to formulate and evaluate least-cost and risk-assessed portfolios to meet future load requirements for electric utilities. In principle, effective implementation of IRP seeks to assure regulators and the public that utility investment decisions, given uncertainty, are as cost-effective as possible. However, to date, there is no empirical assessment on the effectiveness of IRP implementation. In this analysis, we compare planning, procurement processes and actual decisions for a sample of twelve load serving entities (LSEs) across the Western U. S. from 2003-2014. The 2008/2009 recession provides a unique “stress test” to the planning process and offers an excellent opportunity to trace how procurement decisions responded to this largely unforeseen event. In aggregate, there is a general alignment between planned and procured supply-side capacity. However, there are significant differences in the choice of supply-side resources and type of ownership for individual LSEs. We develop case studies for three LSEs and find that subsequent plans differ significantly due to changes in the planning environment and that procurement decisions in some cases are impacted by factors that are not accounted for in the planning process. Our results reveal that a limited amount of information produced during the long-term planning process (e.g., forecasts, methods, and least cost/risk portfolios) are ultimately used during the procurement process, and that the latter process relies extensively on the most recent information available for decision making. These findings suggest that states' IRP rules and regulations mandating long-term planning horizons with the same analytical complexity throughout the planning period may not create useful information for the procurement process. The social value of a long-term planning process that departs from procurement and the balance between

  9. Operational synergy in the US electric utility industry under an influence of deregulation policy: A linkage to financial performance and corporate value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2011-01-01

    have examined a synergy effect between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. They have compared electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in their financial performance and corporate value. A problem of their study is that it has not empirically measured the operational performance of the electric utility firms. As an extension of the preceding study, this research investigates the operational performance of 104 US electric utility firms (1990-2004) by fully utilizing DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis). This study finds the three new policy implications. First, the synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. Thus, core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. Second, the operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996. Thus, the US deregulation policy has been influential on their operational performance. Third, the enhancement in operational performance of electric utility firms has improved their financial performance. The improvement in financial performance has increased their corporate value. Thus, this study finds the business causality among operational performance, financial performance and corporate value in the US electric utility industry. - Research Highlights: →The synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. →Core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. →The operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996.

  10. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of the Finnish electricity distribution utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria; Svento, Rauli

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of Finnish electricity distribution utilities. We estimate several panel data stochastic frontier specifications using both Cobb-Douglas and Translog model specifications. The conventional models are extended in order to model observed heterogeneity explicitly in the cost frontier models. The true fixed effects model has been used as a representative of the models which account for unobserved heterogeneity and extended conventional random effect models have been used in analysing the impact of observed heterogeneity. A comparison between the conventional random effects model and models where heterogeneity component is entered either into the mean or into the variance of the inefficiency term shows that relative efficiency scores diminish when heterogeneity is added to the analysis. The true fixed effects model on the other hand gives clearly smaller inefficiency scores than random effects models. In the paper we also show that the relative inefficiency scores and rankings are not sensitive to the cost function specification. Our analysis points out the importance of the efficient use of the existing distribution network. The economies of scale results suggest that firms could reduce their operating costs by using networks more efficiently. According to our results average size firms which have high load factors are the most efficient ones. All firms have unused capacities so that they can improve cost-effectiveness rather by increasing the average distributed volumes than by mergers

  11. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of the Finnish electricity distribution utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria; Svento, Rauli [Department of Economics, University of Oulu (Finland)

    2008-03-15

    This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of Finnish electricity distribution utilities. We estimate several panel data stochastic frontier specifications using both Cobb-Douglas and Translog model specifications. The conventional models are extended in order to model observed heterogeneity explicitly in the cost frontier models. The true fixed effects model has been used as a representative of the models which account for unobserved heterogeneity and extended conventional random effect models have been used in analysing the impact of observed heterogeneity. A comparison between the conventional random effects model and models where heterogeneity component is entered either into the mean or into the variance of the inefficiency term shows that relative efficiency scores diminish when heterogeneity is added to the analysis. The true fixed effects model on the other hand gives clearly smaller inefficiency scores than random effects models. In the paper we also show that the relative inefficiency scores and rankings are not sensitive to the cost function specification. Our analysis points out the importance of the efficient use of the existing distribution network. The economies of scale results suggest that firms could reduce their operating costs by using networks more efficiently. According to our results average size firms which have high load factors are the most efficient ones. All firms have unused capacities so that they can improve cost-effectiveness rather by increasing the average distributed volumes than by mergers. (author)

  12. Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for potential service in electric utility gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, R. J.; Lau, S. K.; Lee, S. Y.

    1982-01-01

    The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in electric utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high potential for service in gas turbines burning the relatively clean GT No. 2 fuel. However, coating improvements are needed for use in turbines burning lower grade fuel such as residual oil. The duplex ZrO2.8Y2O3/NiCrA1Y coating was ranked highest and selected for near-term field testing, with Ca2SiO4/NiCrA1Y ranked second. Graded coatings show potential for corrosive turbine operating conditions and warrant further development. The coating degradation mechanisms for each coating system subjected to the various environmental conditions are also described.

  13. SERI's photovoltaic research project: A foundation for tomorrow's utility-scale electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. L.; Surek, T.

    1988-05-01

    Recent progress and future directions in PV research managed by SERI for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are reviewed. The primary emphases of the research are on thin-film single-junction and multijunction devices. However, work also continues on advanced crystalline silicon sheet materials. Improvements in materials and processing, solar cell design, and cell fabrication techniques have led to continuing improvements in cell efficiencies in nearly all material areas. Recent research has identified the criticality of source-material purity and device-processing conditions for different PV materials. Attention to total device design and processing has increased understanding of metallic contacts, transparent conductors, and intermediate layers. Sophisticated models have been developed to quickly assess device concepts. Enhanced measurement and characterization techniques, along with increased interactions among PV scientists, are adding to the strong foundation of photovoltaics. Future directions in PV research are given in the recent Five Year Research Plan prepared by DOE. The plan is predicated on partnerships among the Federal government, private firms, universities, and electric utilities. As part of a consensus review of the plan, this multifaceted PV community identified the specific technical goals and pertinent R and D needed for success. These technical goals and future research are described in detail.

  14. Does employee safety influence customer satisfaction? Evidence from the electric utility industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P Geoffrey; Brown, Karen A; Prussia, Gregory E

    2012-12-01

    Research on workplace safety has not examined implications for business performance outcomes such as customer satisfaction. In a U.S. electric utility company, we surveyed 821 employees in 20 work groups, and also had access to archival safety data and the results of a customer satisfaction survey (n=341). In geographically-based work units where there were more employee injuries (based on archival records), customers were less satisfied with the service they received. Safety climate, mediated by safety citizenship behaviors (SCBs), added to the predictive power of the group-level model, but these two constructs exerted their influence independently from actual injuries. In combination, two safety-related predictor paths (injuries and climate/SCB) explained 53% of the variance in customer satisfaction. Results offer preliminary evidence that workplace safety influences customer satisfaction, suggesting that there are likely spillover effects between the safety environment and the service environment. Additional research will be needed to assess the specific mechanisms that convert employee injuries into palpable results for customers. Better safety climate and reductions in employee injuries have the potential to offer payoffs in terms of what customers experience. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition

  16. Decree no. 2004-90 from January 28, 2004 relative to the compensation of electric public utility charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This decree defines the charges imputable to the missions of electric public utility, the procedure of determination of their amount, the contribution to these charges by end-users and the operations of recovery and transfer, the processing of declaration defects and payment failures and some other various dispositions. (J.S.)

  17. Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident. The situation of the electric utilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000.

  18. The Philippine electricity sector reform and the urban question: How metro Manila's utility is tackling urban poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the Philippine government reformed its electricity sector following neoliberal principles: unbundling of the power industry, privatisation of assets and commodification of electricity. This paper shows that the reform was primarily driven by the need to secure electricity supply and cut down tariffs. These national objectives ousted other issues, and notably those that find their expression at the urban level, among which the question of access to electricity in Metro Manila's urban poor communities. The central state withdrew its attention from the issue of electrification, and local actors had to react as they were confronted to social tensions and practices of pilferage. As a consequence, city governments and local administrations are getting involved in this issue, which opens the way to participation of civil society. This paper shows how the “rolling back” of the central state led to new partnerships and arrangements between the distribution utility, local governments and community organisations. This movement points to an urbanisation of energy issues, which could bring positive results for end-users provided that it is accompanied by a clearer regulatory framework. - Highlights: • The electricity reform did not take the urban poor into consideration. • The state retreated from issues of electrification. • Decentralisation favoured the emergence of new, local actors for this aspect of energy policy. • The distribution utility is left with an increased power over issues of access to electricity. • Territorially and qualitatively, electrification programs are more diverse

  19. Utilization of the Flexibility Potential of Electric Vehicles - an Alternative to Distribution Grid Reinforcements.

    OpenAIRE

    Ager-Hanssen, Siri Bruskeland; Myhre, Siri Olimb

    2015-01-01

    Today, the transport sector accounts for a large share of global emissions. Electric vehicles have many environmental advantages compared to conventional petrol vehicles. Hence, if electric vehicles can replace petrol vehicles, the transportation sector's total emissions can be significantly reduced. In Norway, due to policy incentives, it is expected that the number of electric vehicles will increase considerably in the near future. Despite the great advantages of electric vehicles, large pe...

  20. Comparison of anthropometry of U.S. electric utility field-workers with North American general populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklin, Richard W; Saginus, Kyle A; Seeley, Patricia; Freier, Stephen H

    2010-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether conventional anthropometric databases of the U.S. general population are applicable to the population of U.S. electric utility field-workers. On the basis of anecdotal observations, field-workers for electric power utilities were thought to be generally taller and larger than the general population. However, there were no anthropometric data available on this population, and it was not known whether the conventional anthropometric databases could be used to design for this population. For this study, 3 standing and II sitting anthropometric measurements were taken from 187 male field-workers from three electric power utilities located in the upper Midwest of the United States and Southern California. The mean and percentile anthropometric data from field-workers were compared with seven well-known conventional anthropometric databases for North American males (United States, Canada, and Mexico). In general, the male field-workers were taller and heavier than the people in the reference databases for U.S. males. The field-workers were up to 2.3 cm taller and 10 kg to 18 kg heavier than the averages of the reference databases. This study was justified, as it showed that the conventional anthropometric databases of the general population underestimated the size of electric utility field-workers, particularly with respect to weight. When designing vehicles and tools for electric utility field-workers, designers and ergonomists should consider the population being designed for and the data from this study to maximize safety, minimize risk of injuries, and optimize performance.

  1. Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near term electric utility applications. Volume 1: Screening of concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausz, W.; Berkowitz, B. J.; Hare, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Over forty thermal energy storage (TES) concepts gathered from the literature and personal contacts were studied for their suitability for the electric utility application of storing energy off-peak discharge during peak hours. Twelve selections were derived from the concepts for screening; they used as storage media high temperature water (HTW), hot oil, molten salts, and packed beds of solids such as rock. HTW required pressure containment by prestressed cast-iron or concrete vessels, or lined underground cavities. Both steam generation from storage and feedwater heating from storage were studied. Four choices were made for further study during the project. Economic comparison by electric utility standard cost practices, and near-term availability (low technical risk) were principal criteria but suitability for utility use, conservation potential, and environmental hazards were considered.

  2. A framework and review of customer outage costs: Integration and analysis of electric utility outage cost surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Leora; Sullivan, Michael; Van Liere, Kent; Katz, Aaron; Eto, Joseph

    2003-11-01

    A clear understanding of the monetary value that customers place on reliability and the factors that give rise to higher and lower values is an essential tool in determining investment in the grid. The recent National Transmission Grid Study recognizes the need for this information as one of growing importance for both public and private decision makers. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has undertaken this study, as a first step toward addressing the current absence of consistent data needed to support better estimates of the economic value of electricity reliability. Twenty-four studies, conducted by eight electric utilities between 1989 and 2002 representing residential and commercial/industrial (small, medium and large) customer groups, were chosen for analysis. The studies cover virtually all of the Southeast, most of the western United States, including California, rural Washington and Oregon, and the Midwest south and east of Chicago. All variables were standardized to a consistent metric and dollar amounts were adjusted to the 2002 CPI. The data were then incorporated into a meta-database in which each outage scenario (e.g., the lost of electric service for one hour on a weekday summer afternoon) is treated as an independent case or record both to permit comparisons between outage characteristics and to increase the statistical power of analysis results. Unadjusted average outage costs and Tobit models that estimate customer damage functions are presented. The customer damage functions express customer outage costs for a given outage scenario and customer class as a function of location, time of day, consumption, and business type. One can use the damage functions to calculate outage costs for specific customer types. For example, using the customer damage functions, the cost experienced by an ''average'' customer resulting from a 1 hour summer afternoon outage is estimated to be approximately $3 for a residential customer, $1

  3. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  4. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated open-quotes cost-of-serviceclose quotes pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices

  5. 77 FR 9227 - AP Gas & Electric (NJ), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (NJ), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (NJ), LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  6. 77 FR 9227 - AP Gas & Electric (NY), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (NY), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (NY), LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  7. 75 FR 70738 - AP Gas & Electric (PA), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (PA), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding AP Gas & Electric (PA), LLC's application for market...

  8. 77 FR 9228 - AP Gas & Electric (MD), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (MD), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (MD), LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  9. 77 FR 9228 - AP Gas & Electric (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (IL), LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  10. 76 FR 6613 - AP Gas & Electric (TX), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (TX), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (TX), LLC's application for market...

  11. 77 FR 9227 - AP Gas & Electric (OH), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (OH), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (OH), LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  12. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  13. Relative Pricing of Publicly Traded U.S. Electric Utility Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewczyn, Nicholas Stephen

    In the financial turmoil of 2008, U.S. firms reported debt-ratios that differed from the debt-ratios calculated from balance sheets. The problem is that investors bought common stock expecting initial investment return and lost money when companies delisted. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine sample securities pricing with the application of synthetic assets and debt accrued. Addressed in the research questions was whether those securities were (a) underpriced compared with return-on-assets (ROA), (b) overpriced compared with ROA, (c) a debt-ratio higher than 60% and also overpriced, (d) underpriced with a synthetic asset added, or (e) related by relative pricing to variant pricing and market capitalization. The study's base theory was Pan's efficient market hypothesis (EMH) of security price prediction of market prices versus model prices. The data from the financial statements of 16 publicly traded U.S. electric utility companies were analyzed via correlations and multiple regression analyses to determine securities pricing and suitability. The findings from the analyses of the sample's variables of market price, book value, market-to-book, and study constructed variables from those variable data were statistically significant. The alternate hypotheses were accepted for all 5 research questions since the analytical operationalization of the hypothetical constructs led to significant relationships. Results suggest that the use of more pricing determinants in securities evaluation may lead to investors losing less money and earning the expected returns for a more efficient capital market, leading to a stronger economy and macroeconomic stability.

  14. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  15. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric...

  16. Development and validation of safety climate scales for mobile remote workers using utility/electrical workers as exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Zohar, Dov; Robertson, Michelle M; Garabet, Angela; Murphy, Lauren A; Lee, Jin

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of a new scale designed for measuring safety climate among mobile remote workers, using utility/electrical workers as exemplar. The new scale employs perceived safety priority as the metric of safety climate and a multi-level framework, separating the measurement of organization- and group-level safety climate items into two sub-scales. The question of the emergence of shared perceptions among remote workers was also examined. For the initial survey development, several items were adopted from a generic safety climate scale and new industry-specific items were generated based on an extensive literature review, expert judgment, 15-day field observations, and 38 in-depth individual interviews with subject matter experts (i.e., utility industry electrical workers, trainers and supervisors of electrical workers). The items were revised after 45 cognitive interviews and a pre-test with 139 additional utility/electrical workers. The revised scale was subsequently implemented with a total of 2421 workers at two large US electric utility companies (1560 participants for the pilot company and 861 for the second company). Both exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were adopted to finalize the items and to ensure construct validity. Reliability of the scale was tested based on Cronbach's α. Homogeneity tests examined whether utility/electrical workers' safety climate perceptions were shared within the same supervisor group. This was followed by an analysis of the criterion-related validity, which linked the safety climate scores to self-reports of safety behavior and injury outcomes (i.e., recordable incidents, missing days due to work-related injuries, vehicle accidents, and near misses). Six dimensions (Safety pro-activity, General training, Trucks and equipment, Field orientation, Financial Investment, and Schedule flexibility) with 29 items were extracted from the EFA to

  17. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  20. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  1. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  2. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  3. A Framework for Organizing Current and Future Electric Utility Regulatory and Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we will present a descriptive and organizational framework for incremental and fundamental changes to regulatory and utility business models in the context of clean energy public policy goals. We will also discuss the regulated utility's role in providing value-added services that relate to distributed energy resources, identify the "openness" of customer information and utility networks necessary to facilitate change, and discuss the relative risks, and the shifting of risks, for utilities and customers.

  4. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative

  5. Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

  6. Barriers and Opportunities to Broader Adoption of Integrated Demand Side Management at Electric Utilities: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Jennifer [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Cappers, P [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2018-02-13

    Integrated demand-side management (IDSM) is a strategic approach to designing and delivering a portfolio of demand side management (DSM) programs to customers. IDSM typically delivers customer centric strategies with the goal of increasing the amount of DSM in the field, but doing so in a way that integrates various measures and technologies to improve their collective performance and/or penetration. Specifically, IDSM can be defined as the integrated or coordinated delivery of three or more of: (1) energy efficiency (EE), (2) demand response (DR), (3) distributed generation (DG), (4) storage, (5) electric vehicle (EV) technologies, and (6) time-based rate programs to residential and commercial electric utility customers. The electric industry’s limited experience deploying IDSM to date suggests that significant barriers may exist. A Berkeley Lab report “Barriers and Opportunities to Broader Adoption of Integrated Demand Side Management at Electric Utilities: A Scoping Study” explores recent electric utility experience with IDSM to provide an assessment of the barriers and potential benefits perceived or experienced by program administrators in their attempts to implement integrated programs. The research draws on surveys and interviews with eleven staff from a sample of eight DSM program administrators and program implementers who were currently implementing or had previously attempted to implement an IDSM program or initiative. Respondents provided their perspectives on drivers for IDSM and barriers to broader deployment. They also reported on actions they had undertaken to promote expanded delivery of IDSM and provided their assessments of the most important under-tapped opportunities for expanding IDSM efforts, both for program administrator and regulatory organizations.

  7. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Regulatory laws and policies. [State by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is a legal study prepared to provide a review of the substantive and procedural laws of each regulatory jurisdiction that may affect implementation of the PURPA standards, and to summarize the current state of consideration and implementation of policies and rate designs similar or identical to the PURPA standards by state regulatory agencies and nonregulated utilities. This report is divided into three sections. The first section, the Introduction, summarizes the standards promulgated by PURPA and the results of the legal study. The second section, State Regulatory Law and Procedure, summarizes for each state or other ratemaking jurisdiction: (1) general constitutional and statutory provisions affecting utility rates and conditions of service; (2) specific laws or decisions affecting policy or rate design issues covered by PURPA standards; and (3) statutes and decisions governing administrative procedures, including judicial review. A chart showing actions taken on the policy and rate design issues addressed by PURPA is also included for each jurisdiction, and citations to relevant authorities are presented for each standard. State statutes or decisions that specifically define a state standard similar or identical to a PURPA standard, or that refer to one of the three PURPA objectives, are noted. The third section, Nonregulated Electric Utilities, summarizes information available on nonregulated utilities, i.e., publicly or cooperatively owned utilities which are specifically exempted from state regulation by state law.

  8. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  9. Nuclear option: one of several choices open to electric utilities; the European case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Acknowledging a difference of opinion on nuclear energy between the US and Europe, the author states the European Community's main energy problems and the solutions that are planned, gives the economic aspects of interfuel competition for electricity generation, and promotes nuclear energy as a secure source of electricity supply. Fast-breeder-reactor (FBR) technology and nuclear-fusion technology are discussed as the reliable successors to nuclear power in the beginning of the next century when uranium shortages and failing renewable energy substitutes will be inadequate to meet Europe's electricity needs

  10. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...

  11. Electrical deicing utilizing carbon fiber tape for asphalt approach and crosswalk phase I - literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive literature review of electrical deicing technology for possible application in asphalt approach and crosswalks. A : thorough review of existing and emerging deicing technology for snow/ice melti...

  12. Feasibility of optimizing large utility electricity customers on a distribution feeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Mammoli, A.

    2014-01-01

    the electricity price, which in turn reflects the DSO requirements. However, most optimization tools are intended for minimizing the costs of a single user and do not take into account the grid operation. If large customers in the same area optimize their schedules, unwanted ‘artificial’ peaks may occur...... ability of the proposed model that delivers schedules where the peaks height can be reduced by a given degree. The additional power constraint reduces overload time by 54% while maintaining the electricity bill substantially equal to the optimal unconstrained formulation (1% cost increase). Reducing......The cost of electricity for a building can be lowered by applying optimization strategies that provide optimal purchasing schedules for the building operation under a variable electricity price. From the DSO perspective, this introduces benefits to the grid. The optimal schedule better follows...

  13. Comparisons of recent growth in actual demand, planned demand, and planned generating capacity at U. S. electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, A.E. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

    1994-12-01

    During the winter of 1993, a number of U.S. electric utilities and some regional power pools discovered that current load exceeded generating capacity. Load restrictions followed, as entire regions-not just isolated utilities or even states-cut back. Was 1993 a typical, or simply a preview of the future If a preview, how did this shortage occur For a number of years, utilities, regulatory agencies, and power pools have been planning to add capacity at a much lower rate than the rate at which load has been growing. The National Electricity Reliability Council (NERC) has projected that eight of it's nine regions will have demand growth exceed capacity growth. The only region where capacity is growing faster is in the Texas Region. There are four reasons behind this shortage: excess capacity in the 1980's, disbelief in current forecasts, passage of the Clean Air act bringing stricter regulation on power plants, and the herd mentality where utilities have all delayed new plant construction.

  14. Implantable power generation system utilizing muscle contractions excited by electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Genta; Hijikata, Wataru; Tomioka, Kota; Shinshi, Tadahiko

    2016-06-01

    An implantable power generation system driven by muscle contractions for supplying power to active implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and neurostimulators, is proposed. In this system, a muscle is intentionally contracted by an electrical stimulation in accordance with the demands of the active implantable medical device for electrical power. The proposed system, which comprises a small electromagnetic induction generator, electrodes with an electrical circuit for stimulation and a transmission device to convert the linear motion of the muscle contractions into rotational motion for the magneto rotor, generates electrical energy. In an ex vivo demonstration using the gastrocnemius muscle of a toad, which was 28 mm in length and weighed 1.3 g, the electrical energy generated by the prototype exceeded the energy consumed for electrical stimulation, with the net power being 111 µW. It was demonstrated that the proposed implantable power generation system has the potential to replace implantable batteries for active implantable medical devices. © IMechE 2016.

  15. Evaluation of the electric utility missions; Evaluation des missions de service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrota, J

    2000-07-01

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  16. Adding concentrated solar power plants to wind farms to achieve a good utility electrical load match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas has the greatest installed wind turbine capacity of any state in the United States, the percentage of wind capacity approaches 10% of the utilities capacity (in 2010 the total wind generated capacity in Texas was 8%). It is becomimg increasingly difficult for the utility to balance the elec...

  17. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  18. Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification and Insurance Process for the Electric Utility Industry (initial award through Award Modification 2); Energy & Risk Transfer Assessment (Award Modifications 3 - 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ebert

    2008-02-28

    This is the final report for the DOE-NETL grant entitled 'Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification & Insurance Processes for the Electric Utility Industry' and later, 'Energy & Risk Transfer Assessment'. It reflects work done on projects from 15 August 2004 to 29 February 2008. Projects were on a variety of topics, including commercial insurance for electrical utilities, the Electrical Reliability Organization, cost recovery by Gulf State electrical utilities after major hurricanes, and review of state energy emergency plans. This Final Technical Report documents and summarizes all work performed during the award period, which in this case is from 15 August 2004 (date of notification of original award) through 29 February 2008. This report presents this information in a comprehensive, integrated fashion that clearly shows a logical and synergistic research trajectory, and is augmented with findings and conclusions drawn from the research as a whole. Four major research projects were undertaken and completed during the 42 month period of activities conducted and funded by the award; these are: (1) Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification and Insurance Process for the Electric Utility Industry (also referred to as the 'commercial insurance' research). Three major deliverables were produced: a pre-conference white paper, a two-day facilitated stakeholders workshop conducted at George Mason University, and a post-workshop report with findings and recommendations. All deliverables from this work are published on the CIP website at http://cipp.gmu.edu/projects/DoE-NETL-2005.php. (2) The New Electric Reliability Organization (ERO): an examination of critical issues associated with governance, standards development and implementation, and jurisdiction (also referred to as the 'ERO study'). Four major deliverables were produced: a series of preliminary memoranda for the staff of the Office of Electricity Delivery and

  19. A minimally intrusive monitoring system that utilizes electricity consumption as a proxy for wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D. Hunt

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis: \\'Off-the-shelf domestic electricity meters can be utilised to assist in monitoring the wellbeing of elderly people\\'. Many studies have shown that it is, in theory, possible to use domestic electricity consumption to determine \\'activities of daily living\\' but the availability of systems for actual use is very limited. This work followed the Design Science Research Methodology to create a Java application running on the Google App Engine cloud service that interfaced with both electricity meters and voice and text services. The system was implemented and tested over a three month period with one older person and their carer. Results demonstrated that the technology readily succeeds in meeting the study\\'s initial objectives. The need for more sophisticated decision logic was apparent and a method to determine whether a home is currently occupied is likely to improve the ability to create more timely alerts.

  20. Modeling, Simulation, and Control of a Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle in Near-Earth Vicinity Including Solar Array Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzberger, Kevin (Inventor); Hojnicki, Jeffery (Inventor); Manzella, David (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and control software that integrates the complexities of solar array models, a space environment, and an electric propulsion system into a rigid body vehicle simulation and control model is provided. A rigid body vehicle simulation of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle may be created using at least one solar array model, at least one model of a space environment, and at least one model of a SEP propulsion system. Power availability and thrust profiles may be determined based on the rigid body vehicle simulation as the SEP vehicle transitions from a low Earth orbit (LEO) to a higher orbit or trajectory. The power availability and thrust profiles may be displayed such that a user can use the displayed power availability and thrust profiles to determine design parameters for an SEP vehicle mission.

  1. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  2. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  3. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  4. The effect of utility time-varying pricing and load control strategies on residential summer peak electricity use. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Bowker, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Peak demand for electricity in North America is expected to grow, challenging electrical utilities to supply this demand in a cost-effective, reliable manner. Therefore, there is growing interest in strategies to reduce peak demand by eliminating electricity use, or shifting it to non-peak times. This strategy is commonly called 'demand response'. In households, common strategies are time-varying pricing, which charge more for energy use on peak, or direct load control, which allows utilities to curtail certain loads during high demand periods. We reviewed recent North American studies of these strategies. The data suggest that the most effective strategy is a critical peak price (CPP) program with enabling technology to automatically curtail loads on event days. There is little evidence that this causes substantial hardship for occupants, particularly if they have input into which loads are controlled and how, and have an override option. In such cases, a peak load reduction of at least 30% is a reasonable expectation. It might be possible to attain such load reductions without enabling technology by focusing on household types more likely to respond, and providing them with excellent support. A simple time-of-use (TOU) program can only expect to realise on-peak reductions of 5%. (author)

  5. More electric aircraft starter-generator system with utilization of hybrid modulated model predictive control

    OpenAIRE

    Yoeh, Seang Shen; Yang, Tao; Tarisciotti, Luca; Hill, Christopher Ian; Bozhko, Serhiy

    2016-01-01

    The current trend for future aircraft is the adoption of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept. The electrical based starter-generator (S/G) system is one of the core ideas from the MEA concept. The PI based control scheme has been investigated in various papers for the permanent magnet based S/G system. Different control schemes are to be considered to improve the control performance of the S/G system. A type of non-linear control called Model Predictive Control (MPC) is considered for it...

  6. Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Utilizing Iodine as Propellant, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode suitable for use in ion or Hall thrusters which utilizes iodine as a propellant. Reservoir cathodes have several unique...

  7. Capture and corruption in public utilities. The cases of water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auriol, Emmanuelle [Toulouse School of Economics, 21 Allees de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Blanc, Aymeric [Agence Francaise de Developpement, 5 rue Roland Barthes, 75598 Paris Cedex 12 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The paper focuses on public utilities services located in poor countries with a special attention to capture and corruption issues. It confronts the optimal policy of Auriol and Picard [Privatization in Developing Countries and the Government Budget Constraint, Nota di Lavoro 75.2002. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy] regarding private sector involvement in public utilities with empirical evidence on water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As predicted by the theory, the participation of private unregulated firms in the supply of services for the middle class and poor people is fairly common in SSA. By contrast, services for rich people are provided by public utilities. Theory suggests that their prices should be high so that the public firms make a profit. Yet piped water and electricity are subsidized. This suggests that there is a problem of capture by the ruling elite. Since ruling elites design privatization programs, there is concern about their optimality. The paper shows that the social cost of corrupted privatization is non-monotone in the opportunity cost of public funds. Because of the fiscal loss it represents, privatizing profit centers of public firms entails huge social costs in very poor countries. (author)

  8. Capture and corruption in public utilities. The cases of water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auriol, Emmanuelle; Blanc, Aymeric

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on public utilities services located in poor countries with a special attention to capture and corruption issues. It confronts the optimal policy of Auriol and Picard [Privatization in Developing Countries and the Government Budget Constraint, Nota di Lavoro 75.2002. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy] regarding private sector involvement in public utilities with empirical evidence on water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As predicted by the theory, the participation of private unregulated firms in the supply of services for the middle class and poor people is fairly common in SSA. By contrast, services for rich people are provided by public utilities. Theory suggests that their prices should be high so that the public firms make a profit. Yet piped water and electricity are subsidized. This suggests that there is a problem of capture by the ruling elite. Since ruling elites design privatization programs, there is concern about their optimality. The paper shows that the social cost of corrupted privatization is non-monotone in the opportunity cost of public funds. Because of the fiscal loss it represents, privatizing profit centers of public firms entails huge social costs in very poor countries. (author)

  9. Utilizing Physiological Principles of Motor Unit Recruitment to Reduce Fatigability of Electrically-Evoked Contractions: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, Trevor S; Ainsley, Emily N; Claveria-Gonzalez, Francisca C; Luu, M John; Miller, Dylan J; Wiest, Matheus J; Collins, David F

    2018-04-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is used to produce contractions to restore movement and reduce secondary complications for individuals experiencing motor impairment. NMES is conventionally delivered through a single pair of electrodes over a muscle belly or nerve trunk using short pulse durations and frequencies between 20 and 40Hz (conventional NMES). Unfortunately, the benefits and widespread use of conventional NMES are limited by contraction fatigability, which is in large part because of the nonphysiological way that contractions are generated. This review provides a summary of approaches designed to reduce fatigability during NMES, by using physiological principles that help minimize fatigability of voluntary contractions. First, relevant principles of the recruitment and discharge of motor units (MUs) inherent to voluntary contractions and conventional NMES are introduced, and the main mechanisms of fatigability for each contraction type are briefly discussed. A variety of NMES approaches are then described that were designed to reduce fatigability by generating contractions that more closely mimic voluntary contractions. These approaches include altering stimulation parameters, to recruit MUs in their physiological order, and stimulating through multiple electrodes, to reduce MU discharge rates. Although each approach has unique advantages and disadvantages, approaches that minimize MU discharge rates hold the most promise for imminent translation into rehabilitation practice. The way that NMES is currently delivered limits its utility as a rehabilitative tool. Reducing fatigability by delivering NMES in ways that better mimic voluntary contractions holds promise for optimizing the benefits and widespread use of NMES-based programs. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Postcontraction hyperemia after electrical stimulation: potential utility in rehabilitation of patients with upper extremity paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Nobusuke; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Kudo, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kana; Mizutani, Takashi; Sato, Mineyoshi; Chida, Satoaki; Hatakeyama, Kazutoshi; Watanabe, Motoyuki; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postcontraction hyperemia after electrical stimulation between patients with upper extremity paralysis caused by upper motor neuron diseases and healthy controls. Thirteen healthy controls and eleven patients with upper extremity paralysis were enrolled. The blood flow in the basilic vein was measured by ultrasound before the electrical stimulation of the biceps brachii muscle and 30 s after the stimulation. The stimulation was performed at 10 mA and at a frequency of 70 Hz for 20 s. The mean blood flow in the healthy control group and in upper extremity paralysis group before the electrical stimulation was 60 ± 20 mL/min (mean ± SD) and 48 ± 25 mL/min, respectively. After the stimulation, blood flow in both groups increased to 117 ± 23 mL/min and 81 ± 41 mL/min, respectively. We show that it is possible to measure postcontraction hyperemia using an ultrasound system. In addition, blood flow in both groups increased after the electrical stimulation because of postcontraction hyperemia. These findings suggest that evaluating post contraction hyperemia in patients with upper extremity paralysis can assess rehabilitation effects.

  11. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia); Biomass Conversion Research Center (BCRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  12. The unbundling regime for electricity utilities in the EU: a case of legislative and regulatory capture?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Koten, Silvester; Ortmann, Andreas

    -, č. 328 (2007), s. 1-22 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : electricity markets * regulation * vertical integration Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp328.pdf

  13. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed; Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda

    2011-01-01

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  14. The unbundling regime for electricity utilities in the EU: a case of legislative and regulatory capture?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Koten, S.; Ortmann, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 6 (2008), s. 3128-3140 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : corruption * electricity markets * vertical integration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.248, year: 2008

  15. The unbundling regime for electricity utilities in the EU: a case of legislative and regulatory capture?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Koten, Silvester; Ortmann, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 6 (2008), s. 3128-3140 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : corruption * electricity markets * vertical integration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.248, year: 2008

  16. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  17. The electric field in capacitively coupled RF discharges: a smooth step model that includes thermal and dynamic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2015-12-01

    The electric field in radio-frequency driven capacitively coupled plasmas (RF-CCP) is studied, taking thermal (finite electron temperature) and dynamic (finite electron mass) effects into account. Two dimensionless numbers are introduced, the ratios ε ={λ\\text{D}}/l of the electron Debye length {λ\\text{D}} to the minimum plasma gradient length l (typically the sheath thickness) and η ={ω\\text{RF}}/{ω\\text{pe}} of the RF frequency {ω\\text{RF}} to the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} . Assuming both numbers small but finite, an asymptotic expansion of an electron fluid model is carried out up to quadratic order inclusively. An expression for the electric field is obtained which yields (i) the space charge field in the sheath, (ii) the generalized Ohmic and ambipolar field in the plasma, and (iii) a smooth interpolation for the transition in between. The new expression is a direct generalization of the Advanced Algebraic Approximation (AAA) proposed by the same author (2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 194009), which can be recovered for η \\to 0 , and of the established Step Model (SM) by Godyak (1976 Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 2 78), which corresponds to the simultaneous limits η \\to 0 , ε \\to 0 . A comparison of the hereby proposed Smooth Step Model (SSM) with a numerical solution of the full dynamic problem proves very satisfactory.

  18. Feasibility of optimizing large utility electricity customers on a distribution feeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Mammoli, A.

    2014-01-01

    the electricity price, which in turn reflects the DSO requirements. However, most optimization tools are intended for minimizing the costs of a single user and do not take into account the grid operation. If large customers in the same area optimize their schedules, unwanted ‘artificial’ peaks may occur...... on the feeder that the DSO has to deal with. Peaks height can be lowered by applying an upper bound to the purchased electricity in the mathematical formulation of the optimization problem. However, introducing a further constraint reduces the economic benefit for optimizing customers. This study assesses...... the peak reduction potential of introducing the additional constraint while keeping appealing economic benefits for the customers. DER-CAM, an optimization tool developed at LBNL was used for simulating the operation of three large typical commercial customers over a week. Results prove the peak shaving...

  19. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Till; Frenzel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  20. CONSIDERATIONS FOR FAILURE PREVENTION IN AEROSPACE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS UTILIZING HIGHER VOLTAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    ensure high operational reliability . For low-pressure applications, it is anticipated that PD testing on power equipment would be an equally valuable...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT...and (3) illustrates potential risk mitigation methods and test and evaluation techniques. The document is focused on electrical discharge

  1. The comparative advantages of public ownership : evidence from U.S. electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwoka, J.E.Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This paper challenged the conventional economic theory that private enterprises result in higher cost and price performance by indicating that several empirical studies have shown equal or better performance by public enterprises. These divergent findings have prompted renewed theoretical attention to the public-private debate. Recent theory has identified possible benefits of public enterprise in certain circumstances. It has been argued that public owners can better secure the information needed to monitor business behaviour for consistency with social objectives. This study tested the relative benefits of public versus private companies in producing outputs with more specifiable and less specifiable quality. The empirical tests were conducted on the electric power industry in the United States because it has structural characteristics that make it ideal for the study. Also, both ownership types perform the similar tasks of electricity generation, transmission and distribution. In addition, all segments of the electric power industry have at some point been regulated and have been non competitive. The study showed that while privately owned systems achieve lower costs in generation, public systems typically have the advantage in the end-user-oriented distribution function with more non-contractible disposition. The study emphasized the importance of identifying product, market and provider characteristics best suited to each ownership type. It cautioned that the search for better performance is not simply a matter of prescribing privatization. Rather, there are identifiable circumstances in which public enterprise is appropriate. 26 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Correction: Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479.......Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479....

  3. Trends in Japan's power generation costs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and their influence on finance of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuhji; Yamaguchi, Yuhji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the nuclear reactors that were suspended for periodic inspections after the Fukushima accident were not permitted to resume operation, and nuclear power generation in Japan continued to decline. In this article, the authors quantitatively evaluated the effects on power generation costs of Japan's situation, using electric utilities financial reports up to FY 2011. We also analyzed the profitability of the Japanese electric industry, using the financial statements included in the reports, and quantitatively evaluated the effects of changes in power generation costs. The total cost of power generation has increased from 7.5 trillion yen in FY 2010 before the Fukushima accident to 9.6 trillion yen in FY 2011 and to 10.6 trillion yen in FY 2012. In particular, the fuel cost for thermal power generation rose sharply from 3.7 trillion yen in FY 2010 to 6.1 trillion yen in FY 2011 and 7.3 trillion yen in FY 2012, almost doubling in the two years from FY 2010 to 2012. The unit cost of power generation rose sharply from 8.6 yen/kWh in FY 2010 to 11.8 yen/kWh in FY 2011 and 13.5 yen/kWh in FY 2012. The unit cost is expected to rise even further in FY 2013 due to the weak yen. As the result not only Tokyo Electric Power Company, but also the other general electric utilities registered huge net losses. Their retained earnings (total of eight utilities) dropped by 2 trillion yen between FY 2010 and 2012. With increased thermal power generation, the risk of rising costs associated with changes in primary energy prices and exchange rates has increased drastically. For the stability of the electricity industry and the development of the Japanese economy, the government should clearly formulate a basic policy regarding the composition of power sources, and an effective plan both at home and abroad, and should develop a system that will be also to handle sudden changes in the composition of power sources. (author)

  4. The role of electricity utilities in ensuring environmental compliance of uranium suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Swedish Utilities, Vattenfall Fuel, OKG and BKAB (purchasing uranium and fuel cycle services for all Swedish reactors), have started 'Nuclear Fuel and Environment Project, NFE'. The purpose is to make environmental audits of companies with uranium mines, conversion, isotope enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities. Up to now five environmental audits have been carried out and another three are being processed. (author)

  5. Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

  6. Water Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  7. Sewerage Treatment Plants, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  8. Water Treatment Plants, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Treatment Plants dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  9. Sewerage Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  10. The program for reduction of energy wasting under the electric power utilities viewpoint; O programa de combate ao desperdicio de energia eletrica sob a otica das concessionarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacellar, Fernando L.B. [Elektro Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the Elektro utility viewing on the program for reduction of electric power wasting, considering the aspects of productivity, the particularities of the commercial, residential and rural sectors. The Elektro, former ELETROPAULO, is responsible by the electric power distribution covering 223 municipal districts in the State of Sao Paulo, and 5 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul.

  11. Electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report focuses on the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) administration of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, intended to protect the public, investors, and consumers from abuses associated with the control of electric and gas utility companies through the holding company structure. These abuses include subjecting subsidiary utilities to excessive charges for services, construction work, and materials; frustrating effective state regulation through the holding company structure; and overloading subsidiary utilities with debt to prevent voluntary rate reductions. GAO discusses industry changes during the past decade involving electric utility holding companies; SEC's regulatory response to such changes; and the relationship between SEC, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and states in protecting consumer and investor interests in light of these changes

  12. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  13. An Assessment Model for Energy Efficiency Program Planning in Electric Utilities: Case of the Pacific of Northwest U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskin, Ibrahim

    Energy efficiency stands out with its potential to address a number of challenges that today's electric utilities face, including increasing and changing electricity demand, shrinking operating capacity, and decreasing system reliability and flexibility. Being the least cost and least risky alternative, the share of energy efficiency programs in utilities' energy portfolios has been on the rise since the 1980s, and their increasing importance is expected to continue in the future. Despite holding great promise, the ability to determine and invest in only the most promising program alternatives plays a key role in the successful use of energy efficiency as a utility-wide resource. This issue becomes even more significant considering the availability of a vast number of potential energy efficiency programs, the rapidly changing business environment, and the existence of multiple stakeholders. This dissertation introduces hierarchical decision modeling as the framework for energy efficiency program planning in electric utilities. The model focuses on the assessment of emerging energy efficiency programs and proposes to bridge the gap between technology screening and cost/benefit evaluation practices. This approach is expected to identify emerging technology alternatives which have the highest potential to pass cost/benefit ratio testing procedures and contribute to the effectiveness of decision practices in energy efficiency program planning. The model also incorporates rank order analysis and sensitivity analysis for testing the robustness of results from different stakeholder perspectives and future uncertainties in an attempt to enable more informed decision-making practices. The model was applied to the case of 13 high priority emerging energy efficiency program alternatives identified in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. The results of this study reveal that energy savings potential is the most important program management consideration in selecting emerging energy

  14. Divergence in technical efficiency of electric utilities: Evidence from the SAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the convergence pattern of technical efficiency of the South Africa Power Pool (SAPP) utilities over the period April 2003–March 2010 by means of parametric and non-parametric techniques. Technical efficiency scores are computed via both stochastic frontier analysis and data envelopment analysis. Mixed results are obtained from the neoclassical convergence approaches. In addition, distribution dynamics methods reveal some evidence of club-formation and this result is supported with the occurrence of γ-divergence. Taken as a whole, technical efficiency is found to diverge among the utilities operating in the power pool. -- Highlights: •The technical efficiency convergence pattern within the South Africa Power Pool is assessed. •Mixed results are obtained from the parametric neoclassical convergence approaches. •Evidence of divergence is revealed by the non-parametric convergence approaches

  15. Performance potential of combined cycles integrated with low-Btu gasifiers for future electric utility applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison and an assessment of 10 advanced utility power systems on a consistent basis and to a common level of detail were analyzed. Substantial emphasis was given to a combined cycle systems integrated with low-Btu gasifiers. Performance and cost results from that study were presented for these combined cycle systems, together with a comparative evaluation. The effect of the gasifier type and performance and the interface between the gasifier and the power system were discussed.

  16. Analysis of Plug-In hybrid Electric Vehicles' utility factors using GPS-based longitudinal travel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviquzzaman, Md

    The benefit of using a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) comes from its ability of substituting gasoline with electricity in operation. Defined as the share of distance traveled in the electric mode, the utility factor (UF) depends mostly on the battery capacity but also on many other factors, such as travel pattern and recharging pattern. Conventionally, the UFs are calculated from the daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) of vehicles by assuming motorists leaving home in the morning with full battery and return home in the evening. Such assumption, however, ignores the impact of the heterogeneity in both travel and charging behavior. The main objective of the thesis is to compare the UF by using multiday GPS-based travel data in regards to the charging decision. This thesis employs the global positioning system (GPS) based longitudinal travel data (covering 3-18 months) collected from 403 vehicles in the Seattle metropolitan area to investigate the impacts of such travel and charging behavior on UFs by analyzing the DVMT and home and work related tours. The UFs based on the DVMT are found close to those based on home-to-home tours. On the other hand, it is seen that the workplace charge opportunities largely improve UFs if the battery capacity is no more than 50 miles. It is also found that the gasoline price does not have significant impact on the UFs.

  17. Utilization of Indonesia's Hot Spring Sources for Electricity using Kalina Cycle and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabumukti, Grano; Purwanto; Widodo, Wahyu

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia posses 40% of the world's geothermal energy sources. The existence of hydrothermal sources is usually characterized by their surface manifestations such as hot springs, geysers and fumarole. Hot spring has a potential to be used as a heat source to generate electricity especially in a rural and isolated area. Hot springs can be converted into electricity by binary thermodynamic cycles such as Kalina cycle and ORC. The aim of this study is to obtain the best performances of cycle configuration and the potential power capacity. Simulation is conducted using UNISIM software with working fluid and its operating condition as the decision variables. The simulation result shows that R1234yf and propene with simple ORC as desired working fluid and cycle configuration. It reaches a maximum thermal efficiency up to 9.6% with a specific turbine inlet pressure. Higher temperature heat source will result a higher thermal efficiency‥ Cycle thermal efficiency varies from 4.7% to 9.6% depends on source of hot spring temperature. Power capacity that can be generated using Indonesia's hot spring is ranged from 2 kWe to 61.2 kWe. The highest capacity located in Kawah Sirung and the least located in Kaendi.

  18. A sensory feedback system utilizing cutaneous electrical stimulation for stroke patients with sensory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Kahori; Takeda, Kotaro; Osu, Rieko; Ushiba, Junichi; Sakata, Sachiko; Otaka, Yohei

    2011-01-01

    Sensory disturbance is very common following stroke and may exacerbate a patient's functional impairment, even if the patient has good motor function. For instance, patients with sensory disturbances will often grip an object with excessive or underestimated pinch pressure, because they do not receive the appropriate sensory feedback and must rely only on visual feedback. In this study, we developed a sensory feedback system that used cutaneous electrical stimulation for patients with sensory loss. In the system, electrical stimulation is modulated by the strength of pinch pressure and the patients are able to identify their fingertip pinch pressure. To evaluate the efficacy of the system, a clinical case study was conducted in a stroke patient with severe sensory loss. The fluctuation in force control during grasping was gradually decreased as the training progressed and the patient was able to maintain a stable pinch pressure during grasping even without the system following 2 months of intervention. We conclude that the system described in this study may be a useful contribution towards the rehabilitation of patients with sensory loss. © 2011 IEEE

  19. Utility of bilateral acoustic hearing in combination with electrical stimulation provided by the cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Kerrie; Babic, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the benefit provided by having access to amplified acoustic hearing in the implanted ear for use in combination with contralateral acoustic hearing and the electrical stimulation provided by the cochlear implant. Measures of spatial and non-spatial hearing abilities were obtained to compare performance obtained with different configurations of acoustic hearing in combination with electrical stimulation. In the combined listening condition participants had access to bilateral acoustic hearing whereas the bimodal condition used acoustic hearing contralateral to the implanted ear only. Experience was provided with each of the listening conditions using a repeated-measures A-B-B-A experimental design. Sixteen post-linguistically hearing-impaired adults participated in the study. Group mean benefit was obtained with use of the combined mode on measures of speech recognition in coincident speech in noise, localization ability, subjective ratings of real-world benefit, and musical sound quality ratings. Access to bilateral acoustic hearing after cochlear implantation provides significant benefit on a range of functional measures.

  20. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hill, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1995-11-01

    Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is a form of utility regulation that strengthens the financial incentives to lower rates, lower costs, or improve nonprice performance relative traditional regulation, which the authors call cost-of-service, rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. Although the electric utility industry has considerable experience with incentive mechanisms that target specific areas of performance, implementation of mechanisms that cover a comprehensive set of utility costs or services is relatively rare. In recent years, interest in PBR has increased as a result of growing dissatisfaction with COS/ROR and as a result of economic and technological trends that are leading to more competition in certain segments of the electricity industry. In addition, incentive regulation has been used with some success in other public utility industries, most notably telecommunications in the US and telecommunications, energy, and water in the United Kingdom. In this report, the authors analyze comprehensive PBR mechanisms for electric utilities in four ways: (1) they describe different types of PBR mechanisms, (2) they review a sample of actual PBR plans, (3) they consider the interaction of PBR and utility-funded energy efficiency programs, and (4) they examine how PBR interacts with electric utility resource planning and industry restructuring. The report should be of interest to technical staff of utilities and regulatory commissions that are actively considering or designing PBR mechanisms. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AC power generation, its transmission and distribution. The well known observations made by Oersted that an electric current produces a magnetic field led a number of researchers to investigate whether the converse was true i.e. whether electric current can be produced from a magnetic field. Michael Faraday of England ...

  2. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.; Lave, Lester B.

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) result in a benefit of 4.5 ¢ kWh -1 and 17 ¢ kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At 20 per tonne of CO 2, the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated strategy from a

  3. Utilization of Nuclear Energy for Electricity Generation: Review of Intelligence Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijah Subijanto

    2004-01-01

    In the perspective of intelligence, the use of nuclear energy was studied in terms of the potential and challenges. There are seven potential that could be the reason for the utilization of nuclear energy power plant. The seven potential factors are world fuel prices, high security, eco-friendly, economical, political and defense considerations, socio-cultural and efficiency. While the challenges that may face is the public perception, social transition, politics and culture, the mass media that are not patterned maximally, traditions and culture as well as the factors unrest and natural disasters

  4. Giants without a Heart? Electric Utilities and Environmental Issues in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uekoetter, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Since the first power generating factories, late 19. century, the energy sector has always been subject to criticism regarding its impacts on the environment. Challenging the public electricity sector is analysed through four cases. Dust emitted by the thermal power stations were at the heart of several debates between the two wars. Building one dam on the picturesque site of Wutach River gorges had lead to such protests that the project was dropped. The exploitation of lignite mines in Rhineland required so important surfaces for residue storage that one forest was threatened by this necessity. Lastly, emissions of sulphur dioxide were largely deemed responsible for the death of entire forests in the 80's. All these different challenges helped in the adoption of nuclear power

  5. Utilization of photovoltaic solar energy technology for rural electricity supply at Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noh Dalimin

    1996-01-01

    The conversion of sunlight to electrical energy using photovoltaic systems for lighting, water pumping, telecommunications and vaccine refrigeration are already proven, commercially available and in many, are economically viable. More and more houses in rural areas of Sabah are connected to solar powered infra structural development needs such as street lights, radio repeater station, telecommunication and high-voltage beacons. To meet the infra structural and environmental challenges, especially in remote locations and with prospects of greater economic competitiveness, central and distributed grid connected photovoltaic systems are now being evaluated in Mandahan, Papar and in Marak Parak, Kota Marudu. This paper reports on the progress with the application of the technology and the prospects for wider dissemination

  6. Allocating Resources to Enhance Resilience, with Application to Superstorm Sandy and an Electric Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Cameron A; Zobel, Christopher W

    2016-04-01

    This article constructs a framework to help a decisionmaker allocate resources to increase his or her organization's resilience to a system disruption, where resilience is measured as a function of the average loss per unit time and the time needed to recover full functionality. Enhancing resilience prior to a disruption involves allocating resources from a fixed budget to reduce the value of one or both of these characteristics. We first look at characterizing the optimal resource allocations associated with several standard allocation functions. Because the resources are being allocated before the disruption, however, the initial loss and recovery time may not be known with certainty. We thus also apply the optimal resource allocation model for resilience to three models of uncertain disruptions: (1) independent probabilities, (2) dependent probabilities, and (3) unknown probabilities. The optimization model is applied to an example of increasing the resilience of an electric power network following Superstorm Sandy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Electric power monthly January 1997 with data for October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistical data. Information is included on U.S. electric utility net generation, consumption of fossil fuels, and fossil-fuel stocks; U.S. electric utility sales; receipts and cost of fossil fuels at utilities; and monthly plant aggregates. A glossary is included.

  8. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorum, M.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Information on the geothermal resources of the San Luis Valley, Colorado, has been gathered and reviewed and a preliminary, quantitative assessment of the magnitude and quality of resources present was carried out. Complete process designs were developed for the processes of producing crystal sugar from beets and for malting barley for use in the brewing industry, in each case adapting the processes to use a 302/sup 0/F geothermal water supply as the main process energy source. A parametric design analysis was performed for a major pipeline to be used to ship geothermal water, and thus deliver its heat, out of the San Luis Valley to three major Colorado cities along the eastern threshold of the Rocky Mountains. Cost estimates for capital equipment and energy utilization are presented. The analyses of the two process applications indicate favorable economics for conversion and operation as geothermally-heated plants. A major geothermal water pipeline for this region is seriously limited on achievement of the economy of scale by the physical absence of significant demand for heat energy. Finally, the development and utilization of Colorado's San Luis Valley geothermal groundwaters hold the potential to contribute to the prudent and beneficial management of that area's natural water resources systems.

  9. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  10. Performance analysis on borehole energy storage system including utilization of solar thermal and photovoltaic energies; Taiyonetsu hikari riyo wo fukumu borehole energy chozo system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yamaguchi, A. [Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A permanent borehole energy storage system utilizing solar energy and waste heat from coolers is simulated, to be used as an air conditioning system for super-tall buildings. A 100m-long pipe is buried vertically into the ground, and a heat medium is caused to circulate in the pipe for the exchange of heat with the soil. Thirty borehole units are used, each measuring 9m{times}9m (with the pipe pitch being 3m). Solar cells occupying half of the wall surface facing south and solar collectors installed on the roof supply electric power and heat for cooling and warming. Heat in the ground is transferred mainly by conduction but also is carried by water and gas in movement. So, an analysis is carried out using an equation in which heat and water move at the same time. Because waste heat from cooling and warming systems is accumulated in the ground and none is discharged into the air, big cities will be protected from warming (from developing heat islands). As compared with the conventional boiler-aided air conditioning system, a hybrid borehole system incorporating solar collectors and solar cells will bring about an 80% reduction in CO2 emission and annual energy consumption. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Electric utility strategies for controlling SO2 under Title IV (acid deposition control) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsman, J.D.; Evans, J.E.; Clendenin, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 call for U.S. electric utility to further control emissions of SO 2 and NO x . This article describes Title IV requirements and the status of rulemaking; Title IV costs; uncertainties with SO 2 control decisions; state regulatory activities; and compliance options and actions to date. Some of the conclusions of the paper are: (1) a functioning SO 2 allowance trading market would allow great flexibility and a national solution approaching least-cost, but it is unclear whether the allowance market will be allowed to work in an unconstrained manner; (2) to date, the market has not developed due to uncertainties related to engineer/fuel issues and, more importantly, state and Federal regulatory activities (and inactivity); and (3) coal switching appears to be the compliance strategy of choice in Phase I, along with intracompany allowance transactions

  12. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  13. Estimating the cost of saving electricity through U.S. utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Goldman, Charles A.; Rybka, Gregory; Leventis, Greg; Schwartz, Lisa; Sanstad, Alan H.; Schiller, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The program administrator and total cost of saved energy allow comparison of the cost of efficiency across utilities, states, and program types, and can identify potential performance improvements. Comparing program administrator cost with the total cost of saved energy can indicate the degree to which programs leverage investment by participants. Based on reported total costs and savings information for U.S. utility efficiency programs from 2009 to 2013, we estimate the savings-weighted average total cost of saved electricity across 20 states at $0.046 per kilowatt-hour (kW h), comparing favorably with energy supply costs and retail rates. Programs targeted on the residential market averaged $0.030 per kW h compared to $0.053 per kW h for non-residential programs. Lighting programs, with an average total cost of $0.018 per kW h, drove lower savings costs in the residential market. We provide estimates for the most common program types and find that program administrators and participants on average are splitting the costs of efficiency in half. More consistent, standardized and complete reporting on efficiency programs is needed. Differing definitions and quantification of costs, savings and savings lifetimes pose challenges for comparing program results. Reducing these uncertainties could increase confidence in efficiency as a resource among planners and policymakers. - Highlights: • The cost of saved energy allows comparisons among energy resource investments. • Findings from the most expansive collection yet of total energy efficiency program costs. • The weighted average total cost of saved electricity was $0.046 for 20 states in 2009–2013. • Averages in the residential and non-residential sectors were $0.030 and $0.053 per kW h, respectively. • Results strongly indicate need for more consistent, reliable and complete reporting on efficiency programs.

  14. Electric Vehicle Preparedness Task 3: Detailed Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support this replacement. That is the subject of a separate report.

  15. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: Part 2--greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  17. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B.; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x ). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) result in a benefit of 4.5 cents kWh -1 and 17 cents kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3 ) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At $20 per tonne of CO 2 , the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated

  18. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which removes the heat produced In the core and the colis. I represents an Isolator which is a kind of. 'switch' used to isolate the station from the grid. Note the huge Insulators (marked I) that are used. The steel structures marked S support the conductors through insulators (courtesy: Kirloskar Electric Company, Bangalore).

  19. Acute Responses of Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling on the Ventilation-to-CO2 Production Ratio and Substrate Utilization After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Lawrence, Justin

    2016-03-01

    Ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio is comparable with peak oxygen uptake in the prognosis of cardiovascular disorders. Currently, there are no established indices to determine the submaximal effects of functional electrical stimulation on cardiovascular performance in persons with spinal cord injury. To determine the effects of an acute bout of functional electrical stimulation-lower extremity cycling on ventilation, carbon dioxide production, ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio, and substrate utilization in people with motor complete spinal cord injury. Observational cross-sectional design. Clinical laboratory setting. Ten individuals with motor complete spinal cord injury. Participants were allowed to cycle until fatigue. The effects of functional electrical stimulation on ventilation, carbon dioxide production, ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio, and substrate utilization were measured with a portable metabolic cart (COSMED K4b2). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Resting and warm-up ventilation were 8.15 ± 3.5 L/min and 8.15 ± 2.8 L/min, respectively. Functional electrical stimulation increased ventilation significantly (14.5 ± 6.4 L/min), which remained significantly elevated (13.3 ± 4.3 L/min) during the recovery period. During resting and warm-up phases, the ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratios were 41 ± 4.8 and 38 ± 5.4, respectively. Functional electrical stimulation decreased the ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio significantly to 31.5 ± 4, which remained significantly reduced during the recovery period (34.4 ± 3). Functional electrical stimulation relied primarily on carbohydrate utilization (188 ± 160 g/day to 574 ± 324 g/day; P = .001) with no changes in fat utilization (77.5 ± 28 g/day to 93.5 ± 133.6 g/day; P = .7) from resting to exercise periods. Significant relationships were noted between carbohydrate utilization during functional electrical stimulation and carbon dioxide (r = 0.98; P = .00010

  20. Energy analysis of the basic materials utilized in electric power transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-30

    The energy content per mile of installed underground and overhead power transmission systems has been calculated for the following types of systems: self-contained oil-filled cables; HPOF pipe-type cables; extruded dielectric cables; compressed-gas-insulated systems; overhead lines (ac and dc) and two proposed superconducting systems (ac and dc). The system operating voltages analyzed included 138, 230, 345, 500, 765 and 1,200 kV for ac systems, but all systems were not analyzed at the higher voltages. The dc overhead lines operated at +-200, +-400, +-600 and +-800 kV. Total installed energy content for these systems ranged from 4 x 10/sup 9/ to 1.2 x 10/sup 11/ Btu per mile. Installation energy requirements were generally 10% or less of the inherent system energy content based on the materials used in each system. Most of the energy content in each system can be attributed to the metallic components; plastic and insulating oil also contribute significantly. The energy content of 36 materials and basic products, in terms of Btu per ton, was calculated as part of this study. Substitution of conductor materials (e.g., aluminum for copper) in cable systems resulted in changes in the total system energy content on the order of 15%.

  1. SNMSP II: A system to fully automate special nuclear materials accountability reporting for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareto, V.; Venegas, R.

    1987-01-01

    The USNRC requires each licensee who is authorized to possess Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) to prepare and submit reports concerning SNM received, produced, possessed, transferred, consumed, disposed of, or lost. These SNM accountability reports, which need to be submitted twice a year, contain detailed information on the origin, quantity, and type of SNM for several locations. The amount of detail required makes these reports very time consuming and error prone when prepared manually. Yankee Atomic is developing an IBM PC-based computer code that fully automates the process of generating SNM accountability reports. The program, called SNMSP II, prints a number of summaries including facsimiles of the NRC/DOE-741, 742, 742C, and RW-859 reports in a format that can be submitted directly to the NRC/DOE. SNMSP II is menu-driven and is especially designed for people with little or no computer training. Input can be either from a mainframe-based corporate data base or manually through user-friendly screens. In addition, extensive quality assurance features are available to ensure the security and accuracy of the data. This paper discusses the major features of the code and describes its implementation at Yankee

  2. The structural changes in the brazilian electric sector and the utilities strategic management; A restruturacao do setor eletrico brasileiro e o gerenciamento estrategico das empresas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotero, Roberto C.; Santana, Edvaldo Alves de [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Producao e Sistemas

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to show structural and market changes in brazilian electric sector and their implications on new business environment. Factors that will affect power utilities are pointed out and how they should be thoughtful in new model. Is pointed out the strategic change as a mean for utility optimization in efficiency and comparative advantage search. (author) 11 refs.; e-mail: rcl at eps.ufsc.br

  3. An Electric Propulsion "Shepherd" for Active Debris Removal that Utilizes Ambient Gas as Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    " approach that supplements high-altitude ion-drive operations with stored gas, and transitions to ambient gas at lower altitudes. This paper will include realistic numbers on the estimated times needed to deorbit objects from different orbit regimes using drives that either partially or completely take advantage of ambient gas. It will conclude with recommendations on whether this is a viable candidate for future ADR efforts.

  4. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  5. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  6. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO 2 take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV

  7. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  8. Should policy-makers allocate funding to vehicle electrification or end-use energy efficiency as a strategy for climate change mitigation and energy reductions? Rethinking electric utilities efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Brinda A.; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States by an order of magnitude, a portfolio of mitigation strategies is needed. Currently, many utilities pursue energy efficiency programs. We study a case where utilities could choose whether to allocate their energy efficiency budget to either end-use efficiency or vehicle electrification as a means to reduce CO 2 emissions. We build a decision space that displays the conditions under which utilities should pursue either strategy. To build such decision space, assumptions are needed on how consumers respond to electric vehicle incentives, and what would be the baseline vehicle selected by consumers if no incentives were in place. Since these two aspects are highly uncertain, we treat them parametrically: if consumers are replacing a conventional vehicle with a PHEV, utility incentive programs to induce PHEV adoption appear to be cost-effective for a wide range of efficiency program costs and grid emissions factors. - Highlights: • We compare subsidies for CO 2 cuts with electric efficiency and plug-in hybrid vehicles. • Our model focuses PHEVs with a 20 km range and residential electric efficiency. • The subsidy choice depends on technical, economic, and regulatory factors. • These include grid emissions factor, size of subsidy, and efficiency program costs. • PHEV grants of $800-1000/vehicle make sense in most U.S. states without decoupling

  9. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  10. Electric utility CFB boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology which caught the attention of boiler users: first for its technical advantages of reduced air emissions and low grade fuel tolerance, then later for its problems in becoming a reliable process. Refractory longevity and fuel feed reliability plagued a number of new installations. The efficacy of CFB technology is now more assured with the recent success of Texas-New Mexico Power Company's 160 MWe CFB based units, the world's largest operating CFB boilers. Most of the more notable CFB development problems have been successfully addressed by these units. The TNP units have demonstrated that CFB's can reliable produce high capacity factors at low emission rates using a fuel that has traditionally hampered the operation of pulverized coal (PC) boilers and without the attendant problems associated with sulfur scrubbers required by PC boilers

  11. Nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial abundances, and milk yield and composition in dairy goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber waste fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Huelva, M; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-10-01

    The effects of replacing 35% of cereals-based concentrate with feed blocks (FB) containing waste fruits of tomato, cucumber, or barley grain in diets for lactating goats on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial N flow to the duodenum, milk yield and quality, methane emissions, and abundances of total bacteria and methanogens were studied. Eight Murciano-Granadina goats (39.4 ± 5.39 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) in the middle of the third lactation were used and 4 diets were studied in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experimental design. Diets consisted of alfalfa hay (A) plus concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio (diet AC) or diets in which 35% of the concentrate was replaced with FB including wastes of tomato fruit, cucumber, or barley. In each period, 2 goats were randomly assigned to 1 of the dietary treatments. Intakes of FB including tomato, cucumber, and barley were 208 ± 65, 222 ± 52, and 209 ± 83 g of dry matter per animal and day, respectively. The replacement of 35% of concentrate with FB did not compromise nutrient apparent digestibility, total purine derivative urinary excretion, milk yield and composition, and total bacteria and methanogen abundances. Digestible energy and that in methane and urine were higher for AC than for FB-containing diets, whereas the metabolizable energy value was not affected by diet. The inclusion of tomato and cucumber fruits in FB decreased N in urine and CH(4) emissions compared with AC, which is environmentally relevant. However, tomato-based FB decreased microbial N flow in the rumen, whereas goats fed cucumber-based FB had the highest values for this measurement. Moreover, FB containing barley or tomato and cucumber led to lower rumen volatile fatty acid and NH(3)-N concentrations, respectively. Milk from goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber-based FB had higher linoleic, linolenic, and total polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations than that from goats fed AC. Overall, our study suggests that

  12. Can environmental investment and expenditure enhance financial performance of US electric utility firms under the clean air act amendment of 1990?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the causality from environmental investment (as a long-term effort) and expenditure (as a short-term effort) to financial performance in the US electric utility industry. The industry is one of the large air polluters in the United States. This empirical study finds that the environmental expenditure under the US Clean Air Act has had a negative impact from 1989 to 2001. The negative impact has become much effective after the implementation of the Title IV Program (1995) of the US Clean Air Act. This study cannot find the influence of environmental investment on financial performance by a statistical test although it indicates a positive impact. In the United States, fossil-fueled power plants such as coal-fired ones still produce a large portion of electricity. The generation structure is inconsistent with the betterment in the US environmental protection and imposes a financial burden to electric utility firms. (author)

  13. Effect of regulation on the rate of adoption of cost saving scale technology in the electric utility industry: a portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheraga, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study presents a new analytical framework for examining the relationship between regulation and the investment behavior of electric utilities. The particular kind of investment behavior considered is the adoption of new as well as innovative electrical generation technology. The technologies of interest are large scale coal and nuclear generation plants. The theoretical model used in this study differs from traditional approaches in its utilization of a behavioral framework of analysis. The responsiveness of utilities to the required rate of return demanded by stockholders is demonstrated using an augmented form of the standard Capital Asset Pricing Model. Regulation is viewed as affecting utility investment behavior through the effect of the actions of regulatory commissions on the required rate of return that utilities must earn on equity. The particular regulatory policies considered are modification of existing rate structure, automatic adjustment clauses, and required efficiency standards. These policies are of particular interest both because their effects have not been previously examined in detail, and because they are recommended for adoption in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. It is demonstrated empirically that the above policies do affect the required rate of return for utilities and hence their innovative investment behavior

  14. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  15. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  16. Development of a database for use in electric power utilities in the electric power distribution area; Desenvolvimento de um banco de dados para uso em concessionarias de energia eletrica na area de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Alexandre Barreiros

    1996-07-01

    The electric energy distribution system dimension together with the involved diverging elements. requires a constant updated information system. The dynamics and the reliability of the information implies in the use of modern technology, as well as data updating and control. There is a constant need of improving the utilities information system and its lack may put into risk not only the quality of the services but also consumer satisfaction. Utilities technical systems should therefore follow this need allowing for a quick response needed in order to keep the system under control and consequently to maintain the quality of the services. This work proposes a basic information technology model for technical areas and for an electric utility that can be applied to manage any data bank at any platform. To have it demonstrated, a Visual Basic application was developed applying X base data structure, which shows the use of alpha numerical data with G S (Geographic Information System). (author)

  17. Pricing electricity for sustainability : climate change and Canada's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The electricity sector is Canada's largest single source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed electricity and carbon pricing approaches to reducing GHG emissions in the electricity sector. An overview of the links between electricity pricing and climate change was presented, and current and emerging trends in electricity pricing related to encouraging energy conservation were reviewed. Market prices and failures were discussed. Approaches to pricing electricity included an increase in block prices; time-of-use prices; demand-side management and energy efficiency; and carbon pricing in Canada and electricity pricing signals. The study showed that several provincial utilities in Canada are experimenting with market-based pricing approaches for electricity and carbon that may help to reduce GHG emissions over time. Concerns over electricity supply and the negative environmental impacts of electricity production may lead to the full social pricing of electricity in some regions of Canada. 46 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Electricity market 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment

  19. Electricity market 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment.

  20. Electricity use and load management in electricity heated one-family houses from customer and utility perspective; Effekten av effekten - Elanvaendning och laststyrning i elvaermda smaahus ur kund- och foeretagsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin

    2004-11-01

    Until recently, the increase in electricity demand and peak power demand has been met by expansion of the electricity production. Today, due to the deregulation of the electricity market, the production capacity is decreasing. Therefore, there is a national interest in finding solutions to peak problems also on the demand side. In the studies described here (Study 1 and 2) ten households in electrically heated houses were examined. In 1999 the utility equipped their customers with a remote metering system (CustCom) that has an in-built load control component. In Study 1, the load pattern of ten households was examined by using energy diaries combined with frequent meter readings (every five minutes) of the load demand for heating, hot water service and domestic electricity use. Household members kept energy diaries over a four-day period in January 2004, noting time, activities and the use of household appliances that run on electricity. The analysis showed that the use of heat-producing household appliances, e.g. sauna, washing machine and dryer, appliances used for cooking, dishwasher and extra electric heaters, contribute to the household's highest peaks. Turning on the sauna and at the same time using the shower equates to a peak load of 7-9 kW. This, in addition to the use of electricity for heating and lighting along alongside electricity use for refrigerators and freezers, results in some households reaching their main fuse level (roughly 13,8 kW for a main fuse of 20 A). This means that the domestic use of electricity makes up a considerable part of the highest peak loads in a household, but the highest peaks occur together with the use of electricity for heating and hot water. In the second study, Study 2, the households participated in a load control experiment, in which the utility was able to turn on and switch off the heating and hot water systems remotely, using the CustCom system. Heating and water heaters were switched off for periods of 1

  1. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  2. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  3. Analysing Changes in Electricity Industries Against Actors and Technologies: Utility to Business Transformations in Denmark, Germany, Finland and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ratinen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Liberalization of electricity markets, governmental policies for renewable electricity and technology development are transforming national electricity industries. However, there are considerable national differences in how these industries have changed and which businesses have been developed. We propose a typology for comparing changes in electricity industry based on the changes in the actors and technologies. Wind power and solar photovoltaic are used here as technology examples. A qualitative analysis of the changes in electricity industries in four EU member states is presented. Based on the preliminary findings, we conclude that if the industry consists of many, small firms with relatively loose ties with the government the industry is more likely to change than if it consists of few large firms with strong relations with the government.

  4. Basic aspects of the concept of reactor compartment (including damaged compartments) management during utilization of nuclear powered submarines -- High priority R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazokin, V.A.; Borisov, V.V.; Netecha, M.E.; Orlov, Yu.V.; Stanislavsky, G.A.; Ulasevich, V.K.

    1996-01-01

    Large-scale decommissioning of Russian nuclear-powered submarines (NPS) and their utilization prospects gave rise to numerous complicated scientific and technical, as well as economic, problems. Problems of handling of radioactive equipment from the reactor compartments (RC) are among the vital ones, arousing a growing concern with the public. Without solution of the problems the processes of NPS utilization can not be considered completed. It involves potential hazard, for the environment both from NPS being paid up (temporal on-float storage) with unloaded spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and RC, cut from submarine hull, containing highly radioactive equipment and materials but no SNF. Diverse variations of the concept of reactor compartment handling of NPS subject to, utilization are possible, but, in principle, there are essentially two variants: (1) RC utilization directly in the course of NPS utilization, envisaging removal of radioactive equipment from the reactor compartment and its cutting; (2) RC utilization after preliminary long-term storage of radioactive equipment of nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) in the standard sites within RC, when radioactivity of SGF equipment and materials as a result of natural decay of radionuclides is reduced to the values permitting RC cutting without employment of special means. When analyzing this or that variant of the concept, various factors are to be allowed for. First and foremost, the technology of RC handling is to provide: (1) minimum amount of radioactive wastes; (2) minimum radiation burden to the environment and personnel; (3) minimum material and financial expenditures; and (4) maximum radiation and ecological safety. RDIPE in cooperation with the leading enterprises of RF Minatom, Goskomoboronprom and Ministry of Defense has developed a concept of handling radioactive equipment in NPS reactor compartments, and its principle concepts are presented here

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF COMBINATION NON-MEDICAL TREATMENT INCLUDING FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMED ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON THE CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of physical disability in pediatric  age. The search for new methods and improvement of old rehabil- itation techniques is ongoing, due to low efficacy of the latter. Aim: To assess the efficacy of a func- tional programmed electrical muscle stimulation as a part  of combination treatment of patients with cerebral palsy in the form of spastic diplegia. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of 71 children with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia, who had  been  randomized  into two groups  depending on the type of treatment. In  the  first group,  the  patients  (n = 38 received a course of functional programmed electric stim- ulation  in combination with  other  non-medical treatment  methods.  The  second   group   (n = 33 underwent a usual  course  of electrical  stimula- tion in combination with non-medical  treatment, similar to that  in the first group. The third group (control   included   41   children   without    cere- bral palsy. Clinical and  instrumental parameters were  assessed  in all study  participants. Results: After the course of combination treatment in the group  1, the  tonus  of m. gastrocnemius was de- creased significantly by 41%, that of the posterior group  of femur muscles by 43%, adductor group of femur muscles by 36%. In the group  2, the re- spective parameters decreased by 24, 21 and 21%. Muscle power  endurance was  increased  signifi- cantly in patients of both groups: that of long back extensors by 12.5 and 6.2 sec, of m. rectus abdomi- nis by 10.6 sec and 5.2 sec, of gluteal muscles by 9.3 and 4.6 sec, of m. quadriceps  by 19.8 and 7.2 sec, of m. anterior  tibialis by 12.1 and 4.6 sec, respec- tively. After the  treatment, the  active movement volume in the large joints of lower extremities  in the group 1 patients  improved as follows: by 15.6° in hip joints, by 11.1° in knee joints and by

  6. Independent assessment team report to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board on implementing deregulation of electricity generation in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The particular aspect of deregulation of electricity generation in Alberta discussed is the economics of power purchase agreements (PPAs). There are various parameters associated with the PPAs that are emphasized including: technical characteristics; unit availability, capital costs and O and M costs; coal costs; gas costs; payment for flexible operation; hydro obligation amounts; income tax; property tax; and working capital, insurance and other costs. Chapter one of the Independent Assessment Team (IAT) report covers the report scope, and chapter two describes certain main principles underlying determination of PPAs. Chapter three discusses the IAT's determination of the PPA's forms and their main terms and conditions. Chapter four describes the IAT's determination of the underlying parameter values of the PPAs. Chapter five describes the ITA's determination of the allowed rate of return on equity and the capital structure of PPAs. An appendix covers a detailed description of the consultations carried out by the IAT; a report by HESI on the results of Pool modelling carried out to date (the HESI work was done to assist the IAT in determining PPAs, not the auction design); summary outputs of the IAT's financial model with indicative financial statements for each unit and company under the PPAs; and a document on shared services, common facilities and new units

  7. Financial impact of energy efficiency under a federal combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard: Case study of a Kansas 'super-utility'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Historically, local, state and federal policies have separately promoted the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. Federal policymakers are currently considering and several states have enacted a combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard which proponents argue provides a comprehensive approach with greater flexibility and at lower cost. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. Our results suggest that an investor-owned utility is likely to pursue the most lucrative compliance strategy for its shareholders-one that under-invests in energy efficiency resources. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our analysis indicates that an investor-owned utility would be more willing to pursue energy efficiency as a lower-cost CERES compliance strategy. Absent implementing such a regulatory mechanism, separate energy efficiency and renewable portfolio standards would improve the likelihood of reducing reliance on fossil fuels at least-cost through the increased pursuit of energy efficiency.

  8. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by inducing energy conservation and distributed generation from elimination of electric utility customer charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, Joshua M.; Harris, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper quantifies the increased greenhouse gas emissions and negative effect on energy conservation (or 'efficiency penalty') due to electric rate structures that employ an unavoidable customer charge. First, the extent of customer charges was determined from a nationwide survey of US electric tariffs. To eliminate the customer charge nationally while maintaining a fixed sum for electric companies for a given amount of electricity, an increase of 7.12% in the residential electrical rate was found to be necessary. If enacted, this increase in the electric rate would result in a 6.4% reduction in overall electricity consumption, conserving 73 billion kW h, eliminating 44.3 million metric tons of carbon dioxide, and saving the entire US residential sector over $8 billion per year. As shown here, these reductions would come from increased avoidable costs, thus leveraging an increased rate of return on investments in energy efficiency, energy conservation behavior, distributed energy generation, and fuel choices. Finally, limitations of this study and analysis are discussed and conclusions are drawn for proposed energy policy changes

  9. The electricity market 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. We now have a common Nordic electricity market that includes all of the Nordic countries, with the exception of Iceland. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and increased trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish Energy Agency is the supervisory authority specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of 'The Electricity Market 2003' publication is to meet the need for generalized and easily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. The publication also includes summaries of the information from recent years concerning power generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  10. Electricity market 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  11. Electricity market 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment.

  12. 77 FR 50998 - Proposal To Exempt Certain Transactions Involving Not-for-Profit Electric Utilities; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... ``swap,'' is a ``commercial merchandising arrangement'' or ``trade option,'' or is not an agreement... made such a determination in the 1960s notwithstanding the fact that, at that time, electric...

  13. La regulación de los servicios de electricidad en Argentina y Brasil (1890-1962 Electric utility regulation in Argentina and Brazil (1890-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución de la regulación del sector eléctrico en Argentina y Brasil entre 1890 y 1960. Desde la instalación de las primeras usinas eléctricas a fines del siglo diecinueve hasta los años treinta, el control de las empresas concesionarias estuvo a cargo de las autoridades municipales en ambos países. No obstante, la similar estructura de los sistemas eléctricos en Argentina y en Brasil, la participación del estado en la regulación de este sector estratégico para el desarrollo económico, se produjo en diferentes coyunturas. Como resultado de la crisis de 1930, el gobierno brasileño transformó los principios jurídicos que reglamentaban la gestión de la electricidad aplicando un criterio de regulación discrecional; mientras que el estado argentino intervino una década más tarde, nacionalizando las empresas. Mediante la comparación de las trayectorias regulatorias en ambos países, se identifican las divergencias en las políticas eléctricas y su impacto en los sistemas eléctricos en los años de la segunda posguerra.This article compares the evolution of electric utility regulation in Argentina and Brazil between 1890 and 1960. From the installation of electrical systems in the 19th century until the 1930s, electrical utility companies were controlled by the local authorities in both countries. The structure of electrical systems was similar in Argentina and Brazil, however the state regulation of electric utilities took place at different times. As a result of the 1930's crisis, the Brazilian government introduced a new legal approach by applying a discretionary regulation. On the other hand, the Argentinean government intervened one decade later, nationalizing the companies. By comparing both regulatory trajectories, the divergences as well as the effects of each policy on the electrical utility systems in the second postward period, are identified.

  14. Energy utility reform in eastern Canada: electric monopolies still in the dark ages. Can Ontario`s gas reforms light the way?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T. [Energy Probe, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    The electric and gas utility reform in eastern Canada jurisdictions, specifically in New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario were reviewed. Progress towards a more competition-oriented operation was the principal theme. With regard to New Brunswick, the financial and operational crisis of NB Power, the provincially owned utility, was described. It was argued that in keeping with the trend towards privatization it would be preferable to privatize NB Power rather than allowing it to become an even larger monopoly by taking control of Sable Island gas distribution. In Quebec, two government-owned utilities, Hydro-Quebec and Gaz Metropolitain, were consolidated to strengthen the government`s monopoly. In view of the lack of competition and unequal access to meet the criteria of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Hydro-Quebec`s main challenge is to retain access to the US market. The US FERC order is a major barrier to Hydro-Quebec. In the Ontario portion of the review, the financial crisis facing Ontario Hydro received extensive coverage. Ontario Hydro was accused of protecting its monopolistic power to control provincial power users, and to prevent independent producers to do business in the province. By contrast, in the Ontario natural gas sector competition is growing, led by initiatives of the Ontario Energy Board and supported by all major gas utilities. Energy Probe is advocating an Independent System Operator (ISO) for the gas system, a concept universally accepted as necessary in competition-oriented integrated electric power systems.

  15. Electricity supply in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, H.J.

    1993-09-01

    This briefing deals with the electricity supply industry in India in two parts. In the first, the structure and organization of the industry is described under sections dealing with national government involvement, energy policy, state electricity boards, regional electricity boards, state corporations, the private sector and private investment in the power sector including foreign investment. Secondly, the power supply system is described covering generation, plant load factor, non-utility generation, nuclear power, transmission and distribution, system losses and electricity consumption. (8 tables) (UK)

  16. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  17. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  18. Hydrography, Washburn Countys Hydro Layer was developed in 1997 utilizing 1996 Orthophotos. This layer includes Lake, Rivers, Streams and Ponds within Washburn County., Published in 1997, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Washburn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Hydrography dataset current as of 1997. Washburn Countys Hydro Layer was developed in 1997 utilizing 1996 Orthophotos. This layer includes Lake, Rivers, Streams and...

  19. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer as well, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2010. Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer...

  20. Wearable Electricity Generators Fabricated Utilizing Transparent Electronic Textiles Based on Polyester/Ag Nanowires/Graphene Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Kim, Tae Whan; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-07-26

    The technological realization of wearable triboelectric generators is attractive because of their promising applications in wearable self-powered intelligent systems. However, the low electrical conductivity, the low electrical stability, and the low compatibility of current electronic textiles (e-textiles) and clothing restrict the comfortable and aesthetic integration of wearable generators into human clothing. Here, we present high-performance, transparent, smart e-textiles that employ commercial textiles coated with silver nanowire/graphene sheets fabricated by using a scalable, environmentally friendly, full-solution process. The smart e-textiles show superb and stable conduction of below 20 Ω/square as well as excellent flexibility, stretchability, foldability, and washability. In addition, wearable electricity-generating textiles, in which the e-textiles act as electrodes as well as wearable substrates, are presented. Because of the high compatibility of smart e-textiles and clothing, the electricity-generating textiles can be easily integrated into a glove to harvest the mechanical energy induced by the motion of the fingers. The effective output power generated by a single generator due to that motion reached as high as 7 nW/cm(2). The successful demonstration of the electricity-generating glove suggests a promising future for polyester/Ag nanowire/graphene core-shell nanocomposite-based smart e-textiles for real wearable electronic systems and self-powered clothing.